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  1. Legacy of the IGY

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.

    1983-08-09

    The success of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), which ended in 1958, has prompted contemporary geoscientists to consider the possibility of a second-generation IGY, tentatively designated the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). Unlike the IGY, which was planned to run for less than two years, the IGBP must cover one or two decades due to the many geosphere-biosphere cycles which encompass periods on at least that scale. Attention is given to interdisciplinary coincidence of interest among the fields of research covered.

  2. My IGY in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Dr Charles Bentley is the A.P. Crary Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Bentley joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in International Geophysical Year (IGY)-related activities in the Antarctic. He wintered over consecutively in 1957 and 1958 at Byrd Station, a station in the interior of West Antarctica that housed 24 men each winter - 12 Navy support people and 12 civilian scientists/technicians. During the austral summers, he also participated in over-snow traverses, first as co-leader, then leader (the other coleader went home after the first year). These traverses consisted of six men and three vehicles, and lasted several months. These traverses covered more than 1609 kilometers (1000 miles) of largely unmapped and unphotographed terrain. During these traverses, connections to Byrd Station were by radio (daily, when the transmission conditions were good enough) and roughly every 2 weeks by resupply flight.

  3. An ELISA for quantifying quail IgY and characterizing maternal IgY transfer to egg yolk in several quail strains.

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsushi; Kakiuchi, Misako; Hamano, Takahito; Kobayashi, Misato; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA. Blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations were determined in six quail strains (one inbred strain, L; four closed population strains, AWE, DB, PS, WE; one commercial strain, Commercial). The birds were also injected with digoxigenin-labeled quail IgY-Fc, and its uptakes into laid eggs were compared. The strain difference in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations was at most 2.5-fold, between PS and AWE. The rank order of IgY concentrations was AWE, Commercial, DB, L≥WE≥PS. A significant positive correlation (|R|=0.786) between individual blood IgY and egg yolk IgY and the concentrated egg yolk IgY (1.5-2-fold) against blood IgY was observed. Interestingly, there was a significant inverse correlation (|R|=0.452) between injected IgY-Fc uptakes and the blood IgY concentration, implying competition of the injected IgY-Fc and blood IgY in the process of IgY uptake into egg yolks. In conclusion, we successfully determined blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in various quail strains by a quail IgY-specific ELISA. The concentrated egg yolk IgY against the blood IgY and the inverse relationship of exogenous IgY-Fc uptake against the blood IgY supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in avian maturing oocytes. PMID:27269788

  4. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned. PMID:24998020

  5. The IGY of 1957-58: Its Place in Science, Politics, and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needell, A.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) took place during a momentous period of change in the relationship between science, society and its governing institutions. Its origins, structure, goals, and execution reflect the powerful social, cultural and ideological forces that were shaping national and international politics of the period. The IGY also contributed in important ways to the evolution science-government relations throughout the world. This presentation will focus on the social and political contexts within which the IGY was planned and carried in the United States, exploring the significance for the IGY of contemporary academic exchanges over the social aspects of science during the tumultuous 1950s and 60s.

  6. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay using IgY antibodies for detection of valnemulin in swine tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is derived from egg yolk and has been identified as a cheap and high-yield immunoreagent. The application of IgY in immunoassay for the detection of chemical contaminants in food samples has rarely been reported. In this work, we describe a rapid and sensitive fluorescence p...

  7. Generation and application of anti-ouabain IgY antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming Juan; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Can Zhan; Duan, Zong Ming; Niu, Xiao Lin

    2011-12-01

    Ouabain is a bioactive hapten and is very difficult to be accurately quantified because of the lack of useful reagents. Furthermore, where ouabain is produced in the adrenal glands has not been identified. In this study, ouabain-BSA was generated for immunizing the laying hens to generate ouabain-specific IgY antibodies in chicken eggs. The anti-ouabain IgY antibodies were detected in eggs 1 week after the last immunization and their concentrations increased with time. The highest concentrations of anti-ouabain IgY antibodies reached at 1:10,240 for ELISA 5 weeks after immunization and maintained for 4 weeks in chicken eggs. Following PEG precipitation, an average of 8.5 mg of anti-ouabain IgY antibodies with a purity of 87.6% was achieved from a single egg. Further analysis revealed that the anti-ouabain IgY antibodies had little immunoreactivity to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, cedilanid, and digoxin, indicating their high specificity, and the purified IgY antibodies effectively detected endogenous ouabain in the cytoplasm of cells predominately in the zona reticularis of rat and human adrenal glands, indicating their high immunoreactivity. Given that IgY has an unique structure and bioactive features, the generated anti-ouabain IgY antibodies may be used as a new reagent for accurately quantifying ouabain in biological studies. PMID:21785972

  8. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of hen IgY against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Neema; Mtenga, Adelard B; Shim, Won-Bo; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2012-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of IgY against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus responsible for seafood-borne diseases was investigated in this study. Water-soluble fractions (WSF) of protein containing IgYs were isolated from the egg yolk of hens initially immunized with formalin inactivated V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. Protein, total and specific IgY contents of the WSF were determined. The inhibitory and protective effects of IgYs on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were assayed in liquid medium and in mice. IgYs showed high affinity to their corresponding antigens with high titer from day 28 onwards. Protein contents and total IgY concentrations remained stable throughout the immunization period, whereas specific IgY concentrations increased steadily and reached a plateau at day 49. Specific IgY powder (150 mg/ml) significantly inhibited further multiplication of both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in liquid medium as compared with the control IgY. The bacteria count in mice feces was lower in mice pretreated with specific IgYs than in those pretreated with PBS or control IgY. Higher survival of mice was observed in the experimental groups pretreated with either anti-V. parahaemolyticus (75% survival) or anti-V. vulnificus (87% survival) IgYs, compared with those in the control groups pretreated with PBS or nonspecific IgY. All mice in the control groups died within three days after bacteria inoculation; hence, the protective effect of specific IgYs against infection caused by V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus was demonstrated. PMID:23075795

  9. Some Legacies from the IGY to the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helliwell, R.

    One thing we learned from the IGY-sponsored Whistlers-West program was to urge operators of field stations to watch for unexpected events in the incoming data. Several such serendipitous discoveries of fundamental importance to magnetospheric physics were found during (as well as after) the IGY period 1957-58. One example is the Trimpi effect, which is the perturbation of the amplitude and the related phase of the signal from a vlf transmitter (eg. NAA, NSS, NPG) caused by a lightning whistler that scatters energetic electrons out of the radiation belt into the ionosphere. These precipitated electrons create a temporary patch of ionization that alters the local conductivity of the E region and causes scattering of the subionosphere vlf signal. Another example is the unexpected triggering of chorus-like emissions by the dashes of morse code signals from communication stations of the U.S. Navy [e.g. NPG, NSS, NAA]). This finding led to the development of a vlf (1-30 kHz) wave injection facility at Siple Station, Antarctica. This facility was operated for 15 years, using two broadband transmitters in sequence. The latter and more flexible transmitter could transmit simultaneously on two different carrier frequencies, each of which could be modulated in both amplitude and frequency. The results of these controlled experiments greatly increased our knowledge of many non-linear WPI effects that collectively have been called the Coherent Wave Instability (CWI), as reviewed in Helliwell, R.A., A tale of two magnetospheres, J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Physics, 1107- 1116, 2001. An example of a possible future study for the IHY is a search for whistler-mode (WM) signals within a CME (coronal mass ejection). It is predicated on the well- known observation of high intensity spontaneous chorus in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere beyond the plasmapause, where no triggering signals from the ground are seen; suggesting that a CME may constitute a somewhat similar environment

  10. DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies: novel tools for research, diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cova, Lucyna

    2005-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated, using the duck Hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model, closely related to human HBV, that following DNA immunization of breeding ducks with a plasmid encoding the targeted protein, specific and biologically active IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulines) are vertically transmitted from their serum into the egg yolk from which they can be extracted and purified. Thus an egg can be considered as a small "factory" for antibody production, since about 60-100 mg of purified IgY can be obtained from each egg yolk of a DNA-immunized duck. One of the major advantages of this new method of "DNA-designed" IgY antibodies is their production via immunization with a gene vector that expresses a corresponding antibody in situ in the cells of an avian host. Therefore this approach allows direct generation of antibodies from plasmid DNA and avoids the costly and tedious preparation of purified antigens required for conventional antibody production. In addition, duck IgY are of remarkable high affinity, avidity and are highly neutralizing. Moreover, the epitope pattern of IgY generated by DNA immunization of ducks is closely related to that observed in viral infection. Such duck IgY are also of particular value as immunodiagnostic tools, since they do not cross-react serologically with mammalian immunoglobulins and complement. Because IgY are resistant to the gastric barrier, the recently described DNA-designed IgY specific to H. pylori Urease B can be of particular interest for passive immunotherapy of gastrointestinal tract infections. Another interesting application is the recent generation in our laboratory of DNA-designed IgY antibodies specific to HBsAg mutants. These antibodies are currently being used to design new diagnostic assay for detection of HBV mutants that are undetectable by actual tests. Moreover, this approach allowing a quick and inexpensive production of a new generation of antibodies will provide pertinent tools to link the fields of genomics

  11. Egg yolk IgY antibodies: A therapeutic intervention against group A rotavirus in calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2015-12-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is considered the major cause of diarrhea in intensively reared neonatal calves. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) are efficient in protecting neonatal calves from RVA diarrhea; however, the value of this intervention in calves once diarrhea has appeared is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the application of RVA-specific IgY as a passive treatment in those cases. The experimental groups were: G1=RVA-specific IgY treatment; G2=no Ab treatment; and G3=colostrum deprived+no Ab treatment. IgY treatment significantly reduced virus shedding, diarrhea duration and severity compared to G2 and G3 calves. However, it caused a partial suppression of systemic Ab responses to RVA that could be associated with less severe diarrhea. The oral treatment with IgY for 7days was associated with significantly higher antibody secreting cell responses in the calves compared with other groups of animals. PMID:26679788

  12. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay using IgY antibodies for detection of valnemulin in swine tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyan; Mi, Tiejun; Khan, Oleg Yu; Sheng, Yajie; Eremin, Sergei A; Beier, Ross C; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2015-10-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is derived from egg yolk and has been identified as a cheap and high-yield immunoreagent. The application of IgY in immunoassays for the detection of chemical contaminants in food samples has rarely been reported. In this work, we describe a rapid and sensitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for valnemulin (VAL) using IgY which was produced using a previously prepared immunogen. Three fluorophore-labeled VAL tracers were synthesized and the sensitivity of the best tracer (VAL-DTAF) in the optimized FPIA with antibody IgY100 demonstrated an IC50 value of 12 ng mL(-1) in buffer. After evaluation of several extraction procedures, acidified acetonitrile was selected to extract VAL from swine tissue. The recoveries of VAL in spiked swine tissue at three levels (50, 100, and 200 μg kg(-1)) were higher than 79% with coefficients of variation (CVs) lower than 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the FPIA in swine tissue was 26 μg kg(-1) and was lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of VAL set by the European Union. The study showed that IgY could be a good substitute for IgG when developing a high-throughput assay for chemical residues. PMID:26277187

  13. Efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yu-Hong; Jin, Li-Ji; Li, Xiao-Yu; Guo, Jie; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Fang, Rui; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen lactating cows with clinical mastitis and 18 lactating cows with experimental mastitis (1 quarter per cow) were randomly assigned to three treatments: IgY (20mg/ml) infusion, penicillin (100mg/ml) infusion and no infusion. Treatments for clinical mastitis and experimental mastitis were performed by a 6-day course of intramammary infusion with a dosage of 10ml at an interval of 12h. Milk samples were collected at morning milking time for testing color, clot, somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacterial count. For most of the cows treated with IgY and penicillin, the milk color and clot recovered to normal form during the therapy course. The milk SCCs and bacterial counts of treated cows decreased compared to those of untreated cows (p<0.05). The cure rates by IgY for experimental and clinical mastitis were 83.3% and 50%, respectively, and those by penicillin were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. These results showed the potential of specific IgY to be an alternative therapy for mastitis caused by S. aureus. PMID:18774241

  14. A comparative evaluation of six principal IgY antibody extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Yang, Wenjing; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying; Schade, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration. PMID:27031600

  15. IGI (the Italian Grid initiative) and its impact on the Astrophysics community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Vuerli, C.; Taffoni, G.

    IGI - the Association for the Italian Grid Infrastructure - has been established as a consortium of 14 different national institutions to provide long term sustainability to the Italian Grid. Its formal predecessor, the Grid.it project, has come to a close in 2006; to extend the benefits of this project, IGI has taken over and acts as the national coordinator for the different sectors of the Italian e-Infrastructure present in EGEE. IGI plans to support activities in a vast range of scientificdisciplines - e.g. Physics, Astrophysics, Biology, Health, Chemistry, Geophysics, Economy, Finance - and any possible extensions to other sectors such as Civil Protection, e-Learning, dissemination in Universities and secondary schools. Among these, the Astrophysics community is active as a user, by porting applications of various kinds, but also as a resource provider in terms of computing power and storage, and as middleware developer.

  16. Eliciting antigen-specific egg-yolk IgY with naked DNA.

    PubMed

    Romito, M; Viljoen, G J; Du Plessis, D H

    2001-09-01

    Immunization with naked DNA was used to elicit chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY). Layer hens were inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein, the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus, and VP2 of African horse sickness virus. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Specific antibodies were present in the yolks of eggs from hens immunized with each of the three different plasmids. This approach to raising polyclonal antibodies obviates the need to produce and purify large quantities of proteins for immunization and can potentially yield large amounts of diagnostically or therapeutically useful reagents. PMID:11570510

  17. Pre-IGY Ionosphere Over Washington D.C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Hunsucker, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    A data recovery study has been sponsored by the NSF to determine how successfully the ionosphere during a pre-IGY era can be inferred from archived ionogram films. This pilot study targets the Washington, DC ionosonde WA938 located at Ft. Belvoir in Fairfax, VA (38.7° N, -77.1° E). The focus of the study is 1951, 61 years ago, or about 5 1/2 solar cycles ago. The ionosonde was a model C-3 designed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Ionograms were taken at approximately six per hour, but not uniformly spaced in time. These were recorded on an extended frame 35 mm film. Between 2-4 weeks of ionograms were recorded on a single film reel. These films were archived at the NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), also known as a World Data Center . Over the past five years, NGDC has been able to digitize several months from selected years of these films. These digitized ionogram images are the starting point for the ionospheric data analysis for this study. SEC has developed an image processing technique called the Expert System for Ionogram Reduction (ESIR), which has been patented [Sojka et al. 2009]. This software was developed specifically to recognize and invert an ionogram from a photographic image, producing an equivalent ionospheric electron density profile. The recognition of both virtual height and frequency axes in these ionogram photos is discussed. We demonstrate how we can validate and calibrate these scales independent of the ionosonde's virtual height and frequency markings. Examples during several months of 1951 of the automated ESIR ionogram reduction will be provided. These examples will be presented in the context of how the mid-latitude ionosphere over Washington DC in 1951 compares with the present-day ionosphere. Limitations in the data extraction are discussed from a point of view of how they might affect confidence in the inferred long-term trends in the ionosphere. Reference: Sojka J. J., D. C. Thompson, D. D. Rice (2009

  18. Effect of topical anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface.

    PubMed

    Bachtiar, Endang W; Afdhal, Anggraeni; Meidyawati, Ratna; Soejoedono, Retno D; Poerwaningsih, Erni

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29(th) day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface. PMID:27352970

  19. Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg-yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases--A review.

    PubMed

    Gadde, U; Rathinam, T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-12-01

    Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninvasively from egg yolks. The use of IgY offers several advantages in that it is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and reduces the numbers of animals required for antibody production. This paper reviews the use of IgY antibodies in the treatment and prevention of enteric pathogen infections in poultry. Brief descriptions of the production, structure, and properties of IgY are also presented. Some limitations of the technology and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26568433

  20. IGY+50, the IPY, and the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C.; Baker, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established geophysical observatories around the world. These nations were pursuing major IGY objectives - to collect geophysical data as widely as possible and to provide free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. By the beginning of the 21st century, we have achieved an unparalleled ability to acquire data and attained a good understanding of traditional regions - the troposphere, the magnetosphere, and other such "spheres". Much of the new and important science now is coming from the study of the boundaries between these regions and of coupling between geophysical domains. Thus, we need to make data available in a readily accessible form and in much greater quantities to a wider range of scientists than ever before. Several major international initiatives - notably the International Polar Year - have been proposed to commemorate and to follow on from the original IGY. As an important part of IGY+50, an International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) task group has recognized that a key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a system of data centers and physical observatories. It has been agreed that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, scientific societies should promote the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories. This can provide a forward impetus to geophysics n this century similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The proposed electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., atmospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, ionospheric, magnetospheric, etc.) and would organize them into a series of virtual geophysical observatories "deployed" in cyberspace. This concept implies a free access to all available data through the Internet and World Wide Web, taking advantage of existing networking hardware and software technologies (e.g., Internet, XML, Semantic Web, etc.). The eGY can be smoothly

  1. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor, a mammalian mannose receptor family member, transcytoses IgY across polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Devin B; Cheung, Evelyn J; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2008-04-01

    In mammals the transfer of passive immunity from mother to young is mediated by the MHC-related receptor FcRn, which transports maternal IgG across epithelial cell barriers. In birds, maternal IgY in egg yolk is transferred across the yolk sac to passively immunize chicks during gestation and early independent life. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor (FcRY) is the ortholog of the mammalian phospholipase A2 receptor, a mannose receptor family member, rather than an FcRn or MHC homolog. FcRn and FcRY both exhibit ligand binding at the acidic pH of endosomes and ligand release at the slightly basic pH of blood. Here we show that FcRY expressed in polarized mammalian epithelial cells functioned in endocytosis, bidirectional transcytosis, and recycling of chicken FcY/IgY. Confocal immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that IgY binding and endocytosis occurred at acidic but not basic pH, mimicking pH-dependent uptake of IgG by FcRn. Colocalization studies showed FcRY-mediated internalization via clathrin-coated pits and transport involving early and recycling endosomes. Disruption of microtubules partially inhibited apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, but not recycling, suggesting the use of different trafficking machinery. Our results represent the first cell biological evidence of functional equivalence between FcRY and FcRn and provide an intriguing example of how evolution can give rise to systems in which similar biological requirements in different species are satisfied utilizing distinct protein folds. PMID:18256279

  2. IgY stability in eggs stored at room temperature or at +4°C.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, E; Stålberg, J; Larsson, A

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of immunoglobulin-Y (IgY) in stored eggs from immunised hens. 2. Eggs from individual hens were randomised and stored for up to one month at room temperature, or for up to 6 months at +4°C. IgY was extracted from the egg yolks and the antibody activities were tested by ELISA. 3. There was no significant reduction in antibody titres with egg storage under these conditions. 4. Egg yolks of immunised chickens provide an inexpensive source of large amounts of polyclonal antibodies for use in immunotherapy and immunoassays. By collecting eggs from different immunised hens and pooling their yolks, it should be possible to reduce batch-to-batch variation. PMID:22404803

  3. A novel isolation method for hen egg yolk antibody, "IgY".

    PubMed

    Hatta, H; Kim, M; Yamamoto, T

    1990-10-01

    A method for isolation of egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgG, a livetin protein, was investigated. Several natural gums (carrageenan and xanthan gum) were found to be effective for removal of yolk lipoprotein as a precipitate. The effect was pronounced with lambda-carrageenan and the lipid content in the supernatant after removal of the resulting precipitate was less than 0.4% of that of egg yolk. IgY remained in this supernatant, with a yield of 86%, and was isolated by chromatography on a column of DEAE-Sephacel followed by salting-out with sodium sulfate. IgY thus isolated was almost pure (98%) and the yield was 70 to 100 mg per egg. PMID:1368596

  4. Biological and Immunogenicity Property of IgY Anti S. mutans ComD

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, E.W.; Bachtiar, B.M.; Soejoedono, R.D.; Wibawan, I.W.; Afdhal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to elucidate the effect of IgY anti ComD on the biological properties of Streptococcus mutans. (S. mutans) ComD is an interspecies quorum-sensing signaling receptor that plays an important role in biofilm formation by S. mutans. Materials and Methodology: Egg yolk IgY was produced by the immunization of chickens with a DNA vaccine containing the ComD DNA coding region. We evaluated the effect of the antibody on biofilm formation by S. mutans isolated from subjects with or without dental caries. We also assessed the immunoreactivity of the antibody against all isolates, and analyzed the protein profile of S. mutans by SDS-PAGE. Results: The ComD antibody was successfully induced in the hens’ eggs. It inhibited biofilm formation by all S. mutans isolates. In addition, the expression of some protein bands was affected after exposure to the antibody. Conclusion: IgY anti-S. mutans ComD reduces biofilm formation by this bacterium and alters the protein profile of S. mutans. PMID:27386013

  5. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. PMID:26592708

  6. Moving Beyond IGY: An Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Barton, C. E.; Rodger, A. S.; Thompson, B. J.; Fraser, B.; Papitashvili, V.

    2003-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new geophysical observatories pursuing the major IGY objectives - to collect geophysical data as widely as possible and to provide free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. Today, geophysics has attained a rather good understanding within traditional regions, i.e., the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and other such geospheres. At the same time, it has become clear that much of the new and important science is coming from the studies of interfaces and coupling between geospheres. Thus, if geophysical data are made `'transparently'' available to a much wider range of scientists and students than to those who do the observations, then new and exciting discoveries can be expected. An International Association of Geomagnetic and Aeronomy (IAGA) task force, recognizing that a key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories, proposes that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, the worldwide scientific community should endorse and promote an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the IGY in 2007-2008 and provide a forward impetus to geophysics in 21st century, similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The IAGA task force strongly advocates: (1) Securing permission and release of existing data; (2) Creating access to information; and (3) Conversion of relevant analog data to digital form. The eGY concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., atmospheric, ionospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, etc.) through the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being `'deployed'' in cyberspace. The eGY concept is modern, global, and timely; it is attractive, pragmatic, and affordable. The eGY is based on the existing and continually developing computing/networking technologies (e.g., XML, Semantic Web

  7. Transient developmental expression of IgY and secretory component like protein in the gut of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Iscaki, S; Vaerman, J P; Charlemagne, J

    1992-01-01

    We previously reported that a primitive vertebrate, the Mexican axolotl (Amphibian, Urodela) synthesizes two classes of immunoglobulins. IgM are present in serum early in the development, and represent the bulk of specific antibody synthesis after an antigenic challenge. IgY occur in the serum later during the development, and are relatively insensitive to immunization. We demonstrate in the present work, using immunofluorescence with specific Mabs, that IgY are expressed in the gut epithelium, as secretory molecules. Secretory IgY are well expressed in the stomach and intestinal mucosae of young animals from 1 month after hatching to the seventh month. Thereafter, IgY progressively disappear from the gut and become readily detectable in the serum of 9-month-old preadult immunologically mature animals. Axolotl IgY are closely associated in the gut to secretory component-like (SC) molecules that are well-recognized by antisera to the SC of different mammalian species. This is the first description, in a primitive tetrapode, of an immunoglobulin class that could be the physiological counterpart of mammalian IgA. PMID:1627950

  8. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Pollok, Jill R; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, J D; Reed, T David

    2016-06-01

    Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction. PMID:27418700

  9. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pollok, Jill R.; Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Reed, T. David

    2016-01-01

    Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction. PMID:27418700

  10. [Agglutination of hen egg-yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against Salmonella enterica, serovar enteritidis].

    PubMed

    Terzolo, H R; Sandoval, V E; Caffer, M I; Terragno, R; Alcain, A

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of 6 laying hens were used to produce IgY. In the vaccinated group (V), hens were injected by intramuscular route with two doses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis bacterin at 20-day interval. In the control group (T) hens remained unvaccinated. Four IgY extractions were performed on the egg production of both groups. The first two extractions were carried out using the yolks obtained from the eggs produced during the 4th and 5th post-vaccination week (extracts 1V and 1T) and the other two using the ones from the 6th, 7th and 8th week (2V and 2T). Starting from the extracts 1V and 1T other products were obtained by freezing-thawing (1V-A and 1T-A) and simple (1V-B and 1T-B) or double (1V-C and 1T-C) flow capillary dialysis concentration. All these products were compared using an ELISA test specific for the detection of chicken antibodies against flagellar antigens of S. Enteritidis. In this test, V extracts were positive whereas T extracts were negative. The extract 1V was more positive than the extract 2V. The extract 1V-C was the most positive and was therefore selected to be used as an antiserum in the agglutination tests. This extract contained 1.9 g/dl of total proteins, 0.028 g/dl of triglycerides and 0.012 g/dl of cholesterol and showed an electrophoretic pattern characteristic of IgY. The 1T-C extract was used as a negative control in the agglutination tests. Slide somatic and tube flagellar agglutination tests were simultaneously carried out using both IgY extracts and a standard rabbit anti-Salmonella (IgG) sera. Overall 367 strains from the Enterobacteriaceae family were tested together with two other strains belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. The 1V-C extract specifically agglutinated S. Enteritidis strains in the same way as the rabbit sera. This extract also agglutinated other Salmonella strains antigenically related to S. Enteritidis. Salmonella which did not share somatic or flagellar antigens with S. Enteritidis, other

  11. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  12. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against recombinant VP8-S2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, K; Nassiri, M R; Tahmoorespur, M; Haghparast, A; Zibaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. VP8 subunit of rotavirus is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Studies showed that immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) from immunized hens has been identified to be a convenient source for specific antibodies for using in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostic to limit the infections. In this study, chimeric VP8-S2 gene was designed using by computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 gene was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a (+) vectors. Then, recombinant pET32a-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). The expressed protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Hens were immunized with the purified VP8-S2 protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. Activity and specificity of anti-VP8-S2 IgY were detected by dot-blotting, Western-blotting and indirect ELISA. We obtained anti-VP8-S2 IgY by immunizing hens with the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. The anti-VP8-S2 IgY was showed to bind specifically to the chimeric VP8-S2 protein by dot-blotting, Western-blotting analyses and indirect ELISA. The result of this study indicated that such construction can be useful to investigate as candidates for development of detection methods for simultaneous diagnosis of both infections. Specific IgY against the recombinant VP8-S2 could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus. PMID:27487500

  13. View of the IGY from a high school physics classroom (1959-1961)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, D.

    Convening a worldwide collaborative scientific effort can be expected to produce many advantages including improved focus and definition of scientific goals through negotiated agreements, the coordination of various investigative approaches, and synchro nization of observations at widespread sites and with diverse techniques. Collateral advantages might include improved leveraging of national resources, especially for small or less developed countries. Not to be overlooked, however, is the immense potential for gains in public enthusiasm, support and educational opportunities. This talk will focus on personal experiences and retrospective observations of secondary school physics classes taught during the IGY extension years, 1959-1961 as new and unexpected images and data flooded into world view and every physics lesson could be linked somehow, to the morning's headlines. Twenty-five years later our Nation, it seems, is again ripe for a sea change in physical science education, and we find ourselves organizing traditional physics topics around the fascinating framework of Sun-Earth Connection physics. We will discuss educational lessons learned from the IGY and briefly mention plans for applying them in the IHY.

  14. Production of anti-SAG1 IgY antibody against Toxoplasma gondii parasites and evaluation of antibody activity by ELISA method.

    PubMed

    Cakir-Koc, Rabia

    2016-08-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibody, also known as immunoglobulin Y (IgY), is the predominant class of serum immunoglobulin in birds. IgY has many advantages over mammalian antibodies, such as enhanced immunogenicity conserved mammalian proteins exhibited in birds due to their phylogenetic distance, non-invasive rapid, and economical collection system. However, there are limited studies about IgY production against Toxoplasma, which is a worldwide veterinary and public health problem. In this study, the production of specific IgY antibodies against the surface antigen 1 (SAG1) protein of Toxoplasma gondii and the determination of antibody activity via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method were conducted. According to ELISA, Western blot, and NanoDrop results, specific and higher amounts of IgY antibody against SAG1 were obtained with this study. Considering the advantages of IgY and importance of SAG1 for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, it is expected that anti-SAG1 IgY will play an increasing role and gain commercial value in research, diagnostics, and immunotherapy against toxoplasmosis in the future. PMID:27079459

  15. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  16. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  17. Inhibitory effects of rHP-NAP IgY against Helicobacter pylori attachment to AGS cell line.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Katayoun; Mohabati Mobarez, Ashraf; Khabiri, Ali Reza; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen related to gastric adenocarcinoma and gastroduodenal diseases. Treatment of H. pylori infections is complicated by the rise of antibiotic resistance, necessitating investigation of alternative therapies. One such alternative is passive immunization by oral administration of antibacterial immunoglobulin. In the present study, chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) was used for passive immunotherapy against a major virulence factor of H. pylori, namely recombinant HP-Nap protein. Recombinant HP-Nap was prepared and used to immunize hens. IgY was purified from the eggs by polyethylene glycol precipitation method with a total IgY-HP-NAP yield of 30 mg per egg. The inhibitory effect of specific IgY on H. pylori attachment was investigated in AGS cell line infected by the bacteria. The results demonstrate the potent effect of IgY- HP-NAP in inhibition of H. pylori attachment to the AGS cells. PMID:27265677

  18. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples. PMID:26513166

  19. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens. PMID:26292539

  20. Conceptualizing Relations between Instructional Guidance Infrastructure (IGI) and Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics Instruction: Regulative, Normative, and Cultural-Cognitive Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Spillane, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have become increasingly interested in what is often referred to as the instructional guidance infrastructure (IGI). Research has identified the characteristics of infrastructures that make them more or less influential in guiding teachers' instruction, such as alignment, authority, and prescriptiveness. Although these are important, a…

  1. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  2. IGY to IPY, the U.S. Antarctic oversnow and airborne geophysical-glaciological research program from 1957 to 1964 from the view of a young graduate student

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    2007-01-01

    When 12 countries established scientific stations in Antarctica for the 1957-58 (IGY), the Cold War was at its height, seven countries had made claims in Antarctica, and the Antarctic Treaty was in the future. The only major field project of the U.S. IGY Antarctic program was series of oversnow traverses, starting in 1957, making seismic reflection ice soundings (and other geophysical measurements) and glaciological studies. The U.S.S.R. and France made similar traverses coordinated through the IGY. Although geology and topographic mapping were not part of the IGY program because of the claims issue and the possibility of mineral resources, the oversnow traverse parties did geologic work, during which unknown mountains were discovered. The oversnow traverses continued through 1966 and resulted in an excellent first approximation of the snow surface elevation, ice thickness and bed topography of Antarctica, as well as the mean annual temperature of that era and snow accumulation.

  3. Apoptotic Killing of Breast Cancer Cells by IgYs Produced Against a Small 21 Aminoacid Epitope of the Human TRAIL-2 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Amirijavid1, Shaghayegh; Entezari, Maliheh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Mosavi-Jarahi, Alireza; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand belongs to one of important cytokine superfamilIES, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) . TRAIL-2 receptor agonists activate several cell signaling pathways in cells in different manners and could lead to apoptosis or necrosis. Agonistic egg yolk antibodies like IgY which have been developed in a selective manner could activate TRAIL death receptors such as TRAIL-2 (DR5) and thus apoptosis signaling. We here investigated induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MCF7 cell line) by an IgY produced against an 21 aminoacid epitope of the human TRAIL-2 receptor. As the first step a small peptide of 21 aminoacids choosen from the extracellular domain of DR5 protein was produced with a peptide synthesizer. After control assays and confirmation of the correct amino acid sequence, it was injected to hens immunized to achieve high affinity IgYs. At the next step, the produced IgYs were extracted and examined for specificity against DR5 protein by ELISA assay. Subsequently, the anticancer effect of such IgYs was determined by MTT assay in the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. The produced peptides successfully immunized hens and the produced antibodies which accumulated in egg yolk specifically recognized the DR5 protein. IgYs exerted significant toxicity and killed MCF7 cells as shown by MTT assay. PMID:27165241

  4. IgY against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli administered by hydrogel-carbon nanotubes composites to prevent neonatal diarrhoea in experimentally challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Alustiza, Fabrisio; Bellingeri, Romina; Picco, Natalia; Motta, Carlos; Grosso, Maria C; Barbero, Cesar A; Acevedo, Diego F; Vivas, Adriana

    2016-06-14

    In previous studies, the applicability of polymeric hydrogels for the protection of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against simulated gastric conditions was established. Thereafter, the performance of the hydrogels was improved with the addition of chitosan wrapped carbon nanotubes and the in vitro toxicity for porcine intestinal cells of these nanocomposites was assessed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vivo the protective efficacy of the nanocomoposite matrix for IgY when the immunoglobulin is used against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in challenged piglets. Groups of piglets orally challenged with 10(11)CFU/mL of ETEC were treated with non-protected and protected IgY. The clinical response of each group was monitored and evaluated in terms of dehydration, rectal temperature, faecal consistency score and body weight gain. Blood parameters and histological aspects were also studied. The results showed that treatment of infected piglets with protected IgY reduced significantly the severity of diarrhea. Non-protected IgY group show a lower recovery rate. Blood parameters and histological aspects were normal in both groups. Collectively, these results support previous in vitro studies showing that the nanocomposites can be an effective method of IgY protection against gastric inactivation. PMID:27166825

  5. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) modulate the intestinal mucosal immune response in a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ying; Wang, Xitao; Zhen, Yuhong; Thacker, Philip A; Wang, Lili; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Junjun; Zong, Ying; Wang, Ni; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the effects of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) on immune responses in the intestinal mucosal of mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Sixty, 28-day-old mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with streptomycin or sterile water for 2days followed by 1day without treatment. The control group was unchallenged whereas the mice in the other three groups were treated twice with 10(9)CFUmL(-1)S. typhimurium. For the next 3days, control mice continued to receive no treatment whereas the mice in the remaining three groups were orally administered with 20mgmL(-1) of specific IgY, 20mgmL(-1) of nonspecific IgY or PBS. S. typhimurium activated gut-associated lymphoid tissue, increasing the release of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the mucosa and increased the number of activated T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-γδ. Specific IgY attenuated the increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α and the decrease in IL-10. S. typhimurium induced mobilization of CD8(+) and CD8(+) TCRγδ T cells in the epithelium and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the lamina propria reflecting an inflammatory process that was attenuated by IgY. These results suggest that specific IgY modulates intestinal mucosal immune responses during a S. typhimurium infection. PMID:27214338

  6. SymRK and the nodule vascular system

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lopez, Rosana; Jáuregui, David; Quinto, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Successful nodulation depends on the expression and cross-talk of a batttery of genes, among them SymRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. SymRK is required for the rhizobia invasion of root hairs, as well as for the infection thread and symbiosome formation. Using immunolocalization and downregulation strategies we have recently provided evidence of a new function of PvSymRK in nodulation. We have found that a tight regulation of PvSymRK expression is required for the accurate development of the vascular bundle system in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules. PMID:22580688

  7. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from non-chronically infected CF patients. Thus, oral prophylaxis with anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY may boost the innate immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the CF setting by facilitating a rapid and prompt bacterial clearance by PMNs. PMID:26901841

  8. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Fernando Luiz; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Kanashiro, Milton Masahiko; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Brom-de-Luna, João Gato; de Almeida, Claudia Maria Costa; Azevedo Junior, Romildo Rocha; Lemos, Môsar; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2012-01-01

    Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal) with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC) and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50μL aliquots were incubated in 850μL BHI broth containing 50μL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37°C. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm). Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05) growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals. PMID:24031862

  9. Antarctica and Its Ice Sheet: Knowledge Gained During the IGY/IGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    At the end of World War II, the interior of Antarctica, with the exception of the mountains south of the Ross Ice Shelf, was still terra incognita. It was described simply as a nearly continuous high plateau. Even less was known about the ice thickness; the eminent glacial geologist, Richard Foster Flint, believed it "unlikely that the ice thickness exceeds 2000 feet except very locally; probably its average thickness is considerably less." Then in the late 1940's and early 1950's, seismic sounding in Greenland by the Expéditions Polaires Françaises and in Queen Maud Land by the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949-52, revealed that, inland of the coastal mountains, the beds in both regions lie close to sea level. This led to a reappraisal of the Antarctic ice sheet, such that the prescient glaciologist, Robert P. Sharp, could predict, on the eve of the IGY, that "between 3000 and 4000 meters of ice will be found" in East Antarctica and that "work during IGY will establish an average thickness for Antarctic inland ice in excess of 1600 m." Seismic and gravity soundings on oversnow traverses conducted by eight countries during the IGY and the succeeding IGC showed Sharp to be basically correct, but there were major surprises, such as the vast Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, completely hidden by the ice in central East Antarctica, and the equally vast Byrd Subglacial Basin beneath much of the West Antarctic ice sheet, so deep that roughly half the ice in the region lies below sea level. There were major discoveries on and above the surface too, such as the huge size of the Filchner/Ronne Ice Shelf, and the very existence of the Ellsworth and Pensacola Mountains, the former including the highest peak on the continent. Further, the fundamental difference between the crustal structures of East and West Antarctica became clear. A summary paper published in 1960, looking primarily at West Antarctica where the main U.S. activity lay, could conclude that

  10. Free and open exchange of data: The legacy of IGY and the goal of eGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2006-05-01

    The series of International Polar Years leading up to the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-1958 taught scientists that the free and open exchange of data between nations was cost effective and scientifically beneficial. The IGY also led to the development of a world-wide network of data centers that have facilitated and fostered research begun in the IGY. We now have achieved an unparalleled ability to acquire data and have attained a good understanding of traditional regions - the troposphere, the magnetosphere, and other such "spheres". Much of the new and important science is presently coming from the study of the boundaries between these regions and of coupling between geophysical domains. The past 15 years have seen the development of new, cost effective ways to acquire, store, and exchange data. We have the potential to expand the free and open exchange of data by allowing working scientists to access and manipulate data from large interdisciplinary data centers as well as from small, previously isolated, research groups. The key to this new technology requires adoption of a few community-developed standards for data storage and description. It has been agreed that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, scientific societies should promote the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories. This can provide a forward impetus to geophysics in this century similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., oceanographic, seismic, atmospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, ionospheric, magnetospheric, etc.) and would organize them into a series of virtual geophysical observatories "deployed" in cyberspace. This concept implies a free access to all available data through the Internet and World Wide Web, taking advantage of existing networking hardware and software technologies (e.g., Internet, XML, Semantic Web, etc.). The eGY can be smoothly incorporated

  11. A half century perspective on the International Geophysical Year (IGY) - A Template for the International Polar Year 2007 (IPY 2007)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1956 I sailed for Antarctica to spend 18 months as a graduate student participating in geophysical-glaciological investigations, as part of the 18-month IGY. This led to a career in geophysics, which has taken me to all of the continents and oceans. As we approach the IPY 2007, the changes in technology and our understanding of the earth over the past half century are breathtaking to contemplate. Although 70 countries participated in IGY, the disciplines were restricted to geophysics. Originally the Third Polar Year, the name was changed to IGY in 1952, at the suggestion of Sydney Chapman. The geographical area comprised the entire earth. The highest priority was given to "problems requiring concurrent synoptic observations at many points involving cooperative observations by many stations." One category was reserved for research on topics such as ocean levels, weather patterns, and the distribution of glacier ice "to establish basic information for subsequent comparison at later epochs." IPY 2007 seems such an epoch. A major international efforts was concentrated in Antarctica, although only 12 counties participated. Glaciology, seismology, auroral studies, ionospheric soundings, magnetic field measurements, and other solar-terrestrial, and meteorological observations comprised the scientific station activities. The only major field activities away from the stations were the oversnow geophysical-glaciological traverses, which made seismic measurements of ice thickness and other ice properties; gravity and magnetic anomaly profiles; and determination of snow accumulation and mean annual temperature. The most intensive of the oversnow traverse programs were those of the U.S. and USSR. Geology and topographic mapping were excluded from the Antarctica because of potential complications due to territorial claims and the possibility of mineral resource discoveries. Despite this, significant geologic findings, such as the discovery of the Dufek intrusion, were made by

  12. An Unintended Consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, and the Founding of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger

    2007-04-01

    In October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the crisis that resulted led to numerous actions in the United States aimed at ``remediating'' a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957-1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in the aftermath of the ``crisis'' and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  13. IGY@50: A Revolution in Opportunities for Public Engagement and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Rabello-Soares, C.

    2006-05-01

    The International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958 revolutionized Earth and Space science. But the "official" IGY films, sponsored by the National Academies, debuted almost two years after field research was completed. For 2007-2009, communications revolutions such as the Internet and satellite voice and video enable contemporaneous public engagement via media, at science centers, and at home, and opportunities at all levels of formal education impossible in 1957. Real-time communication to both Poles, video podcasts from explorers of ice sheets and near-Earth space, and inquiry-based educational modules for schools and community centers, provide practical but inspirational ways to engage, inform and inspire millions across Earth in new ways, supporting the outreach goals of all four International Science Years. Examples of live video connections to NSF's Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and to an Alaskan sounding rocket range, together with evaluation data on a rock-concert inspired "tour" of science centers, schools and community venues by NASA researchers and engineers, provide possible models for the upcoming ISY's. A calendar of polar field campaigns, NASA launches and events (such as arrival of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at the Moon in Fall 2008, and the landing of Mars Phoenix in Spring 2008), and earth and space science related anniversaries - such as the launch of Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958 - offer a framework for integrating outreach, engagement and education strategies common to all four Science Years.

  14. An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2010-07-01

    On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the United States responded by taking numerous actions aimed at "remediating" a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957-1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in response to this "crisis" and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a SnRK2 gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chun, J; Li, F-S; Ma, Y; Wang, S-H; Chen, F

    2014-01-01

    Although the SnRK2 class of Ser/Thr protein kinases is critical for signal transduction and abiotic stress resistance in plants, there have been no studies to examine SnRK2 in Jatropha curcas L. In the present study, JcSnRK2 was cloned from J. curcas using the rapid amplification of cDNA end technique and characterized. The JcSnRK2 genomic sequence is 2578 base pairs (bp), includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and the 1017-bp open reading frame encodes 338 amino acids. JcSnRK2 was transcribed in all examined tissues, with the highest transcription rate observed in the roots, followed by the leaves and stalks; the lowest rate was observed in flowers and seeds. JcSnRK2 expression increased following abscisic acid treatment, salinity, and drought stress. During a 48-h stress period, the expression of JcSnRK2 showed 2 peaks and periodic up- and downregulation. JcSnRK2 was rapidly activated within 1 h under salt and drought stress, but not under cold stress. Because of the gene sequence and expression similarity of JcSnRK2 to AtSnRK2.8, primarily in the roots, an eukaryotic expression vector containing the JcSnRK2 gene (pBI121-JcSnRK2) was constructed and introduced to the Arabidopsis AtSnRK2.8 mutant snf2.8. JcSnRK2-overexpressing plants exhibited higher salt and drought tolerance, further demonstrating the function of JcSnRK2 in the osmotic stress response. J. curcas is highly resistant to extreme salt and drought conditions and JcSnRK2 was found to be activated under these conditions. Thus, JcSnRK2 is potential candidate for improving crop tolerance to salt and drought stress. PMID:25526217

  16. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VN<4; ELISA IgY Ab titer<4] twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk

  17. Heterologous Overexpression of Poplar SnRK2 Genes Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueqing; Yu, Xiang; Hori, Chiaki; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily 2 of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2) plays important roles in plant abiotic stress responses as a global positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling. In the genome of the model tree Populus trichocarpa, 12 SnRK2 genes have been identified, and some are upregulated by abiotic stresses. In this study, we heterologously overexpressed the PtSnRK2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that overexpression of PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 genes enhanced stress tolerance. In the PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 overexpressors, chlorophyll content, and root elongation were maintained under salt stress conditions, leading to higher survival rates under salt stress compared with those in the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PtSnRK2.7 overexpression affected stress-related metabolic genes, including lipid metabolism and flavonoid metabolism, even under normal growth conditions. However, the stress response genes reported to be upregulated in Arabidopsis SRK2C/SnRK2.6 and wheat SnRK2.8 overexpressors were not changed by PtSnRK2.7 overexpression. Furthermore, PtSnRK2.7 overexpression widely and largely influenced the transcriptome in response to salt stress; genes related to transport activity, including anion transport-related genes, were characteristically upregulated, and a variety of metabolic genes were specifically downregulated. We also found that the salt stress response genes were greatly upregulated in the PtSnRK2.7 overexpressor. Taken together, poplar subclass 2 PtSnRK2 genes can modulate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, through the activation of cellular signaling pathways in a different manner from that by herbal subclass 2 SnRK2 genes. PMID:27242819

  18. Do r/K reproductive strategies apply to human differences?

    PubMed

    Rushton, J P

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the r/K theory of Social Biology and how it relates to humans. The symbols r and K originate in the mathematics of population biology and refer to 2 ends of a continuum in which a compensatory exchange occurs between gamete production (the r-strategy) and longevity (the K-strategy). Both across and within species, r and K strategists differ in a suite of correlated characteristics. Humans are the most K of all. K's supposedly have a longer gestation period, a higher birthweight, a more delayed sexual maturation, a lower sex drive, and a longer life. Studies providing evidence for the expected covariation among K attributes are presented. Additional evidence for r/K theory comes from the comparison of human population known to differ in gamete production. The pattern of racial differences observed to occur in sexual behavior has also been found to exist on numerous other indices of K. For instance, there are racial differences in brain size, intelligence, and maturation rate, among others. The findings suggest that, on the average, Mongoloids are more K than Caucasoids, who in turn, are more K than Negroids. Recently conducted studies have extended the data in favor of r/K theory, and further research is currently underway, including whether r/K attributes underlie individual and social class differences in health and longevity. PMID:3241997

  19. Genome-wide analysis of SnRK gene family in Brachypodium distachyon and functional characterization of BdSnRK2.9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhe; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jiutong; Liang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xiaoyue; Wei, Shuya; Wang, Xiatian; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-08-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinases (SnRKs) play key roles in plant signaling pathways including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although SnRKs have been systematically studied in Arabidopsis and rice, there is no information concerning SnRKs in the new Poaceae model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, a total of 44 BdSnRKs were identified and classified into three subfamilies, including three members of BdSnRK1, 10 of BdSnRK2 and 31 of BdSnRK3 (CIPK) subfamilies. Phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution and synteny analyses suggested that BdSnRK family had been established before the dicot-monocot lineage parted, and had experienced rapid expansion during the process of plant evolution since then. Expression analysis of the BdSnRK2 subfamily showed that the majority of them could respond to abiotic stress and related signal molecules treatments. Protein-protein interaction and co-expression analyses of BdSnRK2s network showed that SnRK2s might be involved in biological pathway different from that of dicot model plant Arabidopsis. Expression of BdSnRK2.9 in tobacco resulted in increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses through activation of NtABF2. Taken together, comprehensive analyses of BdSnRKs would provide a basis for understanding of evolution and function of BdSnRK family. PMID:26089150

  20. PLGA nanoparticle formulation of RK-33: an RNA helicase inhibitor against DDX3

    PubMed Central

    Bol, Guus Martinus; Khan, Raheela; van Voss, Marise Rosa Heerma; Tantravedi, Saritha; Korz, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    Background The DDX3 helicase inhibitor RK-33 is a newly developed anticancer agent that showed promising results in preclinical research (Bol et al. EMBO Mol Med, 7(5):648–649, 2015). However, due to the physicochemical and pharmacological characteristics of RK-33, we initiated development of alternative formulations of RK-33 by preparing sustained release nanoparticles that can be administered intravenously. Methods In this study, RK-33 was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), one of the most well-developed biodegradable polymers, using the emulsion solvent evaporation method. Results Hydrodynamic diameter of RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles was about 245 nm with a negative charge, and RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles had a payload of 1.4 % RK-33. RK-33 was released from the PLGA nanoparticles over 7 days (90 ± 5.7 % released by day 7) and exhibited cytotoxicity to human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles were well tolerated, and systemic retention of RK-33 was markedly improved in normal mice. Conclusions PLGA nanoparticles have a potential as a parenteral formulation of RK-33. PMID:26330329

  1. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY Antibodies Induce Specific Bacterial Aggregation and Internalization in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Jensen, P. Ø.; Moser, C.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential cellular constituents in the innate host response, and their recruitment to the lungs and subsequent ubiquitous phagocytosis controls primary respiratory infection. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive pulmonary decline governed by a persistent, exaggerated inflammatory response dominated by PMNs. The principal contributor is chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection, which attracts and activates PMNs and thereby is responsible for the continuing inflammation. Strategies to prevent initial airway colonization with P. aeruginosa by augmenting the phagocytic competence of PMNs may postpone the deteriorating chronic biofilm infection. Anti-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies significantly increase the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa in vitro. The mode of action is attributed to IgY-facilitated formation of immobilized bacteria in aggregates, as visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the induction of increased bacterial hydrophobicity. Thus, the present study demonstrates that avian egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) targeting P. aeruginosa modify bacterial fitness, which enhances bacterial killing by PMN-mediated phagocytosis and thereby may facilitate a rapid bacterial clearance in airways of people with cystic fibrosis. PMID:25895968

  2. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei-xu, Hu; Wen-yun, Zhou; Xi-ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-hua, Wu; Xiao-mu, Wu; Hui-ping, Wei; Wen-ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05), and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P < 0.05) in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs. PMID:27046957

  3. Production of specific IgY Helicobacter pylori recombinant OipA protein and assessment of its inhibitory effects towards attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Katayoun; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The common triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori is challenged by the increasing cases of antibiotic resistant infections, raising the need to explore alternative therapies. Oral administration of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has been previously reported as a means of passive immunization therapy for H. pylori infections. In this work, we investigated the inhibitory effect of IgY on the attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line. Materials and Methods Recombinant OipA was prepared. Hens were immunized with recombinant protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks of immunized hens using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. The inhibitory effect of the specific immunoglobulin was evaluated in AGS cell line infected with H. pylori. Results The presence of recombinant OipA (30 kD) was confirmed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunization of hens was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The purified IgY from egg yolks were assessed using SDS-PAGE and confirmed by western blot. Conclusion The results showed that IgY-OipA had inhibitory effect on attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line and may be utilized as a therapeutic or prophylaxis material. PMID:26273576

  4. Chicken egg yolk anti-asialoGM1 immunoglobulin (IgY): an inexpensive glycohistochemical probe for localization of T-antigen in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sriram, V; Jebaraj, C E; Yogeeswaran, G

    1999-07-01

    A egg yolk polyclonal IgY has been prepared by immunization of white leghorn chickens with small unilamellar liposomal asialoGM1. The newly prepared anti-asialoGM1 IgY has been characterized to be specific toward the terminal carbohydrate moiety of asialoGM1, and has no cross reactivity to its sialylated counterpart (ganglioside, GM1) as evidenced by immunochromatographic studies. General glycohistochemical methods along with antigen specific lectin and immunohistochemical staining using anti-asialoGM1 IgY were used to study the expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (T-) disaccharide antigen in human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues. The expression of T-antigen in colon cancer tissue was detected by two T-disaccharide specific probes, chicken anti-T-yolk antibody (IgY) and Artocarpus integrifolia lectin (AIL) and was found to be more pronounced in both the secreted mucin as well as the cytoplasmic mucin deposits. These immunochemical detection methods for T-antigen showed a weaker correlation with other glycostaining methods using, alcian-blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) and high iron diamine (HID). However, a general enzymatic staining for galactose and galactosamine containing glycoconjugates, by galactose oxidase-Schiff method, showed a good correlation with T-antigen detection. While the T-beta specific anti-asialoGM1 could localize T-antigen in 11 of 13 (84%) human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue sections tested, the T-alpha specific AIL could localize the T-antigen in only 6 of the tissues (46%). These observations confirm previously reported findings, of the prevalence of T-beta conformation in colon cancer, that binds significantly more with the anti-asialoGM1 IgY than with the T-alpha specific AIL. Hence, both anti-T IgY and the AIL immunohistochemical probes may have useful diagnostic value because of the ease of preparation and cost effectiveness, but the T-beta specific anti-asialoGM1 probe (IgY) would have a better prognostic value in colon

  5. Differential Activation of the Wheat SnRK2 Family by Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongying; Li, Weiyu; Mao, Xinguo; Jing, Ruilian; Jia, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to stress occur via abscisic acid (ABA) dependent or independent pathways. Sucrose non-fermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) play a key role in plant stress signal transduction pathways. It is known that some SnRK2 members are positive regulators of ABA signal transduction through interaction with group A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Here, 10 SnRK2s were isolated from wheat. Based on phylogenetic analysis using kinase domains or the C-terminus, the 10 SnRK2s were divided into three subclasses. Expression pattern analysis revealed that all TaSnRK2s were involved in the responses to PEG, NaCl, and cold stress. TaSnRK2s in subclass III were strongly induced by ABA. Subclass II TaSnRK2s responded weakly to ABA, whereas TaSnRK2s in subclass I were not activated by ABA treatment. Motif scanning in the C-terminus indicated that motifs 4 and 5 in the C-terminus were unique to subclass III. We further demonstrate the physical and functional interaction between TaSnRK2s and a typical group A PP2C (TaABI1) using Y2H and BiFC assays. The results showed that TaABI1 interacted physically with subclass III TaSnRK2s, while having no interaction with subclasses I and II TaSnRK2s. Together, these findings indicated that subclass III TaSnRK2s were involved in ABA regulated stress responses, whereas subclasses I and II TaSnRK2s responded to various abiotic stressors in an ABA-independent manner. PMID:27066054

  6. From the IGY to the IHY: A Changing View of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    with the choice of solar maximum for the IGY. Still, much remains to be done in terms of predictive capability. The need for such capability gave rise to establishing the National Space Weather Program a decade ago, while the fundamental science questions of solar-terrestrial connectivity remain drivers for NASA's Living With a Star program and other focused projects such as the NSF-sponsored Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling. As measurements of emerging solar active regions have greatly improved, soon to be given a STERIO view, computer modeling capability has developed beyond the wildest expectations of Professor Van Allen and colleagues who launched the first Geiger counter into space on a satellite with no data storage device (once called a tape recorder). Results from recent simulations attempting both to describe particle acceleration processes quantitatively and predict impact on the near Earth space environment will be presented.

  7. IgY14 and SuperMix immunoaffinity separations coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for human plasma proteomic biomarker discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Zhou, Jianying; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hossain, Mahmud; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-02-01

    Interest in the application of advanced proteomics technologies to human blood plasma- or serum-based clinical samples for the purpose of discovering disease biomarkers continues to grow; however, the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in these types of samples (often >10 orders of magnitude) represents a significant analytical challenge, particularly for detecting low-abundance candidate biomarkers. In response, immunoaffinity separation methods for depleting multiple high- and moderate-abundance proteins have become key tools for enriching low-abundance proteins and enhancing detection of these proteins in plasma proteomics. Herein, we describe IgY14 and tandem IgY14-Supermix separation methods for removing 14 high-abundance and up to 60 moderate-abundance proteins, respectively, from human blood plasma and highlight their utility when combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for interrogating the human plasma proteome.

  8. Health Information in Turkish (Türkçe): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Turkish (Türkçe) URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/turkish.html Health Information in Turkish (Türkçe) To use ...

  9. Development and evaluation of IgY ImmunoCapture PCR ELISA for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A devoid of protein A interference.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prakash; Ramlal, Shylaja; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a sensitive and specific IgY mediated ImmunoCapture-PCR-ELISA (IC-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) from culture supernatants and suspected contaminated samples. Due to the virtue of avian immunoglobulins (IgY) to have the least affinity towards staphylococcal protein A (SpA) responsible for false positives, we employed anti-SEA IgY for capture of SEA toxin and revealed with SEA specific rabbit antibodies conjugated to a 524bp DNA marker. Biotin-11-dUTP was incorporated during PCR amplification and post PCR analysis was performed by PCR-ELISA. Unlike IgG immunocapture, IgY mediated immunocapture of SEA was free from false positives due to protein A. The developed assay was specific to SEA except for minor cross reactivity with staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE). Several raw milk samples were evaluated for the presence of SEA with and without enrichment. Three samples were found to be positive for SEA after enrichment for 8h. Though IC-PCR-ELISA for SEA showed 100% correlation with PCR analysis for sea gene, the assay was unique in terms of sensitivity of detecting ~10pg/ml of SEA toxin from spiked milk samples. Result of IC-PCR-ELISA was further confirmed by conventional methods of isolation and characterization. The presented method can be very useful for rapid analysis of milk samples for SEA contamination and can be further extended for detection of multiple SE's in different wells of same PCR plate using common DNA substrate. PMID:24941881

  10. Mouse-Specific Tandem IgY7-SuperMix Immunoaffinity Separations for Improved LC-MS/MS Coverage of the Plasma Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Petritis, Brianne O.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Norbeck, Angela D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2009-09-01

    We report on a customized mouse specific SuperMix immunoaffinity column and strategy for separating low abundance proteins from high and moderate abundance proteins in mouse plasma. When applied in tandem with a mouse IgY7 column that removes the seven most abundant proteins in blood, the SuperMix column captures >100 additional moderate abundance proteins, thus allowing significant enrichment of low abundance proteins in the flow-through fraction. A side-by-side comparison of results obtained from 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses of flow-through samples from IgY7 and SuperMix columns revealed a nearly two-fold improvement in the overall proteome coverage. Detection of low abundance proteins was also enhanced, as evidenced by a more than two-fold increase in the coverage of cytokines, growth factors, and other low abundance proteins. Moreover, the tandem separations are automated, reproducible, and allow effective identification of protein abundance differences from LC-MS/MS analyses. Considering the overall reproducibility and increased sensitivity using the IgY7-SuperMix separation system, we anticipate broad applications of this strategy for biomarker discovery using mouse models.

  11. Mouse-Specific Tandem IgY7-SuperMix Immunoaffinity Separations for Improved LC-MS/MS Coverage of the Plasma Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Petritis, Brianne O.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Norbeck, Angela D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2009-01-01

    We report on a mouse specific SuperMix immunoaffinity separation system for separating low abundance proteins from high and moderate abundance proteins in mouse plasma. When applied in tandem with a mouse IgY7 column that removes the seven most abundant proteins in plasma, the SuperMix column captures more than 100 additional moderate abundance proteins, thus allowing significant enrichment of low abundance proteins in the flow-through fraction. A side-by-side comparison of results obtained from 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses of flow-through samples from IgY7 and SuperMix columns revealed a nearly two-fold improvement in the overall proteome coverage. Detection of low abundance proteins was also enhanced, as evidenced by a more than two-fold increase in the coverage of cytokines, growth factors, and other low abundance proteins. Moreover, the tandem separations are automated, reproducible, and allow effective identification of protein abundance differences from LC-MS/MS analyses. Considering the overall reproducibility and increased sensitivity using the IgY7-SuperMix separation system, we anticipate broad applications of this strategy for biomarker discovery using mouse models. PMID:19722698

  12. Preparation of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against lipopolysaccharide using gel chromatography from the yolks of eggs laid by immunized hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siyuan; Zhang, Yaping

    2010-10-01

    The objective is to prevent and treat injuries caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram negative bacteria in animals and humans, we produced antibodies against LPS from egg yolk. LPS from E. coli (O111:B4) mixed with Freund's Adjuvant was used as the immunogen to immunize Roman hens. Immunized eggs were collected, and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified using a water solution, salt precipitation and gel chromatography. The molecular weight and purity were determined by SDS-PAGE, the antibody titer by noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody activity against LPS by the mortality of mice intraperitoneally injected with LPS or LPS-IgY solutions. IgY against LPS showed two protein bands at 68 and 26 kDa on the gel; the antibody titer was almost 1:25,600. After incubation with LPS, IgY decreased the mortality of mice challenged with LPS. This study provided an efficient way to produce high-titer egg yolk antibodies, which could attenuate lethal effects of LPS, by immunizing hens. Furthermore, the LPS antibody was purified well using a water solution, salting-out and gel chromatography. PMID:20798981

  13. A transfectant RK13 cell line permissive to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A

    2016-03-01

    To assess scrapie infectivity associated with caprine-origin tissues, bioassay can be performed using kids, lambs or transgenic mice expressing caprine or ovine prion (PRNP) alleles, but the incubation periods are fairly long. Although several classical ovine scrapie prion permissive cell lines with the ability to detect brain-derived scrapie prion have been available, no classical caprine scrapie permissive cell line is currently available. Therefore, the aims of this study were to generate a rabbit kidney epithelial cell line (RK13) stably expressing caprine wild-type PRNP (cpRK13) and then to assess permissiveness of cpRK13 cells to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation. The cpRK13 and plasmid control RK13 (pcRK13) cells were incubated with brain-derived classical caprine scrapie inocula prepared from goats or ovinized transgenic mice (Tg338, express ovine VRQ allele) infected with caprine scrapie. Significant PrP(Sc) accumulation, which is indicative of scrapie prion propagation, was detected by TSE ELISA and immunohistochemistry in cpRK13 cells inoculated with classical caprine scrapie inocula. Western blot analysis revealed the typical proteinase K-resistant 3 PrP(res) isoforms in the caprine scrapie prion inoculated cpRK13 cell lysate. Importantly, PrP(Sc) accumulation was not detected in similarly inoculated pcRK13 cells, whether by TSE ELISA, immunohistochemistry, or western blot. These findings suggest that caprine scrapie prions can be propagated in cpRK13 cells, thus this cell line may be a useful tool for the assessment of classical caprine prions in the brain tissues of goats. PMID:27216989

  14. Simultaneous explanation of the RK and R (D (*)) puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; London, David; Shivashankara, Shanmuka

    2015-03-01

    At present, there are several hints of lepton flavor non-universality. The LHCb Collaboration has measured RK ≡ B (B+ →K+μ+μ-) / B (B+ →K+e+e-), and the BaBar Collaboration has measured R (D (*)) ≡ B (B bar →D (*) +τ-νbarτ) / B (B bar →D (*) +ℓ-νbarℓ) (ℓ = e , μ). In all cases, the experimental results differ from the standard model predictions by 2- 3 σ. Recently, an explanation of the RK puzzle was proposed in which new physics (NP) generates a neutral-current operator involving only third-generation particles. Now, assuming the scale of NP is much larger than the weak scale, this NP operator must be made invariant under the full SU (3)C × SU (2)L × U(1)Y gauge group. In this Letter, we note that, when this is done, a new charged-current operator can appear, and this can explain the R (D (*)) puzzle. A more precise measurement of the double ratio R (D) / R (D*) can rule out this model.

  15. Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Circulating Antigen in Sera from Chinese Patients by Immunomagnetic Bead ELISA Based on IgY

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ge; Wang, Ting; Lu, Shengjun; Liu, Wenqi; Li, Yonglong; Lei, Jiahui

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including China. Clonorchiasis is included in control programs of neglected tropical diseases by World Health Organization (WHO) because it is one of the major health problems in most endemic areas. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis plays a key role in the control programs. However, so far, there is no satisfactory method for clonorchiasis because of low sensitivity, poor practicality and high false positivity of available diagnostic tools. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an immunomagnetic bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) against cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis for detection of circulating antigen in serum samples of patients infected with C. sinensis. The polyclonal IgY, coated with magnetic beads, was used as a capture antibody and a monoclonal IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase as a detection antibody in the IgY-based immunomagnetic bead ELISA system (IgY-IMB-ELISA). The results showed that the sensitivity of IgY-IMB-ELISA was 93.3% (14 of 15) in cases of heavy infection (5000 to 9999 eggs per gram feces, i.e, EPG 5000–9999), 86.7% (13 of 15) in cases of moderate infection (EPG 1000–4999) and 75.0% (9 of 12) in cases of light infection (EPG <1000) of clonorchiasis. Together 36 of total 42 (85.7%) serum samples of human clonorchiasis gave a positive reaction. There was a significant correlation between ELISA optical density and egg counts (EPG) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in total 42 patients. There were no positive results in patients with trichinosis (n = 10) or cysticercosis (n = 10). Cross-reactivity was 6.7% (2 of 30) with schistosomiasis japonica and 10.0% (3 of 30) with paragonimiasis, respectively. No positive reaction was found in 20 healthy persons. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IgY-IMB-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for detection of

  16. The IGY and the Satellite Race: A Reconsideration of a Cold War Crisis that Never Should Have Been

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, R. D.

    2006-05-01

    In October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the crisis that resulted led to numerous actions in the United States aimed at "remediating" a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957- 1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in the aftermath of the "crisis" and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  17. Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein kinase SnRK1 regulated protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis under submergence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hsing-Yi; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Ying-Tsui; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-04-01

    SNF1 RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 (SnRK1) is proposed to be a central integrator of the plant stress and energy starvation signalling pathways. We observed that the Arabidopsis SnRK1.1 dominant negative mutant (SnRK1.1 (K48M) ) had lower tolerance to submergence than the wild type, suggesting that SnRK1.1-dependent phosphorylation of target proteins is important in signalling pathways triggered by submergence. We conducted quantitative phosphoproteomics and found that the phosphorylation levels of 57 proteins increased and the levels of 27 proteins decreased in Col-0 within 0.5-3h of submergence. Among the 57 proteins with increased phosphorylation in Col-0, 38 did not show increased phosphorylation levels in SnRK1.1 (K48M) under submergence. These proteins are involved mainly in sugar and protein synthesis. In particular, the phosphorylation of MPK6, which is involved in regulating ROS responses under abiotic stresses, was disrupted in the SnRK1.1 (K48M) mutant. In addition, PTP1, a negative regulator of MPK6 activity that directly dephosphorylates MPK6, was also regulated by SnRK1.1. We also showed that energy conservation was disrupted in SnRK1.1 (K48M) , mpk6, and PTP1 (S7AS8A) under submergence. These results reveal insights into the function of SnRK1 and the downstream signalling factors related to submergence. PMID:27029354

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein kinase SnRK1 regulated protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis under submergence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hsing-Yi; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Ying-Tsui; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    SNF1 RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 (SnRK1) is proposed to be a central integrator of the plant stress and energy starvation signalling pathways. We observed that the Arabidopsis SnRK1.1 dominant negative mutant (SnRK1.1 K48M) had lower tolerance to submergence than the wild type, suggesting that SnRK1.1-dependent phosphorylation of target proteins is important in signalling pathways triggered by submergence. We conducted quantitative phosphoproteomics and found that the phosphorylation levels of 57 proteins increased and the levels of 27 proteins decreased in Col-0 within 0.5–3h of submergence. Among the 57 proteins with increased phosphorylation in Col-0, 38 did not show increased phosphorylation levels in SnRK1.1 K48M under submergence. These proteins are involved mainly in sugar and protein synthesis. In particular, the phosphorylation of MPK6, which is involved in regulating ROS responses under abiotic stresses, was disrupted in the SnRK1.1 K48M mutant. In addition, PTP1, a negative regulator of MPK6 activity that directly dephosphorylates MPK6, was also regulated by SnRK1.1. We also showed that energy conservation was disrupted in SnRK1.1 K48M, mpk6, and PTP1 S7AS8A under submergence. These results reveal insights into the function of SnRK1 and the downstream signalling factors related to submergence. PMID:27029354

  19. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  20. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675

  1. Oral administration of specific yolk antibodies (IgY) may prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis: a phase I feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kollberg, Hans; Carlander, David; Olesen, Hanne; Wejåker, Per-Erik; Johannesson, Marie; Larsson, Anders

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections ultimately occur in virtually all patients. It is impossible to eradicate PA when a patient has been chronically colonized. Immunotherapy with specific egg-yolk antibodies (IgY) may be an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of PA infections. We wanted to determine if treatment with specific IgY can prolong the period between the first and the second PA colonization? And long-term, can the treatment diminish the number of positive PA cultures and postpone the onset of chronic colonization? CF patients gargled daily with an IgY-antibody preparation, purified from eggs of hens immunized with PA bacteria. They were compared to a group of patients who did not gargle with the preparation. Both groups had their first colonization with PA eradicated by antibiotics. The basic treatment was essentially the same in both groups. In the initial study, the period between the first and second colonization with PA was significantly prolonged for the treated vs. the control group (Kaplan-Meier P = 0.015, Breslow test). In the prolonged study, the treated group had only 2.5 sputum cultures positive for PA per 100 months of observation, and none of these patients became chronically colonized with PA. No adverse events were reported. In the control group, 13.7 cultures per 100 months of observation were positive for PA, and 5 (24%) patients became chronically colonized with PA. This feasibility study shows that antipseudomonal IgY has the potential to effectively prevent PA colonization without any severe adverse effects. A phase III study should be initiated. PMID:12746939

  2. Replacement of a Björk-Shiley Delrin Aortic Valve Still Functioning after 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Badak, M. Ismail; Ozkisacik, Erdem Ali; Boga, Mehmet; Gurcun, Ugur; Discigil, Berent

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who had undergone implantation of a Björk-Shiley Delrin valve in the aortic position 25 years earlier and who now presented with severe mitral stenosis. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement and aortic valve re-replacement. We review the justification for prophylactic replacement of Björk-Shiley Delrin heart valves. PMID:15562853

  3. Rk1, a ginsenoside, is a new blocker of vascular leakage acting through actin structure remodeling.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jeong-Hill; Suk Yu, Young; Kim, Young-Myoung; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier integrity is essential for vascular homeostasis and increased vascular permeability and has been implicated in many pathological processes, including diabetic retinopathy. Here, we investigated the effect of Rk1, a ginsenoside extracted from sun ginseng, on regulation of endothelial barrier function. In human retinal endothelial cells, Rk1 strongly inhibited permeability induced by VEGF, advanced glycation end-product, thrombin, or histamine. Furthermore, Rk1 significantly reduced the vessel leakiness of retina in a diabetic mouse model. This anti-permeability activity of Rk1 is correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of tight junction proteins at the boundary between cells. Signaling experiments revealed that Rk1 induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain and cortactin, which are critical regulators for the formation of the cortical actin ring structure and endothelial barrier. These findings raise the possibility that ginsenoside Rk1 could be exploited as a novel prototype compound for the prevention of human diseases that are characterized by vascular leakage. PMID:23894330

  4. SnRK1A-interacting negative regulators modulate the nutrient starvation signaling sensor SnRK1 in source-sink communication in cereal seedlings under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Ru; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Chih-Yu; Hong, Ya-Fang; Chen, Jyh-Long; Lu, Chung-An; Chen, Ku-Ting; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2014-02-01

    In plants, source-sink communication plays a pivotal role in crop productivity, yet the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. The SnRK1A protein kinase and transcription factor MYBS1 regulate the sugar starvation signaling pathway during seedling growth in cereals. Here, we identified plant-specific SnRK1A-interacting negative regulators (SKINs). SKINs antagonize the function of SnRK1A, and the highly conserved GKSKSF domain is essential for SKINs to function as repressors. Overexpression of SKINs inhibits the expression of MYBS1 and hydrolases essential for mobilization of nutrient reserves in the endosperm, leading to inhibition of seedling growth. The expression of SKINs is highly inducible by drought and moderately by various stresses, which is likely related to the abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated repression of SnRK1A under stress. Overexpression of SKINs enhances ABA sensitivity for inhibition of seedling growth. ABA promotes the interaction between SnRK1A and SKINs and shifts the localization of SKINs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it binds SnRK1A and prevents SnRK1A and MYBS1 from entering the nucleus. Our findings demonstrate that SnRK1A plays a key role regulating source-sink communication during seedling growth. Under abiotic stress, SKINs antagonize the function of SnRK1A, which is likely a key factor restricting seedling vigor. PMID:24569770

  5. Electrochemical immunosensor based on ensemble of nanoelectrodes for immunoglobulin IgY detection: application to identify hen's egg yolk in tempera paintings.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Fabio; Oliveri, Paolo; Ugo, Paolo

    2014-02-15

    A nanostructured electrochemical biosensor for detecting proteins of interest in work of art, in particular in tempera paintings, is presented. To determine egg yolk we focus here on the determination of immunoglobulin IgY. The transducers are nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), prepared via membrane templated electroless deposition of gold. Because of their geometrical and diffusion characteristics, NEEs are characterized by significantly low detection limits, moreover they display the capability of capturing proteins by interaction with the polycarbonate membrane of the NEE. At first, the proteic component of the paint is extracted by ultrasonication in an aqueous buffer, then IgY is captured by incubation on the NEE. The immunoglobulin is detected by treatment with anti-IgY labeled with horse radish peroxidase (Anti-IgY-HRP). The binding of the Anti-IgY-HRP is detected by recording the electrocatalytic signal caused by addition of H2O2 and methylene blue. The sensor detection capabilities are tested by analyzing both paint models, prepared in the lab, and real samples, from paintings of the XVIII-XX century. Multivariate exploratory analysis is applied to classify the voltammetric patterns, confirming the capability to differentiate egg-yolk tempera from other kind of tempera binders as well as from acrylic or oil paints. PMID:24096186

  6. CAD techniques applied to diesel engine design. Extension of the RK range. [Ruston diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Buckthorpe, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rustion Diesels Ltd. produce three ranges of engines, the AP range covering engine powers from 500 to 1400 bhp (350 to 1000 kW electrical), the RK range covering 1410 to 4200 bhp (1 to 3 MW electrical), and the AT range covering 1650 to 4950 bhp (1-2 to 3-5 MW electrical). The AT engine range is available at speeds up to 600 rev/min, whereas the AP and RK ranges cover engine speeds from 600 to 1000 rev/min. The design philosophy and extension of the RK range of engines are investigated. This is a 251 mm (ten inch) bore by 305mm (twelve inch) stroke engine and is available in 6-cylinder in-line form and 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder vee form. The RK engine features a cast-iron crankcase and bedplate design with a forged alloy-steel crankshaft. Combustion-chamber components consist of a cast-iron cylinder head and liner, steel exhaust and inlet valves, and a single-piece aluminium piston. The durability and reliability of RK engines have been fully proven in service with over 30 years' experience in numerous applications for power generation, reaction, and marine propulsion.

  7. Molecular Insights into the Enigmatic Metabolic Regulator, SnRK1.

    PubMed

    Emanuelle, Shane; Doblin, Monika S; Stapleton, David I; Bacic, Antony; Gooley, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) lies at the heart of metabolic homeostasis in plants and is crucial for normal development and response to stress. Evolutionarily related to SNF1 in yeast and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in mammals, SnRK1 acts protectively to maintain homeostasis in the face of fluctuations in energy status. Despite a conserved function, the structure and regulation of the plant kinase differ considerably from its relatively well-understood opisthokont orthologues. In this review, we highlight the known plant-specific modes of regulation involving SnRK1 together with new insights based on a 3D molecular model of the kinase. We also summarise how these differences from other orthologues may be specific adaptations to plant metabolism, and offer insights into possible avenues of future inquiry into this enigmatic enzyme. PMID:26642889

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b. PMID:26430037

  9. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  10. High resolution fluorescence microscopy evidence on the transport of immunoglobulins. Differences between mammalian IgG, F(ab')2 and avian IgY.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, Carlos; Salazar, Víctor; Díaz, Patricia; D'Suze, Gina; Vázquez, Hilda

    2013-03-01

    We describe the subcellular localization of horse F(ab')(2) and IgG, and ostrich IgY labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) administered IV to mice. We used wide field high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy deblurred by 3-dimensional blind deconvolution of kidney, liver, lungs and brain sections. Sections were obtained from mice sacrificed 15 min, 1 or 5 h after receiving FITC-immunoproteins, counter-stained with DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and Evans blue. FITC-IgG and its fractions are rapidly taken up and extravasated by vascular endothelium. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appear to be quickly secreted by glomeruli endothelium and to be reabsorbed along all nephron segments. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appeared 15 min after IV injection within bronchial, alveolar and bile duct epithelium. Hepatocytes were loaded with fluorescence after 15 min of administration. Fluorescence was absent from brain slices, except for the endothelium of some vessels in brain ventricles which appeared intensely fluorescent. Fluorescence appeared in intracellular vesicles which conferred the tissues a glowing foamy aspect for up to 5 h after inoculation. Arterial elastic layers were intensely green after horse FITC-Ig inoculation. Ostrich FITC-IgY behaved completely differently to horse Ig's; only 1 h after injection it was possible to observe small brightly green scarce vesicles in vascular endothelium of arteries, interstitial kidney capillaries between nephron tubules and were also scarce in glomeruli endothelium; FITC-IgY appeared only in hepatic sinusoids in the liver. No IgY was seen in bronchial and alveolar endothelium, in bile ducts or in hepatocytes. PMID:23159396

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Ustilago trichophora RK089, a Promising Malic Acid Producer

    PubMed Central

    Zambanini, Thiemo; Buescher, Joerg M.; Meurer, Guido; Blank, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago trichophora RK089 produces malate from glycerol. De novo genome sequencing revealed a 20.7-Mbp genome (301 gap-closed contigs, 246 scaffolds). A comparison to the genome of Ustilago maydis 521 revealed all essential genes for malate production from glycerol contributing to metabolic engineering for improving malate production. PMID:27469969

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Ustilago trichophora RK089, a Promising Malic Acid Producer.

    PubMed

    Zambanini, Thiemo; Buescher, Joerg M; Meurer, Guido; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago trichophora RK089 produces malate from glycerol. De novo genome sequencing revealed a 20.7-Mbp genome (301 gap-closed contigs, 246 scaffolds). A comparison to the genome of Ustilago maydis 521 revealed all essential genes for malate production from glycerol contributing to metabolic engineering for improving malate production. PMID:27469969

  13. SMiRK: an Automated Pipeline for miRNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milholland, Brandon; Gombar, Saurabh; Suh, Yousin

    2015-01-01

    Background Micro RNAs (miRNAs), important regulators of cell function, can be interrogated by high-throughput sequencing in a rapid and cost-effective manner. However, the tremendous amount of data generated by such methods is not easily analyzed. In order to extract meaningful information and draw biological conclusions from miRNA data, many challenges in quality control, alignment, normalization, and analysis must be overcome. Typically, these would only be possible with the dedicated efforts of a specialized computational biologist for a sustained period of time. Results Here, we present SMiRK, an automated pipeline that allows such tasks to be completed with minimal time and without dedicated bioinformatics personnel. SMiRK’s flexibility also allows experienced users to exert more control, if they wish. We describe how SMiRK automatically normalizes the data, removes low-information miRNAs, and produces heatmaps of the processed data. We give details on SMiRK’s implementation and use cases for novice and advanced users. As a demonstration of its capabilities, SMiRK was used to rapidly and automatically analyze a dataset taken from the literature. Conclusion SMiRK is a useful and efficient tool that can be used by investigators at multiple skill levels. Those who lack bioinformatics training can use it to easily and automatically analyze their data, while those with experience will find it beneficial to not need to write tools from scratch. PMID:26613105

  14. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation. PMID:24600465

  15. SnRK1 Phosphorylation of AL2 Delays Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Dallas, Mary Beth; Goshe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geminivirus AL2/C2 proteins play key roles in establishing infection and causing disease in their plant hosts. They are involved in viral gene expression, counter host defenses by suppressing transcriptional gene silencing, and interfere with the host signaling involved in pathogen resistance. We report here that begomovirus and curtovirus AL2/C2 proteins interact strongly with host geminivirus Rep-interacting kinases (GRIKs), which are upstream activating kinases of the protein kinase SnRK1, a global regulator of energy and nutrient levels in plants. We used an in vitro kinase system to show that GRIK-activated SnRK1 phosphorylates recombinant AL2/C2 proteins from several begomoviruses and to map the SnRK1 phosphorylation site to serine-109 in the AL2 proteins of two New World begomoviruses: Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato mottle virus. A CaLCuV AL2 S109D phosphomimic mutation did not alter viral DNA levels in protoplast replication assays. In contrast, the phosphomimic mutant was delayed for symptom development and viral DNA accumulation during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating that SnRK1 contributes to host defenses against CaLCuV. Our observation that serine-109 is not conserved in all AL2/C2 proteins that are SnRK1 substrates in vitro suggested that phosphorylation of viral proteins by plant kinases contributes to the evolution of geminivirus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious diseases in many crops. Dicot-infecting geminiviruses carry genes that encode multifunctional AL2/C2 proteins that are essential for infection. However, it is not clear how AL2/C2 proteins are regulated. Here, we show that the host protein kinase SnRK1, a central regulator of energy balance and nutrient metabolism in plants, phosphorylates serine-109 in AL2 proteins of three subgroups of New World begomoviruses, resulting in a delay in viral DNA accumulation and symptom appearance. Our results

  16. miRNAs mediate SnRK1-dependent energy signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The SnRK1 protein kinase, the plant ortholog of mammalian AMPK and yeast Snf1, is activated by the energy depletion caused by adverse environmental conditions. Upon activation, SnRK1 triggers extensive transcriptional changes to restore homeostasis and promote stress tolerance and survival partly through the inhibition of anabolism and the activation of catabolism. Despite the identification of a few bZIP transcription factors as downstream effectors, the mechanisms underlying gene regulation, and in particular gene repression by SnRK1, remain mostly unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20–24 nt RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by driving the cleavage and/or translation attenuation of complementary mRNA targets. In addition to their role in plant development, mounting evidence implicates miRNAs in the response to environmental stress. Given the involvement of miRNAs in stress responses and the fact that some of the SnRK1-regulated genes are miRNA targets, we postulated that miRNAs drive part of the transcriptional reprogramming triggered by SnRK1. By comparing the transcriptional response to energy deprivation between WT and dcl1-9, a mutant deficient in miRNA biogenesis, we identified 831 starvation genes misregulated in the dcl1-9 mutant, out of which 155 are validated or predicted miRNA targets. Functional clustering analysis revealed that the main cellular processes potentially co-regulated by SnRK1 and miRNAs are translation and organelle function and uncover TCP transcription factors as one of the most highly enriched functional clusters. TCP repression during energy deprivation was impaired in miR319 knockdown (MIM319) plants, demonstrating the involvement of miR319 in the stress-dependent regulation of TCPs. Altogether, our data indicates that miRNAs are components of the SnRK1 signaling cascade contributing to the regulation of specific mRNA targets and possibly tuning down particular cellular processes during the stress response

  17. Detergent-like activity and alpha-helical structure of warnericin RK, an anti-Legionella peptide.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Falge, Mirjam; Maier, Elke; Bruhn, Heike; Steinert, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Benz, Roland; Héchard, Yann

    2009-10-01

    Warnericin RK is the first antimicrobial peptide known to be active against Legionella pneumophila, a pathogen bacterium that is responsible for severe pneumonia. Strikingly, this peptide displays a very narrow range of antimicrobial activity, almost limited to the Legionella genus, and a hemolytic activity. A similar activity has been described for delta-lysin, a well-known hemolytic peptide of Staphylococci that has not been described as antimicrobial. In this study we aimed to understand the mode of action of warnericin RK and to explain its particular target specificity. We found that warnericin RK permeabilizes artificial membranes in a voltage-independent manner. Osmotic protection experiments on erythrocytes showed that warnericin RK does not form well-defined pores, suggesting a detergent-like mode of action, as previously described for delta-lysin at high concentrations. Warnericin RK also permeabilized Legionella cells, and these cells displayed a high sensitivity to detergents. Depending on the detergent used, Legionella was from 10- to 1000-fold more sensitive than the other bacteria tested. Finally, the structure of warnericin RK was investigated by means of circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. The peptide adopted an amphiphilic alpha-helical structure, consistent with the proposed mode of action. We conclude that the specificity of warnericin RK toward Legionella results from both the detergent-like mode of action of the peptide and the high sensitivity of these bacteria to detergents. PMID:19804724

  18. Detergent-Like Activity and α-Helical Structure of Warnericin RK, an Anti-Legionella Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Julien; Falge, Mirjam; Maier, Elke; Bruhn, Heike; Steinert, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Benz, Roland; Héchard, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Warnericin RK is the first antimicrobial peptide known to be active against Legionella pneumophila, a pathogen bacterium that is responsible for severe pneumonia. Strikingly, this peptide displays a very narrow range of antimicrobial activity, almost limited to the Legionella genus, and a hemolytic activity. A similar activity has been described for δ-lysin, a well-known hemolytic peptide of Staphylococci that has not been described as antimicrobial. In this study we aimed to understand the mode of action of warnericin RK and to explain its particular target specificity. We found that warnericin RK permeabilizes artificial membranes in a voltage-independent manner. Osmotic protection experiments on erythrocytes showed that warnericin RK does not form well-defined pores, suggesting a detergent-like mode of action, as previously described for δ-lysin at high concentrations. Warnericin RK also permeabilized Legionella cells, and these cells displayed a high sensitivity to detergents. Depending on the detergent used, Legionella was from 10- to 1000-fold more sensitive than the other bacteria tested. Finally, the structure of warnericin RK was investigated by means of circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. The peptide adopted an amphiphilic α-helical structure, consistent with the proposed mode of action. We conclude that the specificity of warnericin RK toward Legionella results from both the detergent-like mode of action of the peptide and the high sensitivity of these bacteria to detergents. PMID:19804724

  19. Fatty acid composition modulates sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to warnericin RK, an antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Labanowski, Jérome; Sahr, Tobias; Ferreira, Thierry; Lacombe, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Héchard, Yann

    2011-04-01

    Warnericin RK is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by a Staphyloccocus warneri strain, described to be specifically active against Legionella, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for Legionnaires' disease. Warnericin RK is an amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, which possesses a detergent-like mode of action. Two others peptides, δ-hemolysin I and II, produced by the same S. warneri strain, are highly similar to S. aureus δ-hemolysin and also display anti-Legionella activity. It has been recently reported that S. aureus δ-hemolysin activity on vesicles is likewise related to phospholipid acyl-chain structure, such as chain length and saturation. As staphylococcal δ-hemolysins were highly similar, we thus hypothesized that fatty acid composition of Legionella's membrane might influence the sensitivity of the bacteria to warnericin RK. Relationship between sensitivity to the peptide and fatty acid composition was then followed in various conditions. Cells in stationary phase, which were already described as less resistant than cells in exponential phase, displayed higher amounts of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and short chain fatty acids. An adapted strain, able to grow at a concentration 33 fold higher than minimal inhibitory concentration of the wild type (i.e. 1μM), was isolated after repeated transfers of L. pneumophila in the presence of increased concentrations of warnericin RK. The amount of BCFA was significantly higher in the adapted strain than in the wild type strain. Also, a transcriptomic analysis of the wild type and adapted strains showed that two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the adapted strain. These genes encode enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids respectively. Their repression was in agreement with the decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid chain length in the adapted strain. Conclusively, our results indicate that the increase of BCFA and the decrease of fatty acid

  20. Characterization of a common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaSnRK2.7 gene involved in abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongying; Mao, Xinguo; Jing, Ruilian; Chang, Xiaoping; Xie, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) plays a key role in the plant stress signalling transduction pathway via phosphorylation. Here, a SnRK2 member of common wheat, TaSnRK2.7, was cloned and characterized. Southern blot analysis suggested that the common wheat genome contains three copies of TaSnRK2.7. Subcellular localization showed the presence of TaSnRK2.7 in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Expression patterns revealed that TaSnRK2.7 is expressed strongly in roots, and responds to polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and cold stress, but not to abscisic acid (ABA) application, suggesting that TaSnRK2.7 might participate in non-ABA-dependent signal transduction pathways. TaSnRK2.7 was transferred to Arabidopsis under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter. Function analysis showed that TaSnRK2.7 is involved in carbohydrate metabolism, decreasing osmotic potential, enhancing photosystem II activity, and promoting root growth. Its overexpression results in enhanced tolerance to multi-abiotic stress. Therefore, TaSnRK2.7 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in plants, and has the potential to be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:21030389

  1. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    SciTech Connect

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  2. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  3. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  4. The rK39 strip test is non-predictor of clinical status for kala-azar

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra P; Sundar, Shyam; Mohapatra, Tribhuban M

    2009-01-01

    Background The rK39 strip test is reported to be simple, sensitive, specific, non-invasive and economical test. Since this method is supposed to be patient friendly, it may easily be accepted for sero-epidemiological surveys. An attempt was made to evaluate the role of rK39 strip test in pre and post treatment phases of Kala azar, as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, in addition to other laboratory investigations, in order to evaluate its role in sero-epidemiological surveys. Findings A total of 210 cases were selected for the study. One hundred clinically and parasitologically confirmed cases were corroborated with other hematological profiles. The formol-gel test was included along with well matched control group comprising of normal endemic controls (50), non-endemic normals (20) and other febrile cases (40). All groups were tested by rK39 strip test. Fifty Kala azar cases were followed up after completion of successful treatment. They were subjected to rK39 strip test after 0, 90 and 180 days of completion of successful treatment. The rK39 showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of 98% (95% CI 91.7-100), 100%, 100%, 90% (95% CI 66-100) and 98% (95% CI 92.6-100) respectively. All the 50 cured followed up cases showed positive result by rK39 strip test even after 180 days of completion of successful treatment. Conclusion The test seems an ideal qualitative test for the diagnosis of kala-azar. But for sero-epidemiological studies the test may be used with other parameters. Alternatively a quantitative ELISA using rK39 antigen may be used. PMID:19772616

  5. Björk-Jarabak cephalometric analysis on CBCT synthesized cephalograms with different dentofacial sagittal skeletal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cardenas, Yalil Augusto; Arriola-Guillen, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the Björk and Jabarak cephalometric analysis generated from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) synthesized lateral cephalograms in adults with different sagittal skeletal patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 46 CBCT synthesized cephalograms obtained from patients between 16 and 40 years old. A Björk and Jarabak cephalometric analysis among different sagittal skeletal classes was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple range test of Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis test, and independent t-test were used as appropriate. RESULTS: In comparison to the standard values: Skeletal Class III had increased gonial and superior gonial angles (P < 0.001). This trend was also evident when sex was considered. For Class I males, the sella angle was decreased (P = 0.041), articular angle increased (P = 0.027) and gonial angle decreased (P = 0.002); whereas for Class III males, the gonial angle was increased (P = 0.012). For Class I females, the articular angle was increased (P = 0.029) and the gonial angle decreased (P = 0.004). Björk's sum and Björk and Jabarak polygon sum showed no significant differences. The facial biotype presented in the three sagittal classes was mainly hypodivergent and neutral. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, skeletal Class III malocclusion was strongly differentiated from the other sagittal classes, specifically in the mandible, as calculated through Björk and Jarabak analysis. PMID:25628079

  6. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses. PMID:26557127

  7. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses. PMID:26557127

  8. Genome-wide identification and homeolog-specific expression analysis of the SnRK2 genes in Brassica napus guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Ma, Tianyi; Zhu, Ning; Liu, Lihong; Harmon, Alice C; Wang, Qiaomei; Chen, Sixue

    2016-05-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) proteins constitute a small plant-specific serine/threonine kinase family involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although SnRK2s have been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known about SnRK2s in Brassica napus. Here we identified 30 putative sequences encoding 10 SnRK2 proteins in the B. napus genome and the expression profiles of a subset of 14 SnRK2 genes in guard cells of B. napus. In agreement with its polyploid origin, B. napus maintains both homeologs from its diploid parents. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and reanalysis of RNA-Seq data showed that certain BnSnRK2 genes were commonly expressed in leaf tissues in different varieties of B. napus. In particular, qRT-PCR results showed that 12 of the 14 BnSnRK2s responded to drought stress in leaves and in ABA-treated guard cells. Among them, BnSnRK2.4 and BnSnRK2.6 were of interest because of their robust responsiveness to ABA treatment and drought stress. Notably, BnSnRK2 genes exhibited up-regulation of different homeologs, particularly in response to abiotic stress. The homeolog expression bias in BnSnRK2 genes suggests that parental origin of genes might be responsible for efficient regulation of stress responses in polyploids. This work has laid a foundation for future functional characterization of the different BnSnKR2 homeologs in B. napus and its parents, especially their functions in guard cell signaling and stress responses. PMID:26898295

  9. Placing Intelligence into an Evolutionary Framework or How "g" Fits into the "r-K" Matrix of Life-History Traits Including Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    First, I describe why intelligence (Spearman's "g") can only be fully understood through "r-K" theory, which places it into an evolutionary framework along with brain size, longevity, maturation speed, and several other life-history traits. The "r-K" formulation explains why IQ predicts longevity and also why the gap in mortality rates between…

  10. Ectopic Expression of Vaccinia Virus E3 and K3 Cannot Rescue Ectromelia Virus Replication in Rabbit RK13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  11. Ectopic expression of vaccinia virus E3 and K3 cannot rescue ectromelia virus replication in rabbit RK13 cells.

    PubMed

    Hand, Erin S; Haller, Sherry L; Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  12. TaSnRK2.4, an SNF1-type serine/threonine protein kinase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), confers enhanced multistress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinguo; Zhang, Hongying; Tian, Shanjun; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2010-03-01

    Osmotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity worldwide. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are major signalling events induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase2 family members play essential roles in response to hyperosmotic stresses in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, the function of TaSnRK2.4 in drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis was characterized. A translational fusion protein of TaSnRK2.4 with green fluorescent protein showed subcellular localization in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. To examine the role of TaSnRK2.4 under various environmental stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing wheat TaSnRK2.4 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 resulted in delayed seedling establishment, longer primary roots, and higher yield under normal growing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.4 had enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, which were simultaneously supported by physiological results, including decreased rate of water loss, enhanced higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, improved photosynthesis potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential. The results show that TaSnRK2.4 is involved in the regulation of enhanced osmotic potential, growth, and development under both normal and stress conditions, and imply that TaSnRK2.4 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in Arabidopsis. Since the overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 can significantly strengthen tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses and does not retard the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under well-watered conditions, TaSnRK2.4 could be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:20022921

  13. TaSnRK2.4, an SNF1-type serine/threonine protein kinase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), confers enhanced multistress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinguo; Zhang, Hongying; Tian, Shanjun; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2010-01-01

    Osmotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity worldwide. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are major signalling events induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase2 family members play essential roles in response to hyperosmotic stresses in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, the function of TaSnRK2.4 in drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis was characterized. A translational fusion protein of TaSnRK2.4 with green fluorescent protein showed subcellular localization in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. To examine the role of TaSnRK2.4 under various environmental stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing wheat TaSnRK2.4 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 resulted in delayed seedling establishment, longer primary roots, and higher yield under normal growing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.4 had enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, which were simultaneously supported by physiological results, including decreased rate of water loss, enhanced higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, improved photosynthesis potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential. The results show that TaSnRK2.4 is involved in the regulation of enhanced osmotic potential, growth, and development under both normal and stress conditions, and imply that TaSnRK2.4 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in Arabidopsis. Since the overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 can significantly strengthen tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses and does not retard the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under well-watered conditions, TaSnRK2.4 could be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:20022921

  14. The SnRK1 Energy Sensor in Plant Biotic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, Sander; Rodriguez, Marianela; De Coninck, Barbara; Rolland, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of plant biotic interactions has grown significantly in recent years with the identification of the mechanisms involved in innate immunity, hormone signaling, and secondary metabolism. The impact of such interactions on primary metabolism and the role of metabolic signals in the response of the plants, however, remain far less explored. The SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) kinases act as metabolic sensors, integrating very diverse stress conditions, and are key in maintaining energy homeostasis for growth and survival. Consistently, an important role is emerging for these kinases as regulators of biotic stress responses triggered by viral, bacterial, fungal, and oomycete infections as well as by herbivory. While this identifies SnRK1 as a promising target for directed modification or selection for more quantitative and sustainable resistance, its central function also increases the chances of unwanted side effects on growth and fitness, stressing the need for identification and in-depth characterization of the mechanisms and target processes involved. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27156455

  15. Functional characterization of WalRK: A two-component signal transduction system from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Alisha; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Kulshreshtha, Parul; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), consisting of a sensor histidine protein kinase and its cognate response regulator, are an important mode of environmental sensing in bacteria. Additionally, they have been found to regulate virulence determinants in several pathogens. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a bioterrorism agent, harbours 41 pairs of TCS. However, their role in its pathogenicity has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that WalRK of B. anthracis forms a functional TCS which exhibits some species-specific functions. Biochemical studies showed that domain variants of WalK, the histidine kinase, exhibit classical properties of autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to its cognate response regulator WalR. Interestingly, these domain variants also show phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated WalR, thereby making WalK a bifunctional histidine kinase/phosphatase. An in silico regulon determination approach, using a consensus binding sequence from Bacillus subtilis, provided a list of 30 genes that could form a putative WalR regulon in B. anthracis. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified WalR to the upstream regions of three putative regulon candidates, an S-layer protein EA1, a cell division ABC transporter FtsE and a sporulation histidine kinase KinB3. Our work lends insight into the species-specific functions and mode of action of B. anthracis WalRK. PMID:24490131

  16. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  17. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  18. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  19. The LisRK Signal Transduction System Determines the Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to Nisin and Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Paul D.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Hill, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes two-component signal transduction system, LisRK, initially identified in strain LO28, plays a significant role in the virulence potential of this important food-borne pathogen. Here, it is shown that, in addition to its major contribution in responding to ethanol, pH, and hydrogen peroxide stresses, LisRK is involved in the ability of the cell to tolerate important antimicrobials used in food and in medicine, e.g., the lantibiotic nisin and the cephalosporin family of antibiotics. A ΔlisK mutant (lacking the LisK histidine kinase sensor component) displays significantly enhanced resistance to the lantibiotic nisin, a greatly enhanced sensitivity to the cephalosporins, and a large reduction in the expression of three genes thought to encode a penicillin-binding protein, another histidine kinase (other than LisK), and a protein of unknown function. Confirmation of the role of LisRK was obtained when the response regulator, LisR, was overexpressed using both constitutive and inducible (nisin-controlled expression) systems. Under these conditions we observed a reversion of the ΔlisK mutant to wild-type growth kinetics in the presence of nisin. It was also found that overexpression of LisR complemented the reduced expression of two of the aforementioned genes. These results demonstrate the important role of LisRK in the response of L. monocytogenes to a number of antimicrobial agents. PMID:12183229

  20. Regulation of Bacteriocin Production and Cell Death by the VicRK Signaling System in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, D. B.; Cordova, M.; Ayala, E. A.; Chávez de Paz, L. E.; Singh, K.; Downey, J. S.; Svensäter, G.; Goodman, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The VicRK two-component signaling system modulates biofilm formation, genetic competence, and stress tolerance in Streptococcus mutans. We show here that the VicRK modulates bacteriocin production and cell viability, in part by direct modulation of competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) production in S. mutans. Global transcriptome and real-time transcriptional analysis of the VicK-deficient mutant (SmuvicK) revealed significant modulation of several bacteriocin-related loci, including nlmAB, nlmC, and nlmD (P < 0.001), suggesting a role for the VicRK in producing mutacins IV, V, and VI. Bacteriocin overlay assays revealed an altered ability of the vic mutants to kill related species. Since a well-conserved VicR binding site (TGTWAH-N5-TGTWAH) was identified within the comC coding region, we confirmed VicR binding to this sequence using DNA footprinting. Overexpression of the vic operon caused growth-phase-dependent repression of comC, comDE, and comX. In the vic mutants, transcription of nlmC/cipB encoding mutacin V, previously linked to CSP-dependent cell lysis, as well as expression of its putative immunity factor encoded by immB, were significantly affected relative to the wild type (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports that proposed a hyper-resistant phenotype for the VicK mutant in cell viability, the release of extracellular genomic DNA was significantly enhanced in SmuvicK (P < 0.05), likely as a result of increased autolysis compared with the parent. The drastic influence of VicRK on cell viability was also demonstrated using vic mutant biofilms. Taken together, we have identified a novel regulatory link between the VicRK and ComDE systems to modulate bacteriocin production and cell viability of S. mutans. PMID:22228735

  1. Sucrose non-fermenting kinase 1 (SnRK1) coordinates metabolic and hormonal signals during pea cotyledon growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Ruslana; Emery, R J Neil; Weier, Diana; Vigeolas, Helene; Geigenberger, Peter; Lunn, John E; Feil, Regina; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Seed development passes through developmental phases such as cell division, differentiation and maturation: each have specific metabolic demands. The ubiquitous sucrose non-fermenting-like kinase (SnRK1) coordinates and adjusts physiological and metabolic demands with growth. In protoplast assays sucrose deprivation and hormone supplementation, such as with auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), stimulate SnRK1-promoter activity. This indicates regulation by nutrients: hormonal crosstalk under conditions of nutrient demand and cell proliferation. SnRK1-repressed pea (Pisum sativum) embryos show lower cytokinin levels and deregulation of cotyledonary establishment and growth, together with downregulated gene expression related to cell proliferation, meristem maintenance and differentiation, leaf formation, and polarity. This suggests that at early stages of seed development SnRK1 regulates coordinated cotyledon emergence and growth via cytokinin-mediated auxin transport and/or distribution. Decreased ABA levels and reduced gene expression, involved in ABA-mediated seed maturation and response to sugars, indicate that SnRK1 is required for ABA synthesis and/or signal transduction at an early stage. Metabolic profiling of SnRK1-repressed embryos revealed lower levels of most organic and amino acids. In contrast, levels of sugars and glycolytic intermediates were higher or unchanged, indicating decreased carbon partitioning into subsequent pathways such as the tricarbonic acid cycle and amino acid biosynthesis. It is hypothesized that SnRK1 mediates the responses to sugar signals required for early cotyledon establishment and patterning. As a result, later maturation and storage activity are strongly impaired. Changes observed in SnRK1-repressed pea seeds provide a framework for how SnRK1 communicates nutrient and hormonal signals from auxins, cytokinins and ABA to control metabolism and development. PMID:19845880

  2. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of the AMPK plant ortholog SnRK1 as a metabolic master regulator under energy deprivation.

    PubMed

    Nukarinen, Ella; Nägele, Thomas; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Landgraf, Ramona; Börnke, Frederik; Hanson, Johannes; Teige, Markus; Baena-Gonzalez, Elena; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Since years, research on SnRK1, the major cellular energy sensor in plants, has tried to define its role in energy signalling. However, these attempts were notoriously hampered by the lethality of a complete knockout of SnRK1. Therefore, we generated an inducible amiRNA::SnRK1α2 in a snrk1α1 knock out background (snrk1α1/α2) to abolish SnRK1 activity to understand major systemic functions of SnRK1 signalling under energy deprivation triggered by extended night treatment. We analysed the in vivo phosphoproteome, proteome and metabolome and found that activation of SnRK1 is essential for repression of high energy demanding cell processes such as protein synthesis. The most abundant effect was the constitutively high phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant. RPS6 is a major target of TOR signalling and its phosphorylation correlates with translation. Further evidence for an antagonistic SnRK1 and TOR crosstalk comparable to the animal system was demonstrated by the in vivo interaction of SnRK1α1 and RAPTOR1B in the cytosol and by phosphorylation of RAPTOR1B by SnRK1α1 in kinase assays. Moreover, changed levels of phosphorylation states of several chloroplastic proteins in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant indicated an unexpected link to regulation of photosynthesis, the main energy source in plants. PMID:27545962

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of the AMPK plant ortholog SnRK1 as a metabolic master regulator under energy deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Nukarinen, Ella; Nägele, Thomas; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Landgraf, Ramona; Börnke, Frederik; Hanson, Johannes; Teige, Markus; Baena-Gonzalez, Elena; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Since years, research on SnRK1, the major cellular energy sensor in plants, has tried to define its role in energy signalling. However, these attempts were notoriously hampered by the lethality of a complete knockout of SnRK1. Therefore, we generated an inducible amiRNA::SnRK1α2 in a snrk1α1 knock out background (snrk1α1/α2) to abolish SnRK1 activity to understand major systemic functions of SnRK1 signalling under energy deprivation triggered by extended night treatment. We analysed the in vivo phosphoproteome, proteome and metabolome and found that activation of SnRK1 is essential for repression of high energy demanding cell processes such as protein synthesis. The most abundant effect was the constitutively high phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant. RPS6 is a major target of TOR signalling and its phosphorylation correlates with translation. Further evidence for an antagonistic SnRK1 and TOR crosstalk comparable to the animal system was demonstrated by the in vivo interaction of SnRK1α1 and RAPTOR1B in the cytosol and by phosphorylation of RAPTOR1B by SnRK1α1 in kinase assays. Moreover, changed levels of phosphorylation states of several chloroplastic proteins in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant indicated an unexpected link to regulation of photosynthesis, the main energy source in plants. PMID:27545962

  4. Longitudinal impedance measurement of an RK-TBA induction accelerating gap

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, J.-S.; Houck, T.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Induction accelerating gap designs are being studied for Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) applications. The accelerating gap has to satisfy the following major requirements: hold-off of the applied accelerating voltage pulse, low transverse impedance to limit beam breakup, low longitudinal impedance at the beam-modulation frequency to minimize power loss. Various gap geometries, materials and novel insulating techniques were explored to optimize the gap design. We report on the experimental effort to evaluate the rf properties of the accelerating gaps in a simple pillbox cavity structure. The experimental cavity setup was designed using the AMOS, MAFIA and URMEL numerical codes. Longitudinal impedance measurements above beam-tube cut-off frequency using a single-wire measuring system are presented.

  5. The legacy of the IGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Herbert

    We are now at the point of celebrating three milestones of international cooperation in sun—earth research: the 100th anniversary of the First International Polar Year (1882-1883) the 50th anniversary of the Second Polar Year (1932-1933) and the 25th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Credit for the concept of the First Polar Year goes to an Austrian Lieutenant, Karl Weyprecht. He expressed the philosophy of scientific cooperation in the following bold language delivered in a statement to the Hall of the Austrian Academy of Sciences on January 18, 1875:Purely geographical research and Arctic topography, which until now have stood in the foreground of all polar expeditions, must, with respect to the great scientific questions, recede into the background. The answers, though, will occur only when those nations pretending to aspire to the heights of contemporary, cultural endeavor decide, without regard to national rivalry, upon common measures. In order to secure decisive scientific results, we require a series of simultaneous expeditions whose aims must be, through dispersal over several points of the Arctic region and using identical instruments in line with identical instructions, to conduct a simultaneous, year-long series of observations. Only thereby shall we acquire the material for solutions to those great problems of nature that reside in the Arctic ice, and only then shall we earn the reward for those considerable resources that have hitherto been squandered in labor, endeavor, deprivation, and money in the polar region.

  6. Comparison of an rK39 dipstick rapid test with direct agglutination test and splenic aspiration for the diagnosis of kala-azar in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Veeken, Hans; Ritmeijer, Koert; Seaman, Jill; Davidson, Robert

    2003-02-01

    We compared an rK39 dipstick rapid test (Amrad ICT, Australia) with a direct agglutination test (DAT) and splenic aspirate for the diagnosis of kala-azar in 77 patients. The study was carried out under field conditions in an endemic area of north-east Sudan. The sensitivity of the rK39 test compared with splenic aspiration was 92% (46/50), the specificity 59% (16/27), and the positive predictive value 81% (46/57). Compared with the diagnostic protocol used by Médecins sans Frontières, the sensitivity of the rK39 test was 93% (50/54), the specificity 70% (16/23), and the positive predictive value 88% (50/57). Compared with splenic aspirates, the sensitivity of a DAT with a titre > or =1:400 was 100% (50/50), but its specificity only 55% (15/27) and the positive predictive value was 80% (50/62). Using a DAT titre > or =1:6400, the sensitivity was 84% (42/50), the specificity 85% (23/27) and the positive predictive value 91% (42/46). All four patients with DAT titre > or =1:6400 but negative splenic aspirate were also rK39 positive; we consider these are probably 'true' cases of kala-azar, i.e. false negative aspirates, rather than false DAT and rK39 seropositives. There were no false negative DATs (DAT titre < or =1:400 and aspirate positive), but there were four false negative rK39 tests (rK39 negative and aspirate positive). The rK39 dipstick is a good screening test for kala-azar; but further development is required before it can replace the DAT as a diagnostic test in endemic areas of the Sudan. PMID:12581443

  7. Molecular characterization of the mouse In(10)17Rk inversion and identification of a novel muscle-specific gene at the proximal breakpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Chada, Kiran

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements provide an important resource for molecular characterization of mutations in the mouse. In(10)17Rk mice contain a paracentric inversion of approximately 50 Mb on chromosome 10. Homozygous In(10)17Rk mice exhibit a pygmy phenotype, suggesting that the distal inversion breakpoint is within the pygmy locus. The pygmy mutation, originally isolated in 1944, is an autosomal recessive trait causing a dwarf phenotype in homozygous mice and has been mapped to the distal region of chromosome 10. The pygmy phenotype has subsequently been shown to result from disruption of the Hmgi-c gene. To identify the In(10)17Rk distal inversion breakpoint, In(10)17Rk DNA was subjected to RFLP analysis with single copy sequences derived from the wild-type pygmy locus. This analysis localized the In(10)17Rk distal inversion breakpoint to intron 3 of Hmgi-c and further study determined that a fusion transcript between novel 5' sequence and exons 4 and 5 of Hmgi-c is created. We employed 5' RACE to isolate the 5' end of the fusion transcript and this sequence was localized to the proximal end of chromosome 10 between markers Cni-rs2 and Mtap7. Northern blot analysis of individual tissues of wild-type mice determined that the gene at the In(10)17Rk proximal inversion breakpoint is a novel muscle-specific gene and its disruption does not lead to a readily observable phenotype. PMID:11805063

  8. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, François; Rijal, Suman; Soto, Alonso; Menten, Joris; Boelaert, Marleen

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Data sources Medline, citation tracking, January 1986 to December 2004. Selection criteria Original studies evaluating the direct agglutination test or the rK39 dipstick with clinical visceral leishmaniasis as target condition; adequate reference classification; and absolute numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative observations available or derivable from the data presented. Results 30 studies evaluating the direct agglutination test and 13 studies evaluating the rK39 dipstick met the inclusion criteria. The combined sensitivity estimates of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick were 94.8% (95% confidence interval 92.7% to 96.4%) and 93.9% (87.7% to 97.1%), respectively. Sensitivity seemed higher and more homogenous in the studies carried out in South Asia. Specificity estimates were influenced by the type of controls. In phase III studies carried out on patients with clinically suspected disease, the estimated specificity of the direct agglutination test was 85.9% (72.3% to 93.4%) and of the rK39 dipstick was 90.6% (66.8% to 97.9%). Conclusion The diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis is good to excellent and seem comparable. PMID:16882683

  9. Regulation of Arabidopsis MAPKKK18 by ABI1 and SnRK2, components of the ABA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tajdel, Małgorzata; Mituła, Filip; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), a key regulator in many crucial developmental and physiological processes, recruits diverse components into precisely regulated signaling network. We recently discovered that MAPKKK18, an ABA-activated kinase, is regulated by the protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) ABI1 and the kinase SnRK2.6, both components of the ABA core signaling pathway. ABI1 acts to inhibit MAPKKK18 kinase activity, but also affects MAPKKK18 protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. SnRK2.6 kinase also seems to be important for the regulation of MAPKKK18 function. In this review we summarize the mechanisms that are exclusively involved in MAPKKK18 kinase regulation and that ensure specificity in its activation. PMID:26852793

  10. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. PMID:25617765

  11. The activity of SnRK1 is increased in Phaseolus vulgaris seeds in response to a reduced nutrient supply

    PubMed Central

    Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris seeds can grow and develop at the expense of the pod reserves after the fruits have been removed from the plant (Fountain etal., 1989). Because this process involves sensing the reduction of nutrients and the remobilisation of pod reserves, we investigated the effect on sucrose non-fermenting related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity during this process. Bean fruits removed from the plant at 20 days after flowering (DAF) demonstrated active remobilisation of nutrients from the pod to the seeds. After 5 days, the pod dry weight was reduced by 50%. The process was characterized by a rapid degradation of starch, with the greatest decrease observed on day 1 after the fruits were removed. The pod nutrients were insufficient for the needs of all the seeds, and only some seeds continued their development. Those seeds exhibited a transient reduction in sucrose levels on day 1 after the fruits were removed. However, the normal level of sucrose was recovered, and the rate of starch synthesis was identical to that of a seed developed under normal conditions. Removing the fruits from the plant had no effect on the activity of SnRK1 in the pods, whereas in the seeds, the activity was increased by 35%. Simultaneously, a large reduction in seed sucrose levels was observed. The increase in SnRK1 activity was observed in both the cotyledon and embryo axes, but it was higher in the cotyledon. At 20–25 DAF, cotyledons actively accumulate storage materials. It is possible that the increase in SnRK1 activity observed in seeds developed in fruits that have been removed from the plant is part of the mechanism required for nutrient remobilisation under conditions of stress. PMID:24860586

  12. Characterization of anti-Legionella activity of warnericin RK and delta-lysin I from Staphylococcus warneri.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Lacombe, Christian; Héchard, Yann

    2008-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a waterborne bacteria. It can multiply in man-made water systems and infect people who inhale contaminated droplets. We have previously reported a Staphylococcus warneri strain that display an anti-Legionella activity. In this work, we characterized three anti-Legionella peptides that are produced by S. warneri. One peptide, warnericin RK, is original, while the two others are delta-lysin I and delta-lysin II, whose genes were previously described. Due to high sequence similarity of the two delta-lysins, further characterization was performed only on delta-lysin I. Warnericin RK and delta-lysin I displayed the same antibacterial spectrum, which is almost restricted to the Legionella genus. Also, both peptides have a hemolytic activity. These results led to the hypothesis that warnericin RK and delta-lysin I share a similar mode of action, and that Legionella should have a specific feature that may explain the high specificity of these antibacterial peptides. PMID:18339450

  13. MLK-3 activates the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK pathways via SEK1 and MKK3/6.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, L A; Ing, Y L; Kiefer, F; Chan, J; Iscove, N; Woodgett, J R; Lassam, N J

    1996-01-01

    Mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK-3) is a 97 kDa serine/threonine kinase with multiple interaction domains, including a Cdc42 binding motif, but unknown function. Cdc42 and the related small GTP binding protein Rac1 can activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK stress-responsive kinase cascades, suggesting that MLK-3 may have a role in upstream regulation of these pathways. In support of this role, we demonstrate that MLK-3 can specifically activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK pathways, but has no effect on the activation of ERKs. Immunoprecipitated MLK-3 catalyzed the phosphorylation of SEK1 in vitro, and co-transfected MLK-3 induced phosphorylation of SEK1 and MKK3 at sites required for activation, suggesting direct regulation of these protein kinases. Furthermore, interactions between MLK-3 and SEK and MLK-3 and MKK6 were observed in co-precipitation experiments. Finally, kinase-dead mutants of MLK-3 blocked activation of the SAPK pathway by a newly identified mammalian analog of Ste20, germinal center kinase, but not by MEKK, suggesting that MLK-3 functions to activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK cascades in response to stimuli transduced by Ste20-like kinases. Images PMID:9003778

  14. An Initial Investigation of the Effects of Turbulence Models on the Convergence of the RK/Implicit Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rossow, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    A three-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid and an implicit preconditioner has been shown to be an effective solver for the fluid dynamic equations. This scheme has been applied to both the compressible and essentially incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations using the algebraic turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax (BL). In this paper we focus on the convergence of the RK/implicit scheme when the effects of turbulence are represented by either the Spalart-Allmaras model or the Wilcox k-! model, which are frequently used models in practical fluid dynamic applications. Convergence behavior of the scheme with these turbulence models and the BL model are directly compared. For this initial investigation we solve the flow equations and the partial differential equations of the turbulence models indirectly coupled. With this approach we examine the convergence behavior of each system. Both point and line symmetric Gauss-Seidel are considered for approximating the inverse of the implicit operator of the flow solver. To solve the turbulence equations we use a diagonally dominant alternating direction implicit (DDADI) scheme. Computational results are presented for three airfoil flow cases and comparisons are made with experimental data. We demonstrate that the two-dimensional RANS equations and transport-type equations for turbulence modeling can be efficiently solved with an indirectly coupled algorithm that uses the RK/implicit scheme for the flow equations.

  15. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures. PMID:23972900

  16. N-Myristoylation Regulates the SnRK1 Pathway in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Michèle; Traverso, José A.; Boisson, Bertrand; Domenichini, Séverine; Bouchez, David; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Cotranslational and posttranslational modifications are increasingly recognized as important in the regulation of numerous essential cellular functions. N-myristoylation is a lipid modification ensuring the proper function and intracellular trafficking of proteins involved in many signaling pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana, like human, has two tightly regulated N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) genes, NMT1 and NMT2. Characterization of knockout mutants showed that NMT1 was strictly required for plant viability, whereas NMT2 accelerated flowering. NMT1 impairment induced extremely severe defects in the shoot apical meristem during embryonic development, causing growth arrest after germination. A transgenic plant line with an inducible NMT1 gene demonstrated that NMT1 expression had further effects at later stages. NMT2 did not compensate for NMT1 in the nmt1-1 mutant, but NMT2 overexpression resulted in shoot and root meristem abnormalities. Various data from complementation experiments in the nmt1-1 background, using either yeast or human NMTs, demonstrated a functional link between the developmental arrest of nmt1-1 mutants and the myristoylation state of an extremely small set of protein targets. We show here that protein N-myristoylation is systematically associated with shoot meristem development and that SnRK1 (for SNF1-related kinase) is one of its essential primary targets. PMID:17827350

  17. Assessment of mitral Björk-Shiley prosthetic dysfunction using digitised M mode echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, K D; Cotter, L; Gibson, D G

    1984-01-01

    Digitised M mode echocardiograms were analysed in 22 patients with possible Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic dysfunction. Patients with paraprosthetic mitral regurgitation had a significantly greater shortening fraction, an increased peak rate of dimension change during systole, and an increased peak velocity of circumferential fibre shortening than those with poor left ventricular function. Patients with a clotted prosthesis had lower values for shortening fraction and peak rate of dimension change during systole than patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation. In this latter group, the peak rate of dimension change during diastole and peak lengthening rate were greater than in either those patients with poor left ventricular function or those with a clotted prosthesis. In addition, the peak lengthening rate was greater in those with a clotted prosthesis than in those with poor left ventricular function. Thus M mode echocardiography is a useful method of assessing mitral prosthetic dysfunction and allows patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation to be distinguished from those with either poor left ventricular function or a clotted prosthesis. PMID:6691866

  18. The β-Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Is Phosphorylated by the Plant Cell Death Suppressor Adi31[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Julian; Gregory, Oliver G.; Su, Dongyin; Deeter, Taunya A.; Chen, Sixue; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Xu, Shouling; Martin, Gregory B.; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase AvrPto-dependent Pto-interacting protein3 (Adi3) is a known suppressor of cell death, and loss of its function has been correlated with cell death induction during the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) resistance response to its pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. However, Adi3 downstream interactors that may play a role in cell death regulation have not been identified. We used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify the plant SnRK1 (for Sucrose non-Fermenting-1-Related Protein Kinase1) protein as an Adi3-interacting protein. SnRK1 functions as a regulator of carbon metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. SnRK1 exists in a heterotrimeric complex with a catalytic α-subunit (SnRK1), a substrate-interacting β-subunit, and a regulatory γ-subunit. Here, we show that Adi3 interacts with, but does not phosphorylate, the SnRK1 α-subunit. The ability of Adi3 to phosphorylate the four identified tomato β-subunits was also examined, and it was found that only the Galactose Metabolism83 (Gal83) β-subunit was phosphorylated by Adi3. This phosphorylation site on Gal83 was identified as serine-26 using a mutational approach and mass spectrometry. In vivo expression of Gal83 indicates that it contains multiple phosphorylation sites, one of which is serine-26. An active SnRK1 complex containing Gal83 as the β-subunit and sucrose nonfermenting4 as the γ-subunit was constructed to examine functional aspects of the Adi3 interaction with SnRK1 and Gal83. These assays revealed that Adi3 is capable of suppressing the kinase activity of the SnRK1 complex through Gal83 phosphorylation plus the interaction with SnRK1 and suggested that this function may be related to the cell death suppression activity of Adi3. PMID:22573803

  19. Cloning and characterization of a maize SnRK2 protein kinase gene confers enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sheng; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Hui-Yong; Liu, Ying-Hui; Shi, Yun-Su; Song, Yan-Chun; Wang, Tian-Yu; Li, Yu

    2011-09-01

    SnRK2 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases 2) represents a unique family of protein kinase in regulating signaling transduction in plants. Although the regulatory mechanisms of SnRK2 have been well demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana, their functions in maize are still unknown. In our study, we cloned an SnRK2 gene from maize, ZmSAPK8, which encoded a putative homolog of the rice SAPK8 protein. ZmSAPK8 had two copies in the maize genome and harbored eight introns in its coding region. We demonstrated that ZmSAPK8 expressed differentially in various organs of maize plants and was up-regulated by high-salinity and drought treatment. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged ZmSAPK8 showed subcellular localization in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In vitro kinase assays indicated that ZmSAPK8 preferred Mn(2+) to Mg(2+) as cofactor for phosphorylation, and Ser-182 and Thr-183 in activation loop was important for its activity. Heterologous overexpression of ZmSAPK8 in Arabidopsis could significantly strengthen tolerance to salt stress. Under salt treatment, ZmSAPK8-overexpressed transgenic plants exhibited higher germination rate and proline content, low electrolyte leakage and higher survival rate than wild type. Further analysis indicated that transgenic plants showed increased transcription of the stress-related genes, RD29A, RD29B, RAB18, ABI1, DREB2A and P5CS1, under high-salinity conditions. The results demonstrated that ZmSAPK8 was involved in diverse stress signal transduction. Moreover, no obvious adverse effects on growth and development in the ZmSAPK8-overexpressed transgenic plants implied that ZmSAPK8 was potentially useful in transgenic breeding to improve salt tolerance in crops. PMID:21638061

  20. Two-Component System VicRK Regulates Functions Associated with Establishment of Streptococcus sanguinis in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Julianna J.; Stipp, Rafael N.; Harth-Chu, Erika N.; Camargo, Tarsila M.; Höfling, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal pioneer colonizer of teeth and an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. The establishment of S. sanguinis in host sites likely requires dynamic fitting of the cell wall in response to local stimuli. In this study, we investigated the two-component system (TCS) VicRK in S. sanguinis (VicRKSs), which regulates genes of cell wall biogenesis, biofilm formation, and virulence in opportunistic pathogens. A vicK knockout mutant obtained from strain SK36 (SKvic) showed slight reductions in aerobic growth and resistance to oxidative stress but an impaired ability to form biofilms, a phenotype restored in the complemented mutant. The biofilm-defective phenotype was associated with reduced amounts of extracellular DNA during aerobic growth, with reduced production of H2O2, a metabolic product associated with DNA release, and with inhibitory capacity of S. sanguinis competitor species. No changes in autolysis or cell surface hydrophobicity were detected in SKvic. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and promoter sequence analyses revealed that VicR directly regulates genes encoding murein hydrolases (SSA_0094, cwdP, and gbpB) and spxB, which encodes pyruvate oxidase for H2O2 production. Genes previously associated with spxB expression (spxR, ccpA, ackA, and tpK) were not transcriptionally affected in SKvic. RT-qPCR analyses of S. sanguinis biofilm cells further showed upregulation of VicRK targets (spxB, gbpB, and SSA_0094) and other genes for biofilm formation (gtfP and comE) compared to expression in planktonic cells. This study provides evidence that VicRKSs regulates functions crucial for S. sanguinis establishment in biofilms and identifies novel VicRK targets potentially involved in hydrolytic activities of the cell wall required for these functions. PMID:25183732

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rice roots are highly salt-sensitive organ and primary root growth is rapidly suppressed by salt stress. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) family is one of the key regulator of hyper-osmotic stress signalling in various plant cells. To understand early salt response of rice roots and identify SnRK2 signaling components, proteome changes of transgenic rice roots over-expressing OSRK1, a rice SnRK2 kinase were investigated. Results Proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS from wild type and OSRK1 transgenic rice roots exposed to 150 mM NaCl for either 3 h or 7 h. Fifty two early salt -responsive protein spots were identified from wild type rice roots. The major up-regulated proteins were enzymes related to energy regulation, amino acid metabolism, methylglyoxal detoxification, redox regulation and protein turnover. It is noted that enzymes known to be involved in GA-induced root growth such as fructose bisphosphate aldolase and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase were clearly down-regulated. In contrast to wild type rice roots, only a few proteins were changed by salt stress in OSRK1 transgenic rice roots. A comparative quantitative analysis of the proteome level indicated that forty three early salt-responsive proteins were magnified in transgenic rice roots at unstressed condition. These proteins contain single or multiple potential SnRK2 recognition motives. In vitro kinase assay revealed that one of the identified proteome, calreticulin is a good substrate of OSRK1. Conclusions Our present data implicate that rice roots rapidly changed broad spectrum of energy metabolism upon challenging salt stress, and suppression of GA signaling by salt stress may be responsible for the rapid arrest of root growth and development. The broad spectrum of functional categories of proteins affected by over-expression of OSRK1 indicates that OSRK1 is an upstream regulator of

  2. The sucrose non-fermenting-1-related (SnRK) family of protein kinases: potential for manipulation to improve stress tolerance and increase yield.

    PubMed

    Coello, Patricia; Hey, Sandra J; Halford, Nigel G

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinases (SnRKs) take their name from their fungal homologue, SNF1, a global regulator of carbon metabolism. The plant family has burgeoned to comprise 38 members which can be subdivided into three sub-families: SnRK1, SnRK2, and SnRK3. There is now good evidence that this has occurred to allow plants to link metabolic and stress signalling in a way that does not occur in other organisms. The role of SnRKs, focusing in particular on abscisic acid-induced signalling pathways, salinity tolerance, responses to nutritional stress and disease, and the regulation of carbon metabolism and, therefore, yield, is reviewed here. The key role that SnRKs play at the interface between metabolic and stress signalling make them potential candidates for manipulation to improve crop performance in extreme environments. PMID:20974737

  3. The kilE locus of promiscuous IncP alpha plasmid RK2 is required for stable maintenance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J W; Sia, E A; Figurski, D H

    1997-01-01

    Eight coordinately regulated operons constitute the kor regulon of the IncP alpha plasmid RK2. Three operons specify functions required for replication initiation, conjugative transfer, and control of gene expression. The functions of the other operons, including those of the four coregulated operons that compose the kilA, kilC, and kilE loci, have not been determined. Here, we present the first evidence that a kil determinant is involved in IncP plasmid maintenance. Elevation of KorC levels specifically to reduce the expression of the KorC-regulated kilC and kilE operons severely affected the maintenance of both the IncP alpha plasmid RK2lac and the IncP beta plasmid R751 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but had little effect on plasmid maintenance in Escherichia coli. Precise deletion of the two kilE operons from RK2lac was achieved with the VEX mutagenesis system for large genomes. The resulting plasmid showed significant loss of stability in P. aeruginosa only. The defect could be complemented by reintroduction of kilE at a different position on the plasmid. The instability of the RK2lac delta kilE mutant did not result from a reduction in average plasmid copy number, reduced expression of kilC, decreased conjugative transfer, or loss of the korE regulator. We found that both the par and kilE loci are required for full stability of RK2lac in P. aeruginosa and that the par and kilE functions act independently. These results demonstrate a critical role for the kilE locus in the stable inheritance of RK2 in P. aeruginosa. PMID:9079921

  4. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs. PMID:26469376

  5. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05). PMID:16013393

  6. An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Maidana, Cristina Graciela; Frias, Victoria Fragueiro; Romagosa, Carlo M; Negri, Vanesa; Benedetti, Ruben; Sinagra, Angel J; Luna, Concepcion; Tartaglino, Lilian; Laucella, Susana; Reed, Steven G; Riarte, Adelina R

    2016-07-01

    Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories. PMID:27162270

  7. Modeling of noise pollution and estimated human exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    The level of aircraft noise exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was calculated according to the European Noise Directive. These calculations were based on the actual flight data for each flight in the year 2011. The study area was selected to cover of 25km radius centered on the Aerodrome Reference Point of the airport. The geographical data around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was used to prepare elevation, residential building, auxiliary building, hospital and school layers in SoundPlan software. It was found that 1.2% of the land area of İstanbul City exceeds the threshold of 55dB(A) during daytime. However, when the exceedance of threshold of 65dB(A)is investigated, the affected area is found quite small (0.2% of land area of city). About 0.3% of the land area of İstanbul City has noise levels exceeding 55dB(A) during night-time. Our results show that about 4% of the resident population was exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noises during daytime in İstanbul. When applying the second threshhold criteria, nearly 1% of the population is exposed to noise levels greater than 65dB(A). At night-time, 1.3% of the population is exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noise levels. PMID:23998505

  8. Vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by YycHI activation of the WalRK essential two-component regulatory system

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Kostoulias, Xenia; Foxwell, Daniel J.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is complicated by the emergence of strains with intermediate-level resistance to vancomycin (termed VISA). We have characterised a molecular pathway involved in the in vivo evolution of VISA mediated by the regulatory proteins YycH and YycI. In contrast to their function in other bacterial species, we report a positive role for these auxiliary proteins in regulation of the two-component regulator WalRK. Transcriptional profiling of yycH and yycI deletion mutants revealed downregulation of the ‘WalRK regulon’ including cell wall hydrolase genes atlA and sle1, with functional autolysis assays supporting these data by showing an impaired autolytic phenotype for each deletion strain. Using bacterial-two hybrid assays, we showed that YycH and YycI interact, and that YycHI also interacts with the sensor kinase WalK, forming a ternary protein complex. Mutation to YycH or YycI associated with clinical VISA strains had a deleterious impact on the YycHI/WalK complex, suggesting that the interaction is important for the regulation of WalRK. Taken together, we have described a novel antibiotic resistance strategy for the human pathogen S. aureus, whereby YycHI mutations are selected for in vivo leading to reduced WalRK activation, impaired cell wall turnover and ultimately reduced vancomycin efficacy. PMID:27600558

  9. Vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by YycHI activation of the WalRK essential two-component regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Cameron, David R; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Kostoulias, Xenia; Foxwell, Daniel J; Peleg, Anton Y

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is complicated by the emergence of strains with intermediate-level resistance to vancomycin (termed VISA). We have characterised a molecular pathway involved in the in vivo evolution of VISA mediated by the regulatory proteins YycH and YycI. In contrast to their function in other bacterial species, we report a positive role for these auxiliary proteins in regulation of the two-component regulator WalRK. Transcriptional profiling of yycH and yycI deletion mutants revealed downregulation of the 'WalRK regulon' including cell wall hydrolase genes atlA and sle1, with functional autolysis assays supporting these data by showing an impaired autolytic phenotype for each deletion strain. Using bacterial-two hybrid assays, we showed that YycH and YycI interact, and that YycHI also interacts with the sensor kinase WalK, forming a ternary protein complex. Mutation to YycH or YycI associated with clinical VISA strains had a deleterious impact on the YycHI/WalK complex, suggesting that the interaction is important for the regulation of WalRK. Taken together, we have described a novel antibiotic resistance strategy for the human pathogen S. aureus, whereby YycHI mutations are selected for in vivo leading to reduced WalRK activation, impaired cell wall turnover and ultimately reduced vancomycin efficacy. PMID:27600558

  10. The replication initiation protein of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is activated by the ClpX chaperone.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, I; Helinski, D R

    1997-12-23

    Initiation and control of replication of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 requires two plasmid-encoded elements, the replication origin (oriV) and the initiation protein TrfA. Purified TrfA is largely in the form of a dimer; however, only the monomeric form of the protein can bind specifically to the direct repeats (iterons) at the RK2 origin. The largely dimeric form of wild-type TrfA is inactive in the initiation of replication of RK2 in an in vitro replication system reconstituted from purified components. However, preincubation of the TrfA protein with the ClpX molecular chaperone isolated from Escherichia coli activates the initiator protein for replication in the purified system. We further observed that ClpX, in an ATP-dependent reaction, greatly increases the proportion of TrfA monomers and, therefore, the ability of this protein to bind to iterons localized within RK2 origin. Finally, a copy-up mutant of the TrfA protein which is largely in the monomer form is active in the reconstituted in vitro replication system, and its activity is not affected by ClpX. PMID:9405620

  11. CovR and VicRK regulate cell surface biogenesis genes required for biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Stipp, Rafael N; Boisvert, Heike; Smith, Daniel J; Höfling, José F; Duncan, Margaret J; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2013-01-01

    The two-component system VicRK and the orphan regulator CovR of Streptococcus mutans co-regulate a group of virulence genes associated with the synthesis of and interaction with extracellular polysaccharides of the biofilm matrix. Knockout mutants of vicK and covR display abnormal cell division and morphology phenotypes, although the gene function defects involved are as yet unknown. Using transcriptomic comparisons between parent strain UA159 with vicK (UAvic) or covR (UAcov) deletion mutants together with electrophoretic motility shift assays (EMSA), we identified genes directly regulated by both VicR and CovR with putative functions in cell wall/surface biogenesis, including gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, and lysM. Deletion mutants of genes regulated by VicR and CovR (wapE, lysM, smaA), or regulated only by VicR (SMU.2146c) or CovR (epsC) promoted significant alterations in biofilm initiation, including increased fragility, defects in microcolony formation, and atypical cell morphology and/or chaining. Significant reductions in mureinolytic activity and/or increases in DNA release during growth were observed in knockout mutants of smaA, wapE, lysM, SMU.2146c and epsC, implying roles in cell wall biogenesis. WapE and lysM mutations also affected cell hydrophobicity and sensitivity to osmotic or oxidative stress. Finally, vicR, covR and VicRK/CovR-targets (gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, lysM, epsC) are up-regulated in UA159 during biofilm initiation, in a sucrose-dependent manner. These data support a model in which VicRK and CovR coordinate cell division and surface biogenesis with the extracellular synthesis of polysaccharides, a process apparently required for formation of structurally stable biofilms in the presence of sucrose. PMID:23554881

  12. CovR and VicRK Regulate Cell Surface Biogenesis Genes Required for Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Stipp, Rafael N.; Boisvert, Heike; Smith, Daniel J.; Höfling, José F.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Mattos-Graner, Renata O.

    2013-01-01

    The two-component system VicRK and the orphan regulator CovR of Streptococcus mutans co-regulate a group of virulence genes associated with the synthesis of and interaction with extracellular polysaccharides of the biofilm matrix. Knockout mutants of vicK and covR display abnormal cell division and morphology phenotypes, although the gene function defects involved are as yet unknown. Using transcriptomic comparisons between parent strain UA159 with vicK (UAvic) or covR (UAcov) deletion mutants together with electrophoretic motility shift assays (EMSA), we identified genes directly regulated by both VicR and CovR with putative functions in cell wall/surface biogenesis, including gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, and lysM. Deletion mutants of genes regulated by VicR and CovR (wapE, lysM, smaA), or regulated only by VicR (SMU.2146c) or CovR (epsC) promoted significant alterations in biofilm initiation, including increased fragility, defects in microcolony formation, and atypical cell morphology and/or chaining. Significant reductions in mureinolytic activity and/or increases in DNA release during growth were observed in knockout mutants of smaA, wapE, lysM, SMU.2146c and epsC, implying roles in cell wall biogenesis. WapE and lysM mutations also affected cell hydrophobicity and sensitivity to osmotic or oxidative stress. Finally, vicR, covR and VicRK/CovR-targets (gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, lysM, epsC) are up-regulated in UA159 during biofilm initiation, in a sucrose-dependent manner. These data support a model in which VicRK and CovR coordinate cell division and surface biogenesis with the extracellular synthesis of polysaccharides, a process apparently required for formation of structurally stable biofilms in the presence of sucrose. PMID:23554881

  13. Phosphoproteomic identification of targets of the Arabidopsis sucrose nonfermenting-like kinase SnRK2.8 reveals a connection to metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung; Alvarez, Sophie; Burch, Adrien Y.; Jez, Joseph M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    SnRK2.8 is a member of the sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase family that is down-regulated when plants are deprived of nutrients and growth is reduced. When this kinase is over expressed in Arabidopsis, the plants grow larger. To understand how this kinase modulates growth, we identified some of the proteins that are phosphorylated by this kinase. A new phosphoproteomic method was used in which total protein from plants overexpressing the kinase was compared with total protein from plants in which the kinase was inactivated. Protein profiles were compared on two-dimensional gels following staining by a dye that recognizes phosphorylated amino acids. Candidate target proteins were confirmed with in vitro phosphorylation assays, using the kinase and target proteins that were purified from Escherichia coli. Seven target proteins were confirmed as being phosphorylated by SnRK2.8. Certain targets, such as 14-3-3 proteins, regulate as yet unidentified proteins, whereas other targets, such as glyoxalase I and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, detoxify byproducts from glycolysis and catalyze one of the final steps in carbon fixation, respectively. Also, adenosine kinase and 60S ribosomal protein were confirmed as targets of SnRK2.8. Using mass spectrometry, we identified phosphorylated residues in the SnRK2.8, the 14-3-3κ, and the 14-3-3χ. These data show that the expression of SnRK2.8 is correlated with plant growth, which may in part be due to the phosphorylation of enzymes involved in metabolic processes. PMID:17404219

  14. The hybrid four-CBS-domain KINβγ subunit functions as the canonical γ subunit of the plant energy sensor SnRK1.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Matthew; Ruelens, Philip; Li, Yi; Sheen, Jen; Geuten, Koen; Rolland, Filip

    2013-07-01

    The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 protein kinases are a family of ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic energy sensors that function as heterotrimeric complexes. These typically comprise catalytic α subunits and regulatory β and γ subunits, the latter function as the energy-sensing modules of animal AMPK through adenosine nucleotide binding. The ability to monitor accurately and adapt to changing environmental conditions and energy supply is essential for optimal plant growth and survival, but mechanistic insight in the plant SnRK1 function is still limited. In addition to a family of γ-like proteins, plants also encode a hybrid βγ protein that combines the Four-Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)-domain (FCD) structure in γ subunits with a glycogen-binding domain (GBD), typically found in β subunits. We used integrated functional analyses by ectopic SnRK1 complex reconstitution, yeast mutant complementation, in-depth phylogenetic reconstruction, and a seedling starvation assay to show that only the hybrid KINβγ protein that recruited the GBD around the emergence of the green chloroplast-containing plants, acts as the canonical γ subunit required for heterotrimeric complex formation. Mutagenesis and truncation analysis further show that complex interaction in plant cells and γ subunit function in yeast depend on both a highly conserved FCD and a pre-CBS domain, but not the GBD. In addition to novel insight into canonical AMPK/SNF/SnRK1 γ subunit function, regulation and evolution, we provide a new classification of plant FCD genes as a convenient and reliable tool to predict regulatory partners for the SnRK1 energy sensor and novel FCD gene functions. PMID:23551663

  15. Four Arabidopsis AREB/ABF transcription factors function predominantly in gene expression downstream of SnRK2 kinases in abscisic acid signalling in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takuya; Fujita, Yasunari; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Mogami, Junro; Todaka, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    Under osmotic stress conditions such as drought and high salinity, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in stress-responsive gene expression mainly through three bZIP transcription factors, AREB1/ABF2, AREB2/ABF4 and ABF3, which are activated by SNF1-related kinase 2s (SnRK2s) such as SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3 (SRK2D/E/I). However, since the three AREB/ABFs are crucial, but not exclusive, for the SnRK2-mediated gene expression, transcriptional pathways governed by SRK2D/E/I are not fully understood. Here, we show that a bZIP transcription factor, ABF1, is a functional homolog of AREB1, AREB2 and ABF3 in ABA-dependent gene expression in Arabidopsis. Despite lower expression levels of ABF1 than those of the three AREB/ABFs, the areb1 areb2 abf3 abf1 mutant plants displayed increased sensitivity to drought and decreased sensitivity to ABA in primary root growth compared with the areb1 areb2 abf3 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that expression of downstream genes of SRK2D/E/I, which include many genes functioning in osmotic stress responses and tolerance such as transcription factors and LEA proteins, was mostly impaired in the quadruple mutant. Thus, these results indicate that the four AREB/ABFs are the predominant transcription factors downstream of SRK2D/E/I in ABA signalling in response to osmotic stress during vegetative growth. PMID:24738645

  16. Perivalvular leakage 25 years after initial mitral valve replacement with a Björk-Shiley prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroya; Asada, Tatsuro; Gan, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    An 80-year-old woman had undergone initial mitral valve replacement using a Björk-Shiley mechanical valve owing to mitral stenosis 25 years earlier. Suddenly, she had anemia and an increased lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level. Transesophageal echography (TEE) showed perivalvular leakage. In a redo operation, two side-by-side stitches of the valve on the posterior annulus were loosened without cutting and the sewing cuff at that site was floated over the annulus, leading to the perivalvular leakage. The valve was easily removed; and round, hard, degenerative calcified tissue composed of remnant mitral valve in the suture site during the initial operation was found just under the sewing cuff. After resection of this calcified round tissue, a 25-mm bioprosthesis was put in place. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful, and 47 days after surgery she was discharged without perivalvular leakage or anemia. PMID:18791673

  17. Trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 kinases in plant development and signaling: the emerging picture

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Allen Y.-L.; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates, or sugars, regulate various aspects of plant growth through modulation of cell division and expansion. Besides playing essential roles as sources of energy for growth and as structural components of cells, carbohydrates also regulate the timing of expression of developmental programs. The disaccharide trehalose is used as an energy source, as a storage and transport molecule for glucose, and as a stress-responsive compound important for cellular protection during stress in all kingdoms. Trehalose, however, is found in very low amounts in most plants, pointing to a signaling over metabolic role for this non-reducing disaccharide. In the last decade, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), an intermediate in trehalose metabolism, has been shown to regulate embryonic and vegetative development, flowering time, meristem determinacy, and cell fate specification in plants. T6P acts as a global regulator of metabolism and transcription promoting plant growth and triggering developmental phase transitions in response to sugar availability. Among the T6P targets are members of the Sucrose-non-fermenting1-related kinase1 (SnRK1) family, which are sensors of energy availability and inhibit plant growth and development during metabolic stress to maintain energy homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the opposite roles of the sugar metabolite T6P and the SnRK1 kinases in the regulation of developmental phase transitions in response to carbohydrate levels. We will focus on how these two global regulators of metabolic processes integrate environmental cues and interact with hormonal signaling pathways to modulate plant development. PMID:24744765

  18. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  19. Peptidoglycan metabolism is controlled by the WalRK (YycFG) and PhoPR two-component systems in phosphate-limited Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Paola; Lioliou, Efthimia; Noone, David; Salzberg, Letal I; Botella, Eric; Hübner, Sebastian; Devine, Kevin M

    2010-02-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system controls peptidoglycan metabolism in exponentially growing cells while PhoPR controls the response to phosphate limitation. Here we examine the roles of WalRK and PhoPR in peptidoglycan metabolism in phosphate-limited cells. We show that B. subtilis cells remain viable in a phosphate-limited state for an extended period and resume growth rapidly upon phosphate addition, even in the absence of a PhoPR-mediated response. Peptidoglycan synthesis occurs in phosphate-limited wild-type cells at approximately 27% the rate of exponentially growing cells, and at approximately 18% the rate of exponentially growing cells in the absence of PhoPR. In phosphate-limited cells, the WalRK regulon genes yocH, cwlO(yvcE), lytE and ydjM are expressed in a manner that is dependent on the WalR recognition sequence and deleting these genes individually reduces the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis. We show that ydjM expression can be activated by PhoP approximately P in vitro and that PhoP occupies its promoter in phosphate-limited cells. However, iseA(yoeB) expression cannot be repressed by PhoP approximately P in vitro, but can be repressed by non-phosphorylated WalR in vitro. Therefore, we conclude that peptidoglycan metabolism is controlled by both WalRK and PhoPR in phosphate-limited B. subtilis cells. PMID:20487291

  20. The SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module mediates the antagonistic action of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wang, Jie; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this antagonism is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutation in rice Tiller Enhancer (TE), an activator of the APC/CTE complex, causes hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to ABA and GA, respectively. We find that TE physically interacts with ABA receptor OsPYL/RCARs and promotes their degradation by the proteasome. Genetic analysis also shows OsPYL/RCARs act downstream of TE in mediating ABA responses. Conversely, ABA inhibits APC/CTE activity by phosphorylating TE through activating the SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s), which may interrupt the interaction between TE and OsPYL/RCARs and subsequently stabilize OsPYL/RCARs. In contrast, GA can reduce the level of SnRK2s and may promote APC/CTE-mediated degradation of OsPYL/RCARs. Thus, we propose that the SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module represents a regulatory hub underlying the antagonistic action of GA and ABA in plants. PMID:26272249

  1. Arabidopsis RZFP34/CHYR1, a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Regulates Stomatal Movement and Drought Tolerance via SnRK2.6-Mediated Phosphorylation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays a fundamental role in plant development and stress response, especially in the regulation of stomatal closure in response to water deficit stress. The signal transduction that occurs in response to ABA and drought stress is mediated by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This research identified Arabidopsis thaliana RING ZINC-FINGER PROTEIN34 (RZP34; renamed here as CHY ZINC-FINGER AND RING PROTEIN1 [CHYR1]) as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. CHYR1 expression was significantly induced by ABA and drought, and along with its corresponding protein, was expressed mainly in vascular tissues and stomata. Analysis of CHYR1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function plants revealed that CHYR1 promotes ABA-induced stomatal closure, reactive oxygen species production, and plant drought tolerance. Furthermore, CHYR1 interacted with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2 (SnRK2) kinases and could be phosphorylated by SnRK2.6 on the Thr-178 residue. Overexpression of CHYR1T178A, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, interfered with the proper function of CHYR1, whereas CHYR1T178D phenocopied the gain of function of CHYR1. Thus, this study identified a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase that functions positively in ABA and drought responses and detailed how its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity is regulated by SnRK2.6-mediated protein phosphorylation. PMID:26508764

  2. Cloning of Gossypium hirsutum Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1-Related Protein Kinase 2 Gene (GhSnRK2) and Its Overexpression in Transgenic Arabidopsis Escalates Drought and Low Temperature Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Babatunde; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Chuanliang; Yang, Zhaoen; Yang, Zuoren; Wang, Qianhua; Zhao, Ge; Li, Fuguang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and the use of modern genetics approaches for the improvement of drought stress tolerance have been major focuses of plant molecular biologists. In the present study, we cloned the Gossypium hirsutum sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (GhSnRK2) gene and investigated its functions in transgenic Arabidopsis. We further elucidated the function of this gene in transgenic cotton using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) techniques. We hypothesized that GhSnRK2 participates in the stress signaling pathway and elucidated its role in enhancing stress tolerance in plants via various stress-related pathways and stress-responsive genes. We determined that the subcellular localization of the GhSnRK2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm. In contrast to wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 exhibited increased tolerance to drought, cold, abscisic acid and salt stresses, suggesting that GhSnRK2 acts as a positive regulator in response to cold and drought stresses. Plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 displayed evidence of reduced water loss, turgor regulation, elevated relative water content, biomass, and proline accumulation. qRT-PCR analysis of GhSnRK2 expression suggested that this gene may function in diverse tissues. Under normal and stress conditions, the expression levels of stress-inducible genes, such as AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtP5CS1, AtABI3, AtCBF1, and AtABI5, were increased in the GhSnRK2-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. GhSnRK2 gene silencing alleviated drought tolerance in cotton plants, indicating that VIGS technique can certainly be used as an effective means to examine gene function by knocking down the expression of distinctly expressed genes. The results of this study suggested that the GhSnRK2 gene, when incorporated into Arabidopsis, functions in positive responses to drought stress and in low temperature tolerance. PMID:25393623

  3. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf. PMID:21873532

  4. Source/sink interactions underpin crop yield: the case for trehalose 6-phosphate/SnRK1 in improvement of wheat.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, David W; Paul, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Considerable interest has been evoked by the analysis of the regulatory pathway in carbohydrate metabolism and cell growth involving the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose (TRE). TRE is at small concentrations in mesophytes such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Triticum aestivum, excluding a role in osmoregulation once suggested for it. Studies of TRE metabolism, and genetic modification of it, have shown a very wide and more important role of the pathway in regulation of many processes in development, growth, and photosynthesis. It has now been established that rather than TRE, it is trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) which has such profound effects. T6P is the intermediary in TRE synthesis formed from glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose, derived from sucrose, by the action of trehalose phosphate synthase. The concentration of T6P is determined both by the rate of synthesis, which depends on the sucrose concentration, and also by the rate of breakdown by trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase which produces TRE. Changing T6P concentrations by genetically modifying the enzymes of synthesis and breakdown has altered photosynthesis, sugar metabolism, growth, and development which affect responses to, and recovery from, environmental factors. Many of the effects of T6P on metabolism and growth occur via the interaction of T6P with the SnRK1 protein kinase system. T6P inhibits the activity of SnRK1, which de-represses genes encoding proteins involved in anabolism. Consequently, a large concentration of sucrose increases T6P and thereby inhibits SnRK1, so stimulating growth of cells and their metabolic activity. The T6P/SnRK1 mechanism offers an important new view of how the distribution of assimilates to organs, such as developing grains in cereal plants, is achieved. This review briefly summarizes the factors determining, and limiting, yield of wheat (particularly mass/grain which is highly conserved) and considers how T6P/SnRK1 might function to determine grain yield and might be

  5. Identification of variables and value optimization for optimum lipase production by Bacillus pumilus RK31 using statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mahajan, Shivani; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Deepak

    2011-01-31

    In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), NaNO(3), CaCl(2), Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH(2)PO(4) was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. PMID:20601261

  6. Impact of the ATATÜRK DAM Lake on Agro-Meteorological Aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Region Using Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP). The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity) on the watershed have been investigated using a 30-year

  7. Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Boelaert, M; El-Safi, S; Hailu, A; Mukhtar, M; Rijal, S; Sundar, S; Wasunna, M; Aseffa, A; Mbui, J; Menten, J; Desjeux, P; Peeling, R W

    2008-01-01

    Three diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the freeze-dried direct agglutination test (FD-DAT), the rK39 dipstick and a urine latex antigen test (KAtex), were evaluated for use in primary care in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Clinical suspects were prospectively recruited and tissue, blood and urine samples were taken. Direct microscopic examination of tissue smear, and FD-DAT, rK39 and KAtex were performed. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% credible intervals were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. On the Indian subcontinent both the FD-DAT and the rK39 strip test exceeded the 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity target, but not so in East Africa. Sensitivity of the FD-DAT was high in Ethiopia and Kenya but lower in Sudan, while its specificity was below 90% in Kenya. Sensitivity of the rK39 was below 80% in the three countries, and its specificity was only 70% in Ethiopia. KAtex showed moderate to very low sensitivity in all countries. FD-DAT and rK39 can be recommended for clinical practice on the Indian subcontinent. In East Africa, their clinical use should be carefully monitored. More work is needed to improve existing formats, and to develop better VL diagnostics. PMID:17942129

  8. Detecting broken struts of a Björk-Shiley heart valve using ultrasound: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    van Neer, P L M J; Bouakaz, A; Vlaanderen, E; de Hart, J; van de Vosse, F N; van der Steen, A F W; de Jong, N

    2006-04-01

    The Björk-Shiley (BScc) mechanical heart valve has extensively been used in surgery from 1979 to 1986. There is, compared with equivalent valve types, increased occurrence of unexpected mechanical failure of the outlet strut of the valve, with a high incidence of mortality, when it occurs. Many approaches have been attempted to noninvasively determine BScc valve integrity. None of the approaches resulted in adequate assessment, mostly due to a lack of either sensitivity or specificity demonstrated in in vitro and/or in vivo studies. In our study we analyze leg movement of the BScc valves outlet strut during the cardiac cycle with ultrasound. For a broken strut, the movement of both legs will be significantly different, whereas the difference will be negligible for an intact strut. BScc valves were mounted in the mitral position in an in vitro pulse duplicator system. A focused single-element transducer was used to direct ultrasound on a leg of the outlet strut. Correlation-based time delay estimation was used to estimate differences in time of flight of the outlet strut echoes to determine outlet strut leg movement. The movement of an intact valve and a valve with a single-leg fracture with both ends grating against each other (SLF), the most difficult fracture to diagnose, has been studied. The results showed no significant difference in movement between both legs of the outlet strut of the intact BScc valve (amplitude of movement 9.2 microm +/- 0.1 microm). Whereas for the defective valve, the amplitude of movement of the broken leg of the SLF valve was 12 microm +/- 1.6 microm vs. 8.6 microm +/- 0.1 microm for the intact leg. In conclusion, the proposed method has shown to be feasible in vitro and has potentials for in vivo detection of BScc valve outlet strut fracture. PMID:16616597

  9. Discrepancies in the determination of sperm concentration using Bürker-Türk, Thoma and Makler counting chambers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P; Stryhn, H; Hansen, C

    2005-03-01

    Determination of sperm concentration by use of a haemocytometer or counting chamber is an important step in semen evaluation and is also used for calibration or validation of instruments. Three experiments were carried out to determine the precision and accuracy of the Makler chamber, the Thoma haemocytometers (50 and 100 microm deep, TH-50, TH-100) and the Bürker-Türk (BT) haemocytometer. The first experiment confirmed that precision in sperm count by use of the haemocytometers (TH-50 and BT) can be increased if a higher number of sperm are counted. In contrast, the precision of the Makler chamber was relatively unaffected by the number of sperm counted and the coefficient of variation for this chamber was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for the two haemocytometers. Experiment 2 confirmed the low precision of the Makler chamber and also showed that the TH-50 haemocytometer underestimated sperm concentration by approximately 25% in comparison to the Makler chamber and the BT haemocytometer. Experiment 3 demonstrated a slight underestimation of sperm count by the TH-100 haemocytometer in comparison to the BT haemocytometer, but both haemocytometers yielded acceptable precision (coefficients of variation were 10.4% and 9.4%, respectively). In comparison, the precision of the Makler chamber was significantly poorer (coefficient of variation 18.6%). When used for validation of a flow cytometric method which determines sperm concentration, the Makler chamber caused a higher degree of scattering of the points around the regression line than when the flow cytometric method was validated against the BT haemocytometer. It thus appears that the poor precision of the Makler chamber also affects the accuracy. It is concluded that duplicate counts by at least two technicians is recommended to achieve high precision but, that particular caution should be exerted with regard to the precision and accuracy of the used counting device. PMID:15710187

  10. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; El-Ouahabi, Meriam; Garcia-Moreno, David; Avsar, Ulas; Altinok, Sevgi; Schmidt, Sabine; Cagatay, Namik

    2016-04-01

    Delta contains a sedimentary record primarily indicative of water level changes, but particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking, which results generally in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk Delta adjacent to a major strike-slip fault displays this type of deformation (Hempton and Dewey, 1983) as well as other types of earthquake fingerprints that are specifically investigated. This lacustrine delta stands at the south-western extremity of the Hazar Lake and is bound by the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which generated earthquakes of magnitude 7 in eastern Turkey. Water level changes and earthquake shaking affecting the Kurk Delta have been reevaluated combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework regarding the sedimentological record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation previously documented, the onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (faults and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake fingerprint. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 earthquake sequence along the EAF. Their sedimentological characteristics were inferred based X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution, geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. A time constraint regarding this sediment remobilization process could be achieved thanks to

  11. SnRK1 Isoforms AKIN10 and AKIN11 Are Differentially Regulated in Arabidopsis Plants under Phosphate Starvation1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Selene; Espíndola, Laura; Páez-Valencia, Julio; Gamboa, Alicia; Camacho, Yolanda; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar; Coello, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    During phosphate starvation, Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity significantly decreases compared with plants growing under normal nutritional conditions. An analysis of the expression of the genes encoding for the catalytic subunits of SnRK1 showed that these subunits were not affected by phosphate starvation. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing the AKIN10 and AKIN11 catalytic subunits fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were produced, and their localizations were mainly chloroplastic with low but detectable signals in the cytoplasm. These data were corroborated with an immunocytochemistry analysis using leaf and root sections with an anti-AKIN10/AKIN11 antibody. The SnRK1 activity in transgenic plants overexpressing AKIN11-GFP was reduced by 35% to 40% in phosphate starvation, in contrast with the results observed in plants overexpressing AKIN10-GFP, which increased the activity by 100%. No differences in activity were observed in plants growing in phosphate-sufficient conditions. Biochemical analysis of the proteins indicated that AKIN11 is specifically degraded under these limited conditions and that the increase in AKIN10-GFP activity was not due to the phosphorylation of threonine-175. These results are consistent with an important role of AKIN10 in signaling during phosphate starvation. Moreover, akin10 mutant plants were deficient in starch mobilization at night during inorganic phosphate starvation, and under this condition several genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, indicating their important roles in the control of general transcription. This finding reveals novel roles for the different catalytic subunits during phosphate starvation. PMID:19211700

  12. A novel ARID DNA-binding protein interacts with SymRK and is expressed during early nodule development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Maosheng; Fang, Qing; Kang, Heng; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2008-09-01

    During the establishment of symbiosis in legume roots, the rhizobial Nod factor signal is perceived by the host cells via receptor-like kinases, including SymRK. The NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) gene in Lotus japonicus is required for rhizobial entry into root cells and for nodule organogenesis. We describe here a novel DNA-binding protein from L. japonicus, referred to as SIP1, because it was identified as a SymRK-interacting protein. SIP1 contains a conserved AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) and represents a unique member of the ARID-containing proteins in plants. The C terminus of SIP1 was found to be responsible for its interaction with the kinase domain of SymRK and for homodimerization in the absence of DNA. SIP1 specifically binds to the promoter of LjNIN but not to that of LjCBP1 (a calcium-binding protein gene), both of which are known to be inducible by Nod factors. SIP1 recognizes two of the three AT-rich domains present in the NIN gene promoter. Deletion of one of the AT-rich domains at the NIN promoter diminishes the binding of SIP1 to the NIN promoter. The protein is localized to the nuclei when expressed as a red fluorescence fusion protein in the onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. The SIP1 gene is expressed constitutively in the uninfected roots, and its expression levels are elevated after infection by Mesorhizobium loti. It is proposed that SIP1 may be required for the expression of NIN and involved in the initial communications between the rhizobia and the host root cells. PMID:18633121

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungmin; Oh, Chang Jae; An, Chung Sun

    2014-09-01

    Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4). To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection. PMID:25289013

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungmin; Oh, Chang Jae; An, Chung Sun

    2014-01-01

    Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4). To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection. PMID:25289013

  15. Purification and cDNA cloning of SAPKK3, the major activator of RK/p38 in stress- and cytokine-stimulated monocytes and epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cuenda, A; Alonso, G; Morrice, N; Jones, M; Meier, R; Cohen, P; Nebreda, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two chromatographically distinct stress-activated protein kinase kinases (SAPKKs) have been identified in several mammalian cells, termed SAPKK2 and SAPKK3, which activate the MAP kinase family member RK/p38 but not JNK/SAPK in vitro. Here we demonstrate that SAPKK2 is identical or very closely related to the MAP kinase kinase family member MKK3. However, under our assay conditions, SAPKK3 was the major activator of RK/p38 detected in extracts prepared from stress- or interleukin-1-stimulated epithelial (KB) cells, from bacterial lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor alpha-stimulated THP1 monocytes or from rabbit skeletal muscle. The activated form of SAPKK3 was purified from muscle to near homogeneity, and tryptic peptide sequences were used to clone human and murine cDNAs encoding this enzyme. Human SAPKK3 comprised 334 amino acids and was 78% identical to MKK3. The murine and human SAPKK3 were 97% identical in their amino acid sequences. We also cloned a different murine cDNA that appears to encode a SAPKK3 protein truncated at the N-terminus. SAPKK3 is identical to the recently cloned MKK6. Images PMID:8861944

  16. Differential regulation of the MAP, SAP and RK/p38 kinases by Pyst1, a novel cytosolic dual-specificity phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Groom, L A; Sneddon, A A; Alessi, D R; Dowd, S; Keyse, S M

    1996-01-01

    The Pyst1 and Pyst2 mRNAs encode closely related proteins, which are novel members of a family of dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases typified by CL100/MKP-1. Pyst1 is expressed constitutively in human skin fibroblasts and, in contrast to other members of this family of enzymes, its mRNA is not inducible by either stress or mitogens. Furthermore, unlike the nuclear CL100 protein, Pyst1 is localized in the cytoplasm of transfected Cos-1 cells. Like CL100/ MKP-1, Pyst1 dephosphorylates and inactivates MAP kinase in vitro and in vivo. In addition, Pyst1 is able to form a physical complex with endogenous MAP kinase in Cos-1 cells. However, unlike CL100, Pyst1 displays very low activity towards the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) or RK/p38 in vitro, indicating that these kinases are not physiological substrates for Pyst1. This specificity is underlined by the inability of Pyst1 to block either the stress-mediated activation of the JNK-1 SAP kinase or RK/p38 in vivo, or to inhibit nuclear signalling events mediated by the SAP kinases in response to UV radiation. Our results provide the first evidence that the members of the MAP kinase family of enzymes are differentially regulated by dual-specificity phosphatases and also indicate that the MAP kinases may be regulated by different members of this family of enzymes depending on their subcellular location. Images PMID:8670865

  17. Cloning and expression analyses of Sucrose non-fermenting-1-Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm, and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench) L.]. Multiple sequence alignment data show...

  18. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs). Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the PASTA-containing eSTK PrkC and its cognate eSTP PrpC converge with the essential WalRK two-component system to regulate WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism. By continuously monitoring gene expression throughout growth, we consistently find a large PrkC-dependent effect on expression of several different WalR regulon genes in early stationary phase, including both those that are activated by WalR (yocH) as well as those that are repressed (iseA, pdaC). We demonstrate that PrkC phosphorylates WalR in vitro and in vivo on a single Thr residue located in the receiver domain. Although the phosphorylated region of the receiver domain is highly conserved among several B. subtilis response regulators, PrkC displays specificity for WalR in vitro. Consistently, strains expressing a nonphosphorylatable WalR point mutant strongly reduce both PrkC dependent activation and repression of yocH, iseA, and pdaC. This suggests a model where the eSTK PrkC regulates the essential WalRK two-component signaling system by direct phosphorylation of WalR Thr101, resulting in the regulation of WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism in stationary phase. As both the eSTK PrkC and the essential WalRK two-component system are highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, these results may be applicable to further understanding the role of eSTKs in Gram-positive physiology and cell wall metabolism. PMID:26102633

  19. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Libby, Elizabeth A; Goss, Lindsie A; Dworkin, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs). Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the PASTA-containing eSTK PrkC and its cognate eSTP PrpC converge with the essential WalRK two-component system to regulate WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism. By continuously monitoring gene expression throughout growth, we consistently find a large PrkC-dependent effect on expression of several different WalR regulon genes in early stationary phase, including both those that are activated by WalR (yocH) as well as those that are repressed (iseA, pdaC). We demonstrate that PrkC phosphorylates WalR in vitro and in vivo on a single Thr residue located in the receiver domain. Although the phosphorylated region of the receiver domain is highly conserved among several B. subtilis response regulators, PrkC displays specificity for WalR in vitro. Consistently, strains expressing a nonphosphorylatable WalR point mutant strongly reduce both PrkC dependent activation and repression of yocH, iseA, and pdaC. This suggests a model where the eSTK PrkC regulates the essential WalRK two-component signaling system by direct phosphorylation of WalR Thr101, resulting in the regulation of WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism in stationary phase. As both the eSTK PrkC and the essential WalRK two-component system are highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, these results may be applicable to further understanding the role of eSTKs in Gram-positive physiology and cell wall metabolism. PMID:26102633

  20. Growth Arrest by Trehalose-6-Phosphate: An Astonishing Case of Primary Metabolite Control over Growth by Way of the SnRK1 Signaling Pathway1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Thierry L.; Sedijani, Prapti; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Paul, Matthew J.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    The strong regulation of plant carbon allocation and growth by trehalose metabolism is important for our understanding of the mechanisms that determine growth and yield, with obvious applications in crop improvement. To gain further insight on the growth arrest by trehalose feeding, we first established that starch-deficient seedlings of the plastidic phosphoglucomutase1 mutant were similarly affected as the wild type on trehalose. Starch accumulation in the source cotyledons, therefore, did not cause starvation and consequent growth arrest in the growing zones. We then screened the FOX collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing full-length cDNAs for seedling resistance to 100 mm trehalose. Three independent transgenic lines were identified with dominant segregation of the trehalose resistance trait that overexpress the bZIP11 (for basic region/leucine zipper motif) transcription factor. The resistance of these lines to trehalose could not be explained simply through enhanced trehalase activity or through inhibition of bZIP11 translation. Instead, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) accumulation was much increased in bZIP11-overexpressing lines, suggesting that these lines may be insensitive to the effects of T6P. T6P is known to inhibit the central stress-integrating kinase SnRK1 (KIN10) activity. We confirmed that this holds true in extracts from seedlings grown on trehalose, then showed that two independent transgenic lines overexpressing KIN10 were insensitive to trehalose. Moreover, the expression of marker genes known to be jointly controlled by SnRK1 activity and bZIP11 was consistent with low SnRK1 or bZIP11 activity in seedlings on trehalose. These results reveal an astonishing case of primary metabolite control over growth by way of the SnRK1 signaling pathway involving T6P, SnRK1, and bZIP11. PMID:21753116

  1. Numerical analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum generation in a couple of photonic crystal fibers with different structure by using the RK4IP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.; Hernández-García, J. C.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Pottiez, O.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Samano-Aguilar, L. F.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we performed a numerical analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum generation in a couple of photonic crystal fibers with different structure. The proposed configuration initially has an input pulse with hyperbolic secant profile to generate noise-like pulses as output signal, by the Runge-Kutta method (RK4IP). By using the same configuration, now these noise-like pulses are used as pump for supercontinuum generation obtaining a broad and good flatness spectrum. The numerical analysis presented here demonstrates the potential of noise-like pulses from a passively mode-locked fiber laser for broadband spectrum generation combining two different photonic crystal fibers. Besides this paper helps to understand the phenomena of supercontinuum generation which is mainly related to Raman self-frequency shift.

  2. Specific Anti-Leukemic Activity of the Peptide Warnericin RK and Analogues and Visualization of Their Effect on Cancer Cells by Chemical Raman Imaging.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Clémence; Augenstreich, Jacques; Marchand, Adrienne; Harté, Etienne; Garcia, Martine; Verdon, Julien; Mesnil, Marc; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides can be used as therapeutic agents against cancer cells. Warnericin RK and derivatives (WarnG20D and WarnF14V) were tested on various, solid tumor or leukemia, cancer cells. These peptides appeared to be cytotoxic on all the cell types tested, cancerous as well healthy, but very interestingly displayed no deleterious effect on healthy mononuclear cells. The mode of action of the peptide was proposed to be membranolytic, using chemical Raman imaging. Addition of peptide induced a large disorganization of the membrane leading to the loss of the content of inner compartments of Jurkat cell, whereas no effect was observed on the healthy mononuclear cells. The less hemolytic peptides WarnG20D and WarnF14V could be good candidates for the leukemia treatment. PMID:27598770

  3. A porous silica rock ("tripoli") in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polgari, Marta; Szabo, Zoltan; Szabo-Drubina, Magda; Hein, James R.; Yeh, Hsueh-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions were determined for a white tripoli from the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút Mn-oxide ore deposit in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary. The tripoli consists of quartz and chalcedony, with SiO2 contents up to 100 wt.%; consequently, trace-element contents are very low. Oxygen isotopes and quartz crystallinity indicate a low-temperature diagenetic origin for this deposit. The tripoli was formed by dissolution of the carbonate portion of the siliceous (sponge spicules) Isztimér Limestone. Dissolution of the carbonate was promoted by inorganic and organic acids generated during diagensis and left a framework composed of diagenetic silica that preserved the original volume of the limestone layer. The relative enrichment of silica and high porosity is the result of that carbonate dissolution. The silty texture of this highly friable rock is due to the structurally weak silica framework.

  4. Promoters of the Broad Host Range Plasmid Rk2: Analysis of Transcription (Initiation) in Five Species of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Greener, A.; Lehman, S. M.; Helinski, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    A broad host range cloning vector was constructed, suitable for monitoring promoter activity in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. This vector, derived from plasmid RSF1010, utilized the firefly luciferase gene as the reporter, since the assay for its bioluminescent product is sensitive, and measurements can be made without background from the host. Twelve DNA fragments with promoter activity were obtained from broad host range plasmid RK2 and inserted into the RSF1010 derived vector. The relative luciferase activities were determined for these fragments in five species of Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, four promoters were analyzed by primer extension to locate transcriptional start sites in each host. The results show that several of the promoters vary substantially in relative strengths or utilize different transcriptional start sites in different bacteria. Other promoters exhibited similar activities and identical start sites in the five hosts examined. PMID:1732166

  5. The kil-kor regulon of broad-host-range plasmid RK2: nucleotide sequence, polypeptide product, and expression of regulatory gene korC.

    PubMed Central

    Kornacki, J A; Burlage, R S; Figurski, D H

    1990-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmid RK2 encodes several kil operons (kilA, kilB, kilC, kilE) whose expression is potentially lethal to Escherichia coli host cells. The kil operons and the RK2 replication initiator gene (trfA) are coregulated by various combinations of kor genes (korA, korB, korC, korE). This regulatory network is called the kil-kor regulon. Presented here are studies on the structure, product, and expression of korC. Genetic mapping revealed the precise location of korC in a region near transposon Tn1. We determined the nucleotide sequence of this region and identified the korC structural gene by analysis of korC mutants. Sequence analysis predicts the korC product to be a polypeptide of 85 amino acids with a molecular mass of 9,150 daltons. The KorC polypeptide was identified in vivo by expressing wild-type and mutant korC alleles from a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-dependent promoter. The predicted structure of KorC polypeptide has a net positive charge and a helix-turn-helix region similar to those of known DNA-binding proteins. These properties are consistent with the repressorlike function of KorC protein, and we discuss the evidence that KorA and KorC proteins act as corepressors in the control of the kilC and kilE operons. Finally, we show that korC is expressed from the bla promoters within the upstream transposon Tn1, suggesting that insertion of Tn1 interrupted a plasmid operon that may have originally included korC and kilC. Images PMID:2160936

  6. What do we know about the medical biography of Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)? A summary of the state of knowledge and outlook on relevant issues for further research.

    PubMed

    Vatanoglu-Lutz, E Elif; Hot, Inci; Coban, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Turkish republic, is the subject of many more or less 'heroic' biographies and few critical ones. His anamnesis, however, is only available in fragments. Many books omit details of Atatürk's health and life, for example his bloodline, his illness and eventually his death, his funeral prayer and ceremony and his burial. His liver problem, diagnosed as cirrhosis and said to be the cause of his death, is well described but his general health and other sicknesses are scarcely recorded. This paper provides an overview of his anamnesis as far as it is known, the literature describing it and the level of knowledge generally published, and it also indicates where original research in the archives is needed to complete the picture. PMID:24585761

  7. Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Mazocraeidea: Microcotylidae) from the freshwater mullet Liza abu (Heckel) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) from Atatürk Reservoir on the Euphrates River in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Öktener, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of the abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in Atatürk Reservoir in southern Turkey is described. Among other features, the new species is easily distinguished from its three congeners, Solostamenides mugilis (Vogt, 1879), Solostamenides pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) and Solostamenides polyorchis Zhang & Yang, 2001, by having fewer hooks on the male copulatory organ (11 to 14), testes (5 to 9), and haptoral clamps (31 to 47). PMID:25962461

  8. The host range of RK2 minimal replicon copy-up mutants is limited by species-specific differences in the maximum tolerable copy number.

    PubMed

    Haugan, K; Karunakaran, P; Tøndervik, A; Valla, S

    1995-01-01

    The minimal replicon of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 consists of a gene, trfA (trans-acting replication), encoding a protein required for initiation of plasmid replication. The TrfA protein binds to iterons in the cis-acting origin of vegetative replication (oriV), but the exact mechanism by which TrfA-mediated replication initiation takes place is not known. We report here the isolation and characterization of five mini RK2 trfA mutant plasmids with an elevated plasmid copy number, four in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one in Azotobacter vinelandii. The mutations are localized between or downstream of previously reported Escherichia coli copy-up mutations in trfA, and one of the mutations has been described earlier as an independent copy-up isolate in E. coli. The five mutant plasmids were all moderately copy up in both E. coli and their host of origin, in spite of the use of isolation procedures which were expected to select efficiently in favor of plasmid mutants specifying high copy numbers. In contrast, previously described high copy-up mutants isolated in E. coli could not be established in P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. These high copy-up mutants were shown to induce cell killing in E. coli under conditions where the plasmid copy number was increased as a physiological response to reduced growth rate. We propose that the reason for this killing effect is that the copy number under these conditions exceeds an upper tolerance level specific for E. coli. By assuming that the corresponding tolerance level is lower in P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii than in E. coli, and that the mechanism of copy number regulation is similar, the model can explain the phenotypes of all tested copy up mutants in these two hosts. Analogous studies were also performed in Salmonella typhimurium and Acetobacter xylinum. The data obtained in these studies indicate that the above model is probably generally true for gram-negative bacteria, and the results also indicate that the

  9. Mutation of the Myxoma virus SERP2 P1-site to prevent proteinase inhibition causes apoptosis in cultured RK-13 cells and attenuates disease in rabbits, but mutation to alter specificity causes apoptosis without reducing virulence.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Amy L; Turner, Peter C; Moyer, Richard W

    Myxoma virus (MYX) prevents apoptosis in RK-13 cells and forms thick dermal lesions with 100% mortality in rabbits. MYX encodes the virulence factor SERP2, a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin). SERP2 was mutated to evaluate SERP2 function during MYX infection. MYXDeltaSERP2::lacZ (deleted for SERP2) did not inhibit apoptosis in RK-13 cells; infected rabbits had thin dermal lesions and <10% mortality. MYX-SERP2-D294A, a P1-site aspartate to alanine mutant, inactivated the serpin; infection was indistinguishable from MYXDeltaSERP2::lacZ. SERP2-D294E prevented inhibition of caspase-8, caspase-10 and granzyme-B; and MYX-SERP2-D294E failed to block apoptosis in RK-13 cells, but was fully virulent in rabbits. MYXDeltaSERP2::crmA expressed crmA instead of SERP2 and inhibited apoptosis in cell culture, but caused thin lesions and only 70% mortality in rabbits, hence crmA cannot fully substitute for SERP2. Control of apoptosis in culture does not correlate with virulence in rabbits. Virulence may instead depend on inhibition of proinflammatory proteinases by SERP2. PMID:16959285

  10. Antisense SNF1-related (SnRK1) protein kinase gene represses transient activity of an alpha-amylase (alpha-Amy2) gene promoter in cultured wheat embryos.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Sophie; McKibbin, Rowan S; Halford, Nigel G

    2003-02-01

    A DNA fragment corresponding to part of an SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1)-related protein kinase (SnRK1) transcript was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from a wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm cDNA library. It was used to construct a chimaeric gene, pUasSnRKN, comprising a ubiquitin promoter, the SnRK1 PCR product in the antisense orientation and the nopaline synthase (Nos) gene terminator. This construct was used in transient gene expression experiments in cultured wheat embryos together with a series of reporter gene constructs. These included the wheat alpha amylase gene alpha-Amy2 promoter with UidA (Gus) coding region (palpha2GT), rice actin promoter with Gus (pActIDGus), ubiquitin promoter with Gus (pAHC25) and actin promoter with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (pAct1Is-GFP1). All of the reporter genes were found to be active when bombarded into scutellae isolated from immature grains at 25 d post-anthesis and incubated on MS medium for 24 h prior to bombardment. However, co-bombardment of palpha2GT with equimolar amounts of pUasSnRKN resulted in no detectable Gus activity, indicating that the antisense SnRK1 construct repressed the alpha-Amy2 promoter. Co-bombardment with pUasSnRKN had no effect on the activity of the other promoters used in the study. A triple bombardment with palpha2GT, pAct1Is-GFP-1 and pUasSnRKN resulted in clear green fluorescence, indicating that the bombarded cells were still viable, but no Gus activity. RT-PCR analysis showed clearly that the antisense SnRK1 gene was expressing. Northern and RT-PCR analyses confirmed that SnRK1 and both alpha-amylase genes, alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2, are expressed in cultured wheat embryos harvested from grain 25 d post-anthesis. Expression of alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2 was up-regulated by sugar starvation. PMID:12554717

  11. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-05-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1-SnRK1-CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed. PMID:23580756

  12. Multi-centric prospective evaluation of rk39 rapid test and direct agglutination test for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Tália S M; Braga, Alexandre S da C; Pedras, Mariana J; Oliveira, Edward; Barral, Aldina; de Siqueira, Isadora C; Costa, Carlos H N; Costa, Dorcas L; Holanda, Thiago A; Soares, Vítor Y R; Biá, Mauro; Caldas, Arlene de J M; Romero, Gustavo A S; Rabello, Ana

    2011-02-01

    The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still a major problem in Brazil and several other countries where the disease is endemic. The use of an easy-to-use and interpret, sensitive, and specific method that requires no complex infrastructure or specialized professionals, such as direct agglutination test (DAT) and the rK39-based rapid immunochromatographic test may enhance the diagnosis of disease. This study evaluated the performance of a rapid test (DiaMed- IT-LEISH®) and the DAT for the diagnosis of VL in 213 parasitologically confirmed cases and 119 controls with clinical suspicion of VL and confirmation of another etiology. The sensitivities and specificities of the rapid test were 93% and 97%, respectively and those of the DAT were 90% and 96%, respectively. The positive predictive values of the rapid test and the DAT were 98% and 97%, respectively and the negative predictive values were 89% and 84%, respectively. The Kappa index showed agreement between both methods classified as substantial (0.77). This study showed that the DAT and the rapid test can be used to diagnose VL in Brazil, following a pilot study for implementation of the rapid test in the health services. PMID:20970152

  13. Inductive measurements of the stress assisted and strain induced martensite transformations of Sandvik maraging steel 1RK91 before, during and after metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolles, H.; Post, J.; Beyer, J.

    2003-10-01

    Measurements of transformation behaviour are very important to get a good knowledge of the material behaviour of metastable stainless steels during metal forming processes. A convenient way of measuring this kind of transformations is inductive measurment. This article describes a possible solution for this kind of measurements, together with the developed sensors and electronics. The first part of the article focuses on the electronics, calibration and the development of the sensors. The equipment is also used for multi sensor measurements. The second part of the article shows results of measurements on the Sandvik maraging steel 1RK91. The results are shown for three examples: A problem that occurs during inductive measurements is that more pararneters than the martensite content have influence on the output of the signal. Elastic stresses, temperature and plastic deformation have also a big influence on the signal output. Some results of measurements are shown to demonstrate the influence together with a calibration metho(l.Thieineasuring device is fully automatic and conriceted to a computer to make sample logging possible during testing.

  14. Youths' perception and knowledge towards environmental problems in a developing country: in the case of Atatürk University, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kulözü, Neslihan

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the perception and knowledge of environmental problems among students of Atatürk University, Turkey, as a developing country, by comparing their perceptions with known facts about environmental problems at local, national, and global levels. In addition, the correlation between the student groups and their knowledge levels and the differences between the student groups according to their knowledge levels when taking age and gender into account are explored. To this end, the research designed as a case study and pursued an exploratory approach revealed that major perceived environmental problems show differences at local, national, and global levels; that consensus on both major perceived problems and knowledge decreases from a local to global level; that a weak correlation exists between the age (r (205) = -.010; .002; -.071) and gender groups (r (205) = -.099; -.125; .065) in terms of their knowledge at local, national, and global level, respectively; and that the contribution of knowledge at a national level can help to explain differences among the age groups (-.304; .102; -.148) at national level and the gender groups (.131; -.205) at national and global levels. PMID:27117145

  15. TrfA-Dependent Inner Membrane-Associated Plasmid RK2 DNA Synthesis and Association of TrfA with Membranes of Different Gram-Negative Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Banack, Trevor; Kim, Peter D.; Firshein, William

    2000-01-01

    TrfA, the replication initiator protein of broad-host-range plasmid RK2, was tested for its ability to bind to the membrane of four different gram-negative hosts in addition to Escherichia coli: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Cells harboring TrfA-encoding plasmids were fractionated into soluble, inner membrane, and outer membrane fractions. The fractions were subjected to Western blotting, and the blots were probed with antibody to the TrfA proteins. TrfA was found to fractionate with the cell membranes of all species tested. When the two membrane fractions of these species were tested for their ability to synthesize plasmid DNA endogenously (i.e., without added template or enzymes), only the inner membrane fraction was capable of extensive synthesis that was inhibited by anti-TrfA antibody in a manner similar to that of the original host species, E. coli. In addition, although DNA synthesis did occur in the outer membrane fraction, it was much less extensive than that exhibited by the inner membrane fraction and only slightly affected by anti-TrfA antibody. Plasmid DNA synthesized by the inner membrane fraction of one representative species, P. aeruginosa, was characteristic of supercoil and intermediate forms of the plasmid. Extensive DNA synthesis was observed in the soluble fraction of another representative species, R. sphaeroides, but it was completely unaffected by anti-TrfA antibody, suggesting that such synthesis was due to repair and/or nonspecific chain extension of plasmid DNA fragments. PMID:10913068

  16. Geodetic activities of the Department of Defense under IGY programs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, O.W.; Daugherty, K.I.

    1983-10-16

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) activities that contributed to the International Geophysical Year's active, passive, and cooperative satellite programs. The DOD continues to support the deployment, enhancement, and application of novel technology in such areas as satellite altimetry, gravity radiometry, inertial surveying, interferometry, airborne gravimetry, inertial surveying, and CCD and laser methods for geodetic astronomy. Also noted are such major department initiatives as the Global Positioning System, which will become operational toward the end of this decade.

  17. A link between magnesium-chelatase H subunit and sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 in Arabidopsis guard cell signalling in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Bi, Chao; Xin, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium-chelatase H subunit [CHLH/putative abscisic acid (ABA) receptor ABAR] positively regulates guard cell signalling in response to ABA, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. A member of the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2 family, SnRK2.6/open stomata 1 (OST1)/SRK2E, which plays a critical role in ABA signalling in Arabidopsis guard cells, interacts with ABAR/CHLH. Neither mutation nor over-expression of the ABAR gene affects significantly ABA-insensitive phenotypes of stomatal movement in the OST1 knockout mutant allele srk2e. However, OST1 over-expression suppresses ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the ABAR mutant allele cch in stomatal movement. These genetic data support that OST1 functions downstream of ABAR in ABA signalling in guard cells. Consistent with this, ABAR protein is phosphorylated, but independently of the OST1 protein kinase. Two ABAR mutant alleles, cch and rtl1, show ABA insensitivity in ABA-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, as well as in ABA-activated phosphorylation of a K+ inward channel KAT1 in guard cells, which is consistent with that observed in the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant of the well-characterized ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR family acting upstream of OST1. These findings suggest that ABAR shares, at least in part, downstream signalling components with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors for ABA in guard cells; though cch and rtl1 show strong ABA-insensitive phenotypes in both ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, while the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant shows strong ABA insensitivity only in ABA-induced stomatal closure. These data establish a link between ABAR/CHLH and SnRK2.6/OST1 in guard cell signalling in response to ABA. PMID:26175350

  18. A link between magnesium-chelatase H subunit and sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 in Arabidopsis guard cell signalling in response to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Bi, Chao; Xin, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium-chelatase H subunit [CHLH/putative abscisic acid (ABA) receptor ABAR] positively regulates guard cell signalling in response to ABA, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. A member of the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2 family, SnRK2.6/open stomata 1 (OST1)/SRK2E, which plays a critical role in ABA signalling in Arabidopsis guard cells, interacts with ABAR/CHLH. Neither mutation nor over-expression of the ABAR gene affects significantly ABA-insensitive phenotypes of stomatal movement in the OST1 knockout mutant allele srk2e. However, OST1 over-expression suppresses ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the ABAR mutant allele cch in stomatal movement. These genetic data support that OST1 functions downstream of ABAR in ABA signalling in guard cells. Consistent with this, ABAR protein is phosphorylated, but independently of the OST1 protein kinase. Two ABAR mutant alleles, cch and rtl1, show ABA insensitivity in ABA-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, as well as in ABA-activated phosphorylation of a K(+) inward channel KAT1 in guard cells, which is consistent with that observed in the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant of the well-characterized ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR family acting upstream of OST1. These findings suggest that ABAR shares, at least in part, downstream signalling components with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors for ABA in guard cells; though cch and rtl1 show strong ABA-insensitive phenotypes in both ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, while the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant shows strong ABA insensitivity only in ABA-induced stomatal closure. These data establish a link between ABAR/CHLH and SnRK2.6/OST1 in guard cell signalling in response to ABA. PMID:26175350

  19. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  20. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3) by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated via SAPKK3 (MKK6); comparison of the specificities of SAPK3 and SAPK2 (RK/p38).

    PubMed Central

    Cuenda, A; Cohen, P; Buée-Scherrer, V; Goedert, M

    1997-01-01

    Stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3), a recently described MAP kinase family member with a wide-spread tissue distribution, was transfected into several mammalian cell lines and shown to be activated in response to cellular stresses, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in a similar manner to SAPK1 (also termed JNK) and SAPK2 (also termed p38, RK, CSBP and Mxi2). SAPK3 and SAPK2 were activated at similar rates in vitro by SAPKK3 (also termed MKK6), and SAPKK3 was the only activator of SAPK3 that was induced when KB or 293 cells were exposed to cellular stresses or stimulated with IL-1 or TNF. Co-transfection with SAPKK3 induced SAPK3 activity and greatly enhanced activation in response to osmotic shock. These experiments indicate that SAPKK3 mediates the activation of SAPK3 in several mammalian cells. SAPK3 and SAPK2 phosphorylated a number of proteins at similar rates, including the transcription factors ATF2, Elk-1 and SAP1, but SAPK3 was far less effective than SAPK2 in activating MAPKAP kinase-2 and MAPKAP kinase-3. Unlike SAPK2, SAPK3 was not inhibited by the drug SB 203580. SAPK3 phosphorylated ATF2 at Thr69, Thr71 and Ser90, the same residues phosphorylated by SAPK1, whereas SAPK2 only phosphorylated Thr69 and Thr71. Our results suggest that cellular functions previously attributed to SAPK1 and/or SAPK2 may be mediated by SAPK3. PMID:9029150

  1. The anti-toxin ParD of plasmid RK2 consists of two structurally distinct moieties and belongs to the ribbon-helix-helix family of DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Oberer, Monika; Zangger, Klaus; Prytulla, Stefan; Keller, Walter

    2002-01-01

    NMR and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize, both structurally and dynamically, the 82-amino-acid ParD protein of the post-segregational killing module of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4/RK2. ParD occurs as a dimer in solution and exercises two different control functions; an autoregulatory function by binding to its own promoter P(parDE) and a plasmid-stabilizing function by inhibiting ParE toxicity in cells that express ParD and ParE. Analysis of the secondary structure based on the chemical-shift indices, sequential nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) and (3)J(Halpha-NH) scalar coupling constants showed that the N-terminal domain of ParD consists of a short beta-ribbon followed by three alpha-helices, demonstrating that ParD contains a ribbon-helix-helix fold, a DNA-binding motif found in a family of small prokaryotic repressors. (15)N longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse (T(2)) relaxation measurements and hetero nuclear NOEs showed that ParD is divided into two separate domains, a well-ordered N-terminal domain and a very flexible C-terminal domain. An increase in secondary structure was observed upon addition of trifluoroethanol, suggested to result from the formation of structured stretches in the C-terminal part of the protein. This is the first experimental evidence that the DNA-binding domain of ParD belongs to the ribbon-helix-helix fold family, and this structural motif is proposed to be present in functionally similar antidote proteins. PMID:11743881

  2. On the standard model predictions for R_K and R_{K^*}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Marzia; Isidori, Gino; Pattori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the impact of radiative corrections in the ratios Γ [B→ M μ ^+μ ^-]/Γ [B→ M e^+e^-] when the meson M is a K or a K^*. Employing the cuts on m^2_{ℓ ℓ } and the reconstructed B-meson mass presently applied by the LHCb Collaboration, such corrections do not exceed a few %. Moreover, their effect is well described (and corrected for) by existing Monte Carlo codes. Our analysis reinforces the interest of these observables as clean probe of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  3. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault. The second result refers to the hypothesis that the Mesa Central was brought to its present location by a subduction zone located to the north. This subduction zone coincides with several researchers who postulated the idea. The compressional zones refer to segments of the Sinforosa and a postulated Aquinquari fault located in the stratotectonic Guerrero Terrane regarded as a highly mineralized zone. Negative anomalies near -200 milligals are strongly suggestive of a cratonic block identified in western Chihuahua, it being named the Western Chihuahua Cratonic Block (WCCB). In the southwestern portion of the North American craton the age provinces are well documented, but the block versus mobile belt idea has not been put forth or emphasized. The present study combines data of several types, sedimentological, structural, igneous geochemistry, and geochronologic data to evaluate this behavior in SW NA, and the proposed block is tested against these data. The presence of the WCCB is supported by a wide variety of data. Basins, troughs, aulacogens, bimodal volcanism, and other rift and rift shoulder features, characterize the spatially constrained mobile belts. Mobile belts surrounding the WCCB contain geologic records of the events going back to 1.4 Ga, with different aspects being dominant over geologic time. Mobile belts will participate in compression,(subduction), extension (rifting), and transform (lateral) faulting. The WCCB may have been derived from closely, adjacent, North American craton by mobile belt action. This study has shown that integration of data is essential, because allows detection of differences in hypotheses for the same event in the same area. This integration capability is what makes integrated geographic information systems a powerful tool, not only for their synergy, but because they can be combined with specific techniques that provide data before going to conduct fieldwork. Whether the issue of defining the tectonic framework of northern Mexico can be resolved or not, depends on the viability of integrating volumes of data from research, hypotheses, or maps, and put together under the same geographic frame.

  4. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37). PMID:25924641

  5. Protection against Coccidiosis: Role of Passive Immunity (Immediate Immunity) Mediated by Hyperimmune IgY Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry with substantial economic consequences. Although good management practices and live vaccination with prophylactic medication have helped to reduce the spread of coccidiosis, alternative control strategies need to be developed due to the evid...

  6. Protection Against Coccidiosis: Role of passive immunity (immediate immunity) mediated by hyperimmune IgY antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry with substantial economic consequences estimated to cost the industry greater than $3 billion in annual losses worldwide. Coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of the genus Eimeria that infect the gut and are transmitted between ...

  7. [Translation and comments of the first three tablets of the IGI series].

    PubMed

    Attia, Annie

    2015-01-01

    This paper translates the chapter on eye diseases from the great treatise on therapeutics compiled under Ashurbanipal and found in his royal libraries at Nineveh. As a professional ophthalmologist, I try to analyse and to understand the symptoms and the treatments described in these tablets, while bearing in mind the dangers of retrospective diagnosis. PMID:26827500

  8. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  9. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) seed co...

  10. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) see...

  11. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.

  12. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Liu, Tao; et al

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizingmore » sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.« less

  13. Microscale Depletion of High Abundance Proteins in Human Biofluids using IgY14 Immunoaffinity Resin. Analysis of Human Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. In an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.

  14. Multiple IgH Isotypes Including IgD, Subclasses of IgM, and IgY Are Expressed in the Common Ancestors of Modern Birds.

    PubMed

    Han, Binyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Tao; Li, Bo; Ma, Li; Yu, Shuyang; Huang, Tian; Li, Yan; Fang, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Yongsi; Qiu, Si; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Ren, Liming; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Hou, Yong; Pan, Qingjie; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2016-06-15

    Although evolutionarily just as ancient as IgM, it has been thought for many years that IgD is not present in birds. Based on the recently sequenced genomes of 48 bird species as well as high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we demonstrate in this work that the ostrich (Struthio camelus) possesses a functional δ gene that encodes a membrane-bound IgD H chain with seven CH domains. Furthermore, δ sequences were clearly identified in many other bird species, demonstrating that the δ gene is widely distributed among birds and is only absent in certain bird species. We also show that the ostrich possesses two μ genes (μ1, μ2) and two υ genes (υ1, υ2), in addition to the δ and α genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that subclass diversification of both the μ and υ genes occurred during the early stages of bird evolution, after their divergence from nonavian reptiles. Although the positions of the two υ genes are unknown, physical mapping showed that the remaining genes are organized in the order μ1-δ-α-μ2, with the α gene being inverted relative to the others. Together with previous studies, our data suggest that birds and nonavian reptile species most likely shared a common ancestral IgH gene locus containing a δ gene and an inverted α gene. The δ gene was then evolutionarily lost in selected birds, whereas the α gene lost in selected nonavian reptiles. The data obtained in this study provide significant insights into the understanding of IgH gene evolution in tetrapods. PMID:27183632

  15. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

  16. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Seok-Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 μL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix and concentration of large eluent volumes. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger-scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large-scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 μL column volume microscale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6-μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10-mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the microscale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our microdepletion was reproducible. In an initial application, a 600-μL sample of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited. PMID:25192788

  17. A prototype of RK/200 quantum Hall array resistance standard on epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lartsev, A.; Lara-Avila, S.; Danilov, A.; Kubatkin, S.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Yakimova, R.

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is a promising material for the next generation of quantum Hall resistance standards. Single Hall bars made of graphene have already surpassed their state-of-the-art GaAs based counterparts as an R K / 2 ( R K = h / e 2 ) standard, showing at least the same precision and higher breakdown current density. Compared to single devices, quantum Hall arrays using parallel or series connection of multiple Hall bars can offer resistance values spanning several orders of magnitude and (in case of parallel connection) significantly larger measurement currents, but impose strict requirements on uniformity of the material. To evaluate the quality of the available material, we have fabricated arrays of 100 Hall bars connected in parallel on epitaxial graphene. One out of four devices has shown quantized resistance that matched the correct value of R K / 200 within the measurement precision of 10 - 4 at magnetic fields between 7 and 9 T. The defective behaviour of other arrays is attributed mainly to non-uniform doping. This result confirms the acceptable quality of epitaxial graphene, pointing towards the feasibility of well above 90% yield of working Hall bars.

  18. Minimal Leptoquark Explanation for the R_{D^{(*)}}, R_{K}, and (g-2)_{μ} Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    We show that by adding a single new scalar particle to the standard model, a TeV-scale leptoquark with the quantum numbers of a right-handed down quark, one can explain in a natural way three of the most striking anomalies of particle physics: the violation of lepton universality in B[over ¯]→K[over ¯]ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-} decays, the enhanced B[over ¯]→D^{(*)}τν[over ¯] decay rates, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Constraints from other precision measurements in the flavor sector can be satisfied without fine-tuning. Our model predicts enhanced B[over ¯]→K[over ¯]^{(*)}νν[over ¯] decay rates and a new-physics contribution to B_{s}-B[over ¯]_{s} mixing close to the current central fit value. PMID:27104699

  19. Minimal Leptoquark Explanation for the RD(*), RK, and (g -2 )μ Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    We show that by adding a single new scalar particle to the standard model, a TeV-scale leptoquark with the quantum numbers of a right-handed down quark, one can explain in a natural way three of the most striking anomalies of particle physics: the violation of lepton universality in B ¯ →K ¯ ℓ+ℓ- decays, the enhanced B ¯→D(*)τ ν ¯ decay rates, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Constraints from other precision measurements in the flavor sector can be satisfied without fine-tuning. Our model predicts enhanced B ¯→K¯(*)ν ν ¯ decay rates and a new-physics contribution to Bs-B¯s mixing close to the current central fit value.

  20. A transfectant RK13 cell line permissive to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) affecting domestic goats and sheep and disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal conformational isoform (PrP-Sc) of normal cellular prion protein (PrP-C) in the central nervous system and, in most cases, ly...

  1. Terrestrial radioisotopes in black shale hosted Mn-carbonate deposit (Úrkút, Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigh, Tamás; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Kávási, Norbert; Polgári, Márta; Bíró, Lóránt

    2013-08-01

    Previously, little attention has been paid to terrestrial radioisotopes (U, Th, 40K) occurring in manganese ores, despite the fact that the biogeochemical relationship between Mn and U is versatile. Occurrence of terrestrial radioisotopes in great amounts during mining on a long-term causes significant radiation exposure. It is important to inspect black shale-hosted manganese ores from this aspect, as black shales are typically potential U-rich formations. Despite the increased radon concentration in the mine, based on the detailed major elements, trace elements and gamma spectroscopy inspection of the rock types of deposit, the U, Th enrichment was undetectable. However, the U and Th content of about average terrestrial abundance of the great ore amount may be in the background of the increased radon concentration level. This Mn-carbonate ore deposit in spite of the low U content exhibit potential radon danger for miners, which can be eliminated with intensive air change only.

  2. Reading Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on the Armenian genocide of 1915.

    PubMed

    Ulgen, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    The debate on where Mustafa Kemal Atatrk, the founder of modern Turkey and universally known as the "Father of the Turks," stood in regard to the colossal violence committed against Armenians during the First World War has become a fiercely contested part of the Turkish-Armenian reconciliation process, especially within the past few years. Ulgen aims to clear away the clouds of dust surrounding Kemal by delving into his texts and examining his role in the reification of Turkish denial of the destruction of Ottoman Armenians. Based on a textual analysis of his entire corpus, including Nutuk-the Great Speech of 1927 and the master-narrative of modern Turkish history and national identity-her article examines and documents how his charismatic leadership helped to consolidate both the myth of "murderous Armenians" and that of the Turks as an "oppressed nation" (mazlum millet), monumentalizing both in official Turkish historiography. Ulgen argues that Kemal's portrayal of Armenians and the Armenian Question was generally consistent across the years and in various political documents, as well as being consistent with contemporary Turkish representations of the events of 1915. What really tips the balance towards Turkish innocence in Kemal's representation of the conflict is not his framing of the issue per se but the stark difference in the rhetoric he deploys in depicting Armenian and Turkish atrocities and, hence, Armenians and Turks. The undeniable authority of this discursive regime is central to the resilience of Turkish denial today. PMID:20857578

  3. The growth-defense pivot: Crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors

    PubMed Central

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Yang, Li; Hetzel, Jonathan; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Chory, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of greater than 200 leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense tradeoffs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants. PMID:25089011

  4. FLIPPER: a FLexIble PiPeline framEwoRk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.

    2005-12-01

    FLIPPER is a lightweight pipeline framework able to handle blackboard-based pipelines. Its ease of configuration and operation and the fact the it is extremely lightweight make FLIPPER the ideal solution for both small and large pipeline systems. FLIPPER is currently being used for the NOAO Mosaic Pipeline and has been chosen as a pipeline framework for the NOAO NEWFIRM pipeline system. The present paper describes the architecture, features, and design choices of FLIPPER in detail.

  5. Aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by Ralstonia sp. strain RK1

    SciTech Connect

    Steinle, P.; Stucki, G.; Stettler, R.; Hanselmann, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    A new aerobic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater pond close to a contaminated site at Amponville (France). It was enriched in a fixed-bed reactor fed with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) as the sole carbon and energy source at pH 7.5 and room temperature. The degradation of 2,6-DCP followed Monod kinetics at low initial concentrations. At concentrations above 300 {micro}M, 2,6-DCP increasingly inhibited its own degradation. The base sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA allowed us to assign the bacterium to the genus Ralstonia (formerly Alcaligenes). The substrate spectrum of the bacterium includes toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, phenol, and all four ortho- and para-substituted mono- and dichlorophenol isomers. Substituents other than chlorine prevented degradation. The capacity to degrade 2,6-DCP was examined in two fixed-bed reactors. The microbial population grew on and completely mineralized 2,6-DCP at 2,6-DCP concentrations up to 740 {micro}M in continuous reactor culture supplied with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen source. Lack of peroxide completely stopped further degradation of 2,6-DCP. Lowering the acid-neutralizing capacity of the medium to 1/10th the original capacity led to a decrease in the pH of the effluent from 7 to 6 and to a significant reduction in the degradation activity. A second fixed-bed reactor successfully removed low chlorophenol concentrations with hydraulic residence times of 8 to 30 min.

  6. Enhanced Cortical Thickness Measurements for Rodent Brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 Streamline Computation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain’s developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline. PMID:27065047

  7. Enhanced cortical thickness measurements for rodent brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 streamline computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain's developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline.

  8. Low-LET Bystander Responses in Gap Junction Null Human Colon Carcinoma Cells (RK036)

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Morgan, William F.

    2006-10-01

    Combined with sensitive molecular techniques, the microbeam has proven extremely useful in studying radiation biology. This technology allows individual cells, or selected groups of cells, to be irradiated at specific doses and dose rates. Such capabilities lend themselves well to studies of low dose responses, delayed and non-targeted bystander effects of radiation. High-linear energy transfer (LET) microbeams mimic heavy energetic particles such as the ?-particles associated with radon exposure and have been used in numerous biological studies. Several low-LET microbeams have also been developed. One such low-LET microbeam, developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and currently located at the University of Maryland Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, uses a variable energy electron source to mimic low-LET radiation and allows observation of how x-rays and ?-rays affect mammalian cells.

  9. Characterization of Mutants Deficient in the l,d-Carboxypeptidase (DacB) and WalRK (VicRK) Regulon, Involved in Peptidoglycan Maturation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 2 Strain D39▿†

    PubMed Central

    Barendt, Skye M.; Sham, Lok-To; Winkler, Malcolm E.

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases play critical roles in the remodeling of bacterial cell walls during division. PG hydrolases have been studied extensively in several bacillus species, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, but remain relatively uncharacterized in ovococcus species, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). In this work, we identified genes that encode proteins with putative PG hydrolytic domains in the genome of S. pneumoniae strain D39. Knockout mutations in these genes were constructed, and the resulting mutants were characterized in comparison with the parent strain for growth, cell morphology, PG peptide incorporation, and in some cases, PG peptide composition. In addition, we characterized deletion mutations in nonessential genes of unknown function in the WalRKSpn two-component system regulon, which also contains the essential pcsB cell division gene. Several mutants did not show overt phenotypes, which is perhaps indicative of redundancy. In contrast, two new mutants showed distinct defects in PG biosynthesis. One mutation was in a gene designated dacB (spd_0549), which we showed encodes an l,d-carboxypeptidase involved in PG maturation. Notably, dacB mutants, similar to dacA (d,d-carboxypeptidase) mutants, exhibited defects in cell shape and septation, consistent with the idea that the availability of PG peptide precursors is important for proper PG biosynthesis. Epistasis analysis indicated that DacA functions before DacB in d-Ala removal, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that DacA and DacB are located over the entire surface of pneumococcal cells. The other mutation was in WalRKSpn regulon gene spd_0703, which encodes a putative membrane protein that may function as a type of conserved streptococcal shape, elongation, division, and sporulation (SEDS) protein. PMID:21378199

  10. A NEW ALLELE, RK(CD) WITH CONVERTIBLE EXPRESSION AT THE RED KIDNEY LOCUS FOR SEEDCOAT COLOR IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among light red and dark red kidney common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, pink seedcoat color (light red kidney) is dominant to dark red, but when small red cultivars (with dark red seedcoats) are crossed with dark red kidney cultivars, dark red seedcoat is dominant to the pink segregants o...

  11. Assessment of Björk-Shiley and Porcine Mitral Valve Dysfunction by M-Mode Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Eguaras, Manuel G.; Luque, Isabel M.; Pan, Manuel; Montero, Anastasio; Moriones, Ignacio; Granados, Jorge; Garcia, Miguel A.; Concha, Manuel

    1987-01-01

    In this study of 46 patients with mitral valve prostheses, we report on the accuracy of the left ventricular maximum filling velocity (LVMFV) index as a diagnostic tool for valve dysfunction. Echocardiographic left ventricular internal dimensions were measured every 0.05 seconds, and every measure was transferred to an axis system. The tangent to this curve was traced at the point of maximum rate of increase of dimension, and the slope in mm/sec represents the LVMFV index. Six patients, each with an obstructed mitral valve prosthesis, had a reduced LVMFV index (p < 0.001). On the other hand, eight patients with a paravalvular leak showed a LVMFV index significantly higher (p < 0.05) than patients with a normally functioning mitral valve prosthesis. The results of this study suggest that analysis of the LVMFV index can be a useful and reliable substitute for other noninvasive diagnostic techniques in evaluating certain patients with suspected prosthetic mitral valve malfunction. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:72-76). Images PMID:15227333

  12. Immune functions of immunoglobulin Y isolated from egg yolk of hens immunized with various infectious bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sugita-Konishi, Y; Shibata, K; Yun, S S; Hara-Kudo, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Kumagai, S

    1996-05-01

    We studied the immune functions of IgY obtained from hens immunized with a mixture of formalin-treated pathogenic bacteria. The IgY inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the production of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-A, and adhesion of Salmonella enteritidis to cultured human intestinal cells (Caco 2). The results indicated that IgY specific for plural bacteria has effects useful toward prevention of bacterial diseases. PMID:8704318

  13. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R.; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance. PMID:26508775

  14. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated. PMID:21371289

  15. Prospects for a soft x-ray FEL powered by a relativistic-klystron high-gradient accelerator (RK-HGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, H.D.; Barletta, W.A.; Yu, S.S.; Schlueter, R.; Deis, G.A.

    1989-09-28

    We present here the concept of x-ray FELs using high gain, single-pass amplifiers with electron beams accelerated in high gradient structures powered by relativistic klystrons. Other authors have also considered x-ray FELs; the unique aspect of this paper is the use of high gradient acceleration. One of the authors has previously presented preliminary studies on this concept. The intent in this paper is to display the results of a top level design study on a high gain FEL, to present its sensitivity to a variety of fabrication and tuning errors, to discuss several mechanisms for increasing gain yet more, and to present explicitly the output characteristics of such an FEL. The philosophy of the design study is to find a plausible operating point which employs existing or nearly existing state-of-the-art technologies while minimizing the accelerator and wiggler lengths. The notion is to distribute the technical risk as evenly as possible over the several technologies so that each must advance only slightly in order to make this design feasible. This study entailed no systematic investigation of possible costs so that, for example, the sole criterion for balancing the trade-off between beam energy and wiggler length is that the two components have comparable lengths. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Perochon, Alexandre; Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-12-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance. PMID:26508775

  17. TaFROG, a novel plant orphan gene, interacts with SnRK1 and enhances resistance to a mycotoxigenic fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted ‘orphan’ genes, most of which are of unknown function. We report the functional characterization of the orphan gene TaFROG as a component of the wheat resistance to the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. TaFROG is taxonomically restrict...

  18. FEM simulations of a multi stage forming process on Sandvik maraging steel 1RK91 describing the stress assisted and the strain induced martensite transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, J.; Huétink, J.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Voncken, R. M. J.

    2003-10-01

    Sandvik steel IRK91 combines good corrosion resistance with high strength. The steel has good deformability in austenitic conditions. This material belongs to the group of metastable austenites, so during deformation a strain-induced transformation into martensite takes place. After deformation, transformation ccontinues as a resuit of internai stresses. Depending on the heat treatment, this stress-assisted transformation is more or less atitocatalytic. Both transformations are stress-state and temperature dependent. This article presents a constitutive model for this steel, based on the macroscopic material behaviour measured by inductive measurements. Both the stress-assisted and the strain-induced transformation to martensite are incorpomted in this model. Path-dependent work hardening is also taken into account. The model is implemented in the commercial FEM code MARC for doing simulations. In the simulations thé tools are treated as rigid bodies, friction is taken into account beeause it inflnences the stress state during metal forming. The material properties after a calculation step are mapped to the next step to incorporate the cumulative effect of the transformation and work hardening during the different steps. A multi-stage metal-forming process is simulated. The process consists of different forming steps with intervals between them to simulate the waiting time between the different metal-forming steps. Results of the transformation behaviour are presented together with the shape of the product during and after metal forming. Finally, this article shows the results of the calculation in which the material transforms autocatalytic, as a resuit of a specific heat treatment.

  19. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  20. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Gentil Arthur; Lanzarini, Natália Maria; Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; da Silva, Alexandre Dos Santos; Mouta Junior, Sergio da Silva E; Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-06-01

    An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY) because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY) reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV) antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies. PMID:25993400

  1. NASA's Origins and the Dawn of the Space Age. No. 10; Monographs in Aerospace History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1998-01-01

    The twenty page narrative describes historical circumstances around Sputnik, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and the formation of NASA from NACA in 1957-1958. Appendices include reproductions of relevant historical documents.

  2. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections

    PubMed Central

    Bentes, Gentil Arthur; Lanzarini, Natália Maria; Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; da Silva, Alexandre dos Santos; Mouta, Sergio da Silva e; Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY) because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY) reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV) antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies. PMID:25993400

  3. Passive immune-protection of small abalone against Vibrio alginolyticus infection by anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated feed.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Jer; Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) is a high value-added shellfish. It however has been suffering Vibrio alginolyticus infections, which cause mass death of small abalone and thus great economic losses, particularly in artificial aquaculture. In this study, we attempted to treat small abalone with anti-Vibrio IgY to elicit a passive immunity directly against V. alginolyticus infections. Anti-Vibrio IgY was alginate encapsulated in egg powders as feed, which may avoid antibody inactivation in the gastrointestinal tract of small abalone. The feed was tested for the stability of anti-Vibrio IgY in a gastrointestinal mimic environment. The result showed anti-Vibrio IgY retained activity as high as 90% after 4 h exposure to pancreatic enzymes. Addition of 0, 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated egg powders into a basal diet to form abalone diet formulae. Small abalones fed with the anti-Vibrio IgY formulae showed a relatively high respiratory burst activity than those without anti-Vibrio IgY treatments. The survival rates of small abalones fed with 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY egg powders were in the range of 65-70% 14 days post-V. alginolyticus challenge (1 x 10⁶ c.f.u.), which was significantly higher than 0% of those fed without anti-Vibrio IgY. The anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated formulae were thus concluded to be an effective means to prevent small abalone from V. alginolyticus infection, and may be practical in use in abalone aquaculture. PMID:21300158

  4. Corneal topography analysis before and after radial keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Chen, J; Wang, Z; Xuan, J

    1995-05-01

    Corneal topographic analyses were conducted on 58 eyes of 42 cases with mild or moderate myopia by computer-assisted photokeratography before and after radial keratotomy (RK). The results indicate that the corneal surfaces of most examined eyes (76%) are positive aspheric shape before RK, while after RK they are changed to negative aspheric shape. Before RK, the corneal topography of most examined eyes (67%) is symmetric bow tie pattern or asymmetric bow tie pattern; after RK, the forms of central flattened regions are mainly round or approximately round, dumbbell and belt-shaped. Before and after RK there is no significant change in surface regularity index (SRI), but surface asymmetry index (SAI) is changed significantly. RK makes the central and central peripheral parts of the cornea flattened. The most significant RK effect is found at the region 1.140 +/- 0.090 mm away from the corneal optical center. Examination and analysis on the corneal topography before and after RK not only provide an accurate and objective basis for RK operational plan, but also make it possible to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the RK effect, to accurately predict the RK clinical effects, and to effectively improve the RK clinical quality. PMID:7555399

  5. Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Have Novel Asymmetrical Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H; Berestecky, John M

    2015-12-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain-only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology. PMID:26500346

  6. Development of microbeads of chicken yolk antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A for colonic-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumin; Xing, Pingping; Guo, Guiping; Liu, Hong; Lin, Donghai; Dong, Chuangchuang; Li, Min; Feng, Dongxiao

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased in Western world in the past 10 years, similar infection rates are also reported in developing countries such as China. Current antibiotics treatments have recurrence rates between 15% and 30%. IgY antibodies against toxin A of C. difficile could protect animal models from the challenge of lethal dose of C. difficile spores. However, IgY is sensitive to the low pH environment of the stomach and proteinases in the intestine. The objective of this study was to prepare colonic-specific delivery system of toxin A antigen-specific IgY to block the recognition of toxin A to the colon mucosa cells. Egg-laying hens were immunized with purified C. difficile toxin A C-terminal domain for 3 times, then egg IgY against the recombinant ToxA-C protein was purified from immunized egg yolk and frozen dried. IgY-loaded microbeads were prepared using mini fluid bed system; the loading efficiency was 21%. The pH and temperature stabilities of the microbeads were assayed. The IgY-loaded microbeads coated with 35% Eudragit S100 had colonic-specific IgY release specificity both in vitro and in vivo, the colonic-specific release of biological active IgY was 87.5% in the rat. Our study provides a new option for the biological treatment C. difficile infection. PMID:25799315

  7. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have novel asymmetrical antibodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H.; Berestecky, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain–only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology.

  8. The International Geophysical Year: Its influence on the beginning of the French space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, Hervé

    2010-03-01

    In 1957-1958, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) was the most important scientific cooperation programme in the World, after the Second World War. Thousands of scientists from 67 countries were involved in this large operation, among them a lot of French scientists. IGY was previously called the IPY (International Polar Year) and France, as many other countries, has been involved in the Arctic and Antarctic regions researches. Everybody knows that the IGY is at the origin of Sputnik and the first launch of Russian and American satellites. But, we know less about the IGY rockets programme itself in which France had intended to participate. This paper will discuss this programme with a special highlight on some aspects of the French participation and their relationship with the IGY programme. This approach arises several questions, such as: Which French scientists have been involved? What was the attitude of the French Government about this program, etc. We focus our analysis on the interrogation: did the IGY have any real influence on the origin of the French space research activities?

  9. Production, Characterization and Applications for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Polyclonal Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Flávia B.; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G.; Mota, Caroline M.; Faria, Matheus S.; Filho, Hercílio H. Silva; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Conclusions/Significance Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii. PMID:22808150

  10. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  11. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  12. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J.; Halford, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation. PMID:24748715

  13. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  14. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  15. Relevance of spontaneous fabT mutations to a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome to non-streptococcal toxic shock syndrome transition in the novel-type Streptococcus pyogenes isolates that lost a salRK.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okada, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masakado; Hata, Nanako; Matsui, Hideyuki; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a causative agent of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Mutations in covR/S or rgg, negative regulators, can reportedly modulate the severity of infection in this pathogen. Recently, we showed that the regions encoding the SalR-SalK, a two-component regulatory system, were deleted in some emm 1-type isolates (named as 'novel-type'). In this study, the two novel 'STSS' isolates 10-85stss and 11-171stss were more virulent than the two novel 'non-STSS' isolates 11O-2non and 11T-3non when examined using a mouse model of invasive infection. Genome-sequencing experiments using the three strains 10-85stss , 11-171stss , and 11O-2non detected only one single nucleotide polymorphism that causes a non-synonymous mutation in fabT encoding a transcriptional regulator in strain 11O-2non . Loss of fabT reduced the high level of virulence observed in the STSS isolates to that in the non-STSS isolates, and introduction of an intact fabT compensated the lower virulence of 11O-2non , suggesting that the mutation in fabT, but not in covR/S or rgg, is involved in the differential virulence among the novel-type clinical isolates. This type of non-synonymous fabT mutation was also identified in 12 non-STSS isolates (including 11O-2non and 11T-3non ), and most of those 12 isolates showed impaired FabT function. PMID:26861052

  16. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Pacheco, Luciano Vasconcellos; Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  17. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  18. rk Lise Öğrencilerinde Okul Terkinin Yordanması: Aracı ve Etkileşim Değişkenleri ile Bir Model Testi

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim, Dilek; Ergene, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. PMID:22003257

  19. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo depigmenting activity of raspberry ketone from Rheum officinale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry. PMID:21954327

  20. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  1. A novel IgY-Aptamer hybrid system for cost-effective detection of SEB and its evaluation on food and clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Mudili, Venkataramana; Makam, Shivakiran S.; Sundararaj, Naveen; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Rao, Putcha V. Lakshmana

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we introduce a novel hybrid sandwich-ALISA employing chicken IgY and ssDNA aptamers for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Cloning, expression and purification of the full length recombinant SEB was carried out. Anti-SEB IgY antibodies generated by immunizing white leg-horn chickens with purified recombinant SEB protein and were purified from the immunized egg yolk. Simultaneously, ssDNA aptamers specific to the toxin were prepared by SELEX method on microtiter well plates. The sensitivity levels of both probe molecules i.e., IgY and ssDNA aptamers were evaluated. We observed that the aptamer at 250 ngmL−1 concentration could detect the target antigen at 50 ngmL−1 and the IgY antibodies at 250 ngmL−1, could able to detect 100 ngmL−1 antigen. We further combined both the probes to prepare a hybrid sandwich aptamer linked immune sorbent assay (ALISA) wherein the IgY as capturing molecule and biotinylated aptamer as revealing probe. Limit of detection (LOD) for the developed method was determined as 50 ngmL−1. Further, developed method was evaluated with artificially SEB spiked milk and natural samples and obtained results were validated with PCR. In conclusion, developed ALISA method may provide cost-effective and robust detection of SEB from food and environmental samples. PMID:26477645

  2. Passive protection effect of anti-Vibrio anguillarum IgY-encapsulated feed on half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevi) against V. anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Li

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with hemorrhage septicemia syndrome in the half-smooth tongue sole (C. semilaevis) due to its high virulence. In this study, we attempted to treat half-smooth tongue sole with anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder to elicit a passive immunity directly against V. anguillarum infection. Anti-V. anguillarum IgY was β-cyclodextrin encapsulated in egg yolk powders as feed, which could avoid antibody inactivation in the gastrointestinal tract of half-smooth tongue sole. The IgY had an inhibiting effect on the infection of V. anguillarum in vitro. The survival rate of half-smooth tongue sole fed with basal diet containing 15% anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder was 70% after 7 days post-V. anguillarum challenge (10(7) CFU), which was significantly higher than those fed without anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder. As well, the bacterial burden in blood, liver, spleen and kidney was significantly lower in half-smooth tongue sole fed with specific IgY than those fed with non-specific IgY. These results suggested that pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for vibriosis infection and can be a promising food additive. PMID:27495124

  3. Why value history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, Ronald E.

    In 1961, after the successful conclusion of the International Geophysical Year, Sydney Chapman wrote his close colleague, Marcel Nicolet. As President of the Comité Spécial de l'Anneé Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI), which oversaw the operation of the IGY, Chapman had accumulated many cartons of private letters, telegrams, and documents on sensitive international negotiations and governmental instructions. Should we save these? Chapman asked Nicolet, a senior member of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium and fellow CSAGI member. What about the confidential papers dealing with Communist Chinese participation in the IGY and the publications controversy?

  4. Composite group of explicit Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Fatin Nadiah Abd; Rabiei, Faranak; Ismail, Fudziah

    2016-06-01

    In this paper,the composite groups of Runge-Kutta (RK) method are proposed. The composite group of RK method of third and second order, RK3(2) and fourth and third order RK4(3) base on classical Runge-Kutta method are derived. The proposed methods are two-step in nature and have less number of function evaluations compared to the existing Runge-Kutta method. The order conditions up to order four are obtained using rooted trees and composite rule introduced by J. C Butcher. The stability regions of RK3(2) and RK4(3) methods are presented and initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations are carried out. Numerical results are compared with existing Runge-Kutta method.

  5. Osmotic stress signaling via protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Plants face various kinds of environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperature, which cause osmotic stress. An understanding of the plant signaling pathways that respond to osmotic stress is important for both basic biology and agriculture. In this review, we summarize recent investigations concerning the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 2 kinase family, which play central roles in osmotic stress responses. SnRK2s are activated by osmotic stress, and a mutant lacking SnRK2s is hypersensitive to osmotic stress. Many questions remain about the signaling pathway upstream and downstream of SnRK2s. Because some SnRK2s also functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, which has recently been well clarified, study of SnRK2s in ABA signaling can provide clues regarding their roles in osmotic stress signaling. PMID:22828864

  6. A Moonlighting Human Protein Is Involved in Mitochondrial Import of tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Baleva, Maria; Gowher, Ali; Kamenski, Piotr; Tarassov, Ivan; Entelis, Nina; Masquida, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ~3% of the lysine transfer RNA acceptor 1 (tRK1) pool is imported into mitochondria while the second isoacceptor, tRK2, fully remains in the cytosol. The mitochondrial function of tRK1 is suggested to boost mitochondrial translation under stress conditions. Strikingly, yeast tRK1 can also be imported into human mitochondria in vivo, and can thus be potentially used as a vector to address RNAs with therapeutic anti-replicative capacity into mitochondria of sick cells. Better understanding of the targeting mechanism in yeast and human is thus critical. Mitochondrial import of tRK1 in yeast proceeds first through a drastic conformational rearrangement of tRK1 induced by enolase 2, which carries this freight to the mitochondrial pre-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (preMSK). The latter may cross the mitochondrial membranes to reach the matrix where imported tRK1 could be used by the mitochondrial translation apparatus. This work focuses on the characterization of the complex that tRK1 forms with human enolases and their role on the interaction between tRK1 and human pre-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (preKARS2). PMID:25918939

  7. Radial keratotomy associated endothelial degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Ollerton, Andrew; Semnani, Rodmehr T; Hsu, Maylon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the presentation and clinical course of eyes with a history of radial keratotomy (RK) and varying degrees of endothelial degeneration. Methods Retrospective case series were used. Results Thirteen eyes (seven patients) were identified with clinical findings of significant guttata and a prior history of RK. The mean age of presentation for cornea evaluation was 54.3 years (range: 38–72 years), averaging 18.7 years (range: 11–33 years) after RK. The presentation of guttata varied in degree from moderate to severe. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/25 to 20/80. All patients had a history of bilateral RK, except one patient who did not develop any guttata in the eye without prior RK. No patients reported a family history of Fuch’s Dystrophy. One patient underwent a penetrating keratoplasty in one eye and a Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the other eye. Conclusions RK may induce a spectrum of endothelial degeneration. In elderly patients, the findings of guttata may signify comorbid Fuch’s dystrophy in which RK incisions could potentially hasten endothelial decomposition. In these select patients with stable cornea topography and prior RK, DSAEK may successfully treat RK endothelial degeneration. PMID:22347792

  8. A plant kinase plays roles in defense response against geminivirus by phosphorylation of a viral pathogenesis protein

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingtang; Bao, Min; Zhou, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    The plant SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) is the α-subunit of the SnRK1 heterotrimeric compleses. Although SnRK1 is widely known as a key regulator of plant response to various physiological processes including nutrient- and energy-sensing, regulation of global metabolism, and control of cell cycle, development, as well as abiotics stress, less is known about the function of SnRK1 during pathogen infection. Our previous work has demonstrated that a tomato SNF1-related kinase (SlSnRK1) can interact with and phosphorylate βC1, a pathogenesis protein encoded by tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite. Our results also showed that the plant SnRK1 can affect genimivirus infection in plant and reduce viral DNA accumulation. Phosphorylation of βC1 protein negatively impacts its function as a pathogenicity determinant. Here we provide more information on interaction between βC1 and SlSnRK1 and propose a mechanistic model for the SlSnRK1-mediated defense responses against geminiviruses and the potential role of SnRK1 in plant resistance to geminivirus. PMID:22751295

  9. 95 years anniversary of Professor BL Kashcheyev (1920 - 2004) - the well-known Ukrainian researcher of meteors by the radar method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana

    2015-08-01

    Meteor astronomy is constantly evolving. We can distinguish several stages in the development of meteor astronomy. One of these steps is the period associated with carrying out the global program called "International Geophysical Year 1957" (IGY1957). Thanks to this program in Ukraine in Kharkiv has been studied meteors using radar techniques. One of the organizers of the IGY 1957 meteor program execution in Ukraine (and in the former Soviet Union) was prof. BL Kashcheyev (1920-2004). At the IAU GA in 1958 prof. BL Kashcheyev made the report on the meteor radar studies in Kharkiv. These research were considered by the IAU Commission 22 as the best in the world. The name of Professor BL Kashcheyev related to the creation of the Kharkiv meteor radar system and the long series of meteor observations, creating the database of 250 thousand orbits of faint meteors (12^ M), carrying out the variety of meteor projects (including the GLOBMET). In 2004 the Kharkiv meteor radar complex was given the status of national heritage of Ukraine. In 2007, the organizers of the program "International Heliophisic Year 2007" (IHY2007) remarked the BL Kashcheyev contribution to the IGY 1957 (the certificate and the pin "The IGY1957 Gold ").

  10. Relationships between persistent organic pollutants and circulating immunoglobulin-Y in black-legged kittiwakes and Atlantic puffins.

    PubMed

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Asbakk, Kjetil; Polder, Anuschka; Skaåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Barrett, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Have Although persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect the immune system, few field studies actually examined this effect. There are indications that POP exert effects on the immune system; however, in the Arctic ecosystem data are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine immune functions in two medium trophic-positioned seabirds, the black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica). Overall POP concentrations were higher in kittiwakes than puffins and males had significantly higher concentrations than females. Mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB9) were 4700 ± 200 and 9600 ± 1400 ng/g lipid weight and 2800 ± 180 and 3900 ± 200 ng/g lipid weight in female and male kittiwake and puffin blood, respectively. Levels of immunoglobulin-Y (IgY) in blood of kittiwakes were not markedly affected by concentrations of POP. Similarly, the primary IgY response to tetanus toxoid was not affected by POP concentrations in a subsample of immunized kittiwakes. In puffins, there were significant correlations between the IgY-response and some of the POPs, but with low explanatory values. These results suggest that POPs concentrations were lower than, or just at the threshold level for effects of the proposed IgY biomarker. It is also conceivable that the IgY levels are not a suitable endpoint for evaluating perturbation of the immune system in free-living seabirds. PMID:24754386

  11. Passive Protection Against Coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of chicken egg antibody (IgY) powder which were prepared from hens hyperimmunized with a purified recombinant protein from Eimeria acervulina merozoites (3-E) was evaluated in a chicken challenge model with 2 different Eimeria species, E. acervulina and E. tenella. The chickens...

  12. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins such as rabbit IgG and chicken IgY are markers that are easy to apply and analyze on insects for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective in research for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators used in biocontrol. To address t...

  13. Preparation of egg yolk antibodies against BoNT/B and their passive protection in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    You, Zherong; Yang, Hao; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jinglin

    2014-01-01

    Botulism in human is a devastating intoxication caused mainly by type A, B, and E botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The most effective treatment of botulism is injection of BoNT antiserum in the first 24 h. In this study, a recombinant C-terminal heavy chain of BoNT/B (BHc) was successfully expressed in E. coli. The soluble BHc was used as an antigen to immunize laying hens for yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) production. The purified IgY against BHc subunit, preincubated with the BoNT/B, was predominantly involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxicity. Furthermore, both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the IgY could protect mice from death caused by injection of toxin at a lethal dose. Our results therefore suggest that anti-BHc IgY directed to the Hc domain is effectively involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxin and may be considered as preventive and therapeutic intervention in the case of botulism. PMID:25424938

  14. Horse IgG- and ostrich IgY-F(ab')₂ groups have different affinities for mice erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Implications for avian immunoglobulin therapeutic usefulness.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, Carlos; D'Suze, Gina; Salazar, Víctor; Díaz, Patricia; Vázquez, Hilda

    2012-11-01

    We used high sensitivity and resolution fluorescence microscopy to study the interaction of ostrich IgY, horse F(ab')₂ and horse IgG with mice lymphocyte and erythrocyte plasma membrane. The immunoglobulins were labeled with fluorescein isotiocyanate (FITC). Our results show an interaction of IgY with lymphocyte plasma membrane which does not result in endocytosis of the labeled protein. Less IgG and its F(ab')₂ fraction bind to lymphocytes, and this binding seems to be followed by endocytosis producing a diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence in most lymphocytes exposed to FITC-IgG or FITC-F(ab')₂. Cytoplasmic fluorescence resembling FITC was not observed in lymphocytes exposed to FITC-IgY. Receptors in the erythrocyte membrane also differentiate between avian and horse Ig; while erythrocytes exposed to horse Igs became intensely fluorescent for at least 5 h, no erythrocyte labeling occurred when FITC-IgY was used. Our results suggest that IgY may be a stronger activator of adaptive immunity than horse IgG in mammals. Adaptive immunity against IgY is detrimental to its IV therapeutic use in humans and other mammals. PMID:22921580

  15. Looking Forward to the electronic Geophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Thompson, B.; Barton, C.; Kihn, E.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We discuss plans to aggregate measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make information available and useful to the scientific community, to the user community, and to the general public. We are examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of data and utilization of forecast tools in order to provide users with advanced space weather capabilities. This program will provide powerful tools for education and public outreach concerning the connected Sun-Earth System.

  16. Measuring the Style of Innovative Thinking among Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of…

  17. Generation of Anti-Boa Immunoglobulin Antibodies for Serodiagnostic Applications, and Their Use to Detect Anti-Reptarenavirus Antibodies in Boa Constrictor.

    PubMed

    Korzyukov, Yegor; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive. However, so far, the study of the serological response towards reptarenaviruses in BIBD has been hampered by the lack of reagents. Thus we set up a purification protocol for boa constrictor IgY and IgM, which should also be applicable for other snake species. We used centrifugal filter units, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography to purify and separate the IgM and IgY fractions from boa constrictor serum, which we further used to immunise rabbits. We affinity purified IgM and IgY specific reagents from the produced antiserum, and labelled the reagents with horseradish peroxidase. Finally, using the sera of snakes with known exposure to reptarenaviruses we demonstrated that the newly generated reagents can be utilised for serodiagnostic purposes, such as immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show reptarenavirus-specific antibodies in boa constrictors. PMID:27355360

  18. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  19. Mapping B-cell responses to Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis in chickens for the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Naqid, Ibrahim A; Owen, Jonathan P; Maddison, Ben C; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Davies, Robert H; La Ragione, Roberto M; Gough, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219

  20. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Gilgunn, Sarah; Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J; O'Kennedy, Richard J; Rudd, Pauline M; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  1. Generation of Anti-Boa Immunoglobulin Antibodies for Serodiagnostic Applications, and Their Use to Detect Anti-Reptarenavirus Antibodies in Boa Constrictor

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Yegor; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive. However, so far, the study of the serological response towards reptarenaviruses in BIBD has been hampered by the lack of reagents. Thus we set up a purification protocol for boa constrictor IgY and IgM, which should also be applicable for other snake species. We used centrifugal filter units, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography to purify and separate the IgM and IgY fractions from boa constrictor serum, which we further used to immunise rabbits. We affinity purified IgM and IgY specific reagents from the produced antiserum, and labelled the reagents with horseradish peroxidase. Finally, using the sera of snakes with known exposure to reptarenaviruses we demonstrated that the newly generated reagents can be utilised for serodiagnostic purposes, such as immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show reptarenavirus-specific antibodies in boa constrictors. PMID:27355360

  2. Production of the Antimicrobial Secondary Metabolite Indigoidine Contributes to Competitive Surface Colonization by the Marine Roseobacter Phaeobacter sp. Strain Y4I

    PubMed Central

    Cude, W. Nathan; Mooney, Jason; Tavanaei, Arash A.; Hadden, Mary K.; Frank, Ashley M.; Gulvik, Christopher A.; May, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Roseobacter lineage of marine bacteria are prolific surface colonizers in marine coastal environments, and antimicrobial secondary metabolite production has been hypothesized to provide a competitive advantage to colonizing roseobacters. Here, we report that the roseobacter Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I produces the blue pigment indigoidine via a nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS)-based biosynthetic pathway encoded by a novel series of genetically linked genes: igiBCDFE. A Tn5-based random mutagenesis library of Y4I showed a perfect correlation between indigoidine production by the Phaeobacter strain and inhibition of Vibrio fischeri on agar plates, revealing a previously unrecognized bioactivity of this molecule. In addition, igiD null mutants (igiD encoding the indigoidine NRPS) were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, less motile, and faster to colonize an artificial surface than the wild-type strain. Collectively, these data provide evidence for pleiotropic effects of indigoidine production in this strain. Gene expression assays support phenotypic observations and demonstrate that igiD gene expression is upregulated during growth on surfaces. Furthermore, competitive cocultures of V. fischeri and Y4I show that the production of indigoidine by Y4I significantly inhibits colonization of V. fischeri on surfaces. This study is the first to characterize a secondary metabolite produced by an NRPS in roseobacters. PMID:22582055

  3. In a SLE mouse model the production of IgG autoantibody requires expression of activation-induced deaminase in early developing B cells

    PubMed Central

    Umiker, Benjamin R.; McDonald, Gabrielle; Larbi, Amma; Medina, Carlos O.; Reth, Michael; Imanishi-Kari, Thereza

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of pathogenic IgG anti-nuclear antibodies. Pathogenic IgG autoantibody production requires B-cell activation, leading to the production of activation-induced deaminase (AID) and class switching of IgM genes to IgG. To understand how and when B cells are activated to produce these IgG autoantibodies, we studied cells from 564Igi, a mouse model of SLE. 564Igi mice develop a disease profile closely resembling that found in human SLE patients, including the presence of IgG anti-nucleic acid antibodies. We have generated 564Igi mice that conditionally express an activation-induced cytidine deaminase transgene (Aicdatg), either in all B cells or only in mature B cells. Here we show that class-switched pathogenic IgG autoantibodies were produced only in 564Igi mice in which AID was functional in early developing B cells, resulting in loss of tolerance. Furthermore, we show that the absence of AID in early developing B cells also results in increased production of self-reactive IgM, indicating that AID, through somatic hypermutation (SHM), contributes to tolerance. Our results suggest that the pathophysiology of clinical SLE might also be dependent on AID expression in early developing B cells. PMID:25044405

  4. A Report on the Findings of the Administration of the Institutional Goals Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    The Institutional Goals Inventory (I.G.I.), an integral part of the Institutional Goals-Setting Model developed at Brevard Community College during the fall of 1973, was field-tested during the period December 15, 1973 through February 1, 1974. The Inventory consists of 90 statements of possible institutional goals, to which the respondent gives…

  5. A Model Process for Institutional Goals-Setting. A Module of the Needs Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maxwell C.; And Others

    A goals-setting model for the community/junior college that would interface with the community needs assessment model was developed, using as the survey instrument the Institutional Goals Inventory (I.G.I.) developed by the Educational Testing Service. The nine steps in the model are: Establish Committee on College Goals and Identify Goals Project…

  6. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    PubMed Central

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  7. Novel biocompatible and self-buffering ionic liquids for biopharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Almeida, Mafalda R; Silva, Francisca A E; Domingues, Pedro; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-03-16

    Antibodies obtained from egg yolk of immunized hens, immunoglobulin Y (IgY), are an alternative to the most focused mammal antibodies, because they can be obtained in higher titers by less invasive approaches. However, the production cost of high-quality IgY for large-scale applications remains higher than that of other drug therapies due to the lack of efficient purification methods. The search for new purification platforms is thus vital. The solution could be liquid-liquid extraction by using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS). Herein, we report the extraction and attempted purification of IgY from chicken egg yolk by using a new ABS composed of polymers and Good's buffer ionic liquids (GB-ILs). New self-buffering and biocompatible ILs based on the cholinium cation and anions derived from Good's buffers were synthesized and the self-buffering characteristics and toxicity were characterized. Moreover, when these GB-ILs are combined with PPG 400 (poly(propylene) glycol with a molecular weight of 400 g mol(-1)) to form ABS, extraction efficiencies, of the water-soluble fraction of proteins, ranging between 79 and 94% were achieved in a single step. Based on computational investigations, we also demonstrate that the preferential partitioning of IgY for the GB-IL-rich phase is dominated by hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals interactions. PMID:25652351

  8. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  9. Carbonaceous adsorbents from caking coals for the extraction of noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kostomarova, M.A.; Surinova, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors examine the sorption and mechanical properties of spherical adsorbents obtained from Kuzbass caking coal using an IGI method. An investigation has also been made of the sorption kinetics of gold and silver. It was found that spherical adsorbent pellets of this kind are capable of extracting noble metals from ore pulps. (1 ref.)

  10. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  11. Mapping B-cell responses to Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis in chickens for the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals

    PubMed Central

    Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219

  12. The Identification of Loci for Immune Traits in Chickens Using a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Wu, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    The genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry continues to be a challenge. To identify candidate genes and loci responsible for these traits, genome-wide association studies using the chicken 60k high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for six immune traits, total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC), were performed. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the relative expression of the identified candidate genes. Nine significantly associated SNPs (P < 2.81E-06) and 30 SNPs reaching the suggestively significant level (P < 5.62E-05) were identified. Five of the 10 SNPs that were suggestively associated with the antibody response to SRBC were located within or close to previously reported QTL regions. Fifteen SNPs reached a suggestive significance level for AIV antibody titer and seven were found on the sex chromosome Z. Seven suggestive markers involving five different SNPs were identified for the numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes, and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Nine significant SNPs, all on chromosome 16, were significantly associated with serum total IgY concentration, and the five most significant were located within a narrow region spanning 6.4kb to 253.4kb (P = 1.20E-14 to 5.33E-08). After testing expression of five candidate genes (IL4I1, CD1b, GNB2L1, TRIM27 and ZNF692) located in this region, changes in IL4I1, CD1b transcripts were consistent with the concentrations of IgY, while abundances of TRIM27 and ZNF692 showed reciprocal changes to those of IgY concentrations. This study has revealed 39 SNPs associated with six immune traits (total serum IgY level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against AIV and SRBC) in Beijing-You chickens. The narrow region spanning 247kb on chromosome 16 is an important QTL for serum total IgY concentration

  13. Maternally Derived Egg Hormones, Antibodies and Antimicrobial Proteins: Common and Different Pathways of Maternal Effects in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  14. International geoscience: Past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Charles L.

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) differed from the preceding international polar years in that it had a significant component of solid earth research. The success of this venture led to succeeding programs, still under way, that have maintained and improved upon the communication mechanisms established during IGY. These programs differed from IGY in that they have a longer time span, usually a decade, and in that they have focused more on the exchange of ideas and data rather than shorter-term, specially funded research programs aimed at particular goals.To borrow an analogy from oceanography, one might liken IGY to the Challenger expedition of a century ago; a one-shot venture that collected vast amounts of data during a single cruise; data that occupied the energies of a number of scientists over a period of years. The succeeding programs followed more the pattern of modern oceanography in which cruises take place continuously, steadily building the data base a n d generating new ideas. There is no question but that IGY was a major shot in the arm for solid earth research and it is fair to ask whether it is not time for another such venture. Our support mechanisms have tended to become more narrowly focused on disciplines and subdisciplines through time, reflecting the increasing complexity o f science. Perhaps it is time to choose some broad goals: to identify some experiments that require inputs from a number of disciplines and international collaboration in research and that promise us new and better insights into the nature and properties, the history and development of the earth.

  15. Improving trapping systems for early detection and eradication of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure an...

  16. Remember-Know: A Matter of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John C.

    2004-01-01

    This article critically examines the view that the signal detection theory (SDT) interpretation of the remember-know (RK) paradigm has been ruled out by the evidence. The author evaluates 5 empirical arguments against a database of 72 studies reporting RK data under 400 different conditions. These arguments concern (a) the functional independence…

  17. Weathering and chemical degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  18. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Américo; Adamo, Mattia; Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rabissi, Agnese; Lumbreras, Victoria; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Antoni, Regina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression, sugar hypersensitivity during early seedling development. Reporter gene assays and SnRK1 target gene expression analyses further demonstrate that PP2C inhibition by ABA results in SnRK1 activation, promoting SnRK1 signaling during stress and once the energy deficit subsides. Consistent with this, SnRK1 and ABA induce largely overlapping transcriptional responses. Hence, the PP2C hub allows the coordinated activation of ABA and energy signaling, strengthening the stress response through the cooperation of two key and complementary pathways. PMID:24179127

  19. New Treatment for Drug-Abusing Women Offenders in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Compares a new approach to treatment using traditional social work. Reports on the therapeutic regimen and Results/Kinesiology (RK), which addresses body-mind control, brain hemispheric integration, energy balancing, and stress elimination. Examination of 40 women addicted to alcohol and/or drugs indicated that RK helped with anxiety,…

  20. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26408410

  1. Impacts of Dibrom concentrate and three new naled formulations on three 1996 Du Pont automotive paint finishes.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Shaffer, K R

    1997-12-01

    To investigate potential impacts on automobile finishes, droplets of 4 naled formulations were applied to 3 contemporary automotive paints and assessed by means of microscopic and unaided visual inspections. Three droplet size ranges simulated ground- and aerial-based ultra-low volume applications and were each generated for Dibrom Concentrate, a new formulation of Dibrom Concentrate (VC-1088), and two other new naled formulations (Trumpet VC-1083 and Trumpet VC-1084). Du Pont automotive paint finishes tested were RK7072, RK8010, and RK7120 used on Ford trucks, General Motors cars, and Cadillacs, respectively. Visible spotting was never produced by small droplets averaging (SE) a volume median diameter of 13.12 microns (0.44), and quantifiable microscopic spots were detected only on the RK8010 paint finish. The latter paint finish was the most susceptible to spotting, whereas RK7072 was not affected by any formulation at each droplet size. PMID:9474557

  2. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-03-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  3. Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S; Singh, R K; Bimal, S K; Gidwani, K; Mishra, A; Maurya, R; Singh, S K; Manandhar, K D; Boelaert, M; Rai, M

    2007-02-01

    In this phase III trial for diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, we compared parasitological diagnosis with several serological tests: direct agglutination test (freeze dried; DAT-FD), rK-39 strip test, rK-26 strip test and a latex agglutination test for antigen detection in urine (KAtex) in 452 subjects from the endemic regions of Bihar, India. The subjects were segregated into four categories: 230 confirmed patients, 52 probable cases, 70 non-cases and 100 healthy endemic controls. The first two groups were used for estimating sensitivity, the latter two for specificity. Sensitivity of DAT-FD was 98.9%, rK-39: 98.9%, KAtex: 67.0% and rK-26: 21.3%. Sensitivity of DAT-FD on blood taken on filter paper (DAT-FDF) was 99.3%, which was comparable with that using serum. Specificity of serological tests was comparable and high (DAT-FD and DAT-FDF: 94%, rK-39 strip test: 97%, KAtex: 99% and rK-26 strip test: 100%). The classical 'gold standard' parasitological demonstration in splenic smear performed poorly as it missed 18.4% of cases that benefited from VL treatment. Reproducibility of the serological tests between field and central laboratories was excellent (kappa = 1.0, 0.99, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively for microscopy, DAT-FD, rK-39 strip test and rK-26 strip test). A high degree of agreement was observed between DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test (kappa = 0.986). Although DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test were highly sensitive with excellent specificity, the ease of use of the latter makes it most suitable for the diagnosis of VL in the field conditions. PMID:17300637

  4. Leveraging the International Polar Year Legacy: Providing Historical Perspective for IPY Education, Outreach and Communication Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukernik, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    As the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is fast approaching, it is important to look back and learn from the previous experience. Over 125 years ago, when an Austrian explorer and naval officer Lt. Karl Weyprecht called for an international yearlong intensive effort to study the Polar Regions, he probably never imagined that his model for international collaboration would become so widely popular. Frustrated by the lack of coordinated, international collaboration in research activities, Weyprecht proposed an intensive burst of research activity over the course of at least a year. The first IPY began in 1882 with 12 nations establishing 13 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere. The initial yearlong plan did not go beyond data collection. However, the idea lived in the minds of scientists worldwide and the second IPY followed the first one 50 years later. By 1932, technology evolved significantly, and on top of ground-based meteorological and geophysical measurements, data collection also included radiosonde and acoustic atmospheric measurements. Occurring during a global economic depression, and between world wars, the second IPY faced many challenges. However, 40 permanent stations were established, some of which are still active. Scientific exploration also reached remote frontiers from Antarctica to the Earth's ionosphere. Less than a decade after the WWII, the idea of the next IPY started to circulate in scientific circles. The world was focused on space exploration and the word "polar" seemed too narrow for the gigantic projects planned for the 1957. That is why the initial idea of the third IPY evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY), although polar regions were still a major focus. The success of the IGY is almost overwhelming the first Earth orbiting satellites, a traverse of Antarctica, a discovery of the Radiation Belt, a series of science education films about IGY activities and research themes are just a few

  5. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  6. Isolation of a new herpesvirus from human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, N; Schirmer, E C; Wyatt, L S; Katsafanas, G; Roffman, E; Danovich, R M; June, C H

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpesvirus has been isolated from CD4+ T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpesvirus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hybridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. We conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. We propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpesvirus, the seventh human herpesvirus identified to date. Images PMID:2153965

  7. A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Kumaresan, N.; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan

    2015-10-01

    There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.

  8. A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Kumaresan, N. Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan

    2015-10-22

    There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.

  9. In-patient to isocenter KERMA ratios in CT

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate in-patient KERMA for specific organs in computed tomography (CT) scanning using ratios to isocenter free-in-air KERMA obtained using a Rando phantom. Method: A CT scan of an anthropomorphic phantom results in an air KERMA K at a selected phantom location and air kerma KCT at the CT scanner isocenter when the scan is repeated in the absence of the phantom. The authors define the KERMA ratio (RK) as K/ KCT, which were experimentally determined in a Male Rando Phantom using lithium fluoride chips (TLD-100). RK values were obtained for a total of 400 individual point locations, as well as for 25 individual organs of interest in CT dosimetry. CT examinations of Rando were performed on a GE LightSpeed Ultra scanner operated at 80 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV, as well as a Siemens Sensation 16 operated at 120 kV. Results: At 120 kV, median RK values for the GE and Siemens scanners were 0.60 and 0.64, respectively. The 10th percentile RK values ranged from 0.34 at 80 kV to 0.54 at 140 kV, and the 90th percentile RK values ranged from 0.64 at 80 kV to 0.78 at 140 kV. The average RK for the 25 Rando organs at 120 kV was 0.61 ± 0.08. Average RK values in the head, chest, and abdomen showed little variation. Relative to RK values in the head, chest, and abdomen obtained at 120 kV, RK values were about 12% lower in the pelvis and about 58% higher in the cervical spine region. Average RK values were about 6% higher on the Siemens Sensation 16 scanner than the GE LightSpeed Ultra. Reducing the x-ray tube voltage from 120 kV to 80 kV resulted in an average reduction in RK value of 34%, whereas increasing the x-ray tube voltage to 140 kV increased the average RK value by 9%. Conclusions: In-patient to isocenter relative KERMA values in Rando phantom can be used to estimate organ doses in similar sized adults undergoing CT examinations from easily measured air KERMA values at the isocenter (free in air). Conversion from in-patient air KERMA values to tissue dose

  10. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  11. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P < 0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P < 0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  12. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  13. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, J. M.; Harrison, R.; Poland, A.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rabin, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882-83 and 1932-33, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, from pole to pole to obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space. There had never been anything like it before. The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year will occur in 2007. We propose to organize an international program of scientific collaboration for this time period called the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Like it predecessors, the IHY will focus on fundamental global questions of Earth science.

  14. International Scientific Unions and Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation will deal with the role that international scientific unions play in coordinating international research efforts. Rather than give a general, theoretical, talk on the role that ICSU - the International Council of Science - plays in International Science, I will briefly outline their role and then focus on a case study relevant to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). I will compare the scientific activities, and the outreach and education activities, of two major international research programs - the International Year of Planet Earth and the International Polar Year. These were two of the IGY+50 activities. Past informal polls of conference attendees to determine how many had heard of each IGY+50 event result in. eGY (electronic Geophysical Year) 1% IHY (International Heliophysical Year) 4% IYPE (International Year of Planet Earth) 31% IPY (International Polar Year) 64% Why is IPY the one of which most scientists are aware?

  15. MRI-guided robotics at the U of Houston: evolving methodologies for interventions and surgeries.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V

    2009-01-01

    Currently, we witness the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) and image guided interventions (IGI) for offering improved patient management and cost effectiveness. It is well recognized that sustaining and expand this paradigm shift would require new computational methodology that integrates sensing with multimodal imaging, actively controlled robotic manipulators, the patient and the operator. Such approach would include (1) assessing in real-time tissue deformation secondary to the procedure and physiologic motion, (2) monitoring the tool(s) in 3D, and (3) on-the-fly update information about the pathophysiology of the targeted tissue. With those capabilities, real time image guidance may facilitate a paradigm shift and methodological leap from "keyhole" visualization (i.e. endoscopy or laparoscopy) to one that uses a volumetric and informational rich perception of the Area of Operation (AoO). This capability may eventually enable a wider range and level of complexity IGI and MIS. PMID:19964404

  16. Female Bias in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is Associated with the Differential Expression of X-Linked Toll-Like Receptor 8

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Gabrielle; Cabal, Nicholas; Vannier, Augustin; Umiker, Benjamin; Yin, Raymund H.; Orjalo, Arturo V.; Johansson, Hans E.; Han, Jin-Hwan; Imanishi-Kari, Thereza

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of anti-nuclear antibodies. SLE is one of many autoimmune disorders that have a strong gender bias, with 70–90% of SLE patients being female. Several explanations have been postulated to account for the severity of autoimmune diseases in females, including hormonal, microbiota, and gene dosage differences. X-linked toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently been implicated in disease progression in females. Our previous studies using the 564Igi mouse model of SLE on a Tlr7 and Tlr9 double knockout background showed that the presence of Tlr8 on both X chromosomes was required for the production of IgG autoantibodies, Ifn-I expression and granulopoiesis in females. Here, we show the results of our investigation into the role of Tlr8 expression in SLE pathogenesis in 564Igi females. Female mice have an increase in serum pathogenic anti-RNA IgG2a and IgG2b autoantibodies. 564Igi mice have also been shown to have an increase in neutrophils in vivo, which are major contributors to Ifn-α expression. Here, we show that neutrophils from C57BL/6 mice express Ifn-α in response to 564 immune complexes and TLR8 activation. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from 564Igi females have a significant increase in Tlr8 expression compared to male-derived cells, and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization data suggest that Tlr8 may escape X-inactivation in female-derived macrophages. These results propose a model by which females may be more susceptible to SLE pathogenesis due to inefficient inactivation of Tlr8. PMID:26441962

  17. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  18. Ionospheric Results with Sounding Rockets and the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    A review is made of ionospheric data reported since the IGY from rocket and satellite-borne ionospheric experiments. These include rocket results on electron density (RF impedance probe), D-region conductivity (Gerdien condenser), and electron temperature (Langmuir probe). Also included are data in the 1000 kilometer region on ion concentration (ion current monitor) and electron temperature from the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi). The review includes suggestions for second generation experiments and combinations thereof particularly suited for small sounding rockets.

  19. Glacier mass balance and runoff research in the U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Research on glacier mass balance began in the USA about 50 years ago. More complete studies of climate, snow and ice balance, and the hydrology of glaciers were initiated for the IGY in 1957 and the IHD in 1966. Investigations included the magnitude and geographic distribution of normal mass balance processes and unusual phenomena such as outbursting, accumulation of ice by freezing of water in firn, and ablation of glacier ice by volcanic activity and by calving. -from Author

  20. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. PMID:26809976

  1. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada.

  2. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  3. Plans for the International Heliophysical Year (IHY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2005-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The IHY will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about thousands of scientists from many nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  4. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  5. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph, M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  6. Practical aspects in the use of passive immunization as an alternative to attenuated viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aizenshtein, Elina; Yosipovich, Roni; Kvint, Moran; Shadmon, Roy; Krispel, Simcha; Shuster, Efrat; Eliyahu, Dalia; Finger, Avner; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Shahar, Ehud; Pitcovski, Jacob

    2016-05-11

    Passive immunization as a method to protect birds has been tested for many years and shown to be effective. Its advantages over active vaccination include no use of partially virulent viruses, overcoming the gap in the level of protection at young age due to interference of maternal antibodies to raise self-immune response following active vaccination and the possible immunosuppressive effect of attenuated vaccine viruses. However, a major obstacle to its implementation is its relatively high cost which is dependent, among other things, mainly on two factors: the efficacy of antibody production, and the use of specific pathogen-free (SPF) birds for antibody production to avoid the possible transfer of pathogens from commercial layers. In this study we show efficient production of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against four different pathogens simultaneously in the same egg, and treatment of the extracted IgY with formalin to negate the need for SPF birds. Formalin, a common registered sterilization compound in vaccine production, was shown not to interfere with the Fab specific antigen binding or Fc-complement activation of the antibody. Following injection of 1-day-old broilers with antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus, protective antibody levels were acquired for the entire period of sensitivity to this pathogen (35 days). Passive vaccination with formalin-sterilized IgY against multiple antigens extracted from one commercial egg may be a cost-effective and advantageous complementary or alternative to attenuated vaccines in poultry. PMID:27079929

  7. Phylogeny of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes: structure of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum upsilon chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Wiles, M V; Schwager, J; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    An RNA polymerase chain reaction strategy was used to amplify and clone a cDNA segment encoding for the complete constant part of the axolotl IgY heavy (C upsilon) chain. C upsilon is 433 amino acids long and organized into four domains (C upsilon 1-C upsilon 4); each has the typical internal disulfide bond and invariant tryptophane residues. Axolotl C upsilon is most closely related to Xenopus C upsilon (40% identical amino acid residues) and C upsilon 1 shares 46.4% amino acid residues among these species. The presence of additional cysteines in C upsilon 1 and C upsilon 2 domains is consistent with an additional intradomain S-S bond similar to that suggested for Xenopus C upsilon and C chi, and for the avian C upsilon and the human C epsilon. C upsilon 4 ends with the Gly-Lys dipeptide characteristic of secreted mammalian C gamma 3, human C epsilon 4, and avian and anuran C upsilon 4, and contains the consensus [G/GT(AA)] nucleotide splice signal sequence for joining C upsilon 4 to the transmembrane region. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an ancestral structural relationship between amphibian, avian upsilon chains, and mammalian epsilon chains. However, these molecules have different biological properties: axolotl IgY is secretory Ig, anuran and avian IgY behave like mammalian IgG, and mammalian IgE is implicated in anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8344718

  8. Worldwide Geomagnetic Data Collection and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Papitashvili, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Geomagnetic data provided by different platforms piece together a global picture of Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with geospace. Furthermore, a great diversity of the geomagnetic field changes, from secular (over decades to centuries) to short time variations (down to minutes and seconds), can be detected only through continued observations. An international effort to watch and record geomagnetic changes first began in the 1830s with a network of scientific observers organized by Karl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, and this effort has continued since then. One of the most remarkable achievements in understanding the geomagnetic field morphology and time behavior was made possible by the International Geophysical Year (IGY), an exploration and research effort that lasted for 18 months, starting on 1 July 1957. The IGY encompassed 11 geoscience disciplines, including geomagnetism. The IGY has represented a giant step forward in the quality and quantity of worldwide geomagnetic measurements, as well as in the widespread interest in magnetic measurements. A half century of probing the geomagnetic field spatial and temporal variations has produced a number of outstanding results, and the interested reader can find recent reviews on various geomagnetic field topics (from measurements to modeling) in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism [Gubbins and Herrero-Bervera, 2007] or Treatise on Geophysics: Geomagnetism [Kono, 2007].

  9. Anti-Echis carinatus venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk: isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy.

    PubMed

    Paul, K; Manjula, J; Deepa, E P; Selvanayagam, Z E; Ganesh, K A; Subba Rao, P V

    2007-12-01

    High titer antibodies (IgY) were raised in egg yolk of white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) by immunizing with the venom of Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper or carpet viper), an Indian venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae. The anti-snake venom antibodies (antivenom) were isolated from egg yolk by the water dilution method, enriched by 19% sodium sulfate precipitation and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. A single, electrophoretically pure IgY band of 180-200 kDa was obtained on SDS-PAGE. Immunoblot analysis revealed not only the specific binding of the antivenom but also dose-dependent blocking of antivenom by venom proteins. In neutralization studies, a preincubated mixture of both affinity-purified (50 mg/kg body weight) as well as partially purified (210 mg/kg body weight) anti-E. carinatus IgY with 2 LD(50) dose of E. carinatus venom (2 x 6.65 mg/kg body weight) gave 100% protection in mice when administered subcutaneously. PMID:17681579

  10. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  11. Generation and characterization of polyclonal antibody against part of immunoglobulin constant heavy υ chain of goose.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Yongli; Ma, Bo; Xing, Mingwei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-08-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. IgY consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. In the present study, polyclonal antibody against IgYFc was generated and evaluated. rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. High affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for ELISA assay. The antibody can specifically recognize both rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 and native IgY by Western bolt analysis. Furthermore, the serum of Grus japonensis or immunoglobulin of chicken, duck, turkey, and silkie samples and dynamic changes of serum GoIgY after immunogenicity with GPV-VP3-virus-like particles (GPV-VP3-VLPs) can be detected with the anti-GoIgYFc polyclonal antibody. These results suggested that the antibody is valuable for the investigation of biochemical properties and biological functions of GoIgY. PMID:25171010

  12. Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

    2008-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

  13. Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Kothlow, Sonja; Haüslaigner, Rafaela; Kaspers, Bernd; Grund, Christian

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a monoclonal antibody (mAb 14A3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. Western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum IgY light chain of different duck species: Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (Dafila acuta). Reactivity was also evident with IgY of two swan species--mute swan (Cygnus olor) and black-necked swan (Sthenelides melanocoryphus)--and two goose species--domestic goose (Anser anser var. domestica) and red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis). Applying the mAb for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 [APMV-1]) test systems, its functionality within indirect immunoassays was evaluated. Using APMV-1-positive sera of domestic geese and Muscovy ducks, mAb 14A3 facilitated specific staining of APMV-1-infected cells in an immunofluorescence test. In addition, it proved to be functional in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay. Thus, the analysed mAb represents an attractive and versatile reagent that offers the opportunity to develop serological tests for waterfowl, allowing a high sample throughput using the ELISA technique or the fine analysis of humoral immune responses using the western blot. PMID:18568660

  14. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  15. Effects of sibling competition on growth, oxidative stress, and humoral immunity: a two-year brood-size manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Guindre-Parker, Sarah; Williams, Tony D

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ecological context (by comparing data from two consecutive years) and experimentally manipulated nestling developmental conditions (large vs. small brood size) on immune function (immunoglobulin Y [IgY]) and oxidative stress in nestling European starlings Sturnus vulgaris. On the basis of annual differences in chicks' morphological traits and body masses close to fledging, we established that 2007 was a relative low-quality year and 2008 was a relatively high-quality year. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was significantly lower in experimentally enlarged broods, but only in the low-quality year (2007). Total oxidant status (TOS) was independent of brood size in both years but was 45% higher in the low-quality year. Consequently, plasma oxidative status (the ratio between TOS and TAC) was higher in 2007. In contrast, plasma IgY levels were higher in the experimentally enlarged broods and in the high-quality year (2008). Thus, immune function and oxidative stress showed inverse relationships with developmental conditions and annual variation in year quality. Finally, TOS and TAC were positively correlated, but only in the low-quality year (2007), and there was no relationship observed between IgY and markers of oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account year effects or ecological context when assessing environmental effects on physiological mechanisms underlying the life-history traits of chicks, such as oxidative stress. PMID:21743256

  16. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  17. Development of hen antihepatitis B antigen IgY-based conjugate for ELISA assay

    PubMed Central

    Nafea, Najat Muayed; Sabbah, Majeed Arsheed; AL-Suhail, Raghad; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chicken antibodies have many advantages to the mammalian antibodies and have several important differences against mammalian IgG with regard to their specificity and large-scale production. In this study, the production, purification, and HRP conjugation of polyclonal IgY against hepatitis virus surface antigen (HBsAg) were carried out. Materials and Methods: Single Comb White Leghorn hens were immunized intramuscularly with hepatitis B vaccine in combination with Freund's adjuvants. Blood and eggs were collected before and during ten weeks after the first immunization. Results: A highly purified of 180 KDa with specific activity of 200 mIU/ml was obtained by our purification protocol. One milligram of the purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Sandwich ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer of anti-HbsAg IgY-conjugate which was found to be 1:20. Conclusions: This study showed that laying hens can be used as an alternative source for production of polyclonal antibodies against HBsAg and anti-HBs IgY could be labeled with HRP enzyme and could subsequently be used successfully as secondary antibody in ELISA for detection of HBsAg in the patients sera. PMID:26015926

  18. Discovery of iron group impurity ion spin states in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} with strong coupling to whispering gallery photons

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Carmo Carvalho, Natalia do; Creedon, Daniel L.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Probst, Sebastian; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-06-08

    Interaction of Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) with dilute spin ensembles in solids is an interesting paradigm of Hybrid Quantum Systems potentially beneficial for Quantum Signal Processing applications. Unexpected ion transitions are measured in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} using WGM spectroscopy with large Zero Field Splittings at 14.7 GHz, 18.4 GHz, and 25.4 GHz, which also feature considerable anisotropy of the g-tensors as well as two inequivalent lattice sites, indicating spins from Iron Group Ion (IGI) impurities. The comparison of undoped and Rare-Earth doped crystals reveal that the IGIs are introduced during co-doping of Eu{sup 3+} or Er{sup 3+} with concentration at much lower levels of order 100 ppb. The strong coupling regime between an ensemble of IGI spins and WGM photons have been demonstrated at 18.4 GHz and near zero field. This approach together with useful optical properties of these ions opens avenues for “spins-in-solids” Quantum Electrodynamics.

  19. Preparing Children for a Handicapped Classmate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth J.

    1974-01-01

    In order to help students develop positive attitudes toward handicapped children the author discussed a program designed to provide students with deeper understandings of the nature of physical limitations. (Author/RK)

  20. Curvilinear Relationship between Motive Strength and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Per

    1973-01-01

    In this paper an effort is made to seek within John W. Atkinson's own thinking on achievement motivation a more parsimonious explanation of the assumed curvilinearity between motive strength and performance. (Author/RK)

  1. Some Facts About Curriculum Advisory Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Vern L.

    1974-01-01

    The nature and philosophy of community colleges lend themselves to the use of advisory committees, and this article discussed the development of citizen involvement in the creation of curriculum advisory committees. (Author/RK)

  2. The Mystery of Photographic Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvin, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Do your beginning photographic students ever wonder why photographic paper reacts the way it does? One way that this question can be answered is by making a photogram. Article explained the steps necessary for making a photogram. (Author/RK)

  3. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  4. Keeping Track of Changing Variables: Effects of Rehearsal Training and Rehearsal Prevention in Normal and Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the implication of the rehearsal deficit hypothesis of Brown (1972) and Morin et al. (1970). In it retarded adolescents were given rehearsal training on a keeping-track task. (Author/RK)

  5. Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman

    1973-01-01

    Author, the President of Yale University, considered three ingredients most important to educational quality: the quality and diversity of students, of the school experience, and of the faculty. (Author/RK)

  6. The Ethics of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKague, Ormond

    1975-01-01

    Author delivered an address that compared the two directions that scientific research may take; that is, to the millenium of Skinner and Schaff or to the end of man as seen by Huxley and Ellul. (Author/RK)

  7. Fall from Grace: The Decline of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepper, Jeff A.; Schnepper, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Asks whether the United States is about to join the Roman Empire as a historical lesson of inevitable rise and fall. The government, economic and industrial leaders, and social scientists are examined. (Editor/RK)

  8. Prediction of Young U.S. Naval Officer Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, J. H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Attacks the turnover/retention problem by looking primarily at the stayer rather than the leaver in hopes of finding factors influencing career decisions over which management has some control. (Author/RK)

  9. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  10. Building an Integrated Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Myrtle T.; Greenberg, Marvin

    1974-01-01

    Article described a plan to develop integrated study through music activities. Students learned to become more independent learners while concentrating on more complex and creative activities. (Author/RK)

  11. Publishing Is For People Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worpole, Ken

    1974-01-01

    Article described a project which aims to provide publishing and distribution opportunities for people in Hackney who would never think of themselves as within the traditional framework of commercial publishing. (Author/RK)

  12. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  13. A Recycled Giraffe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Lucille

    1976-01-01

    Chicken wire, cardboard tubes, newspaper, scrap lumber and discontinued fabric samples were among the discarded materials used in the art classes at the Webster Hill Elementary School, West Hartford, Connecticut, to create an eight-foot giraffe. (Author/RK)

  14. Comment on the Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Stefan

    1975-01-01

    Author presented his opinion of the positions of San Juan (AA 521 871) and Rudich (AA 521 870) while answering Dickie's comments (AA 521 873) and defending his previous paper (AA 521 872) in this journal. (RK)

  15. Intergroup Cooperation and Intergroup Attraction: The Effect of Previous Interaction and Outcome of Combined Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worchel, Stephen; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that the effect of intergroup cooperation on intergroup attraction would depend on both the outcome of the cooperation and the nature of the past interaction between groups. (Author/RK)

  16. Physical Distance and Attraction: An Intensification Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffenbauer, Allen; Schiavo, R. Steven

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of both interaction distance and the quality of the interaction upon attraction. The implications of this research for studies concerning crowding is discussed, as are possible explanatory mechanisms. (Editor/RK)

  17. The Outing Club: Science without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Paul Dow; Burks, Timothy

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to give students an opportunity to strengthen skills that will make them effective group members, authors developed a program, "The Doherty School Outing Club", that stresses group dynamics in an outdoor setting. (Author/RK)

  18. Anthropology: Adrenalin for a Tired High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Orry

    1973-01-01

    Anthropology, particularly cultural anthropology, can bring new life into an overworked curriculum provided great care is taken in assembling appropriate materials and in devising good instructional approaches. Article provides guides for selection of recommended materials. (Editor/RK)

  19. A computer program for determining truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    The basic structure of a program to generate the truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta (RK) methods is reformulated to reduce storage requirements significantly and to accommodate variable dimensioning. This FORTRAN program, SUBROUTINE RKEQ, determines truncation error coefficients for RK algorithms for orders 1 through 10 and extends the order of coefficients through 12 with the 11th- and 12th-order terms determined following the patterns used to establish the lower order coefficients. Both subroutines (the original and RKEQ) are also written to treat RK m-fold methods which utilize m known derivatives of f to increase the order of the algorithm. Setting m = 0 gives the classical RK algorithm.

  20. Biofeedback and Electrodermal Self-Regulation in Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Earl P.; Schwartz, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Data replicate and extend research on differences in physiological patterning between psychopaths and control subjects and provide new information on patterning with instructions and learned specificity with biofeedback. (Author/RK)

  1. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  2. Reactions to Bennett: Towards a More Rational Debate--A Head's Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryke, David

    1977-01-01

    Discusses Neville Bennett's research in "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress", which addresses itself to classroom-related issues and uses the current practice of teachers as a basis for clarifying them. (Author/RK)

  3. Brainwriting in the Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Ilse Gerda

    1973-01-01

    Considers the problem of taking dictation in a music class and recognizes the importance of perception for understanding musical structure. Author demonstrates his point with an analysis of a German folksong. (RK)

  4. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  5. American Studies in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Roy

    1976-01-01

    American studies in British schools touch on issues like democracy in political theory and practice, war and peace, race relations, the situations and feelings of the adolescent. Considers the implications for educational standards in Great Britain. (Author/RK)

  6. What Can Career Education Offer the Bilingual Bicultural Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, Mary R.

    1975-01-01

    Defined Career Education and Bilingual Education and outlined the objectives and responsibilities of both in providing bilingual-bicultural students the educational tools to assist them in making decisions necessary for achieving their goals. (Author/RK)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... A, Holme E, Gregersen N, Turnbull DM, Morris AA. ETFDH mutations as a major cause of riboflavin- ... Citation on PubMed Olsen RK, Pourfarzam M, Morris AA, Dias RC, Knudsen I, Andresen BS, Gregersen N, ...

  8. Abraham Maslow: On the Potential of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podeschi, Ronald L.; Podeschi, Phyllis J.

    1973-01-01

    Authors presented some principal perspectives by the psychologist, Abraham Maslow, who died in 1970, and who was writing about the potential of women long before it became popular to do so. (Author/RK)

  9. An MENC Bicentennial Commission Report on State Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The MENC Bicentennial Commission requested each state chairman to submit a list of projects that were representative of the activities in that state. Included here are 27 states and the music activities appropriate for the Bicentennial year. (Editor/RK)

  10. Alternative Programs and Desegregation in Flint, Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Marianne Russell

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the results of the Flint, Michigan Board of Education's decision to include extensive development of alternative programs as part of the Quality Education/Desegregation Plan developed for the Flint schools. (Author/RK)

  11. Enuresis: A Controversial Problem in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Richard M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of an adaptation of the Mowrer device for the treatment of enuretic children, that is, children who involuntarily and unconsciously pass urine in bed while asleep after an arbitrary age limit of 4 years. (Author/RK)

  12. Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Whitesel, Pauline

    1976-01-01

    Articles described a program for developing the writing readiness of students, for learning the value of money and its purchasing power, and for learning about nursery rhymes as actors rather than just as readers. (RK)

  13. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  14. Computational Linguistics in Denmark: A Report on the Third AILA Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses papers delivered at the third triennial congress of the Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquee held in Copenhagen. Several papers dealt with current work using computers for language analysis and processing. (Author/RK)

  15. On Stage, Everybody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Joyce; Liebman, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the roles that physically handicapped children play in a music theatre designed by a music teacher who realized that boys and girls, regardless of their physical conditions, are all potential theatrical hams. (Author/RK)

  16. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  17. The Street Musicians of San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary R.

    1974-01-01

    The author, a street musician herself, tells the story of her experiences making a living from playing music in the streets, an activity that she describes as "somewhere between the practice room and the recital hall". (Author/RK)

  18. Music Literature for Band and Wind Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Derald

    1977-01-01

    Provides some music literature sources for band and wind ensembles. Since music literature is crucial to both musical groups and the music curriculum evolves from music, these references are most important. (RK)

  19. A Musical Investigation of the Kamin Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallarico, P. Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Author attempted to relate research in the area of musical studies with Leon Kamin's research with animals. The experiment with human subjects set out to measure the presentation of auditory stimuli without punishment as an indication of memorization processes. (RK)

  20. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  1. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  2. The Psychologist's Dilemma: Killing Alligators vs. Draining The Swamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the problems of the school psychologist, his relationship with the school as a whole as well as with individual children, and the effect teachers can have on child psychological development. (RK)

  3. Seeing, Knowing, Doing, Part 111: Impressionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Michael

    1975-01-01

    This is the third and final article in a series that describes an approach to teaching art that integrates the critical, historical and productive aspects of art learning and provides a natural forum for ideas. (Author/RK)

  4. Word Recognition Thresholds as a Function of Verbal Ability in Two Experimental Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Larry G.; Platnick, Daniel M.

    1974-01-01

    Among the objectives of the present study was the intention to replicate Spielberger and Denny's (1963) procedure with a different set of words, a different test of verbal ability, and a larger and different group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  5. 9-13 Middle Schools: A Local View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorwood, Brian

    1978-01-01

    States that his experience leads him to question the similarity of constitution among middle schools. Examines the causes of that diversity which he believes characterizes the nine to thirteen middle school system in Hull. (Author/RK)

  6. Hey, Did You "Really" Hear That Kid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles M.; Whitfield, Truman

    1976-01-01

    Provides suggestions for developing effective communication between students and their teachers. 350 elementary students responded on how well they thought their teachers listened to their story-telling. (RK)

  7. Interrupted Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWell, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

  8. Strangely Conservative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldon, Michael

    1977-01-01

    A West German teacher visits East Germany to see how their school system operates. He uses his experience as a British teacher as background for comparing the similarities and differences of Communist and non-Communist school practice. (RK)

  9. Schools on the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, David

    1976-01-01

    Parental choice of school is still a contentious issue, often cutting across political or educational loyalties. Here a detailed description of the pioneering voucher experiment in Alum Rock, California is provided. (Editor/RK)

  10. Rehabilitation in Hawaii and the Pacific Basin: Keia Mua Aku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Tim

    1976-01-01

    Provides an overview of rehabilitation in Hawaii and the Pacific Basin. This future perspective includes a description of projected service needs and programs, with an emphasis upon education and training, and required resources. (Author/RK)

  11. Reclaiming the Weekend Ethnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plocha, Edward F.

    1975-01-01

    The author, director of the Title IX Ethnic Studies Project at the National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs in Washington, D.C., discussed the value of ethnic origins and how they tie into our religious and social fabric. (RK)

  12. Components of Processing Deficit Among Paranoid and Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared to normals in their performance on a sentence verification task. Results were related to past evidence and hypotheses about central processing performance among schizophrenics. (Editor/RK)

  13. Measuring Faculty Unionism: Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aussieker, Bill; Garbarino, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an analysis of the structure and character of faculty unionism and discusses some of the major definitional issues as well as some current indices of the status of collective bargaining. (Author/RK)

  14. Ethical Problems in Fetal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, David G.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics and frequency of Cooley's anemia and sickle cell anemia were briefly reviewed. As well the genetic rationale for antenatal diagnosis of these conditions were discussed along with the present status of diagnostic technology. (Author/RK)

  15. Corps on the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Tim

    1976-01-01

    Should the Ministry of Defence still be spending over 2 million pounds on combined cadet forces? Are CCFs merely a leftover from the Raj, or a valuable training ground for leadership? Author reports. (Editor/RK)

  16. The Involvement of Dutch Universities in Development Cooperation: The Current Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, G. J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the contribution Dutch universities can make to development cooperation through collaboration in the fields of higher education and research with partners from Third World countries. (Author/RK)

  17. The Drug Education Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the problems of alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction and their influence on students. Suggests that intermediate and secondary schools can assist in alcohol and tobacco (the two legal drugs) programs through improved educational methods. (Author/RK)

  18. Learned Irrelevance and Learned Helplessness: Rats Learn that Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Responses are Uncorrelated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    Demonstrates that preexposure to uncorrelated presentations of noises and shocks when rats are not permitted to respond interferes with the acquisition of both conditioned emotional response and signaled punishment suppression. (Author/RK)

  19. Foundation for Film and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, G.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive discussion on the Stichting Film en Wetenschap, SFW (Foundation for Film and Science), in Utrecht. Various aspects of the use of audio-visual aids in university teaching are looked at in detail. (Editor/RK)

  20. Nietzsche's View of Sublimation in the Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Ann Margaret

    1975-01-01

    Article outlined Nietzsche's beliefs on the primary aim of education, the conscious production of the free man through the process of sublimation, the active redirecting of one's life energy in the service of creativity. (Editor/RK)

  1. Infant of diabetic mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 39. Moore TR, Hauguel-De Mouzon S, Catalano P. Diabetes in pregnancy. ... RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal ...

  2. Politics and the New Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Walt

    1974-01-01

    Author's aim in this article was to present humanistic or "third-force" psychology as a perspective from which to consider political events and the way we study them in the social sciences. (Author/RK)

  3. The Humanistic Treatment Philosophy of Innovative Drug Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolton, Marilyn S.

    1973-01-01

    This article presents a philosophy perceived by young professionals, often members of the counterculture, who completed a series of questions concerning innovative programs with a humanistic orientation to drug treatment. (Author/RK)

  4. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  5. You and Me in an Outdoor Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wally E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes student involvement in developing an arboretum, transforming a dumping ground into a children's park, setting up micro-environments, and building a fragile ecosystem on their school grounds. (Author/RK)

  6. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  7. Aftereffects of Lithium-Conditioned Stimuli on Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Gillan, Douglas J.

    1977-01-01

    To complement investigations of the direct effects of lithium toxicosis on consummatory behavior, these experiments were designed to determine the aftereffects on drinking of exposure to a conditioned stimulus previously paired with lithium. (Author/RK)

  8. The First Training Colleges for Teachers of the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the founding of the first schools for the education of blind students in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century and the long period of development for establishing institutions for training teachers of those blind students. (RK)

  9. The Seventeenth Century English Constitutional Struggle and its Philosophical Impact on the American Colonies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Richard Glen

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the influence upon the American colonists by English history this article examined briefly the tyrannical suppression of liberties in England which the makers of the United States Constitution were determined to prevent. (Author/RK)

  10. The Aggression-Inhibiting Influence of Nonhostile Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)

  11. Treatment of Encopresis in a Classroom Setting: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, E.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes the procedure and results of a behavior modification program carried out in the classroom and aimed at eliminating encopresis (involuntary defecation) in an 8-year-old boy. (Editor/RK)

  12. Some Effects of Parental Injunctions on the Visual Art Education of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Nancy H.

    1975-01-01

    Article sought the sources and manifestations of parent interference with children's artistic development and described some educational techniques that the teacher of art at the adult level can use to cope with blocks to artistic development. (Author/RK)

  13. Self sufficient world

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Lynn

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of Sietze Leeflang, a Dutch scientific journalist, and his group of young scientists to take a practical stand on environmental pollution by working their small farm in innovative fashion. (RK)

  14. Comparing Traditional Clinical Procedures with Four Systems to Diagnose Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmark, Charles S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to compare four formal systematic approaches (loose associations, autism, loss of ego boundaries, and delusions) to the diagnosis of schizophrenia with the traditional, more informal hospital procedures typically used in psychiatric inpatient settings. (Author/RK)

  15. Art and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robin

    1975-01-01

    The art department at Fremont Junior High School in Mesa, Arizona, developed a project in which Indian, Mexican-American, and White-Anglo American students learned about their different cultural values and tradititions. (Author/RK)

  16. Evaluation of Locally Produced Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fred

    1976-01-01

    Describes conditions important to the assessment process in the development of instructional materials. Out of these conditions several questions were suggested as key check points in the assessment model. (Author/RK)

  17. Plastic People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzella, Vivien

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing sheets of polyethylene and discarded items from the art room or their homes, sixth-grade students created their favorite personalities. Being able to see through them revealed their true character and individualism. (Editor/RK)

  18. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  19. Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Dorothy K.

    1972-01-01

    Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

  20. The Other Gibbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevor-Roper, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Considers the other Gibbon, independent of his greatest work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"; concentrates on the period before the conception of the book and after the delivery of it. (Author/RK)

  1. Independent Study: A Report from Hamden High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Helene B.

    1973-01-01

    Article considered an independent study program in which students assume all practical responsibility for their learning, for the use they make of released time, and for accomplishing the goals of their study. (Author/RK)

  2. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  3. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. Craig SA. Gastroenteritis. In: Marx ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 94. Mody RK, Griffin PM. ...

  4. MAINTENANCE AND STABILITY OF INTRODUCED GENOTYPES IN GROUNDWATER AQUIFER MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three indigenous groundwater bacterial strains and Pseudomonas putida harboring plasmids TOL (pWWO) and RK2 were introduced into experimentally contaminated groundwater aquifer microcosms. Maintenance of the introduced genotypes was measured over time by colony hybridization with...

  5. Pregnancy on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddall, Lawrence B.; Cann, Michael A.

    1973-01-01

    This study of pregnant students was intended to improve services to the students, and to develop a more effective program for preventing unwanted pregnancies and the residual problems that accompany a lack of contraceptive awareness. (Author/RK)

  6. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  7. Creativity, Intelligence, and Moral Development in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Corsini, David A.

    1976-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between creativity as a cognitive process and the level of moral reasoning as well as the relationship between moral reasoning level and various combinations of creativity and intelligence. (Author/RK)

  8. Our Mighty Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gragg, Betty A.

    1976-01-01

    History and geography are more than units in textbooks for students in Warren County, Mississippi. Here students have the opportunity to express visually and verbally the influences of the Mighty Mississippi on everyday life. (Author/RK)

  9. Warning: Your Classroom May Be Dangerous to Your Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare discusses the national need to ensure that all children are immunized against childhood diseases--polio, measles, rubella, mumps, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. (RK)

  10. Neighborhood Schools and Racial Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Daniel T.

    1975-01-01

    Neighborhood school concept and racially segregated residential patterns account for most of the segregation in American public schools today. The focus of this article will be to explain the reasons for residential segregation. (Author/RK)

  11. Power Without Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Tim

    1976-01-01

    Who exactly are Her Majesty's Inspectorate? How are they selected and trained? What do they actually do with their time? Investigates "the eyes and ears of the Department of Education and Science". (Editor/RK)

  12. Grammar and the Blue Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington, Melinda

    1975-01-01

    Author made observations on methods he found useful in helping the high school student to bridge the gap between his uncertain grammatical knowledge and his understanding of its applications to his own speech and writing. (Author/RK)

  13. Implications of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    1977-01-01

    Explains the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunities Act Amendments of 1976 (Public Law 94-239, 94th Congress, H.R. 6516, March 23, 1976), discusses their implications, and suggests enforcement improvements in the Act. (Author/RK)

  14. Getting Ready--Looking into Education's Crystal Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Phil; And Others

    1977-01-01

    What's ahead in your world, and how are you going to handle it? What effects are educational developments going to have on you and your children? Five experts in elementary education take short looks into the future. (Editor/RK)

  15. Prediction of Self-Actualization in Male Participants in a Group Conducted by Female Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to predict which male Ss (high or low authoritarian personality) would reflect higher self-actualization scores when exposed to a 16-hour marathon group conducted by female leaders. (Author/RK)

  16. Schooling in a Post-Industrial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William, E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the coming post-industrial society for its possible effects on the education-schooling syndrome we now have. Emphasizes the sociological writings of the "father" of post-industrialism, Daniel Bell. (Author/RK)

  17. Re-Shaping the Upper Secondary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husen, Torsten

    1975-01-01

    Article listed guiding principles for the upper secondary school curriculum of the post-industrial society as an attempt to meet the educational needs of the young people of today and the citizens of tomorrow. (Author/RK)

  18. Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Fibers and fabrics provide the raw materials for a great variety of art activities that are adaptable to practically all grade levels. Here are some stitchery projects for the art teacher with a limited budget for supplies. (Author/RK)

  19. Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    1976-01-01

    This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

  20. Misoe Sample Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creager, John A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Among the purposes of this chapter is the provision of a description of the sample and research design of the MISOE sample data systems, including a specification of the size of the sample. (Author/RK)

  1. Early Childhood: All About the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chedsey, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    Young children meet their librarian, learn what libraries do for young readers, see different kinds of libraries, and find out how they can help the librarian keep the library working efficiently. (RK)

  2. How to Rent Music for Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Provided information about rental procedures for performance materials for musical works and an order form supplied by the Music Publisher's Association of the United States and the American Symphony Orchestra League. (Author/RK)

  3. Motivational Basis of Choice in Three-Choice Decomposed Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Charles G.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    One of the purposes of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a three-choice situation that displays payoffs in a simple, direct and flexible manner for discriminating social motives. (Author/RK)

  4. Children at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Colin; Golzen, Ann

    1978-01-01

    Could it be that children learn more about the world of work by being workers, than by having a lesson on the subject? Evaluates the attraction of street work and provides photographs of children at work. (Editor/RK)

  5. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  6. Student Apathy - 1970's Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Graham B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In order to counteract the disrespect for authority and contempt for older generation values, universities must reevaluate the changing needs of their students and consider improved health services as well as the emotional climate of the campus. (Author/RK)

  7. Silberman and the British on Aesthetic Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1973-01-01

    Author describes two instructive ways of illustrating the principal business of aesthetic education and summarizes the way in which the notion of a form of understanding is dealt with by Dearden. (Author/RK)

  8. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  9. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  10. Intellectual Changes after Closed Head Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    This study provided more details on the nature of the intellectual deficit suffered by persons having closed head injuries and the recovery process as measured on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). (Author/RK)

  11. The Internal Politics of Negotiations and NCA Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karl J.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the politics of power among campus constituencies and presents proposals for developing a course of action that preserves the autonomy of the North Central Association thereby providing a third-party view of institutional quality. (Author/RK)

  12. Toward Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakata, Betsy

    1975-01-01

    Author challenged educators to change their educational viewpoints, and further suggested that society as a whole review its cultural patterns into viewing education as a cradle to the grave activity. (Editor/RK)

  13. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  14. A Brief History of Continuing Education in Nursing in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe S.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the history of continuing education in nursing from the earliest activities sponsored by alumnae associations through its necessity as a condition for the relicensure of nurses and other health professionals. (Author/RK)

  15. Partnership in Urban Education: An Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Albert I.

    1975-01-01

    Article considered a book which is, in a measure, a case study of a large Philadelphia high school spinning off some alternative units in an attempt to humanize learning for its predominantly black student population. (Author/RK)

  16. The Believability of People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.

    1974-01-01

    Author presented a set of general criteria for judging the statements of people who speak or write with an air of authority and applied these criteria to a particular case, a printed discussion of tooth care. (Author/RK)

  17. Transituational Immunization and Therapy of Learned Helplessness in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Steven F.; Williams, Jon L.

    1977-01-01

    These experiments are addressed specifically to the question of whether transituational transfer of immunizing and therapeutic effects will occur when these procedures involve responses and settings which are very different from those used in final testing. (Author/RK)

  18. Odd Country Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Judith

    1976-01-01

    Last month the TES published an article on the continuing use of corporal punishment in Scottish primary schools. Here the author, MP for Lanark, recalls an earlier campaign to get rid of the tawse (leather strap). (Editor/RK)

  19. High School Morale and Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Grant

    1973-01-01

    This study covered the formation of a concept of student morale described in terms of the concepts of humanistic psychology and the development of an instrument which would permit the measurement of student morale thus defined, (Author/RK)

  20. The Technology of Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farson, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on key issues in this critique of humanistic psychology and examines eight areas of investigation in an attempt to develop humanistic psychology as a serious alternative to the empty scientism it was founded to counteract. (Author/RK)

  1. Who are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Janet

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of an elementary school teacher to help her students to think and verbalize about their current experiences while including in the lesson some art history of the Paleolithic period. (Author/RK)

  2. Composing and Arranging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  3. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  4. Predelinquent Behavior in Males: Perspectives and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Herbert; Kohl, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Discusses several approaches for solving the problem of delinquency including Quay's empirical system, Warren's theoretical system, Hogan's theory of moral conduct, and Bandura's social learning theory. (Author/RK)

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INFECTIOUS AND NON-INFECTIOUS SUB-POPULATIONS OF ENCEPHALITIZOON INTESTINALIS SPORES PURIFIED FROM IN VITRO CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Encephalitizoon intestinalis spores were propagated in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells and were purified using density gradient (Percoll [registered trademark]) centrifugation. Purified spores were enumeraged and aliquotted using flow cytometry with cell sorting for use...

  6. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  7. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  8. Emma Goldman: Crusader for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Joy

    1977-01-01

    Author concentrates not on the fiery anarchism for which "Red" Emma Goldman was internationally famous, but on the dilemmas of an anarchist-educator as reflected in her attitude toward children. (Editor/RK)

  9. Educational Futurism and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, V. Eugene

    1976-01-01

    The self-fulfilling prophecy can play a dynamic role in the outcome of forecasts for educational futures. Points out that a situation defined as "real" or true in the present has "real" consequences for the future. (Editor/RK)

  10. Eight Prevalent Myths About Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowd, Alan D.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous examples of misinformation which are often taken for granted by individuals involved in the education of Indian children. Lists the author's perception of eight of the most prevalent general myths. (Author/RK)

  11. Curriculum Development at the Regional Level Through Regional Education Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Otto

    1973-01-01

    In its need for educational reform, Western Germany planned the establishment of a central agency for the planning and documentation of curriculum research and development. This article discussed that agency and the development of RECs. (Author/RK)

  12. Good-bye Garage, Hello CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augur, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    The idea of having a religious education center in a four car garage may sound ridiculous to some but to the parishioners of Saint George's Church in Guilford, Connecticut, it was heaven-sent. (Author/RK)

  13. Undergraduate Specialization in Education: One Alternative Role for Faculties of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripple, Richard E.; Ayabe, Harold I.

    1975-01-01

    Colleges of Education need to be viewed as more than a job training institution. Authors suggested the viability of a non-teaching major specialization in the undergraduate study of education. (Editor/RK)

  14. Patterns of Political Socialization in North Korean Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-Chan

    1973-01-01

    Considers the government's use of the schools in North Korea and its instructional programs as a means of political indoctrination that aims at shaping and remolding North Korean youth into communists. (Author/RK)

  15. Picture-Word Differences in Discrimination Learning: 11. Effects of Conceptual Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lyle E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the prediction that the usual superiority of pictures over words for repetitions of the same items would disappear for items that were different instances of repeated categories. (Author/RK)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... colitis is unknown because many genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. Even though the ... Parkes M, Annese V, Hakonarson H, Radford-Smith G, Duerr RH, Vermeire S, Weersma RK, Rioux JD. Meta-analysis identifies ...

  17. Scale and Contour: Two Components of a Theory of Memory for Melodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, W. Jay

    1978-01-01

    The author concentrates on two components of memory which contribute to the reproduction and recognition of melodies, namely, melodic contour and musical scale. A new experiment is reported that shows the interdependence of both components. (Author/RK)

  18. Out of the Dark Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, John

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the circumstances under which an individual may be legally confined to a mental institution. This includes the definition of "dangerousness", the attitudes of psychiatrists and civil libertarians, and a compromise solution between those viewpoints. (Author/RK)

  19. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  20. There's Method in Our Madness: Interpersonal Attraction as a Multidimensional Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, R. Michael

    1976-01-01

    Examines the similarity-attraction relationship using rating scale and bogus pipeline (a pseudophysiological monitoring device) techniques within the context of individual differences in social desirability biases and variations in experimental demands. (Author/RK)

  1. Job Dissatisfaction and Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Based on the psychosocial factor that life dissatisfactions may be associated with physical illnesses, this research examines the relationship between job dissatisfaction and its causal link to premature death from heart disease. (Author/RK)

  2. Teenage Drinking and Alcohol Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail

    1974-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of youth and allow them to participate constructively in shaping society, alcohol education is a necessary and critical area in which society must exhibit direct, honest, and guiding concern. (Author/RK)

  3. The Coil Method in Contemporary Ceramics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1976-01-01

    For centuries coil building has been the primary method of making pottery the world over. Many classrooms still reflect this preference for symmetrical coil building. Describes coil building and what forms can be made from it. (Author/RK)

  4. Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Thorough advance planning will eliminate much of the clutter and the mud hazards associated with the introduction of ceramics. Provides some helpful suggestions for teaching ceramics in an efficient and tidy fashion. (Author/RK)

  5. Lovable Lessons from the Creature Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, William

    1975-01-01

    Article suggested that if teachers are adequate to the task, all manner of lessons can be drawn from pets. These run the gamut from math to language skills to social sciences to sex education. (Author/RK)

  6. Prediction In Future Samples Studied In Terms Of The Gain From Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan L.

    1973-01-01

    Expressions for the expected value, density, and distribution function (DF) of GS (gain from selection) are derived and studied in terms of sample size, number of predictors, and the prior distribution assigned to the population multiple correlation. (Author/RK)

  7. Explicit Runge-Kutta method with trigonometrically-fitted for solving first order ODEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi, Firas Adel; Senu, N.; Ismail, F.; Majid, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    In this note, an explicit trigonometrically-fitted (RK) method is developed to determine the approximate solution of the first-order IVPs with oscillatory solution. The proposed method solves first order ODEs by first converting the second order ODEs to an equivalent first order; which is based on the RK method of order four. The numerical experiment performed shows the efficacy of our newly developed method.

  8. Design study of beam dynamics issues for 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.; Yu, S.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.

    1994-11-01

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. The author present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. They have achieved in their design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA.

  9. Subtle Regulation of Potato Acid Invertase Activity by a Protein Complex of Invertase, Invertase Inhibitor, and SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Tengfei; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Zhang, Huiling; Li, Meng; Sonnewald, Uwe; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2015-08-01

    Slowing down cold-induced sweetening (CIS) of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers is of economic importance for the potato industry to ensure high-quality products. The conversion of sucrose to reducing sugars by the acid invertase StvacINV1 is thought to be critical for CIS. Identification of the specific StvacINV1 inhibitor StInvInh2B and the α- and β-subunits of the interacting protein SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii (SbSnRK1) has led to speculation that invertase activity may be regulated via a posttranslational mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, this study confirmed the protein complex by pairwise interactions. In vitro kinase assays and protein phosphorylation analysis revealed that phosphorylation of SbSnRK1α is causal for StvacINV1 activity and that its active form blocks the inhibition of StInvInh2B by SbSnRK1β, whereas its inactive form restores the function of SbSnRK1β that prevents StInvInh2B from repressing StvacINV1. Overexpression of SbSnRK1α in CIS-sensitive potato confirmed that SbSnRK1α has significant effects on acid invertase-associated sucrose degradation. A higher level of SbSnRK1α expression was accompanied by elevated SbSnRK1α phosphorylation, reduced acid invertase activity, a higher sucrose-hexose ratio, and improved chip color. Our results lend new insights into a subtle regulatory mode of invertase activity and provide a novel approach for potato CIS improvement. PMID:26134163

  10. Support services for the Office of Energy efficiency and renewable energy. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., under Contract No. DE-AC01-94CE34027, provides technical and economic analysis support services to the Advanced Utility Concepts Division (AUCD) of DOE. Energetics, Inc. is a subcontractor to R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc. The work performed under this contract is mainly for the DOE Hydrogen R&D Program, although a limited amount of activities are also undertaken for the DOE Battery Energy Storage Program.

  11. Raspberry ketone promotes the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tomoyo; Morimoto, Chie

    2014-03-01

    The decrease in the bone mass associated with osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy, aging, and other conditions is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. The balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is influenced by a reciprocal relationship. The development of modalities to promote local/systemic bone formation by inhibiting bone marrow adipose tissue is important in the treatment of fractures or metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we examined whether raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one; RK], which is one of the major aromatic compounds of red raspberry and exhibits anti-obesity action, could promote osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 stem cells. Confluent C3H10T1/2 stem cells were treated for 6 days with 10-100 μg/mL of RK in culture medium containing 10 nM all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 300 ng/mL recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 protein as an osteoblast-differentiating agent. RK in the presence of ATRA increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. RK in the presence of rhBMP-2 also increased ALP activity. RK in the presence of ATRA also increased the levels of mRNAs of osteocalcin, α1(I) collagen, and TGF-βs (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) compared with ATRA only. RK promoted the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts. However, RK did not affect the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that RK enhances the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts, and it may promote bone formation by an action unrelated to adipocyte differentiation. PMID:24404978

  12. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  13. The Arabidopsis SR45 Splicing Factor, a Negative Regulator of Sugar Signaling, Modulates SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 Stability.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raquel F; Szakonyi, Dóra; Simpson, Craig G; Barbosa, Inês C R; Brown, John W S; Baena-González, Elena; Duque, Paula

    2016-08-01

    The ability to sense and respond to sugar signals allows plants to cope with environmental and metabolic changes by adjusting growth and development accordingly. We previously reported that the SR45 splicing factor negatively regulates glucose signaling during early seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we show that under glucose-fed conditions, the Arabidopsis sr45-1 loss-of-function mutant contains higher amounts of the energy-sensing SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 (SnRK1) despite unaffected SnRK1 transcript levels. In agreement, marker genes for SnRK1 activity are upregulated in sr45-1 plants, and the glucose hypersensitivity of sr45-1 is attenuated by disruption of the SnRK1 gene. Using a high-resolution RT-PCR panel, we found that the sr45-1 mutation broadly targets alternative splicing in vivo, including that of the SR45 pre-mRNA itself. Importantly, the enhanced SnRK1 levels in sr45-1 are suppressed by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that SR45 promotes targeting of the SnRK1 protein for proteasomal destruction. Finally, we demonstrate that SR45 regulates alternative splicing of the Arabidopsis 5PTase13 gene, which encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase previously shown to interact with and regulate the stability of SnRK1 in vitro, thus providing a mechanistic link between SR45 function and the modulation of degradation of the SnRK1 energy sensor in response to sugars. PMID:27436712

  14. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses.

    PubMed

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A; Kay, Steve A; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-09-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  15. EGY: Progress Toward a Global Earth and Space Science Informatics Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    The series of International Polar Years leading up to the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-1958 taught scientists that the free and open exchange of data be-tween nations was cost effective and scientifically beneficial. The IGY also led to the de-velopment of a world-wide network of data centers that have facilitated and fostered re-search begun in the IGY. We now have achieved an unparalleled ability to acquire data and have attained a good understanding of traditional regions - the troposphere, the mag-netosphere, and other such "spheres". Much of the new and important science is presently coming from the study of the boundaries between these regions and of coupling between geophysical domains. The past 15 years have seen the development of many cost effec-tive ways to acquire, store, and exchange data. We have the potential to expand the ex-change of data by allowing working scientists to access and manipulate data from large interdisciplinary data centers as well as from small, previously isolated, research groups. The key to this technology requires adoption of a few communitydeveloped standards for data storage and description to form an "Informatics Commons." It has been agreed that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, scientific societies should promote the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories. This can provide a forward impetus to geophysics in this century similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The Electronic Geo-physical Year (eGY) concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., oceanographic, seismic, atmospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, ionospheric, magnetospheric, etc.) and is helping organize them into a series of virtual geophysical observatories "de-ployed" in cyberspace. This concept implies access to all available data through the Internet and World Wide Web, taking advantage of existing networking hardware and software technologies (e.g., Internet, XML, Service- Oriented Architectures, Web 2

  16. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  17. Convergence Acceleration of Runge-Kutta Schemes for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Turkel, Eli; Rossow, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The convergence of a Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid is accelerated by preconditioning with a fully implicit operator. With the extended stability of the Runge-Kutta scheme, CFL numbers as high as 1000 can be used. The implicit preconditioner addresses the stiffness in the discrete equations associated with stretched meshes. This RK/implicit scheme is used as a smoother for multigrid. Fourier analysis is applied to determine damping properties. Numerical dissipation operators based on the Roe scheme, a matrix dissipation, and the CUSP scheme are considered in evaluating the RK/implicit scheme. In addition, the effect of the number of RK stages is examined. Both the numerical and computational efficiency of the scheme with the different dissipation operators are discussed. The RK/implicit scheme is used to solve the two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Turbulent flows over an airfoil and wing at subsonic and transonic conditions are computed. The effects of the cell aspect ratio on convergence are investigated for Reynolds numbers between 5:7 x 10(exp 6) and 100 x 10(exp 6). It is demonstrated that the implicit preconditioner can reduce the computational time of a well-tuned standard RK scheme by a factor between four and ten.

  18. Low-storage implicit/explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for the simulation of stiff high-dimensional ODE systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Implicit/explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes are effective for time-marching ODE systems with both stiff and nonstiff terms on the RHS; such schemes implement an (often A-stable or better) implicit RK scheme for the stiff part of the ODE, which is often linear, and, simultaneously, a (more convenient) explicit RK scheme for the nonstiff part of the ODE, which is often nonlinear. Low-storage RK schemes are especially effective for time-marching high-dimensional ODE discretizations of PDE systems on modern (cache-based) computational hardware, in which memory management is often the most significant computational bottleneck. In this paper, we develop and characterize eight new low-storage implicit/explicit RK schemes which have higher accuracy and better stability properties than the only low-storage implicit/explicit RK scheme available previously, the venerable second-order Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray (CN/RKW3) algorithm that has dominated the DNS/LES literature for the last 25 years, while requiring similar storage (two, three, or four registers of length N) and comparable floating-point operations per timestep.

  19. Rhododenol and raspberry ketone impair the normal proliferation of melanocytes through reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of GADD45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Baek, Heung Soo; Lee, Miri; Park, Hyeonji; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Dal Woong; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-04-01

    Rhododenol or rhododendrol (RD, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol) occurs naturally in many plants along with raspberry ketone (RK, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone), a ketone derivative, which include Nikko maple tree (Acer nikoense) and white birch (Betula platyphylla). De-pigmenting activity of RD was discovered and it was used as a brightening ingredient for the skin whitening cosmetics. Recently, cosmetics containing RD were withdrawn from the market because a number of consumers developed leukoderma, inflammation and erythema on their face, neck and hands. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying the toxicity of RD and RK against melanocytes using B16F10 murine melanoma cells and human primary epidermal melanocytes. Treatment with RD or RK resulted in the decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner which appeared from cell growth arrest. Consistently, ROS generation was significantly increased by RD or RK as determined by DCF-enhanced fluorescence. An antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase was depleted as well. In line with ROS generation, oxidative damages and the arrest of normal cell proliferation, GADD genes (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage) that include GADD45 and GADD153, were significantly up-regulated. Prevention of ROS generation with an anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly rescued RD and RK-suppressed melanocyte proliferation. Consistently, up-regulation of GADD45 and GADD153 was significantly attenuated by NAC, suggesting that increased ROS and the resultant growth arrest of melanocytes may contribute to RD and RK-induced leukoderma. PMID:26867644

  20. Metabolism of ginsenosides Rk₃ and Rh₄ from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wei, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish were qualitatively investigated, and their possible metabolic pathways were subsequently proposed. Metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole -Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). The separation was performed with a UPLC BEH C18 column using a binary gradient elution of 0.1 % formic acetonitrile -0.1 % formic acid water. The quasi-molecular ions of compounds were detected in negative mode. According to the quasi-molecular ions and MS2 spectra, after comparison with reference standards, molecular mass information and the potential structures about metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were obtained. In all, 5 and 6 metabolites of ginsenoside Rk3 and Rh4 including M1(M6), M2(M7), M3-M5 and N1, N2(N7), N3-N6 were identified in zebrafish respectively, which were to our knowledge reported for the first time. The results indicated that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were metabolized via desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, and loss of C-17 and C-23 residue pathways in zebrafish. Loss of glucose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 or C-6 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic processes of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4. PMID:25547981