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Sample records for igm enzyme immunoassay

  1. Enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the clinical performance of enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence. METHODS--Classification of routine clinical samples from the originating laboratories was compared with that obtained using the chemiluminescence based assays. Resolution of discordant results was achieved by testing in alternative enzyme immunoassays (IgM) or by an independent laboratory using the dye test (IgG). RESULTS--Compared with resolved data, the IgM assay was found to be highly specific (100%) with a cut off selected to give optimal performance with respect to both the early detection of specific IgM and the detection of persistent levels of specific IgM (sensitivity 98%). Compared with resolved data, the IgG assay was shown to have a sensitivity and a specificity of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS--The Amerlite Toxo IgM assay possesses high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Assay interference due to rheumatoid factor like substances is not a problem. The Amerlite Toxo IgG assay possesses good sensitivity and specificity, but is less sensitive for the detection of seroconversion than methods detecting both IgG and IgM. PMID:7560174

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for the Detection of IgM Antibodies in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Kantipong, Pacharee; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and determined the optimal diagnostic optical density (OD) cutoffs for screening and diagnostic applications based on prospectively collected, characterized samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients in northern Thailand. Direct comparisons with the serological gold standard, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), revealed strong statistical correlation of ELISA OD values and IFA IgM titers. Determination of the optimal ELISA cutoff for seroepidemiology or screening purposes compared to the corresponding IFA reciprocal titer of 400 as previously described for Thailand was 0.60 OD, which corresponded to a sensitivity (Sn) of 84% and a specificity (Sp) of 98%. The diagnostic performance against the improved and more-stringent scrub typhus infection criteria (STIC), correcting for low false-positive IFA titers, resulted in an Sn of 93% and an Sp of 91% at an ELISA cutoff of 0.5 OD. This diagnostic ELISA cutoff corresponds to IFA reciprocal titers of 1,600 to 3,200, which greatly reduces the false-positive rates associated with low-positive IFA titers. These data are in congruence with the recently improved serodiagnostic positivity criteria using the Bayesian latent class modeling approach. In summary, the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM ELISA is affordable and easy-to-use, with adequate diagnostic accuracy for screening and diagnostic purposes, and should be considered an improved alternative to the gold standard IFA for acute diagnosis. For broader application, regional cutoff validation and antigenic composition for consistent diagnostic accuracy should be considered. PMID:26656118

  3. Biotin IgM Antibodies in Human Blood: A Previously Unknown Factor Eliciting False Results in Biotinylation-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Sderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is an essential vitamin that binds streptavidin or avidin with high affinity and specificity. As biotin is a small molecule that can be linked to proteins without affecting their biological activity, biotinylation is applied widely in biochemical assays. In our laboratory, IgM enzyme immuno assays (EIAs) of -capture format have been set up against many viruses, using as antigen biotinylated virus like particles (VLPs) detected by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. We recently encountered one serum sample reacting with the biotinylated VLP but not with the unbiotinylated one, suggesting in human sera the occurrence of biotin-reactive antibodies. In the present study, we search the general population (612 serum samples from adults and 678 from children) for IgM antibodies reactive with biotin and develop an indirect EIA for quantification of their levels and assessment of their seroprevalence. These IgM antibodies were present in 3% adults regardless of age, but were rarely found in children. The adverse effects of the biotin IgM on biotinylation-based immunoassays were assessed, including four inhouse and one commercial virus IgM EIAs, showing that biotin IgM do cause false positivities. The biotin can not bind IgM and streptavidin or avidin simultaneously, suggesting that these biotin-interactive compounds compete for the common binding site. In competitive inhibition assays, the affinities of biotin IgM antibodies ranged from 2.110?3 to 1.710?4 mol/L. This is the first report on biotin antibodies found in humans, providing new information on biotinylation-based immunoassays as well as new insights into the biomedical effects of vitamins. PMID:22879954

  4. Gold bands as a suitable surface for enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Abad-Villar, Eva M; Fernndez-Abedul, M Teresa; Costa-Garca, Agustn

    2002-09-01

    Gold bands sputtered over a polymeric material, Kapton, are employed for the development of enzyme immunoassays. The immunological interaction takes place between human IgM and alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated anti-IgM. The model analyte (IgM) could be determined following a non-competitive design in the range of 0.05-5 ppm, with a limit of detection of 50 ppb. After the interaction, gold bands are sequentially inserted in a flow system and the extension of the reaction is followed through the enzymatic hydrolysis of naphthylphosphate, AP substrate. The product, naphthol, is oxidised to naphtoquinone in the gold band of the flow cell that constitutes the detector. Parameters affecting the interaction are studied and calibration curves are performed. The reproducibility between different bands (RSD=4%, n=5) and possibilities of regeneration are also detailed. PMID:12191928

  5. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  6. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  7. Comparison of chemiluminescent immunoassay and ELISA for measles IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    In the context of measles elimination, the identification of recent infections is important for clinical laboratories. Serological diagnosis is achieved by detecting specific IgG and IgM. Recently an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Liaison, DiaSorin, Italy) has been used to quantify the measles antibody. The aim of this study was to compare this assay with Enzygnost ELISA (Siemens, Germany), with final classification of discrepancies by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany). For measles IgM, 204 sera were analyzed: 50 IgM-positive, 104 IgM-negative/IgG-positive, and 50 from other viral infections (B19V, rubella, mumps, CMV, and EBV). For the measles IgG assay, 162 samples were tested: 106 were positive and 56 were negative. For measles IgM, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were 94% (95% CI: 83.2-98.6) and 100% (95% CI: 97.1-100), respectively; the corrected figures after the final classification of discrepancies were 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.1-100), respectively. In relation to IgG, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were, respectively, 97.2% (95% CI: 91.7-99.4) and 92.9% (95% CI: 82.5-97.7), and 95.5% (95% CI: 89.5-98.3) and 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100) after the final classification. CLIA showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting measles IgG and IgM antibodies, eliminating the need to aliquot specimens before carrying out the assay. PMID:26140432

  8. Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression Logitboost as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

  9. Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, L T; Nogueira, R M; Cavalcanti, S M; Schatzmayr, H; da Rosa, A T

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay in which Mayaro virus-infected cultured cells are used as antigen (EIA-ICC) and an IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) for Mayaro serologic diagnosis using 114 human sera obtained during a Mayaro outbreak occurred in Bolivia, in 1987. Results were compared with those obtained by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI). MAC-ELISA was the most sensitive technique for anti-Mayaro IgM detection. MAC-ELISA was twice as sensitive as IgM EIA-ICC. The data shows that MAC-ELISA is a practical and valid technique for diagnosis of recent Mayaro infection. IgG EIA-ICC showed high sensitivity and high specificity compared to HAI. The combination of anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM EIA-ICC results presented the highest sensitivity of the study. Anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM simultaneous detection by EIA-ICC can be used for recent infection diagnosis (in spite of a less sensitive IgM detection than by MAC-ELISA), for surveillance and sero-epidemiologic studies, and for studies of IgG and IgM responses to Mayaro infection. PMID:2562487

  10. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for bovine growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Roh, S G; Matsunaga, N; Miyamoto, A; Hidaka, S; Hidari, H

    1997-02-01

    We developed an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for bovine GH (bGH) which is based on indirect competitive immunoassay in culture medium from a bovine pituitary cell culture. 40 microliters cell culture samples (or bGH standard) and bGH antibody (rabbit anti-bGH) were added to the 96 well microplate coated with secondary antibody (Goat anti-rabbit IgG), and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Biotin-label bGH was added and incubated further for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and biotinylated bGH was linked with streptoavidin-peroxidase. Substrates for peroxidase were added to the plate and incubated for 1 h at 4 degrees C. The enzyme reaction was stopped with 4N H2SO4, and the absorbency at 450 nm was measured with an ELISA Reader. The coefficients of intra-assay and inter-assay variations were 4.13 approximately 7.59% and 3.71 approximately 8.27%, respectively. The regression equation and correlation coefficients with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) were y(RIA) = 1.9986 x (EIA) - 1.3921 and 0.9701 (n = 27), respectively. Collectively, the present assay provides a reliable alternative to RIA and offers the major advantage of eliminating radioactive reagents and counting equipment. PMID:9152634

  11. Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Voller, A; Bartlett, A; Bidwell, D E

    1978-01-01

    In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests. PMID:78929

  12. Evaluation of a rapid enzyme immunoassay system for serologic diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Fedorko, D P; Emery, D D; Franklin, S M; Congdon, D D

    1995-11-01

    A 5-min qualitative membrane enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) from Remel (Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin G (IgG)/IgM Antibody Test System) was evaluated for its ability to detect IgM and IgG at levels indicating active or recent infection. Specimens from 131 patients were evaluated using an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) to determine IgG and IgM titers and the membrane EIA. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed by a reference laboratory was used for discrepancy resolution. There were 34 IgM positive specimens (titer > or = 1:16), 19 IgG positive specimens (titer > or = 1:64), and 78 negative specimens. Compared with IFA and/or ELISA, the membrane EIA was 97% sensitive for the detection of IgM and 79% sensitive for the detection of IgG. Of the 78 specimens called negative, 17 specimens had IgG titers< or = 1:32) or an ELISA result indicating prior exposure, and the membrane EIA called seven of 17 (41%) positive. For the detection of both IgG and IgM, the membrane EIA had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 91%, and positive and negative predictive values of 87 and 93%, respectively. The Remel membrane EIA is a rapid and reliable assay for the diagnosis of active or recent M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections. PMID:8849651

  13. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  14. Ability of TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS enzyme immunoassay to diagnose rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Chernesky, M; Castriciano, S; Mahony, J; Spiewak, M; Schaefer, L

    1988-01-01

    TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS, a simple 10-min enzyme immunoassay, was compared with electron microscopy and Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay on feces from 172 patients of various ages with gastroenteritis. The percent sensitivities and specificities before blocking with antiserum were as follows: TESTPACK, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity; Pathfinder, 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. After blocking, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 100% and 100% for TESTPACK and 95% and 99% for Pathfinder. TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS was more sensitive, but not significantly, than Pathfinder (P greater than 0.1) and the direct electron microscopy technique (P greater than 0.1). PMID:3069866

  15. Cross-Reactivity of Rapid Salmonella Typhi IgM Immunoassay in Dengue Fever Without Co-Existing Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farhan; Satti, Siddique Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever is endemic in developing nations worldwidewith as many as 500,000 annual cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).A prompt and accurate diagnosis early in the disease course is essential for prompt identification and treatment of severe complications of the dengue virus infection (DVI).We identified cross-reactivity of a rapid IgM test for typhoid fever in patients with febrile illnesses that were determined to be due to dengue virus. Methods: All patients with documented DVIduring a recent epidemic in Pakistan also underwent diagnostic testing forSalmonella entericaserovar Typhi.The diagnosis ofDVI was made based on clinical findings and the positive results for dengue non-structural protein 1 antigen (NS1Ag) and/or dengue IgM antibody (anti-D IgM) during the acute phase of febrile illness.Patients with positive test results for Salmonella typhi (S. Typhi) IgM also had their blood cultures done. Results: In the group of 322 patients with clinical and serological evidence of DVI, 107 also tested positive forS. TyphiIgM.Blood cultures were negative forS. Typhibacteria in all patients.Principal disease features included fever, headache, myalgia, retro-orbital pain, and a rash accompanied by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.Comparisons of clinical and routine laboratory findings between theS. Typhi-positive and negative groups showed no significant differences. Patients testing positive for both NS1Agand anti-D IgM were significantly more likely to test positive forS. TyphiIgM, even in the absence oftyphoid fever.No routine antibiotics were used and all patients survived. Conclusion: One-third of a large group of patients with primary DVI also demonstrated false positive results for typhoid fever. Cross-reactivity of a rapid immunoassay for typhoid fever has not been previously reported in DVI or any other flavivirus infections. Until these findings can be further evaluated, clinicians should be cautious in interpretingS. Typhirapid immunoassays and have a high index of suspicion of DVI in dengue fever endemic areas.

  16. DETECTION OF NORWALK VIRUS IN STOOLS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a solid-phase microtiter enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stool samples is described. The EIA was compared with a previously developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stools obtained from 30 vol...

  17. Microneutralization test for rabies virus based on an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mannen, K; Mifune, K; Reid-Sanden, F L; Smith, J S; Yager, P A; Sumner, J W; Fishbein, D B; Tong, T C; Baer, G M

    1987-12-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay for rabies virus by using acetone-fixed infected cell cultures as the antigen. This test was used to demonstrate virus-neutralizing antibodies in human and animal sera and was as sensitive as and easier to perform than the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition technique. PMID:3323234

  18. Interference between eplerenone and digoxin in fluorescence polarization immunoassay, microparticle enzyme immunoassay, and affinity column-mediated immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kaoru; Iguchi, Ken; Kanada, Yasutaka; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Nishihara, Masami; Murakami, Sumiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2010-12-01

    Digitalis-like immunoreactive substances have crossreactivity with antidigoxin antibodies and the interference between digoxin and spironolactone/canrenone has been reported. The structure of eplerenone is similar to that of spironolactone/canrenone. Therefore, we hypothesized that eplerenone might also interfere with the measurement of digoxin by immunoassay. We performed three types of assays (fluorescence polarization immunoassay [FPIA], microparticle enzyme immunoassay [MEIA], and affinity column-mediated immunoassay [ACMIA]) to determine crossreactions between eplerenone and antidigoxin antibodies. Furthermore, we used FPIA, MEIA, and ACMIA to measure the apparent digoxin concentration in mixed solutions of eplerenone (1-100 ?g/mL) and digoxin (1-3 ng/mL). In the crossreaction tests, eplerenone was detected as digoxin by FPIA and ACMIA. By FPIA, a known concentration of 1 ?g/mL of eplerenone was measured as 0.33 0.11 ng/mL of digoxin (crossreaction rate, 0.03%). By ACMIA, a known concentration of 10 ?g/mL of eplerenone was measured as 0.13 0.05 ng/mL of digoxin (crossreaction rate, 0.001%). No crossreaction between eplerenone and digoxin was determined by MEIA. In the interference of eplerenone coadministered with digoxin, the apparent concentration of digoxin was increased in FPIA, but decreased in MEIA and ACMIA. The results suggest that eplerenone crossreacts with antidigoxin antibodies in FPIA, MEIA, and ACMIA, but that the interference of eplerenone might be smaller than that of spironolactone/canrenone. PMID:20625353

  19. Rapid diagnosis of acute mumps infection by a direct immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme immunoassay with labeled antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gut, J P; Spiess, C; Schmitt, S; Kirn, A

    1985-01-01

    A new immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme immunoassay with peroxidase-labeled mumps antigen (dMACEIA) is described, and its suitability for practical diagnosis of acute mumps infection is evaluated. All 54 patients with proven mumps infection that were tested showed mumps-specific IgM antibodies. On the other hand, no specific IgM antibodies were present in 16 cases of suspected mumps that could not be confirmed by classical complement fixation serology, and IgM mumps virus antibodies could be detected neither in the sera of 100 healthy individuals nor in those of 16 patients positive for rheumatoid factor. In all, 22 children with acute respiratory illness caused by parainfluenza virus and 44 patients with infections due to other viruses showed no IgM response in mumps dMACEIA. The particular characteristic in which complement fixation antibodies against mumps nucleocapsids appear before and disappear earlier than antibodies to the enveloped mumps virus could not be demonstrated in the dMACEIA. In an extensive epidemic of mumps virus infection, the dMACEIA gave a clear diagnosis of mumps infection in 200 out of 371 suspected cases. By day 2 of the illness, 71% of the patients had detectable IgM, and by day 3, all of them had detectable IgM. In 99% of the cases, dMACEIA gave a positive result in the first available serum specimens, most of which were negative for complement fixation antibodies. A positive but only moderate correlation was thus observed between the two serological procedures. IgM antibodies persisted for at least 6 weeks. The dMACEIA, performed in 3 h, offers a reliable, simple, and rapid alternative to routine methods for detection of acute mumps infection. PMID:3884652

  20. Analysis of complement fixation and commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human serum.

    PubMed

    Thacker, W L; Talkington, D F

    2000-09-01

    The Meridian ImmunoCard (IC), GenBio ImmunoWELL-IgM, and Remel EIA commercial antibody tests are qualitative enzyme immunoassays that detect antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in serum. These tests were compared to an M. pneumoniae complement fixation (CF) assay, which uses a commercially available antigen component. The Meridian IC and the ImmunoWELL-IgM detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) only; the Remel EIA and the CF test detect both IgM and IgG antibodies. Detection of specific IgM antibody, which appears early in infection, can be, but is not always, indicative of a recent or current infection. Paired serum samples from 64 adult patients with probable M. pneumoniae infection were examined with each of the four tests. Thirty (47%) of the 64 acute-phase sera were IgM positive by Meridian IC, 26 (41%) were positive by Remel EIA, 24 (38%) were positive by CF, and 15 (23%) were positive by ImmunoWELL-IgM. When both the acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from each patient were examined, 61 (95%) of the 64 patients were positive by CF, 60 patients (94%) were positive by Remel EIA, 52 patients (81%) were IgM positive by the Meridian IC, and 29 patients (45%) were IgM positive by the ImmunoWELL-IgM assay. The Meridian IC was more sensitive than the other tests for early detection of IgM antibodies. However, after examining paired serum samples, we concluded that the detection of IgM alone may not be useful for all cases of mycoplasma infection, especially in an adult population. PMID:10973454

  1. Assessment of immunoglobulin M enzyme immunoassays for diagnosis of measles.

    PubMed

    Tipples, Graham A; Hamkar, Rasool; Mohktari-Azad, Talat; Gray, Michael; Parkyn, Geoff; Head, Carol; Ratnam, Samuel

    2003-10-01

    We evaluated the performance of three commercial measles immunoglobulin M enzyme immunoassays from Meddens, Denka Seiken, and Behring. The sensitivities were determined to be 96.7% for the Meddens and Denka Seiken assays and 87.9% for the Behring assay. The specificities of the assays were determined to be 94.6% for Meddens, 98.2% for Denka Seiken, and 98.7% for Behring. PMID:14532222

  2. Rapid determination of dioxin in water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Wang, L.; George J.E. III; Ward, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Dioxin in water, soil, sediments and other sample matrices is usually determined by the EPA method 1613 which was developed by the EPA Office of Science and Technology. This method however requires expensive instruments (high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry) and a highly trained analyst. In order to reduce the cost and turn around time, a dioxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to rapidly analyze trace levels of 2,3,7,8-tetra chlorinated dibenzodioxin (TCDD) in water samples. Water samples were extracted using a 47 mm, C18 Empore extraction disk (3M). Dioxin was eluted with dichloromethame. EnvironGard reagents and microwell strip reader (Millipore Corporation) were used to perform the dioxin enzyme immunoassay. The extraction efficiency was also tested by GC/MS with Varian`s large volume injector and Selected Ion Storage technique. The working range of the dioxin enzyme immunoassay was from 15 pg/L to 100 pg/L. The precision and accuracy of EIA was determined by performing five replicates of reagent water spiked at a concentration of 25 pg/L. The recovery of the dioxin assay ranged from 74% to 122%, and % CV for five replicates was less than 15%. In general, EIA provides a relatively easy and cost effective means for measuring trace levels of dioxin in water samples.

  3. Enzyme immunoassays and related procedures in diagnostic medical virology

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard; Tijssen, Peter; Kurstak, Christine; Morisset, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This review article describes several applications of the widely used enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure. EIA methods have been adapted to solve problems in diagnostic virology where sensitivity, specificity, or practicability is required. Concurrent developments in hybridoma and conjugation methods have increased significantly the use of these assays. A general overview of EIA methods is given together with typical examples of their use in diagnostic medical virology; attention is drawn to possible pitfalls. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it possible to produce highly specific nucleic acid probes that have a sensitivity approximately 100 times greater than that of EIA. Some applications of these probes are described. Although the non-labelled nucleic acid probes for use in the field are not as refined as non-labelled immunoassays, their range of applications is expected to expand rapidly in the near future. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:3533302

  4. Detection of circulating toxocaral antigens in dogs by sandwich enzyme-immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, K; Kazuta, Y; Endo, R; Tanaka, K

    1984-01-01

    This study describes the presence of circulating toxocaral antigens (CTA) in the sera of dogs infected with Toxocara canis (T. canis) by using a sandwich enzyme-immunoassay (SEIA). A specificity of this assay with different antigens was observed, i.e. the EIA values, which express the antigen concentration, of excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis larvae were higher than those of other antigens (Ascaris lumbricoides, Dirofilaria immitis and Fasciola hepatica). The variability in intra-assay was below 10%. In age distribution of CTA levels, the highest level was observed at 1 month of age. Thereafter, the levels decreased gradually until 6 months of age and then the same levels were maintained until adult age. Also, slightly elevated levels were found in the sera of foetuses. A significant correlation was obtained between age and CTA levels. The positive correlation between the number of worms and CTA levels was significant. As for the IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies, a significant correlation was observed between the IgM antibody activities and CTA levels, but this was not observed with IgG and IgA antibodies. From these results, it was indicated that the immunological response to T. canis infection in dogs may not be reached until 1 or 2 months after birth, although detectable CTA levels were observed in foetal and early life. It was also suggested that the immunological stimulation for canine toxocariasis may be maintained by the excretory-secretory materials from the larvae through life and as a result, IgM antibody production may be observed even in chronically infected adult dogs. The SEIA technique reported in this study may be useful as a diagnostic tool of human toxocariasis, since the CTA can be directly demonstrated by the technique. PMID:6365746

  5. Assay of netilmicin, using enzyme immunoassay for gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, T; Gerding, D N; Peterson, L R; Eckfeldt, J H

    1982-01-01

    A homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of netilmicin in serum was developed. The procedure utilizes a commercially available assay for gentamicin (EMIT; Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.). The method was adapted to a microcentrifugal analyzer, and log-logit regression analysis was performed with a computer. The results of samples assayed by this method correlate well with microbioassay (r2 = 0.985) and radioimmunoassay (r2 = 0.986). This method is not only precise and accurate, but also very rapid and economical and compares favorably to other available methods of netilmicin assay. PMID:7049074

  6. Enzyme immunoassay validation for the detection of buprenorphine in urine.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Lohner, S; Ludes, B

    2003-03-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was proposed by Microgenics to screen buprenorphine in urine. The intra-assay precision at 10 ng/mL was 7.7% (coefficient of variation). The immunoassay was determined to have no cross-reactivity with codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, methadone, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, and dextromethorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L. A low cross-reactivity (3% at 1 ng/mL) was observed at low concentrations of norbuprenorphine. After comparing this new immunological test (Singlestep ELISA) for 76 urine specimens with our validated high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS) procedure, an optimum cutoff concentration of 2 ng/mL was determined for the kit. At this cutoff, the screening assay was able to determine more than 90% of true results with 43.4% true positives and 48.7% true negatives. Four positive urines (5.3%) were not confirmed by HPLC-ES-MS. In only one case, the negative urine test was confirmed as positive by HPLC-ES-MS (buprenorphine: 62.5 ng/mL). Buprenorphine concentrations determined by HPLC-ES-MS ranged from 1.2 to 1052 ng/mL. Of the four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that might be added to a positive urine specimen, none were able to cause a false-negative response by the immunoassay. The results of this study support the concept that the Singlestep ELISA for buprenorphine determination in urine should be considered as a new, valided screening procedure. PMID:12670004

  7. Enzyme immunoassay validation for qualitative detection of cocaine in sweat.

    PubMed

    Spiehler, V; Fay, J; Fogerson, R; Schoendorfer, D; Niedbala, R S

    1996-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) involving microtiter plates was modified for analysis of cocaine in sweat. Sweat was collected with the PharmChek sweat patch and drugs were eluted from the collection pad of the patch. The sweat contained primarily parent cocaine. The assay was determined to have cross-reactivity for cocaine of 102% relative to 100% for the benzoylecgonine (BE) calibrators and for cocaethylene of 148%. The optimum cutoff concentration for this modified assay, determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, was 10 micrograms/L cocaine or BE equivalents. At this concentration the assay had 94.5% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity vs gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as an acceptable indicator of the true clinical state. The positive predictive value at a prevalence of 50% was 99%. Threshold analysis for positives suggested that the 95% confidence interval for a positive result by the EIA was between 12.5 and 15 micrograms/L and that quality-control samples at 5 and 15 micrograms/L could be run with each batch to certify the precision around the cutoff. All positive samples must be confirmed by GC-MS. The sensitivity and specificity of the overall analysis system (immunoassay screen and GC-MS confirmation) was 86% and 97%, with known cocaine dosing of volunteers as the acceptable indicator of the true clinical state. PMID:8565229

  8. Evaluation of Three Commercially Available Japanese Encephalitis Virus IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jaimie S.; Featherstone, David; Vasanthapuram, Ravi; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Desai, Anita; Ramamurty, Nalini; Chowdhury, Anwarul Haque; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Cavallaro, Kathleen F.; Johnson, Barbara W.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated performance of three commercial Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC ELISA) kits with a panel of serological specimens collected during a surveillance project of acute encephalitis syndrome in India and acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh. The serum and cerebral spinal fluid specimens had been referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. The CDC results and specimen classifications were considered the reference standard. All three commercial kits had high specificity (9599.5%), but low sensitivities, ranging from 1757%, with both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Specific factors contributing to low sensitivity compared with the CDC ELISA could not be determined through further analysis of the limits and dilution end points of IgM detection. PMID:21036854

  9. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-10-01

    Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

  10. Affinity patterns of enzyme tracers for triazine immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Michael G.; Niessner, Reinhard

    1997-05-01

    Cross-reactivities are one of the most important characteristics of immunoassays. Nevertheless most cross- reactivity studies are only performed with small molecules, which are similar to the target analyte. The complex mechanism of the binding event of an antibody makes it likely that the orientation of the hapten plays a critical role. Therefore cross-reactivities of hapten-derivatives with spacers may be quite different compared to the simple compound, especially when the spacer has been coupled to a large molecule, like a marker enzyme (e.g. peroxidase). We examined the relative affinity patterns of 17 enzyme tracers to 16 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the analysis of triazine herbicides (atrazine, terbuthylazine, etc.). This allows interesting discussions about the structure of the antibody binding site and the comparison of antibodies generated with different immunogens. In addition, some general rules for the selection of immunogen structures could be derived from the data. The figures shown in this paper facilitate to find suitable tracer haptens for one of the tested antibodies and support for instance the optimization of immunosensor regeneration, as tracer affinity is closely correlated to the dissociation rate constant of an antibody-tracer complex.

  11. Immunoassay using /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled protein A and antigen-coated tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, A.P.; Langone, J.J.

    1981-09-15

    Antigen-coated plastic tubes were used with /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled stapylococcal protein A in a general immunoassay method for antigens and haptens. Protein A reacts with immunoglobulin G(IgG) regardless of antibody specificity at sites distal to the antigen combining site and does not inhibit the immune reaction. It therefore serves as a general tracer and its use eliminates the need to purify and to label individual components for each assay. Macromolecular antigens were bound to polystyrene or polypropylene tubes by direct passive absorption. Haptens with free carboxyl groups were bound covalently to poly-L-lysine and these conjugates passively absorbed to the tube surface. Optimal assay conditions were established for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulins and the folate derivatives, methotrexate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, using /sup 125/I-labeled protein A or protein A labeled with alkaline phosphatase. The method has been used to estimate levels of IgG, IgA, Igm, and IgE in serum in volumes up to 1 ml.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are analytical methods that employ antibodies or molecules derived from antibodies for the essential binding reactions. The choice of immunoassay system for food safety analysis depends on the analyte, the matrix, and the requirements of the analysis (speed, throughput, sensitivity, spe...

  13. Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

  14. [Enzyme immunoassay system for the detection of low-avid lgG antibodies to human cytomegalovirus ("CMV-diagnost")].

    PubMed

    Ebralidze, L K; Vedunova, S L; Mal'tseva, N N; Lavrov, V F; Gol'tsov, V A; Zverev, V V

    2005-01-01

    The new Russian enzyme immunoassay system "CMV-Diagnost" based on the detection of low-avid IgG antibodies has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. The system was found not only to determine the strained immunity in response to cytomegalovirus, but also to judge the current infection from the avidity index of detectable IgG antibodies with a high degree of validity. The antibody avidity index of less than 30% suggests an acute stage of primary cytomegalovirus infection. The minimum antibody threshold bodies (deltaOD has been established for the correct interpretation of data on low-avid antibodies. deltaOD of > or =0.6 optic units was for the developed test system "CMV-Diagnost. A correlation was found between the serum levels of low-avid antibodies and IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus at the acute stage of the disease. PMID:16408631

  15. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of gluten in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, J H; Hill, A S

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed in 15 laboratories to validate a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for determination of gluten in foods. The study included 13 samples: maize starch, "gluten-free" baking mixes, wheat flours, cookies, cooked meats, and a soup. Gluten was present in these samples at either zero or 0.02 to 10% by weight, i.e., over almost 3 orders of magnitude. The mean assay values for the foods varied from 88 to 105% of the actual amounts. The assay was quantitative for cereal products and the soup with repeatability (RDS-r, relative standard deviation) and reproducibility (RSD-R) of 16-22% and 24-33%, respectively. The assay was semiquantitative for the processed meat products (RSD-r 14 and 26% and RSD-R 46 and 56%), probably because gluten was unevenly distributed in the small (1 g) samples that were analyzed. The ELISA method produced no false positive results, and false negatives obtained with tannin-containing foods could be avoided by use of a modified sample extractant. None of the collaborators reported problems in following the protocol. The method has been adopted official first action by AOAC for determination of wheat gluten in foods. PMID:2050607

  16. Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.O.; Carlson, R.E.; Shirkhan, H.

    1995-12-01

    A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

  17. Sensitivity and Specificity of Histoplasma Antigen Detection by Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Lauren; Cook, Audrey; Hanzlicek, Andrew; Harkin, Kenneth; Wheat, Joseph; Goad, Carla; Kirsch, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on urine samples for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. This retrospective medical records review included canine cases with urine samples submitted for Histoplasma EIA antigen assay between 2007 and 2011 from three veterinary institutions. Cases for which urine samples were submitted for Histoplasma antigen testing were reviewed and compared to the gold standard of finding Histoplasma organisms or an alternative diagnosis on cytology or histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and the kappa coefficient and associated confidence interval were calculated for the EIA-based Histoplasma antigen assay. Sixty cases met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen cases were considered true positives based on identification of the organism, and 41 cases were considered true negatives with an alternative definitive diagnosis. Two cases were considered false negatives, and there were no false positives. Sensitivity was 89.47% and the negative predictive value was 95.35%. Specificity and the positive predictive value were both 100%. The kappa coefficient was 0.9207 (95% confidence interval, 0.8131-1). The Histoplasma antigen EIA test demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. PMID:26355580

  18. Enzyme immunoassay to determine exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR).

    PubMed Central

    Ladany, S; Black, C M; Farshy, C E; Ossewaarde, J M; Barnes, R C

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a group of Chlamydia strains known as TWAR, which are now proposed to be a new species called Chlamydia pneumoniae, may be a frequent cause of respiratory disease in the United States and many other countries. Current serotesting methods do not allow rapid screening of large numbers of samples to distinguish C. trachomatis exposure from C. pneumoniae exposure. We developed an enzyme immunoassay to decrease cross-reactivity between immunoglobulin G antibodies reactive with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. Elementary bodies of C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae were treated with a detergent-chelating solution to decrease the reactivity of the common lipopolysaccharide antigens. Sera from four groups of patients, totaling 143 persons, were tested by this assay. The prevalences of titers of greater than or equal to 128 to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, respectively, were as follows: (i) for 23 women seropositive for C. trachomatis by the microimmunofluorescence test, 21 (91%) and 18 (78%); (ii) for 50 adult blood donors, 13 (26%) and 39 (78%); (iii) for 40 sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, 20 (50%) and 32 (80%); (iv) for 30 healthy children 5 to 7 years old, 0 (0%) and 8 (27%). Western blots (immunoblots) of each antigen corroborated the differential reactivity of C. trachomatis-positive, C. pneumoniae-negative and C. trachomatis-negative, C. pneumoniae-positive serum samples. Western blots of serum samples from rabbits immunized with either C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae elementary bodies revealed at least two protein bands (30 and 80 kilodaltons) which appeared to represent unique C. pneumoniae antigens. Images PMID:2592540

  19. Optimization of condition for conjugation of enrofloxacin to enzymes in chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

    2014-06-01

    In this study, in order to find out a proper method for conjugation of enrofloxacin to label enzymes, two methods were compared and carbodiimide condensation was proved to be better. The results showed that the binding ratio of enrofloxacin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 8:1 and that of enrofloxacin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was 5:1. This indicated that conjugate synthesized by carbodiimide condensation was fit for chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Furthermore, data revealed that dialysis time was an important parameter for conjugation and 6 days was best. Buffer to dilute conjugate had little effect on CLEIA. The storage condition for conjugates was also studied and it was shown that the conjugate was stable at 4 C with no additive up to 30 days. These data were valuable for establishing CLEIA to quantify enrofloxacin.

  1. Comparison of ELISA and immunoassays for measurement of IgG and IgM antibody to West Nile virus in human sera against virus neutralisation.

    PubMed

    Niedrig, M; Sonnenberg, K; Steinhagen, K; Paweska, J T

    2007-01-01

    Two commercial assays for the detection of IgG antibody to West Nile virus (WNV), an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), were evaluated against the virus neutralisation test. Excellent agreement with the virus neutralisation was obtained with both tests, i.e., 99.5% by I-ELISA and 100% by IFAT. The well-known serological cross-reactivity within the family of the Flaviviridae was analysed using sera with known antibodies against dengue virus, tick borne encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus. IgM and/or IgG positive sera were examined for reactivity by WNV-ELISA and WNV-IFAT. While cross-reactivity between 0 and 18.2% was recorded with IgM positive sera, there was extensive cross-reactivity of 15.7-100% with IgG positive sera. PMID:17084464

  2. Buprenorphine detection in urine using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison with cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (ThermoFisher) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (immunalysis).

    PubMed

    Belsey, Sarah L; Couchman, Lewis; Flanagan, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic-high-resolution mass spectrometric (LC-HR-MS) assay for buprenorphine and its urinary metabolites has been developed that requires minimal sample preparation. The results obtained have been compared with those given by (i) cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and (ii) homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) in the analysis of patient urines submitted for buprenorphine analysis. Centrifuged urine (100 L) was diluted with internal standard solution (25 L) + LC eluent (875 L), and 50 L of the prepared sample were analyzed (Accucore Phenyl-Hexyl column). MS detection was in alternating positive and negative mode using heated electrospray ionization (ThermoFisher Q Exactive). Intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision were 104-128 and <11%, respectively, at 5 g/L. Limits of detection were 1.3 g/L (buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and buprenorphine glucuronide) and 2.5 g/L (norbuprenorphine glucuronide). Immunoassay sensitivity and selectivity were 97 and 100% (HEIA) and 99 and 84% (CEDIA), respectively, compared with LC-HR-MS. In 120 patient urines, norbuprenorphine glucuronide was easily the most abundant analyte except when adulteration with buprenorphine had occurred. The median immunoreactive buprenorphine species present (unhydrolysed urine) were 7.5 and 13% for HEIA and CEDIA, respectively. However, codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide did not interfere in the HEIA assay. PMID:24925983

  3. False-Positive Results of Enzyme Immunoassays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gasasira, Anne F.; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane; Kiggundu, Moses; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria may impact upon human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results. We evaluated two HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) by testing 1,965 Ugandans with malaria. We found poor positive predictive values (53% and 76%), particularly with younger age. Combining EIAs eliminated false positives but missed 21% of true positives. Performance of HIV EIAs in malaria may be unsatisfactory. PMID:16891532

  4. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter Antigen by Enzyme Immunoassay Leads to Increased Positivity Rates

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Saeki, Sandra; Bobenchik, April M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) provides rapid results compared to traditional culture. However, concern exists regarding specificity. Verification studies of an EIA compared to culture revealed a positive predictive value (PPV) of 91%, whereas PPV fell to 42% during routine diagnostic testing. We suggest all positive EIA results be confirmed via culture. PMID:23175262

  5. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity. PMID:26517651

  6. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  7. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  8. Detection of La Crosse arbovirus antigen in mosquito pools: application of chromogenic and fluorogenic enzyme immunoassay systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, S W; Beaty, B J; Meegan, J M; Frazier, C L; Shope, R E

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay producing either a chromogenic or fluorogenic end product was developed and evaluated for detecting La Crosse viral antigen within mosquito pools. The enzyme immunoassay was found to be sensitive, detecting one infected mosquito within a pool of 100 mosquitoes, and specific, distinguishing between closely related California group viruses. Assays were completed within 5 h after the addition of test samples. La Crosse viral antigen could be readily detected in mosquito pools after seven freeze-thaw cycles. PMID:7047555

  9. The detection of cocaine in hair specimens using micro-plate enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-05-01

    The analysis of hair for drugs of abuse is becoming increasingly popular and is under consideration by the Division of Health and Human Services as a possible alternative or adjunct to urinalysis in workplace programs. The detection of cocaine in human hair using a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay is described for the first time. Sample size and incubation time were the major variables in the optimization of the method. In order to validate the procedure, the method was applied to 105 consecutive hair samples routinely received into our laboratory. The samples were simultaneously analyzed by the Micro-Plate immunoassay (EIA), as well as our current fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) procedure and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The sensitivity of the EIA and FPIA assays were 75% and 67.8% respectively; specificity 97.4% and 80.5% respectively; and efficiency 91.4 and 77.1% respectively. The Micro-Plate EIA was shown to be a valid alternative to other immunoassay screening methods for the detection of cocaine in hair by demonstrating increased sensitivity, specificity and efficiency over our current technique. PMID:10408118

  10. Application of enzyme immunoassay for postchemotherapy evaluation of human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Sato, Y; Toma, H; Takara, M; Shiroma, Y

    1994-01-01

    Posttherapy evaluation of strongyloidiasis is frequently difficult because coprologic examination is not sensitive enough for diagnosis of chronic infection. In the present study, anti-Strongyloides enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies were monitored before and after treatment with thiabendazole and pyrvinium pamoate in 199 patients with chronic strongyloidiasis in Okinawa, Japan. A significant decrease in antibody levels was observed in patients who became negative for fecal larvae after the treatment, whereas the antibody levels did not show a significant change after the treatment in patients who were still harboring the parasite. In the group coprologically negative in the follow-up examination, however, many individuals did not show a significant fall in antibody titers after treatment, which suggests that these cases were equivocal for complete cure. By the subsequent fecal reexamination performed on the equivocal cases, approximately 20% were additionally found to be still harboring the parasite. These results indicate that serologic testing is useful to check whether a real cure has been achieved among the patients in whose fecal samples the presence of larvae has not been demonstrated after treatment. PMID:8026153

  11. A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Zhen, Shu Jun; Wan, Xiao Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory viruses have become a major global health challenge which would benefit from advances in screening methods for early diagnosis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. Here we present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of RSV by employing peroxidase substrate 3, 3'-5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as Raman molecule. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) attached to the detection antibody in a novel sandwich immunoassay catalyzes the oxidation of TMB by H2O2 to give a radical cation (TMB(+)), which could be easily adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through electrostatic interaction, inducing the aggregation of AgNPs and thus giving a strong SERS signal. A linear relationship was obtained between the Raman intensity and the amount of RSV in the range from 0.5 to 20pg/mL, and the minimum detectable concentration of this SERS-based enzyme immunoassay was 0.05pg/mL, which was 20 times lower than that found in the colorimetric method. PMID:26653454

  12. A sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay for the detection of methyl ether derivatives of cyclomaltoheptaose.

    PubMed

    Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Weisse, Sandrine; Grassi, Jacques; Perly, Bruno; Créminon, Christophe

    2003-09-26

    We have raised antibodies against two methylated derivatives of beta-CD, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (Dimeb) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (Trimeb). These antibodies were used to develop two specific and sensitive enzyme immunoassays, presenting a detection limit close to 500 and 30 pg/mL for Trimeb and Dimeb, respectively. Cross reactivities of different linear and cyclic maltooligosaccharides were investigated, demonstrating a high specificity against the structural features of the secondary hydroxyls rim. Several commercial Dimeb samples, containing different mixtures of partially methylated beta-cyclodextrin derivatives including RAMEB, which contains only a few amount of pure Dimeb, could be easily evaluated by the Dimeb immunoassay. Both of these assays have been shown to allow accurate measurement in plasma and urine, thus appearing as useful tools for further applications in biological material. PMID:14505876

  13. Sugar additives improve signal fidelity for implementing two-phase resorufin-based enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Patrick A; Chung, Aram J; Weaver, Westbrook M; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-06-17

    Enzymatic signal amplification based on fluorogenic substrates is commonly used for immunoassays; however, when transitioning these assays to a digital format in water-in-mineral oil emulsions, such amplification methods have been limited by the leakage of small reporting fluorescent probes. In the present study, we used a microfluidic system to study leakage from aqueous droplets in a controlled manner and confirmed that the leakage of fluorescent resorufin derivatives is mostly due to the presence of the lipophilic surfactant Span80, which is commonly used to preserve emulsion stability. This leakage can be overcome by the addition of specific sugars that most strongly interfered with the surfactants ability to form micelles in water. The application of the microfluidic system to the quantitative analysis of droplets and the implementation of the described sugar additives would allow for alternatives to fluorinated surfactant-based platforms and improve the signal fidelity in enzyme immunoassays implemented through multiphase microfluidics. PMID:24870310

  14. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  15. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Daz, T; Cuevas Agustn, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibez Sandn, M D; Urea Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  16. Enzyme Immunoassay versus Latex Agglutination Cryptococcal Antigen Assays in Adults with Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, John P.; Proschan, Michael; Beri, Andrea; Williamson, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    We compared paired enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and latex agglutination (LA) assay results with 185 blood and 164 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 44 and 33 non-HIV cryptococcosis patients, respectively. The LA assay cutoff of 1:256 in the blood and 1:32 in the CSF was most highly predictive of a positive EIA result. The EIA missed 18.4% detected by the LA assay in the blood samples and 7.8% detected by the LA assay in the CSF samples. We note here the improved sensitivity of the LA assay over the EIA in non-HIV patients. PMID:25253799

  17. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in full-automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaomao; Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Yuki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Therma-Max were used as a carrier to develop an automated sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) to detect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a sensitive and specific way. The Therma-Max particles allow for automation because, unlike magnetic microspheres, they are completely dispersed in aqueous solution and allow for accurate automatic handling. Signal intensities detected with MNPs were 8-fold higher than those found with conventional micron-sized magnetic particles. A reproducibility study suggests that these particles allow for a stable detection method, as the coefficient of variation (CV) is less than 6% ( n=10).

  18. An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

  19. Sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassays for antigenic trisaccharide from Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Dhénin, Sandrine G Y; Moreau, Vincent; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Créminon, Christophe; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence

    2009-12-21

    A straightforward synthesis of an anthrose-containing trisaccharide derived from Bacillus anthracis was achieved. Antibodies raised against this hapten provide a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay with a detection limit of 8.5 pmol mL(-1). By investigating the specificity of the antibodies obtained using different mono-, di- and trisaccharide synthetic analogues, we demonstrated that the epitope was mainly made up of the methyl group at C-5, the butamido group at C-4 and the hydroxyl at C-3 of the anthrose unit, the other parts of the trisaccharide appearing little involved in the recognition. PMID:20024115

  20. Evaluation of an antigen-capture enzyme immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Kleemola, M; Rty, R; Karjalainen, J; Schuy, W; Gerstenecker, B; Jacobs, E

    1993-11-01

    A new enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Enzygost) for rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antigen was evaluated in 51 young adults with acute respiratory infection. The EIA results using sputa and nasopharyngeal aspirates were compared with those of serological antibody tests, culture and a DNA probe. In sputum the sensitivity of the EIA ranged from 40% to 81% and the specificity from 64% to 100%, depending on the reference method. In nasopharyngeal aspirates the sensitivity was well below 20%, but the test was nearly 100% specific. PMID:8112363

  1. A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative detection of cocaine from banknotes and latent fingermarks.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Susan; Garcia Calavia, Paula; Hardwick, Sheila; Hudson, Simon; Wolff, Kim; Russell, David A

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive and versatile competitive enzyme immunoassay (cEIA) has been developed for the quantitative detection of cocaine in complex forensic samples. Polyclonal anti-cocaine antibody was purified from serum and deposited onto microtiter plates. The concentration of the cocaine antibody adsorbed onto the plates, and the dilution of the cocaine-HRP hapten were both studied to achieve an optimised immunoassay. The method was successfully used to quantify cocaine in extracts taken from both paper currency and latent fingermarks. The limit of detection (LOD) of 0.162ngmL(-1) achieved with the assay compares favourably to that of conventional chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques, with an appropriate sensitivity for the quantification of cocaine at the low concentrations present in some forensic samples. The cEIA was directly compared to LC-MS for the analysis of ten UK banknote samples. The results obtained from both techniques were statistically similar, suggesting that the immunoassay was unaffected by cross-reactivity with potentially interfering compounds. The cEIA was used also for the detection of cocaine in extracts from latent fingermarks. The results obtained were compared to the cocaine concentrations detected in oral fluid sampled from the same individual. Using the cEIA, we have shown, for the first time, that endogeneously excreted cocaine can be detected and quantified from a single latent fingermark. Additionally, it has been shown that the presence of cocaine, at similar concentrations, in more than one latent fingermark from the same individual can be linked with those concentrations found in oral fluid. These results show that detection of drugs in latent fingermarks could directly indicate whether an individual has consumed the drug. The specificity and feasibility of measuring low concentrations of cocaine in complex forensic samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the assay. The immunoassay presents a simple and cost-effective alternative to the current mass spectrometry based techniques for the quantitation of cocaine at forensically significant concentrations. PMID:25766738

  2. Stool diagnosis of giardiasis using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay to detect Giardia-specific antigen 65 (GSA 65).

    PubMed Central

    Rosoff, J D; Sanders, C A; Sonnad, S S; De Lay, P R; Hadley, W K; Vincenzi, F F; Yajko, D M; O'Hanley, P D

    1989-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of giardiasis was evaluated in a clinical trial. The ProSpecT/Giardia diagnostic test (Alexon, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.) was compared with the standard ova and parasite (O&P) microscopic examination. Additionally, several widely used stool fixatives and a commonly used transport medium were assessed for compatibility with the immunoassay. A total of 325 stool specimens were collected and used to evaluate assay performance. Of those, 93 specimens were collected from symptomatic Giardia O&P-positive patients and 232 specimens were randomly collected from patients as part of a routine health screening procedure. All 93 Giardia O&P-positive stool specimens were strongly positive by visual and spectrophotometric examination using the immunoassay. Of the 232 randomly collected specimens, 16 were positive by O&P examination and immunoassay, 6 were negative by O&P examination but positive by immunoassay, and 1 was positive by O&P examination and negative by immunoassay. There was substantial supportive evidence that indicated that the six immunoassay-positive, O&P-negative specimens were true-positives. When these six specimens were accepted as true-positives, the immunoassay detected almost 30% more cases of Giardia infection than did O&P examination. Its sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination were 74 and 100%, respectively. The immunoassay also performed well on specimens treated with 10% neutral Formalin, sodium acetate-Formalin fixative, and Cary-Blair transport medium. However, the test was not compatible with polyvinyl alcohol-treated specimens. Overall, the ProSpecT/Giardia test was a sensitive, specific immunoassay which was easy to run and interpret. It offers a simple solution to traditional difficulties encountered in diagnosing Giardia infection. PMID:2674196

  3. Mesoporous carbon-enriched palladium nanostructures with redox activity for enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay of brevetoxin B.

    PubMed

    Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Lin, Yuping; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2015-08-01

    A new signal amplification strategy based on mesoporous carbon-enriched palladium nanostructure (MSC-PdNS) was designed for enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay of brevetoxin B (BTB) in marine toxins. The assay was carried out on a BTB-bovine serum albumin-functionalized electrode by using monoclonal mouse anti-BTB-labeling MSC-PdNS as the signal-transduction tag. A competitive-type assay protocol was successfully introduced to develop a high-efficiency enzyme-free immunoassay accompanying the doped palladium nanostructure into MSC-PdNS toward reduction of H2O2. Under the optimal conditions, the catalytic current decreased with the increment of BTB concentration in the range from 0.01 to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 5.0 pg mL(-1) BTB at the 3s(blank) criterion. The selectivity and precision were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was further validated for assaying spiked seafood samples, and consistent results between the electrochemical immunoassay and the referenced enzyme immunoassay were obtained. Importantly, the enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay provides a promising approach for rapid screening of marine toxin because of its simplicity, low cost, sensitivity, specificity and without the need of sample pretreatment. PMID:26320787

  4. Detection of one milliattomole of ferritin by novel and ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hashida, S; Ishikawa, E

    1990-12-01

    A novel and ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune complex transfer two-site enzyme immunoassay) for ferritin is described. Ferritin was reacted simultaneously with affinity-purified dinitrophenyl biotinyl anti-ferritin IgG and affinity-purified anti-ferritin Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate. The complex formed of the three components was trapped onto affinity-purified (anti-dinitrophenyl group) IgG-coated polystyrene balls. After eliminating excess conjugate by washing, the complex was eluted from the polystyrene balls with an excess of epsilon N-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine and transferred to streptavidin-coated polystyrene balls. The beta-D-galactosidase activity bound to streptavidin-coated polystyrene balls was assayed by fluorometry. Nonspecifically bound beta-D-galactosidase activity was remarkably lowered but there was much less decrease in specifically bound beta-D-galactosidase activity. As a result, the detection limit of ferritin was lowered to 1 milliattomole (1 x 10(-21) mol, 600 molecules as calculated from Avogadro's number). This technique will be useful for measuring, for example, antigens in single cells. PMID:2128491

  5. A rapid and sensitive 384-microtiter wells format chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for clenbuterol.

    PubMed

    Roda, A; Manetta, A C; Piazza, F; Simoni, P; Lelli, R

    2000-06-21

    A fast and sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) enzyme immunoassay for clenbuterol (CLB) analysis in bovine urine has been developed. Clenbuterol (CLB) specific polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit using a CLB azo derivative conjugated with ovalbumin. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as label and conjugated with the same derivative. In the developed competitive method, antibodies were immobilized on 384-wells black polystyrene microtiter plates; the sample volume was 20 mul and HRP-labeled CLB activity was immediately measured, using different CL substrates, after 10 min incubation time. Emitted light was recorded using a sensitive back-illuminated, cooled CCD camera or a conventional, photomultiplier-based micrtotiter plate reader. The developed method fulfills all the requirements of precision (CV below 10%) and accuracy (mean recovery from 96 to 110%) with a detection limit of 0.08 ppb in urine matrix. The use of 384-wells microtiter plate allows a 5-fold reduction in reagent quantity and the CL detection improves the detectability of the HRP-labeled tracer, thus reducing analysis time. The developed method is therefore suitable for high-throughput screening of CLB in urine samples, with reduced costs as compared with conventional colorimetric enzyme immunoassays, thanks to the possibility to optimize the system in non-equilibrium immunological conditions and with a very fast chemiluminescence detection of the HRP-label activity. PMID:18967990

  6. A rapid and sensitive 384-well microtitre format chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for 19-nortestosterone.

    PubMed

    Roda, Aldo; Manetta, Anna Chiara; Portanti, Ottavio; Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Pasini, Patrizia; Lelli, Rossella

    2003-01-01

    We developed a competitive chemiluminescent (CL) enzyme immunoassay for rapid, sensitive analysis of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in bovine urine. Anti-19-NT polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits using a 19-NT-hemisuccinate derivative conjugated with ovalbumin; the derivative was also conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a label. Antibodies were immobilized on 384-well black polystyrene microtitre plates and HRP-labelled 19-NT activity was measured using an efficient chemiluminescent substrate (SuperSignal ELISA Femto) after 3 min incubation. Emitted light was recorded using a conventional, photomultiplier-tube-based microtitre plate reader or a sensitive back-illuminated, cooled CCD camera. The developed method fulfils all the requirements of precision (intra- and inter-assay CV < 10%) and accuracy (mean recovery 94-112%), with a detection limit of 0.03 ppb (1.1 x 10(-9) mol/L) in a urine matrix. Chemiluminescence enhances detectability of the HRP-labelled tracer (thus lowering the limit of detection with respect to colorimetry) and reduces analysis time. The 384-well microtitre plate cuts the sample/reagent volume (20 microL), a five-fold reduction with respect to the conventional 96-well microtitre plate. The developed method is suitable for high-throughput screening of 19-NT in urine samples, with reduced costs as compared with conventional colorimetric enzyme immunoassays. PMID:12687626

  7. Monoclonal antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Z P; Gesztesi, J L; Saraiva, E C; Taborda, C P; Vicentini, A P; Lopes, J D

    1994-01-01

    Four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 17C, 21A, 21F, and 32B) raised against the 43-kDa glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested in a capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of specific human anti-gp43 immunoglobulin G in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). All MAbs reacted similarly in the assay. These MAbs, which detected anti-gp43 at levels of as low as 500 pg/ml, were demonstrated to specifically recognize at least two different epitopes in gp43 binding assays. Specific antibodies in the sera of patients with active PCM were detected at dilutions of as high as 1:819,200, and the reactivities of patient sera, as measured by optical densities, were found to be significantly higher than those of control sera. The comparison between classical ELISA and our capture enzyme immunoassay showed that both sensitivity and specificity were greatly improved by the latter. These MAbs represent the first specific reagents to P. brasiliensis described for use in serological tests for PCM. Images PMID:7814469

  8. Development of sensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the determination of dihydroartemisinin in plasma.

    PubMed

    Zehnacker, Laura; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Sinou, Véronique; Parzy, Dominique; Créminon, Christophe; Parzy, Daniel; Azoulay, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    Despite significant progress in prevention and therapy, malaria is still one of the world's leading major diseases due to its high morbidity and mortality. Recommended treatments by the World Health Organization include the use of artemisinin and artemisinin derivative-based combination therapies. To allow efficient patient monitoring during antimalarial therapy without the use of expensive apparatus, we developed a sensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the determination of dihydroartemisinin in biological fluids. To produce specific antibodies against dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a synthetic DHA derivative was coupled to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen. In parallel, a new, rapid, and efficient procedure to covalently link glycoprotein to all amine-containing molecules has been established and the enzyme tracer was prepared by chemically coupling the DHA derivative in combination with SBP rather than the more commonly used HRP. It allowed us to develop, after optimization of the luminescent reagent, a sensitive and stable luminescent EIA, with a LLOQ of 90 pg mL(-1). This assay compares favorably with the most efficient HPLC methods previously reported with a LLOQ close to 1 ng mL(-1) and shows good precision and efficiency since recovery from human plasma spiked with DHA ranged between 91 and 103%, with coefficients of variation of <13%. To date, no immunoassay for DHA has been applied to plasma analysis and this EIA should be very useful in all clinical laboratories for rapid and cost-effective analysis. PMID:26280205

  9. Dipstick enzyme immunoassay to detect Fusarium T-2 toxin in wheat.

    PubMed

    De Saeger, S; Van Peteghem, C

    1996-06-01

    A dipstick enzyme immunoassay for the rapid detection of Fusarium T-2 toxin in wheat was developed. An Immunodyne ABC membrane was precoated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins. After the strips were immersed in a solution of monoclonal anti-T-2 toxin antibodies, a direct competitive enzyme immunoassay was performed. This assay included the incubation of the antibody-coated dipsticks in a mixture of sample and T-2 toxin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Afterwards, the strips were placed in a chromogen-containing substrate solution (H202-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) for color reaction. The dot color intensity of toxin-positive dipsticks was visually distinguishable from that of the negative control. A portable colorimeter was used to confirm and quantify the visual observations. With coated strips, the tests could be performed in 45 min. The visual detection limit for T-2 toxin in buffer solution was 0.25 ng/ml. Artificially infected wheat samples were extracted with 80% methanol-water. A dilution of the raw extract of 1:8 was sufficient to avoid matrix effects. It was possible to make visually a clear distinction between the negative control and a wheat extract spiked with 12 ng/g. PMID:8787386

  10. Detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus in dog and mink sera employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Blixenkrone-Mller, M; Pedersen, I R; Appel, M J; Griot, C

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) in canine and mink serum is described. The diagnostic potential of this technique was evaluated by analyzing sera from natural or experimental infections in dog and mink and negative control sera. These results were compared with results obtained in the developed CDV IgG ELISA and in the virus neutralization test. The IgM test, which requires only a single serum specimen, is a useful method for diagnosing current or recent CDV infections in dog and mink. PMID:2039785

  11. Use of a commercial enzyme immunoassay to monitor dengue virus replication in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ludert, Juan E; Mosso, Clemente; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; del Angel, Rosa M

    2008-01-01

    Current methods for dengue virus quantitation are either time consuming, technically demanding or costly. As an alternative, the commercial enzyme immunoassay Platelia Dengue NS1 AG (Bio-Rad Laboratories) was used to monitor semiquantitatively dengue virus replication in cultured cells. The presence of NS1 protein was evaluated in supernatants from Vero and C6/36 HT cells infected with dengue virus. The amount of NS1 detected in the supernatants of infected cells was proportional to the initial MOI used and to the time of post infection harvest. This immunoassay was also able to detect the presence of NS1 in the supernatants of infected human macrophages. Inhibition of dengue virus replication in C6/36 HT cells treated with lysosomotropic drugs was readily monitored with the use of this assay. These results suggest that the Platelia Dengue NS1 AG kit can be used as a fast and reliable surrogate method for the relative quantitation of dengue virus replication in cultured cells. PMID:18439289

  12. Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Sheppard, Jo-Ann I; Chu, F Victor; Kapoor, Anil; Crowther, Mark A; Gangji, Azim

    2015-01-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies before cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (eg, platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological end point to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE precardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE before heparin reexposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive. PMID:25406354

  13. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil and water

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, K.A.; Ferguson, B.S.; Matt, J.J.; Fan, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been developed which is capable of detecting as little as 0.5 ppb TNT in water and 0.25 ppm TNT in soil. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against a TNT-derivative coupled to bovine serum albumin. These antibodies are coated on both polystyrene tubes and 96-well microtiter plates. Water samples or soil extracts together with a TNT-horseradish peroxidase conjugate are then added and compete for antibody binding sites. Excess conjugate is washed away in a simple rinse step, and substrate (3,3{prime},5,5{prime}-tetramethylbenzidine) is added; the amount of color developed is inversely proportional to the concentration of TNT in the sample. This competitive ELA is relatively specific: 4-amino-2,6-DNT and 2,6-DNT are only 20% as reactive as TNT, and 2,4-DNT shows approximately 1% cross-reactivity. Other common explosives and important metabolites, such as RDX, HMX, nitroglycerin, and dichlorobenzoic acids, are essentially non-reactive in this assay. The microliter plate-based assay is complete in 90 minutes and is suitable for laboratory use. The tube-based test is run in less than 30 minutes and is field-portable. The soil extraction protocol employed for this assay utilizes methanol as the solvent and can be completed in 10 minutes. A simple dilution step is the only sample preparation that is required before running soil extracts in the immunoassay.

  14. Human rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme-immunoassay with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sarkkinen, H K

    1981-01-01

    A four-layer solid phase enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (NCDV) as immunoreagents was developed to detect human rotavirus antigens from stool specimens of patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, guinea-pig and rabbit anti-NCDV immunoglobulin as the catching and secondary antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin as the indicator antibody. A comparison of the developed NCDV-EIA with an identical EIA, using antisera against human rotavirus (HRV-EIA) instead of NCDV antisera, was made with 216 stool specimens positive or negative for rotavirus. A complete agreement was obtained between the two methods provided that appropriate confirmatory tests were included. The developed NCDV-EIA was as sensitive and specific for rotavirus as the HRV-EIA, and it allowed the detection of both established rotavirus types 1 and 2 from stools with equal sensitivity. The difficulties in cultivating human rotavirus in vitro for immunisation and the relative ease of growing NCDV in widely-used continuous cell lines make NCDV a good alternative in the preparation of the highly specific and sensitive rotavirus antisera required in immunoassays, and facilitate the setting-up methods for the routine diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis by EIA or RIA in diagnostic virus laboratories. PMID:6265506

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of an IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and comparison with 2 polymerase chain reactions for early diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Vanasco, N B; Jacob, P; Landolt, N; Chiani, Y; Schmeling, M F; Cudos, C; Tarabla, H; Lottersberger, J

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may play a key role for early detection and treatment of human leptospirosis in developing countries. The aims of this study were to develop and validate an IgM ELISA under field conditions and to compare the diagnostic accuracy among IgG, IgM ELISAs, conventional PCR (cPCR), and real-time PCR (rtPCR) for early detection of human leptospirosis. Overall accuracy of IgM ELISA was sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 97.0%, and area under the curve of 0.940. When the 4 methods were compared, IgM ELISA showed the greatest diagnostic accuracy (J=0.6) followed by rtPCR (J=0.4), cPCR (J=0.2) and IgG ELISA (J=0.1). Our results support the use of IgM ELISA and rtPCR for early diagnosis of the disease. Moreover, due to their high specificity, they could be also useful to replace or supplement microscopic agglutination test as a confirmatory test, allowing more confirmations. PMID:26867967

  16. A new enzyme immunoassay to detect antibodies to arboviruses in the blood of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Chiles, R E; Reisen, W K

    1998-12-01

    A new indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to screen wild bird sera for antibodies against western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses. The detector antibody was made by immunizing rabbits with serum proteins pooled from single species representatives of four bird orders and was conjugated with horseradish peroxidase to allow visualization with the ABTS substrate in an EIA plate reader set at 405 nm. The detector antibody recognized a wide range of bird species and was more accurate, sensitive, and specific than a hemaglutination inhibition test when compared to a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). EIA positive sera frequently could not be confirmed by PRNT; however, practically all sera positive by PRNT also were positive by EIA. The new EIA has been incorporated into our field research program and has been used to economically screen over 10,000 wild bird sera from 124 species for antibodies against WEE and SLE. PMID:9879069

  17. Improvement of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of mercury (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, A.; Kroetz, E.; Hock, B.

    1998-07-01

    Three systems were tested for the optimization of a heterogeneous noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the determination of Hg (II). The sensitivity of the nonoptimized Hg-EIA with a detection limit of 2.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II) was improved by an avidin-biotin-complex (ABC) amplification system to a 2-fold lower detection limit (1.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II)). A conventional competitive EIA with the competition reaction between bound and free Hg (II) for antibody (ab) binding sites yielded a detection limit of 1.0 {micro}g/L Hg (II). Further improvement of sensitivity could be achieved by a competitive displacement EIA. In this case ab molecules bound to immobilized haptens are displaced in the next step by free Hg (II). The detection limit of the displacement approach is 0.4 {micro}g/L Hg (II).

  18. Evaluation of the stick enzyme immunoassay in Caranx sp. and Seriola dumerili associated with ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Y; Asahina, A Y; Hong, T W; Shang, E S; Miyahara, J T

    1990-01-01

    The stick enzyme immunoassay (S-EIA) using monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin (MAb-CTX) was used to examine clinically implicated fish and to pre-screen two species of fish, Caranx sp. (ulua or jack) and Seriola dumerili (kahala or amberjack), supplied by sports fishermen. All of the clinically implicated fish from the Department of Health gave S-EIA values greater than or equal to 1.3. The Caranx sp. and Seriola dumerili considered safe (less than or equal to 1.2 value) and consumed after testing gave no false-negative results. The S-EIA procedure using MAb-CTX proved to be specific, sensitive, and simple to use in the laboratory. It also proved to be useful in screening two large carnivorous fish for ciguatoxin and related polyethers prior to consumption. PMID:2231183

  19. Detection of Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites Using the Cross Reactivity of Enzyme Immunoassays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay is an important environmental analysis method that may be used to identify many pesticide analytes in water samples. Because of similarities in chemical structure between various members of a pesticide class, there often may be an unwanted response that is characterized by a percentage of cross reactivity. Also, there may be cross reactivity caused by degradation products of the target analyte that may be present in the sample. In this paper, the concept of cross reactivity caused by degradation products or by nontarget analytes is explored as a tool for identification of metabolites or structurally similar compounds not previously known to be present in water samples. Two examples are examined in this paper from various water quality studies. They are alachlor and its metabolite, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, and atrazine and its class members, prometryn and propazine. A method for using cross reactivity for the detection of these compounds is explained in this paper.

  20. Species identification of blood and saliva stains by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, S M; Dolton, P; Harris-Smith, P W

    1984-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method for the identification of human blood and saliva stains is reported. The method uses a monoclonal antibody which reacts with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in extracts of blood and saliva stains up to 16 months old. Semen stain extracts gave weak or negative results. For routine screening purposes dilutions of 1:1000 for bloodstain extracts and 1:100 for saliva stain extracts would be suitable. Of 32 other animal species tested, only chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and eel cross-reacted significantly, and the presence of the last three was clearly indicated by appropriate controls. The monoclonal antibody gave poor results in the crossover and gel diffusion techniques. PMID:6699607

  1. Standardization of an enzyme immunoassay for human antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, M; Thompson, C E; Filion, L G; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F A; Ronald, A R; Piot, P; Cameron, D W

    1992-01-01

    We standardized a serologic enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human immunoglobulin G and M antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi. We evaluated the performance of this test with respect to the time from acute chancroid and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to a crude, soluble bacterial antigen of one H. ducreyi strain was detected in a panel of serum samples from clinically and microbiologically confirmed cases of chancroid and from controls. Test interpretation was standardized for optimal sensitivity and specificity. Performance of the EIA was enhanced in the period of early convalescence from acute primary chancroid and was not diminished in the presence of HIV coinfection. The EIA performed adequately as a serologic screening test for field evaluation and epidemiologic application in conjunction with sexually transmitted disease and HIV detection and control efforts. PMID:1500508

  2. Semiautomated homogeneous enzyme immunoassay of total serum thyroxine with a kinetic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, H

    1980-03-01

    A new semiautomatic procedure for determination of total serum thyroxine was adapted to a kinetic analyzer, LKB 2086 Mark II. The ABA thyroxine assay kit was used, and although the assay procedure was modified, the advantage of small reagent volumes, short measuring times, and automation were retained. The results were analyzed off-line with a programmable desk-top calculator. The method has a precision of 7% (CV) and a sensitivity of 8 nmol/L. Values in sera from 64 patients analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and by radioimmunoassay correlated well (r = 0.975). One kit contains enough reagents for 500 assays, and an operator could do 25 samples (i.e., 64 assays) in about 4 h. PMID:6988113

  3. Performance of the Kallestad Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M A; Shuck, K M; Sambol, A R; Bohnert, V A; Henery, M L

    1993-01-01

    The Kallestad Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen was compared with virus culture and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) to determine the reliability of the EIA. During two consecutive winter respiratory seasons, 270 nasopharyngeal wash specimens were tested. RSV was detected in culture by the presence of cytopathic effect and/or an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The sensitivity of the Pathfinder EIA in comparison with isolation in tube culture was 72% (73 of 101) and the specificity was 99% (167 of 169). During the second year of the evaluation period, DFA was performed on all specimens. The sensitivity of the DFA compared with isolation in tube culture was 94%. This study indicates that the Pathfinder EIA is a very specific test for diagnosis of RSV infections, but lacks sensitivity in comparison with tube culture or direct immunofluorescence. PMID:8495589

  4. Determination of metallothionein in biological fluids using enzyme-linked immunoassay with commercial antibody.

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bizoń, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight cysteine-rich protein with a number of roles in the pro/antioxidant balance and homeostasis of essential metals, such as zinc and copper, and in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and mercury. Until now, detection of metallothionein in biological fluids remained difficult because of a lack of a broadly reactive commercial test. Meaningful comparison of the values of metallothionein concentrations reported by different authors using their specific isolation procedures and different conditions of enzyme-linked immunoassay is difficult due to the absence of a reference material for metallothionein. Therefore in the present study, we describe a quantitative assay for metallothionein in biological fluids such as plasma and urine performed by a direct enzyme-linked immunoassay using a commercially available monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody and commercial standards of metallothionein from rabbit liver and a custom preparation of metallothionein from human liver. The sensitivity of the assay for the standard containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II from human liver was 140 pg/well. The reactivity of the commercial standards and standards containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II isolated from human liver in our laboratory with a commercial monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody were similar. This suggests that the described ELISA test can be useful for determination of metallothionein concentration in biological fluids. The concentrations of metallothionein in human plasma, erythrocyte lysate and in urine of smoking and non-smoking healthy volunteers are reported. Tobacco smoking increases the extracellular metallothionein concentration (plasma and urine) but does not affect the intracellular concentration (erythrocyte lysate). PMID:20349027

  5. Post-mortem determination of insulin using chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Sabatasso, Sara; Torrent, Cline; Rey, Franois; Werner, Dominique; Bardy, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Insulin determination in blood sampled during post-mortem investigation has been repeatedly asserted as being of little diagnostic value due to the rapid occurrence of decompositional changes and blood haemolysis. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of insulin determination in post-mortem serum, vitreous humour, bile, and cerebrospinal and pericardial fluids in one case of fatal insulin self-administration and a series of 40 control cases (diabetics and non-diabetics) using a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. In the case of suicide by insulin self-administration, insulin concentrations in pericardial fluid and bile were higher than blood clinical reference values, though lower than post-mortem serum concentration. Insulin concentrations in vitreous (11.50 mU/L) and cerebrospinal fluid (17.30 mU/L) were lower than blood clinical reference values. Vitreous insulin concentrations in non-diabetic control cases were lower than the estimated detection limit of the method. These preliminary results tend to confirm the usefulness of insulin determination in vitreous humour in situations of suspected fatal insulin administration. Additional findings pertaining to insulin determination in bile, pericardial, and cerebrospinal fluid would suggest that analysis performed in post-mortem serum and injection sites could be complemented, in individual cases, by investigations carried out in alternative biological fluids. Lastly, these results would indicate that analysis with chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay may provide suitable data, similar to analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoradiometric assay, to support the hypothesis of insulin overdose. PMID:25641775

  6. Self-Assembly of Ferritin Nanoparticles into an Enzyme Nanocomposite with Tunable Size for Ultrasensitive Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Men, Dong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Hou, Li-Wei; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jin-Li; Cui, Zong-Qiang; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Wang, Dian-Bing; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-11-24

    The self-assembly of nanoparticles into larger superstructures is a powerful strategy to develop novel functional nanomaterials, as these superstructures display collective properties that are different to those displayed by individual nanoparticles or bulk samples. However, there are increasing bottlenecks in terms of size control and multifunctionalization of nanoparticle assemblies. In this study, we developed a self-assembly strategy for construction of multifunctional nanoparticle assemblies of tunable size, through rational regulation of the number of self-assembling interaction sites on each nanoparticle. As proof-of-principle, a size-controlled enzyme nanocomposite (ENC) was constructed by self-assembly of streptavidin-labeled horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) and autobiotinylated ferritin nanoparticles (bFNP). Our ENC integrates a large number of enzyme molecules, together with a streptavidin-coated surface, allowing for a drastic increase in enzymatic signal when the SA is bound to a biotinylated target molecule. As result, a 10?000-fold increase in sensitivity over conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) methods was achieved in a cardiac troponin immunoassay. Our method presented here should provide a feasible approach for constructing elaborate multifunctional superstructures of tunable size useful for a broad range of biomedical applications. PMID:26431499

  7. Comparison of enzyme immunoassaybased assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternataderived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  8. Simultaneous Photoelectrochemical Immunoassay of Dual Cardiac Markers Using Specific Enzyme Tags: A Proof of Principle for Multiplexed Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zheng-Yuan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-02-16

    In this Letter, on the basis of the CdS quantum dots functionalized TiO2 nanotubes electrode, we proposed a simultaneous photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of dual cardiac markers using specific enzyme tags of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE). ALP and AChE were integrated into the PEC system through the sandwich immunobinding and could specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) or the acetylthiocholine (ATC) to in situ generate ascorbic acid (AA) or thiocholine (TC) for sacrificial electron donating. These two enzymes were thus used to differentiate the signals of two cardiac targets in connection with the sandwich immunorecognition and PEC responses to the corresponding electron donors. This strategy demonstrates a proof of principle for the successful integration of dual enzyme tags with PEC immunoassay that can potentially provide a general format for multiplexed PEC bioanalysis. PMID:26841098

  9. Development of a competitive enzyme immunoassay for 17 alpha-19-nortestosterone.

    PubMed

    Van Look, L J; Jansen, E H; van den Berg, R H; Zomer, G; Vanoosthuyze, K E; Van Peteghem, C H

    1991-04-01

    Because 17 beta-19-nortestosterone and its esters are frequently used anabolic steroids in cattle in Europe, there is a need for an assay that can also detect certain metabolites. The enzyme immunoassay described here involves the detection and quantitation of the major metabolite 17 alpha-19-nortestosterone in urine. The assay is based on the coating of an antibody raised in a rabbit against 17 alpha-19-nortestosterone-3-carboxy-methyloxime-bovine serum albumin (17 alpha-19-NT-3-CMO-BSA), the competitive incubation of 17 alpha-19-NT and the 17 alpha-19-nortestosterone-3-CMO-horseradish peroxidase label, followed by the detection of the blue colour developed by the action of the enzyme on tetramethylbenzidine. The 3-CMO conjugate of 17 alpha-19-nortestosterone was used to produce an antibody with selective affinity for the 17 alpha-epimer. For the optimization of the assay, different coatings and incubation conditions were tested. The standard curve ranged between 0.98 and 4000 pg per well, with a B/B0 50% of +/- 65 pg per well. Colour was measured with a microtitre plate reader. The method was validated by means of certified blank and spiked cattle urine samples. PMID:1874849

  10. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.498.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.499.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result. PMID:25215191

  11. Enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone: applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, M.A.; Hymer, W.C.

    1987-06-29

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for rat growth hormone was developed. In this assay soluble growth hormone and growth hormone adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-growth hormone antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-growth hormone complex is detected and quantified using goat anti-monkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horse radish peroxidase. Therefore, a high concentration of soluble growth hormone in the sample will result in low absorbance detection from the colored products of the enzyme reaction. Assay parameters were optimized by investigating the concentration of reagents and the reaction kinetics in each of the assay steps. The assay can be performed in 27 hours. A sensitivity range of 0.19 ng to 25 ng in the region of 10 to 90% binding was obtained. Near 50% binding (3 ng) the intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.54% and the interassay CV was 5.33%. The correlation coefficient (r/sup 2/) between radioimmunoassay and EIA was 0.956 and followed the curve Y = 0.78X + 1.0. 9 references, 6 figures.

  12. Potential impact of different cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM assays on an algorithm requiring IgM reactivity as a criterion for measuring CMV IgG avidity.

    PubMed

    Prince, Harry E; Lap-Nixon, Mary; Brenner, Andrew; Pitstick, Nancy; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity is a powerful tool for identifying individuals with recent CMV infection. Because such patients are expected to be positive for CMV IgM, several investigators have suggested that CMV IgG-positive sera first be screened for CMV IgM and then only the IgM-reactive sera be tested for avidity. We investigated the impact of different CMV IgM assays on such a reflexing algorithm using a panel of 369 consecutive IgG-positive serum samples submitted for avidity testing. A bead-based immunofluorescent assay (BIFA) identified 105 IgM-positive serum samples, whereas an IgM-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) identified 48 IgM-positive serum samples; this marked difference led us to evaluate additional CMV IgM assays. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) were used to test all sera with discordant BIFA/EIA results, all sera with concordant positive results, and selected sera with concordant negative results. The findings indicated that the ELFA would identify 74 CMV IgM-positive samples and the CIA would identify 64. Of the 23 low-avidity serum samples, 2 were IgM negative by BIFA, 3 by ELFA and CIA, and 4 by EIA; of the 23 intermediate-avidity serum samples, 6 were IgM negative by BIFA, 10 by ELFA, and 15 by EIA and CIA. In both these avidity groups, BIFA IgM-negative sera were also negative by the other 3 assays. These findings demonstrate that an algorithm requiring CMV IgM reactivity as a criterion for CMV IgG avidity testing does not identify all low-avidity sera and thus misses some cases of acute CMV infection. PMID:24671558

  13. Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Stenbaek, E I; De LaSalle, F; Gottschalk, M

    1997-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 (App-5) in pig sera, based on the inhibition of the binding of an App-5 specific monoclonal antibody was established. The monoclonal antibody (MAb 210-F11) was found to be directed against an epitope on the O-chain of App-5 LPS. In the inhibition EIA, highly purified App-5 LPS was used to coat microtitre plates. Serial dilutions of pig sera were added to the plates prior to the addition of the MAb 210-F11. The degree of binding of App-5 antibodies from pig sera was determined as the percentage inhibition of the MAb 210-F11. Pig serum from specific pathogen free (SPF) herds, from experimentally infected animals, and from acutely and chronically infected herds were tested. A serum dilution of 1/30 was found to be optimal, when using 50% inhibition as the discriminating inhibition percentage. No cross-reactivity was observed with serum from pigs infected with other App serotypes or bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, such as A. suis and H. parasuis. The inhibition EIA will be used for surveillance of App-5 antibodies in SPF and conventional herds. Images Figure 1. PMID:9008793

  14. Diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by enzyme immunoassay using membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Skraba, Cissiara Manetti; Pedroso, Rassa Bocchi; Fiorini, Adriana; Rosado, Fbio Rogrio; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Silveira, Thas Gomes Verzignassi

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the reactivity of membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis for the diagnosis of ACL by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis were grown in medium 199 and lysed in a sonicator. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting showed that specific proteins of L. (V.) braziliensis (apparent molecular weights 36 kDa and 48-56 kDa) were recognized by sera from ACL patients. These proteins were eluted from the SDS-PAGE and tested in EIA-IgG with sera from ACL patients, healthy individuals, patients with toxoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and Chagas disease. The EIA-IgG with membrane antigens allowed us to distinguish patients with ACL from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases (P < 0.0001), and showed a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 90.8%, not including Chagas disease patients. 2D-SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting was performed to improve the characterization of the antigens, and showed a component with isoelectric points near the acid pH side and apparent molecular weights of 48-56 kDa. The results showed good sensitivity and specificity of EIA-IgG with membrane antigens, indicating their potential use for diagnosis of ACL, as well as seroepidemiological surveys and follow-up of clinically cured patients. PMID:24485589

  15. A polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay for diagnosing infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Golbang, N; Burnie, J P; Matthews, R C

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To develop a polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) to measure levels of circulating aspergillus DNA in invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. METHODS: The PCR reaction was based on primers from the 18s rRNA gene. Binding of the product to a streptavidin coated microtitration plate was mediated by a biotinylated capture probe. The product was digoxigenylated during PCR and this was the tag to which antibody was bound in the subsequent EIA. RESULTS: The optical density (OD) endpoint was < 0.1 in 10 sera from neutropenic patients with no evidence of invasive aspergillosis, and in 10 sera from nonneutropenic patients with bacterial pneumonia (group 1). The OD from five of 12 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (group 2), three with an aspergilloma (group 3), and five with possible invasive aspergillosis (group 4) was > or = 0.1. In 63 sera from 33 cases of proven invasive aspergillosis (group 5) an OD > or = 0.1 was achieved in 48 sera from 30 patients. The maximum OD was 0.510. The level fell in survivors and gradually rose in fatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: This assay validated the concept of diagnosing invasive aspergillosis by measuring levels of circulating fungal DNA in serum. PMID:10562808

  16. Competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for sialoglycoprotein of edible bird's nest in food and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yun; Li, Bifang; Huang, Xiuli; Zhang, Qinlei; Chen, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Guowu

    2012-04-11

    The proliferation of fake and inferior edible bird's nest (EBN) products has recently become an increasingly serious concern. To identify and classify EBN products, a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to quantitate sialoglycoprotein in EBN used in food and cosmetic applications. The characteristic sialoglycoprotein in EBN was found, extracted, purified, and analyzed. Sialoglycoprotein, considered the main carrier of sialic acid in EBN, consisted of 106 and 128 kDa proteins. A monoclonal antibody that could recognize both proteins was prepared. The heat-treated process did not change the affinity of sialoglycoprotein with the antibody. An optimized ELISA method was established with a cross-reactivity of less than 0.1% and an IC(50) of 3.3 μg/mL. On the basis of different food and cosmetic samples, the limits of detection (LOD) were 10-18 μg/g. Recoveries of fortified samples at levels of 20 and 80 μg/g ranged from 81.5 to 96.5%, respectively. The coefficients of variation were less than 8.0%. PMID:22439641

  17. Sensitive and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for microcystin-LR in water samples.

    PubMed

    Long, F; Shi, H C; He, M; Sheng, J W; Wang, J F

    2009-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the determination of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Several physicochemical parameters such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution ratio of MC-LR-OVA conjugate, monoclonal antibody concentration, and peroxidase labeled antibody concentration were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, calibration curve obtained for MC-LR had detection limits of 0.032+/-0.003 microg L(-1), the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.20+/-0.02 microg L(-1) and the quantitative detection range was 0.062-0.65 microg L(-1). The proposed methods was successfully applied to the monitoring of MC-LR in spiked water samples without significant effect of the matrix, and the recovery of MC-LR added to water samples at different concentrations ranged from 80% to 115% with the coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 9%. The LOD attained from the calibration curves and the results obtained for the real samples demonstrate the potential use of CLEIA as a screening tool for the analysis of MC-LR in environmental samples. PMID:19664472

  18. Fieldable, real-time enzyme immunoassay kits for drugs on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, Michele W.; Wendel, Gregory J.; Duquette, Peter H.; Hamilton, Martha J.; Chudzik, Stephen J.; Chappa, Ralph A.

    1994-03-01

    Immunoassays (e.g., RIA, EIA) have been demonstrated to be useful for rapid, convenient detection and semiquantitative analysis of drugs. Thermedics Detection, Inc. manufactures a rapid, sensitive, self-contained, disposable, EIA device, developed by Bio-Metric Systems, Inc., designed to allow untrained personnel to perform in field situations. This format has been developed for drugs in biological fluids and on surfaces. The analyte in the test sample competes with an enzyme-analyte conjugate for a limited number of immobilized antibody sites. The AccuPRESS Test format can detect analytes at 10 ppb in biological fluids, water, and soil, and on surfaces, such as suitcases, vehicles, tables and hands, with positive results indicated by clearly visible color development within 5 minutes. This format is designed to have all dry components and to have an ambient shelf life of greater than one year. The format is available for cocaine and opiate derivatives, including heroin, and is readily adaptable for use with numerous other drugs, explosives, and environmental pollutants.

  19. Development and validation of a simple, sensitive enzyme immunoassay for quantification of androstenedione in bull plasma.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Smrutirekha; Kumar, Bs Bharath; Prakash, B S; Aggrawal, Anjali; Pandita, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to radioimmunoassay a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed and validated for androstenedione quantification in plasma of Karan Fries bulls using second antibody coating technique. The wells of the microtitreplate were coated with affinity-purified goat immunoglobulin (antirabbit IgG) that binds the hormone specific antibody. The EIA was performed to analyze androstenedione directly in 40 μl of bull plasma. The androstenedione standards ranged from 0.20 to 200 pg/40 μl /well and the sensitivity of the assay was 5 pg/ml plasma. Serially diluted bull plasma containing high endogenous androstenedione showed good parallelism with bovine androstenedione standard curve. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were found to be 8 and 9%, respectively. Peripheral plasma androstenedione concentrations determined in young and adult bull samples ranged between 104-990 pg/ml and 184-2040 pg/ml, respectively. PMID:26290733

  20. The Rapid Screening of Triazophos Residues in Agricultural Products by Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ge; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method was developed in this study for efficient screening of triazophos residues in a large number of samples. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China and CAC for triazophos in different agro-products, the representative apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice samples were selected as spiked samples, and the triazophos at the concentrations of the MRL values were spiked to blank samples. Subsequently, the five samples with the spiked triazophos standard were measured by CLEIA 100 times, and the detection results indicated that the correction factors of the apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice were determined as 0.79, 0.66, 0.85, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. In this experiment, 1500 real samples were detected by both the CLEIA and the GC-MS methods. With the GC-MS method, 1462 samples were identified as negative samples and 38 samples as positive samples. Based on the correction factors, the false positive rate of the CLEIA method was 0.13%, and false negative rate was 0. The results showed that the established CLEIA method could be used to screen a large number of real samples. PMID:26218576

  1. Laboratory and epidemiologic evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to HTLV-III

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Grindon, A.J.; Feorino, P.M.; Schable, C.; Parvin, M.; Allen, J.R.

    1986-07-18

    The enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) were rapidly adopted for screening donated blood and plasma. To evaluate the significance of a positive EIA reaction, test performance was examined in a blood bank screening program. Specimens were tested by EIA, Western blot assay, and HTLV-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) culture. The EIA was positive in 0.25% of 67 190 blood donations. Specimens were categorized and 57.3% had low (weak) reactivity, 12.7% had moderate reactivity, and 30.0% had high reactivity. Highly reactive specimens were strongly associated with a positive Western blot or culture (86.7%) in contrast to moderately and weekly reactive specimens (1.9%). Twenty-five of 29 donors interviewed with a highly reactive EIA had risk factors for HTLV-III/LAV infection. Risk factors were not identified for 74 of 75 interviewed donors with specimens of lower reactivity. The minimum calculated specificity was 99.82%. The use of the HTLV-III EIA has virtually eliminated the use of blood and plasma for HTLV-III/LAV infected donors.

  2. Enzyme immunoassay for identification of Vibrio vulnificus in seawater, sediment, and oysters.

    PubMed Central

    Tamplin, M L; Martin, A L; Ruple, A D; Cook, D W; Kaspar, C W

    1991-01-01

    Historically, methods used to identify Vibrio vulnificus in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and fail to separate V. vulnificus from other bacterial species. We describe an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture techniques which identified V. vulnificus in seawater, sediment, and oysters. The EIA used monoclonal antibody FRBT37 to a species-specific epitope of V. vulnificus. No cross-reactions were observed among 72 non-V. vulnificus strains comprising 34 species and 15 genera. In field trials, the EIA identified correctly 99.7% of 348 biochemically confirmed V. vulnificus isolates. The epitope corresponding to FRBT37 was found in cells lysed by Triton X-100, deionized H2O, and ultrasonication but was not found in culture supernatants, indicating that its location was intracellular. In addition, electron micrographs of V. vulnificus labeled with FRBT37-biotin-avidin-gold showed that epitope FRBT37 reacted with fragments of lysed cells but not whole cells. FRBT37 was expressed when V. vulnificus was cultured in different growth media. The minimum level of detection of the EIA was approximately 2,000 V. vulnificus cells per EIA well. Epitope FRBT37 was labile at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Immunoblot and EIA plate formats reduced assay time and facilitated handling large numbers of test samples. Images PMID:2059045

  3. A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for human hemoglobin A.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, N; Kohno, T; Ishikawa, E; Takahama, K

    1987-12-01

    A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for human hemoglobin A (Hb A) is described. A rabbit anti-human Hb A IgG-coated polystyrene ball was incubated with human Hb A and subsequently with affinity-purified anti-human Hb A Fab'-horseradish peroxidase conjugates, which had been prepared before and after absorption with Japanese monkey Hb-Sepharose 4B and dog Hb-Sepharose 4B. Bound peroxidase activity was measured by fluorimetry using 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as a substrate. The detection limits of human Hb A using the conjugate before and after the absorption were 0.65 pg/tube (3 X 10(10)-fold dilution of whole blood) and 2.0 pg/tube (1 X 10(10)-fold dilution of whole blood), respectively. Human Hb A could be discriminated from Hb of animals such as Japanese monkey, dog, cat, pig, horse, sheep, chicken and cow by measuring bound peroxidase activity in the presence and absence of the conjugates prepared before and after the absorption. Human Hb A in bloodstains on cotton gauze could be discriminated from Hb of animals described above even after seven washings. Human Hb A in 220,000-fold diluted bloodstains on cotton gauze could also be discriminated from Hb of animals described above. PMID:3322993

  4. The Rapid Screening of Triazophos Residues in Agricultural Products by Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ge; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method was developed in this study for efficient screening of triazophos residues in a large number of samples. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China and CAC for triazophos in different agro-products, the representative apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice samples were selected as spiked samples, and the triazophos at the concentrations of the MRL values were spiked to blank samples. Subsequently, the five samples with the spiked triazophos standard were measured by CLEIA 100 times, and the detection results indicated that the correction factors of the apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice were determined as 0.79, 0.66, 0.85, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. In this experiment, 1500 real samples were detected by both the CLEIA and the GC-MS methods. With the GC-MS method, 1462 samples were identified as negative samples and 38 samples as positive samples. Based on the correction factors, the false positive rate of the CLEIA method was 0.13%, and false negative rate was 0. The results showed that the established CLEIA method could be used to screen a large number of real samples. PMID:26218576

  5. Development of a highly sensitive and specific blastomycosis antibody enzyme immunoassay using Blastomyces dermatitidis surface protein BAD-1.

    PubMed

    Richer, Sarah M; Smedema, Melinda L; Durkin, Michelle M; Brandhorst, T Tristan; Hage, Chadi A; Connolly, Patricia A; Leland, Diane S; Davis, Thomas E; Klein, Bruce S; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Serologic tests for antibodies to Blastomyces dermatitidis are not thought to be useful for the diagnosis of blastomycosis, in part due to the low sensitivity of immunodiffusion and complement fixation. Earlier studies have shown that the enzyme immunoassay improves the sensitivity of antibody detection for the diagnosis of blastomycosis. Microplates coated with the B. dermatitidis surface protein BAD-1 were used for testing sera from patients with proven blastomycosis or histoplasmosis and controls. Semiquantification was accomplished by using standards containing human anti-B. dermatitidis antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 87.8% of the patients with blastomycosis by the enzyme immunoassay compared to 15.0% by immunodiffusion. The specificities were 99.2% for patients with nonfungal infections and healthy subjects and 94.0% for patients with histoplasmosis. The results were highly reproducible on repeat testing. When combined with antigen testing, antibody testing improved the sensitivity from 87.8% to 97.6%. Enzyme immunoassay detection of antibodies against BAD-1 is highly specific, has greatly improved sensitivity over immunodiffusion, and may identify cases with negative results by antigen testing. This assay has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis. PMID:24285817

  6. A rapid, simplified enzyme immunoassay stick test for the detection of ciguatoxin and related polyethers from fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Y

    1985-01-01

    A simplified and rapid enzyme immunoassay stick test is presented in this study. The salient feature of this test is the use of a coating (Liquid Paper) on the stick to adsorb the lipid ciguatoxin and its related polyether toxins onto the stick. This rapid solid phase stick test has been able to differentiate clinically implicated fishes (14 samples) from non-toxic (60 samples) with P less than 0.005. Comparison of the stick test with the enzyme immunoassay procedure with the positive fish samples demonstrated a good correlation. All samples were positive by both procedures. Further comparison of the stick test, enzyme immunoassay and the mouse bioassay with unknown fish samples showed good relationships between the three procedures. Examination of 71 Seriola dumerili, a fish generally implicated in ciguatera poisoning, with the stick test procedure showed that 89% of the fishes were non-toxic and thus consumed without any incidence of ciguatera poisoning. Analysis of graded concentrations of ciguatoxin, in ng/ml of methanol, showed a typical immunological precipitation pattern. The stick test as conceived is simple and rapid, while retaining its sensitivity and specificity to detect ng levels of ciguatoxin and its related polyether toxins. It is suggested that the stick test will be valuable in the screening of ciguatoxin and related polyether toxins in contaminated fish tissues. PMID:3913056

  7. Fecal steroid evaluation to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females using enzyme immunoassay commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Borque, Conception; Pérez-Garnelo, Sonia S; Delclaux, Maria; Martínez, Eva; De la Fuente, Julio

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of reproductive hormones in fecal samples is necessary for the noninvasive monitoring of reproductive status in free-ranging species. The aim of the present study was to establish an easy noninvasive method to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females. Feces were collected daily, weekly, or three or four times a week directly from the soil for a period ranging from 1 to 9.8 mo. Fecal estradiol and progestagens were monitored in nine wild ungulate females (Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia [n = 3]; European bison, Bison bonasus [n = 1]; auroch, Bos taurus primigenius [n = 2]; sitatunga, Tragelaphus spekii gratus [n = 2]; and Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis [n = 1]) by using commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits prepared for human serum or plasma. In the species evaluated in this study, luteal phase, abortion, and gestation patterns corresponded closely with changes in fecal progestagens. Luteal phase and gestation values differed significantly (P < 0.001) from basal values, whereas progestagens values after abortion were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from basal values. For estradiol excretory patterns, follicular phase and pregnancy values differed significantly (P < 0.001) from basal values, but differences between values after abortion and basal values were not significant (P > 0.05); length of estrous cycles were clearly defined through estradiol data. This study demonstrates that ovarian function in the wild ungulate females studied can be monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, ELISA methodologies used here could be a practical alternative to other ELISAs that require more complex procedures or whose commercial availability is difficult. PMID:22204046

  8. An ultrasensitive and universal photoelectrochemical immunoassay based on enzyme mimetics enhanced signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun

    2015-04-15

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on signal amplification by enzyme mimetics was fabricated for the detection of mouse IgG (as a model protein). The PEC immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), CdS quantum dots (QDs), primary antibody (Ab1, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG), and the antigen (Ag, mouse IgG) on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Then, the secondary antibody (Ab2, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG) combined to a bio-bar-coded Pt nanoparticle(NP)-G-quadruplex/hemin probe was used for signal amplification. The bio-bar-coded Pt NP-G-quadruplex/hemin probe could catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as an oxidant, demonstrating its intrinsic enzyme-like activity. High sensitivity for the target Ag was achieved by using the bio-bar-coded probe as signal amplifier due to its high catalytic activity, a competitive nonproductive absorption of hemin and the steric hindrance caused by the polymeric oxidation products of HQ. For most important, the oxidation product of HQ acted as an efficient electron acceptor of the illuminated CdS QDs. The target Ag could be detected from 0.01pg/mL to 1.0ng/mL with a low detection limit of 6.0fg/mL. The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and acceptable reproducibility. This method might be attractive for clinical and biomedical applications. PMID:25437365

  9. Anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies as reagents for enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Léo, P; Ucelli, P; Augusto, E F; Oliveira, M S; Tamashiro, W M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to produce anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that could be conjugated and used for the detection of antigen-antibody reactions, in which the antigen specific-antibody had been previously bound to trinitrophenyl (TNP). For hybridoma production, SP2/0-Ag14 cells were fused with spleen cells from mice previously immunized with TNP-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA). After 10 days, enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-TNP antibodies in the supernatants, and five cultures were found to be strictly positive for TNP. Three of these were subsequently cloned by limiting dilution, and 15 clones were chosen for expansion based on the criterion of high reactivity against TNP. Anti-TNP MAbs produced by those clones were isotyped as IgG1, and purified by Sepharose-protein G affinity cromatography from ascites developed in BALB/c mice. Two purified MAbs (1B2.1B6 and 1B2.1E12) were coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO). The resulting conjugates were evaluated in ELISA tests for interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 detection, in which the secondary anti-cytokine antibodies were coupled either to TNP or biotin. The performance of anti-TNP conjugates in these assays were compared with a biotin-streptavidin/peroxidase system. Both types of conjugates were similarly able to detect cytokines with r2 (linear correlation coefficient) close to unity value. Growth studies of one of those hybridomas (1B2.1B6) yielded a specific growth rate of 0.042 h(-1) and a doubling time of 16.5 h. Data discussed here show that at least two MAbs against TNP raised in this work can be used as a reagent for enzyme immunoassays. PMID:11152399

  10. Development of enzyme linked immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of carbaryl and metolcarb in different agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwei; Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2010-05-01

    A direct competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in multi-enzyme tracers format for the simultaneous analysis of carbaryl and metolcarb in agricultural products is described in this study. The concentrations of coating antibodies and enzyme tracer were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection of carbaryl and metolcarb were 0.15 microg L(-1) and 1.2 microg L(-1), respectively. Determination of carbaryl and metolcarb in fruit juices and vegetables was accomplished by simple, rapid and efficient extraction methods. Recoveries of spiked samples were great than 70%. Validation of the immunosorbent assay was conducted by comparison of results from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlations between the data obtained using multi-enzyme tracers enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography were good. Results indicated that the new strategy for developing immunoassay for simultaneous quantitative determination of carbaryl and metolcarb residues was suitable in this study. PMID:20433968

  11. [Detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A from stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay kit].

    PubMed

    Kato, N; Kato, H; Liu, C X

    1999-05-01

    Toxin detection from stool specimens is prerequisite for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. However, in Japan only one toxin detection kit is commercially available, which requires computerized VIDAS fluorescence reader. In this study we evaluated ImmunoCard Toxin A, which is an enzyme immunoassay with a format of individual cassette and needs no special equipment to perform, by comparing with the VIDAS CDA kit. Of 61 stool specimens 12 were positive and 39 were negative by both assays, 7 were VIDAS positive-ImmunoCard negative, 2 were VIDAS invalid-ImmunoCard negative, and 1 was invalid by both assays. Stool specimens which gave inconsistent results between two assays were subjected to cell culture assay to detect toxin B and culture for C. difficile followed by testing of toxin producibility of isolates. Of 7 VIDAS positive-ImmunoCard negative specimens 5 were negative for cell culture assay and toxigenic C. difficile culture and 2 were positive for cell culture assay. By omitting 3 VIDAS invalid specimens and counting 5 specimens, which were cell culture negative but VIDAS positive, as negative and 2, which were cell culture positive and VIDAS positive, as positive, 12 of the 14 VIDAS positive specimens were ImmunoCard positive (sensitivity, 85.7%) and all 44 VIDAS negative were ImmunoCard negative (specificity, 100%). These results indicate that although in comparison with VIDAS CDA, ImmunoCard Toxin A is slightly less sensitive, ImmunoCard is a rapid, simple, and reliable C. difficile toxin A detection kit, which has the advantage of requiring no special equipment to perform and no centrifuge step, as small as 25 muL of a specimen, and as short as approximately 15 min of time to complete the whole testing. PMID:10386027

  12. Enzyme-immunoassay for the determination of metallothionein in human urine: application to environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Swierzcek, Sabina; Abuknesha, Ramadan A; Chivers, Ian; Baranovska, Irena; Cunningham, Phillip; Price, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an enzyme immunoassay for metallothioneins in human urine using a polyclonal antiserum and to demonstrate a possible relationship between the level of this biomarker and heavy metal exposure. The antiserum was raised in sheep against horse metallothionein conjugated to carboxylated bovine serum albumin. The antibody was used to construct a two-step competitive ELISA procedure. Human urine was treated with activated charcoal powder to remove traces of metallothioneins and known amounts of pure metallothioneins were added to provide standards for a standard curve. Metallothionein levels were measured in two groups of children living in areas of mild and high environmental pollution due mainly to heavy metals. A comparison was made between the biomarker levels and the levels of cadmium and lead in urine samples in the two groups. A group of children from a non-polluted area acted as controls. The results show that the detected levels of metallothioneins appear to correspond to levels of the two heavy metals studied and that there was an apparent relationship to the environmental exposure. Thus according to results of this study the increase in the metallothionein excretion seems to provide an indication of previous of exposure to metals. The ELISA procedure is sensitive and robust and can be used to screen large numbers of samples and is more rapid than the physical procedures currently used for analysis of these proteins. The assay can therefore be used as an additional tool for screening at-risk populations where either environmental or occupational exposure to divalent heavy metals is suspected. PMID:15764296

  13. Power-free chip enzyme immunoassay for detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum.

    PubMed

    Adel Ahmed, Heba; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2013-11-15

    A power-free, portable "Chip EIA" was designed to render the popular Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) more suitable for point-of-care testing. A number of microfluidic platforms have enabled miniaturization of the conventional microtitre plate ELISA, however, they require external pumping systems, valves, and electric power supply. The Chip EIA platform has eliminated the need for pumps and valves through utilizing a simple permanent magnet and magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles act as solid support to capture the target and are then moved through chambers harboring different reagents necessary to perform a sandwich ELISA. The use of magnetic nanoparticles increases the volume-to-surface ratio reducing the assay time to 30 min. Changing the color of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) substrate to green indicates a positive result. In addition, a quantitative read-out was obtained through the use of cellphone camera imaging and analyzing the images using Matlab®. Cell phones, including smart ones, are readily available almost everywhere. The Chip EIA device was used to assay total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) in 19 serum samples. The PSA Chip EIA was tested for accuracy, precision, repeatability, and the results were correlated to the commercial Beckman Colter, Hybritech immunoassay® for determination of tPSA in serum samples with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.96). The lower detection limit of the PSA Chip EIA was 3.2 ng/mL. The assay has 88.9% recovery and good reproducibility (% CV of 6.5). We conclude that the developed Chip EIA can be used for detection of protein biomarkers in biological specimens. PMID:23811482

  14. Enzyme immunoassays for invasive Candida infections: reactivity of somatic antigens of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Zller, L; Krmer, I; Kappe, R; Sonntag, H G

    1991-01-01

    The main problem encountered with serodiagnostic tests for Candida infections is their failure to differentiate between invasive and superficial candidosis. Recent immunoblotting studies suggested that the use of selective somatic proteins of Candida albicans as antigens might be a promising approach toward developing a new generation of serodiagnostic assays. In this study major cytoplasmic protein antigens with molecular weights of 47,000 (47K), 46,000 (46K), 45,000 (45K), and 29,000 (29K) were identified as potential marker antigens for antibody detection in invasive candidosis. Continuous-flow isoelectric focusing was employed to enrich the proteins in two fractions, one of them containing the 47K and 29K proteins and the other one containing predominantly the 47K and 45K major proteins. These antigens and a whole somatic antigen extract were used to establish enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibody detection. Whereas all tests were able to discriminate between patients with invasive candidosis (n = 27) and normal healthy volunteers (n = 167), as proved by graphic marker analysis, the selective antigen EIAs were highly superior to the whole somatic antigen EIA and two serological standard assays (indirect immunofluorescence assay and indirect hemagglutination assay) when a panel of sera from patients with superficial candidosis (n = 34) was used as a negative control group. The use of the 47K-29K antigen fraction allowed the best differentiation between invasive and noninvasive candidosis. The corresponding immunoglobulin G class-specific EIA had a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 97% for both negative control groups as well. Images PMID:1774309

  15. Development and evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of rabies in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, Joel P; Madhusudana, S N; Abhilash, K V; Suja, M S; Muhamuda, K

    2004-10-01

    The presently advocated tests for rapid diagnosis of rabies such as fluorescent antibody test (FAT) is expensive and requires expertise to carry out and interpret the results. In this study we have developed and evaluated a simple enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) to detect rabies antigen in the brain specimens of animals and humans. We have also evaluated the utility of this test in ante mortem diagnosis of human rabies. The brain homogenates of suspected rabid animals (n=250), humans (n=16) and clinical samples like saliva (n=16) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n=16) applied on to ELISA plates coated with rabies antinucleoprotein antibody and the absorbed rabies nucleoprotein antigen was detected using biotinylated anti-nucleoprotein antibody followed by treatment with streptavidin peroxidase conjugate and colour development with OPD. Rabies infected and normal mouse brain homogenates were used as positive and negative controls respectively. The results of this test was evaluated with fluorescent antibody technique (for brain samples) and mice inoculation test (for saliva and CSF samples). A distinct dark brown color was seen in positive control and all positive samples and there was no color development in negative control and samples. The concordance between FAT and EIA was 98.4%. With brain samples, 83.3% with saliva and 91.6% with CSF samples. The specificity of the test was found to be 100%. It can be concluded that the EIA described here is a sensitive, specific and rapid test for post mortem diagnosis of rabies in animals and humans. The utility of this test for ante mortem diagnosis of rabies needs to be further evaluated. PMID:16295401

  16. Enzyme immunoassay using a novel recombinant polypeptide to detect human immunodeficiency virus env antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, R M; Beltz, G A; Hung, C H; Fallis, B F; Winkle, S; Cheng, K L; Marciani, D J

    1987-01-01

    A unique antigen, CBre3, has been synthesized from a genetically engineered clone to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) env antibodies with high sensitivity and specificity. The antigen contains sequences derived from both envelope proteins of HIV, i.e., gp120 and gp41, and was purified free of Escherichia coli proteins detectable by Coomassie stain or immunoblotting with E. coli antiserum. The purified recombinant polypeptides were used as antigen in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to screen serum samples from healthy and HIV-infected individuals. The same samples were also tested by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) for gp120 and gp160 HIV antibodies. All samples containing gp120 and gp160 antibodies by RIP had CBre3 EIA values greater than 0.35 (n, 122; range, 0.37 to 2.1+; median, 1.65). All RIP HIV antibody-negative samples had CBre3 EIA values less than 0.25 (n, 140; mean, 0.052; standard deviation, 0.045; range, 0.00 to 0.22). The endpoint titer of a standard positive control serum was 1:10,000 by RIP and by CBre3 EIA. The assay was 100% accurate in three proficiency panels. It easily detected six samples from individuals whose infections were confirmed by culture; these samples were reactive only with p24 by Western blot. The samples also were positive for gp120 and gp160 antibodies by RIP. These data suggest that the CBre3 EIA can detect env antibodies as sensitively and specifically as RIP and with more sensitivity than Western blot. Images PMID:3475281

  17. Evaluation of a homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Allan J.; Young, Sheena; Spinelli, Eliani; Martin, Thomas M.; Klette, Kevin L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The recent emergence and widespread availability of many new synthetic cannabinoids support the need for an accurate and high-throughput urine screen for these new designer drugs. We evaluated performance of the immunalysis homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly identify urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Methods 2443 authentic urine samples were analyzed with the HEIA that targets JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid, and a validated LC-MS/MS method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites. Semiquantitative HEIA results were obtained, permitting performance evaluation at and around three cutoffs (5, 10 and 20 ?g/L), and diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and efficiency determination. Performance challenges at 25 and 50% of each cutoff level, cross-reactivity and interferences also were evaluated. Results Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit with the manufacturer's recommended 10 ?g/L cutoff were 75.6%, 99.6% and 96.8%, respectively, as compared to the reference LC-MS/MS method with limits of detection of 0.1 -10 ?g/L. Performance at 5 ?g/L was 92.2%, 98.1% and 97.4%, and for the 20 ?g/L cutoff were 62.9%, 99.7% and 95.4%. Semi-quantitative results for in-house prepared standards were obtained from 2.5-30 ?g/L, and documented acceptable linearity from 5-25 ?g/L, with inter-day imprecision <30% (n = 17). Thirteen of 74 synthetic cannabinoids evaluated were classified as highly cross-reactive (?50% at 10 ?g/L); 4 showed moderate cross-reactivity (1050% at 10 ?g/L), 30 low cross-reactivity (<10% at 500 ?g/L), and 27 <1% cross-reactivity at 500 ?g/L. There was no interference from 102 investigated compounds. Only a mixture containing 1000 ?g/L each of buprenorphine/norbuprenorphine produced a positive result above our proposed cutoff (5 ?g/L) but below the manufacturer's recommended cutoff concentration (10 ?g/L). Conclusion The Immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit required no sample preparation, had a high-throughput, and acceptable sensitivity, specificity and efficiency, offering a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine that cross-react with JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid antibodies. PMID:24845968

  18. Evaluation of Gonozyme, an enzyme immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of gonorrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Manis, R D; Harris, B; Geiseler, P J

    1984-01-01

    A new indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Gonozyme (Abbott Laboratories), was assessed for rapid detection of gonococcal antigens. A correlation of optic density (OD) readings by EIA with colony counts of serial dilutions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 19424 disclosed that EIA detected 10(3) CFU/ml at OD readings of 0.1 to 0.3, that EIA consistently detected greater than or equal to 10(4) CFU/ml at OD readings of 0.6 to 1.3, and that concentrations of greater than or equal to 10(5) CFU/ml were associated with OD readings of greater than or equal to 2.0. The clinical usefulness of Gonozyme was evaluated by comparing results of EIA with those of Gram stain (GS) and culture for N. gonorrhoeae from urethral and endocervical swabs obtained prospectively in 886 randomly selected patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. The patients evaluated included 83 female contacts of men with gonorrhea and 56 patients seen at the clinic for test of cure. In tests with 295 males, the sensitivities of GS and EIA were 91.3 and 97.1%, respectively, and both tests had specificities of greater than 96%. In tests with 591 females, the sensitivities of GS and EIA were 51.4 and 96.4%, respectively (P less than 0.0001, Z proportionality test), and the specificities were 98.7 and 86.5%, respectively (P less than 0.0001). In tests with 61 females and 3 males, EIA was positive, whereas GS and cultures were negative for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonozyme is a highly sensitive method for rapid detection of gonococcal antigens. EIA is comparable to GS for males and more sensitive though less specific than GS for females. Possible reasons for the lower specificity of EIA for females are discussed. Due to its high negative predictive value for female contacts, EIA offers an alternative to epidemiological treatment of contacts before culture results. PMID:6208219

  19. Caffeine clearance by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique: a simple, inexpensive, and useful indicator of liver function.

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, J E; Nathan, V V; Bonavia, I C; Moyle, G R; Tanner, A R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical value and sensitivity of serum caffeine clearance measurement has been evaluated as an indicator of hepatic disease. After a 17 hour caffeine exclusion period, 300 mg of caffeine citrate was administered orally to the study subjects. Serum samples were taken four and 16 hours later. Serum caffeine concentrations were measured using an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and a clearance value derived. Conventional liver function tests were measured at the same time. A total of 103 subjects attending the medical unit in a district general hospital were studied. Twenty one had alcoholic liver disease, 11 non-alcoholic cirrhosis, nine non-cirrhotic liver disease, 21 suspected liver disease, six hepatic tumours, and 35 were hospital and normal control subjects. Caffeine clearance values were lowest in subjects with alcoholic liver disease (median 0.19 ml/min/kg, range 0.04-0.61 ml/min/kg) and significantly reduced in all subjects with liver disease (median 0.32 ml/min/kg, range 0.04-2.68 ml/min/kg) compared with control subjects (median 1.27 ml/min/kg, p less than 0.001). In subjects with suspected liver disease subsequently shown to have another explanation for abnormal liver function test results, caffeine clearance values were normal (median 1.31 ml/min/kg, range 0.23-2.64 ml/min/kg) and significantly different, p less than 0.001, from those of subjects with liver disease. Serum albumen values were not different for these latter two groups. Using a cut off value of 0.86 ml/min/kg, caffeine clearance measurement was 100% sensitive for alcoholic liver disease and 89% sensitive for all liver disease. The respective sensitivities for conventional liver function test measurement were 76% and 83%. In the suspected liver disease group, caffeine clearance was abnormal in only 24%, conventional liver function tests were abnormal in 95%. The respective specificities for caffeine clearance and liver function test measurement in control subjects were 93% and 100%. Caffeine clearance determined by EMIT is a simple inexpensive hepatic metabolic function test. This study indicates that it is a more sensitive indicator of structural liver disease than conventional liver function tests, especially for alcoholic liver disease. The test could be widely introduced as a useful, repeatable assessment of hepatic function. PMID:2060878

  20. Caffeine clearance by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique: a simple, inexpensive, and useful indicator of liver function.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, J E; Nathan, V V; Bonavia, I C; Moyle, G R; Tanner, A R

    1991-06-01

    The clinical value and sensitivity of serum caffeine clearance measurement has been evaluated as an indicator of hepatic disease. After a 17 hour caffeine exclusion period, 300 mg of caffeine citrate was administered orally to the study subjects. Serum samples were taken four and 16 hours later. Serum caffeine concentrations were measured using an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and a clearance value derived. Conventional liver function tests were measured at the same time. A total of 103 subjects attending the medical unit in a district general hospital were studied. Twenty one had alcoholic liver disease, 11 non-alcoholic cirrhosis, nine non-cirrhotic liver disease, 21 suspected liver disease, six hepatic tumours, and 35 were hospital and normal control subjects. Caffeine clearance values were lowest in subjects with alcoholic liver disease (median 0.19 ml/min/kg, range 0.04-0.61 ml/min/kg) and significantly reduced in all subjects with liver disease (median 0.32 ml/min/kg, range 0.04-2.68 ml/min/kg) compared with control subjects (median 1.27 ml/min/kg, p less than 0.001). In subjects with suspected liver disease subsequently shown to have another explanation for abnormal liver function test results, caffeine clearance values were normal (median 1.31 ml/min/kg, range 0.23-2.64 ml/min/kg) and significantly different, p less than 0.001, from those of subjects with liver disease. Serum albumen values were not different for these latter two groups. Using a cut off value of 0.86 ml/min/kg, caffeine clearance measurement was 100% sensitive for alcoholic liver disease and 89% sensitive for all liver disease. The respective sensitivities for conventional liver function test measurement were 76% and 83%. In the suspected liver disease group, caffeine clearance was abnormal in only 24%, conventional liver function tests were abnormal in 95%. The respective specificities for caffeine clearance and liver function test measurement in control subjects were 93% and 100%. Caffeine clearance determined by EMIT is a simple inexpensive hepatic metabolic function test. This study indicates that it is a more sensitive indicator of structural liver disease than conventional liver function tests, especially for alcoholic liver disease. The test could be widely introduced as a useful, repeatable assessment of hepatic function. PMID:2060878

  1. Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Lin-Lin; Wu, Yong; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Li, Hui; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an important biomarker used in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but false-negative results are still reported in the detection of HBsAg using commercial assays. In this study, we evaluated the qualitative properties of a novel HBsAg chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) assay - WTultra. WHO standard sample dilution series and samples from low-level HBsAg carriers (<1ng/mL) were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the WTultra assay. Boston Biomedica, Inc. (BBI) hepatitis B seroconversion panels were used to assess the ability of the WTultra assay to detect the window period. In addition, dilution series of 22 serum samples with different genotypes, serotypes and HBsAg mutations were used to assess the WTultra assay, and these were compared with other commercial assays. The lower detection limit of the WTultra assay was 0.012IU/mL, and it showed a high sensitivity (97.52%, 95% CI, 94.95-99.00) in the detection of 282 low-level HBsAg carriers (<1ng/mL). In samples with various HBV genotypes, serotypes and HBsAg mutations, the WTultra assay yielded 117 positive results in 132 samples, which was significantly higher than the results with the other four commercial assays (89, 83, 65 and 45, respectively, p<0.01). In the assays of mutant strains, the WTultra assay detected 82 positive results in 90 samples, which was significantly better than the results for the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra (58 positive) and Architect (55 positive) (p<0.01) assays, which in turn were significantly better than the Murex V.3 (41 positive, p=0.026) and AxSYM V2 (29 positive, p<0.01) assays. However, in the detection of 42 samples of wild-type strains with various genotypes and serotypes, no significant differences were observed among the WTultra (35 positive), Architect (28 positive) and Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra (31 positive) assays. However, the WTultra assay detected significantly more samples than the Murex V.3 (24 positive, p<0.01) and AxSYM V2 (16 positive, p<0.01) assays. In conclusion, the WTultra HBsAg assay has a high detection sensitivity and presents excellent results for the detection of mutants. PMID:26615806

  2. The measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in drinking water and wastewater was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocya...

  3. Dried venous blood samples for the detection and quantification of measles IgG using a commercial enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Michaela A.; Byrnes, Graham B.; Leydon, Jennie A.; Kelly, Heath A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether samples of dried venous blood (DVB) were an acceptable alternative to serum for detecting measles-specific IgG in a commercial enzyme immunoassay. METHODS: Paired samples of serum and DVB were collected from 98 suspected cases of measles and 1153 schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia. All samples were tested using the Dade Behring Enzygnost Anti-Measles-Virus/IgG immunoassay. DVB samples were eluted using either the sample buffer provided with the kit or 5% dry milk powder in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. FINDINGS: DVB samples eluted by sample buffer showed significantly better linear correlation to the serum samples than did DVB samples eluted in 5% dry milk in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. To improve the comparability of serum and DVB samples an adjustment factor of 1.28 was applied to the optical density (OD) values of DVB. This adjustment also enabled quantification of the titre of measles IgG in mIU/ml directly from the OD value using the alpha calculation as specified by the kit protocol. For DVB samples stored for less than six months at 4 degrees C, the assay showed an overall sensitivity of 98.4% and a specificity of 97.2% compared with the results of serum testing. CONCLUSION: These results illustrate the potential for DVB samples to be widely used with the Dade Behring enzyme immunoassay system for determining the immunity of the individual and the population to the measles virus. PMID:14758429

  4. Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunoassay of Phosphorylated Proteins Based on Enzyme-Functionalized Gold Nanorod Labels and Electric Field-Driven Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-09

    A multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay integrating enzyme amplification and electric field-driven strategy was developed for fast and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated p53 at Ser392 (phospho-p53 392), Ser15 (phospho-p53 15), Ser46 (phospho-p53 46) and total p53 simultaneously. The disposable sensor array has four spatially separated working electrodes and each of them is modified with different capture antibody, which enables simultaneous immunoassay to be conducted without cross-talk between adjacent electrodes. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by multi-enzymes amplification strategy using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as nanocarrier for co-immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody (Ab2) at high ratio of HRP/Ab2, which produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by the reduction of HRP oxidized thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The immunoreaction processes were accelerated by applying +0.4 V for 3 min and then -0.2 V for 1.5 min, thus the whole sandwich immunoreactions could be completed in less than 5 min. The disposable immunosensor array shows excellent promise for clinical screening of phosphorylated proteins and convenient point-of-care diagnostics.

  5. Voltammetric determination of alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase activity using 3-indoxyl phosphate as substrate Application to enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Gonzlez-Garca, Mara Begoa; Costa-Garca, Agustn

    2004-10-01

    The use of 3-indoxyl phosphate (3-IP) as an electrochemical substrate for ELISAs with voltammetric detection was investigated. Indirect measurements of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity in solution were carried out. Picomolar levels of both enzymes can be detected, which enables the design of electrochemical immunoassays using this substrate. The enzymatic turnover of the substrate gives indigo blue, insoluble in aqueous solutions. This product is easily converted into its soluble parent compound, indigo carmine (IC), by addition of fuming sulphuric acid to the reaction media. IC shows a reversible voltammetric peak at the formal potential of -0.15V (versus Ag pseudo-reference electrode) when a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is used. The peak current of this process constitutes the analytical signal. Using this approach an ELISA assay to quantify pneumolysin (PLY, a toxin related to respiratory infections) was carried out using AP or HRP as enzymatic label. Calibration plots obtained are reported. 3-IP is demonstrated to be the first suitable substrate for the two most common enzyme labels used in immunoassays. PMID:18969625

  6. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 ?g mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor. PMID:25599100

  7. Amplified inhibition of the electrochemical signal of ferrocene by enzyme-functionalized graphene oxide nanoprobe for ultrasensitive immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guosong; Cheng, Hui; Xin, Dinghong; Zhang, Haili; Yu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    A nanoprobe-induced signal inhibition mechanism was designed for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay at a chitosan-ferrocene (CS-Fc) based immunosensor. The nanoprobe was prepared by covalently loading signal antibody and high-content horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the graphene oxide (GO) nanocarrier. The immunosensor was prepared through the stepwise assembly of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and capture antibody at a CS-Fc modified electrode. After sandwich immunoreaction, the GO-HRP nanoprobes were quantitatively captured onto the immunosensor surface and thus induced the production of a layer of insoluble film through the enzymatically catalytic reaction of the HRP labels. Both the dielectric immunocomplex formed on the immunosensor surface and the enzymatic precipitate with low electroconductivity led to the electrochemical signal decease of the Fc indicator, which was greatly amplified by the multi-enzyme signal amplification of the nanoprobe. Based on this amplified signal inhibition mechanism, a new ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay method was developed. Using carcinoembryonic antigen as a model analyte, this method showed a wide linear range over 5 orders of magnitude with a detection limit down to 0.54pg/mL. Besides, the immunosensor showed good specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability as well as satisfactory reliability for the serum sample analysis. PMID:26703270

  8. Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, Mary W; Brewer, Vickery A; Williams, Kristina M; Westphal, Carmen D; Heeres, James T

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the 8 most common allergenic foods and a large proportion of peanut-allergic individuals have severe reactions, some to minimal exposure. Specific protein constituents in the peanuts are the cause of the allergic reactions in sensitized individuals who ingest the peanuts. To avoid accidental ingestion of peanut-contaminated food, methods of analysis for the determination of the allergenic proteins in foods are important tools. Such methods could help identify foods inadvertently contaminated with peanuts, thereby reducing the incidence of allergic reactions to peanuts. Commercial immunoassay kits are available but need study for method performance, which requires reference materials for within- and between-laboratory validations. In this study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2387 peanut butter was used. A polytron homogenizer was used to prepare a homogenous aqueous Peanut Butter suspension for the evaluation of method performance of some commercially available immunoassay kits such as Veratox for Peanut Allergen Test (Neogen Corp.), Ridascreen Peanut (R-Biopharm GmbH), and Bio-Kit Peanut Protein Assay Kit (Tepnel). Each gram of the aqueous peanut butter suspension contained 20 mg carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, 643 microg peanut, 0.5 mg thimerosal, and 2.5 mg bovine serum albumin. The suspension was homogenous, stable, reproducible, and applicable for adding to ice cream, cookies, breakfast cereals, and chocolate for recovery studies at spike levels ranging from 12 to 90 microg/g. PMID:15164837

  9. A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

  10. Influence of specificity and affinity of antibodies on the kinetics of a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for human IgG.

    PubMed

    Aldao, M; Vides, M A

    1984-01-01

    In comparative experiments, we desired to determine the influence of specificity and affinity of various combinations of antibodies on the kinetics of a "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay for human IgG. Some antibodies were immobilized and others labeled with glucose oxidase. When antibodies employed were heterogeneous in specificity and affinity, long periods of time were required to reach equilibrium, especially on the second step of the assay. In contrast, when antibodies were separated into populations with specificity towards two different antigenic sites, and each one was used as immunoadsorbent and labeled, time was significantly reduced. Finally, when the assay took place--the last antibodies being selected by their high affinities--the rate of the reaction improved even more. We assume selection of antibodies by specificity and affinity by two antigenic sites as an essential requirement to improve performance of these assays, independently of the antigen and marker used. PMID:6437731

  11. TRICLOSAN AND METHYL-TRICLOSAN MONITORING STUDY IN THE NORTHEAST OF SPAIN USING A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND CONFIRMATORY ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of triclosan in the water environment around a Mediterranean region was investigated. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan content of ninety five environmental samples were screened using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples were confirmed by solid phase extraction (SPE...

  12. Enzyme immunoassay using native envelope glycoprotein (gp160) for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, B C; Ford, G; Kalyanaraman, V S; Zafari, M; Fang, C; Sarngadharan, M G

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay using the purified native gp160 for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody was developed. This assay was determined to be highly specific, since (i) 157 serum samples that were confirmed negative by Western blot (immunoblot) (WB) were negative, (ii) 41 serum samples from populations with medical conditions that might cause nonspecific assay reactivity were all negative, and (iii) all 15 serum samples that showed false-positive reactions in one or more commercial HIV-1 screening tests were negative. The assay gave 100% specificity with a randomly selected and unlinked panel of 1,000 serum samples from healthy blood donors. The sensitivity of the assay was assessed by testing 238 samples confirmed as HIV-1 antibody positive by a standardized WB assay. All 238 serum samples (100%) were reactive in the native gp160 assay. In a dilution panel of 14 weakly WB-positive serum samples, 7 samples reacted two-to fivefold more strongly in the gp160 assay than in a virus lysate-based assay; the remaining 7 samples gave comparable reactivities in the two tests. The reactivities of 13 of these 14 serum samples in the gp160 assay were higher than in a commercial enzyme immunoassay that uses a recombinant envelope protein as the antigen. The native gp160 assay was more sensitive to identify seroconversion. In a well-characterized panel of sequential blood samples from a seroconverter, the new assay detected antibodies at least one sample ahead of the other commercial assays tested. PMID:8077388

  13. Enzyme-triggered tyramine-enzyme repeats on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures for highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of tissue polypeptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tisen; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Xuegui; Xie, Zhaohui; Li, Xiangyong

    2015-11-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay with sensitivity enhancement was developed for quantitative detection of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) by coupling with target-induced tyramine signal amplification on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures. The immunosensor was prepared through immobilizing anti-TPA capture antibody on a cleaned screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures (PBGNS) labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody were utilized as the signal-transduction tags. Upon target TPA introduction, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed between capture antibody and detection antibody on the electrode. The carried HRP could trigger the formation of tyramine-HRP repeats on the PBGNS in the presence of H2O2. Using the doped prussian blue as the electron mediator, the conjugated HRP could catalyze the reduction of H2O2. Under the optimal conditions, the catalytic currents increased with the increasing target TPA in the dynamic range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.3 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility and specificity of the electrochemical immunoassay were acceptable. In addition, the contents of target TPA in nine human serum specimens were evaluated by using the developed electrochemical immunosensor, and the obtained results correlated well with those from commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. PMID:26067328

  14. Enzyme immunoassays for the estimation of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Horton, J K; Martin, R C; Kalinka, S; Cushing, A; Kitcher, J P; O'Sullivan, M J; Baxendale, P M

    1992-10-19

    Simple, rapid and sensitive competitive enzyme immunoassays for the estimation of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in human plasma and urine are described. Specific antisera to each nucleotide were raised in rabbits by immunization with succinyl cyclic nucleotide--human serum albumin conjugates. For the assay, specific antibodies were incubated with a mixture of succinyl cyclic nucleotide labelled with horseradish peroxidase together with unlabelled standard or sample. The antibody-bound enzyme conjugate was separated from free hapten by anti-rabbit (IgG) sera immobilized to a microtitre plate. Activity of the bound enzyme conjugate was determined with tetramethylbenzidine. The assays were capable of detecting levels as low as 2 fmol of cAMP and cGMP. Good correlations were obtained between values generated by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. PMID:1328396

  15. Concordance of four commercial enzyme immunoassay and three immunoblot formats for the detection of Lyme borreliosis antibodies in human serum: the two-tier approach remains.

    PubMed

    Dickeson, David J; Chen, Sharon C-A; Sintchenko, Vitali G

    2016-04-01

    Serological tests show considerable variation in their ability to correctly diagnose Lyme borreliosis (LB). This study compared four commercially available screening enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of LB IgG using either whole cell lysate (WCL) antigens, purified proteins or recombinant antigens with the second-tier whole cell sonicate (WCS) western immunoblots or recombinant antigen line blots. A consensus between three EIA results from 222 patient sera was designated as a point of comparison for each method which gave 66 positive and 156 negative results. The positive predictive values (PPV) of WCL EIA were 40% for the MarDx Diagnostics Borrelia burgdorferi EIA 'combined' IgG and IgM (Trinity Biotech) and 55% for the EUROIMMUN plus VlsE IgG. These were significantly lower PPVs than that produced by the recombinant antigen-based EIA NovaLisa Borrelia burgdorferi IgG-ELISA (NovaTec Immunodiagnostica) and the EUROIMMUN Anti-Borrelia Select ELISA IgG (90% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.02). The WCS western immunoblot using B. burgdorferi and B. afzelii separately showed a high PPV of 91% but its positive agreement with consensus EIA result was only 65%. Another WCL western immunoblot with purified extracts of Osp C and VlsE, the Trinity Biotech EU Lyme + VlsE IgG Western Blot had a PPV of 92% while the recombinant line blot from EUROIMMUN, the Anti-Borrelia (IgG) EUROLINE-RN-AT, demonstrated a significantly reduced PPV of 70% with some non-specific reactions in sera containing antibodies to Leptospira species, Helicobacter pylori and Treponema pallidum. The use of recombinant antigens in EIA for LB IgG screening significantly improves the predictive values of serological results above those of WCL antigen EIA. Second tier WCS western immunoblots offer high PPVs, especially with added specific purified proteins, more so than in one recombinant line blot. PMID:27020501

  16. Enzyme-catalysed deposition of ultrathin silver shells on gold nanorods: a universal and highly efficient signal amplification strategy for translating immunoassay into a litmus-type test.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinjian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-25

    On the basis of enzyme-catalysed reduction of silver ions and consequent deposition of ultrathin silver shells on gold nanorods, a highly efficient signal amplification method for immunoassay is developed. For a model analyte prostate-specific antigen, a 10(4)-fold improvement over conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is accomplished by leveraging on the cumulative nature of the enzymatic reaction and the sensitive response of plasnomic gold nanorods to the deposition the silver shells. PMID:25793322

  17. Development of radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassays for luteinizing hormone in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Anouassi, A; Combarnous, Y

    1991-11-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against luteinizing hormone in dromedary (camLH) were raised in a rabbit and enabled the development of homologous immunoassays (radioimmunoassay, competitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) and sandwich EIA) for the measurement of circulating camLH in plasma. These assays were highly specific for camLH since neither dromedary follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone nor prolactin cross-reacted significantly. The lowest detection limit (0.08 ng/ml) was obtained with the sandwich EIA. In addition to its high specificity and sensitivity, this method does not require radiolabelled molecules or expensive laboratory facilities. It can be performed in the field using a portable, battery-powered plate reader. PMID:1787460

  18. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in dairy products, seafoods, and meats: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Curiale, M S; Lepper, W; Robison, B

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate Listeria-Tek, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in foods. The present ELISA method was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration culture method for detection of L. monocytogenes in dairy products and seafoods and to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method for detection of L. monocytogenes in meats. Replicate samples of 6 food types (frankfurters, roast beef, Brie cheese, 2% milk, raw shrimp, and crab meat) inoculated with L. monocytogenes and uninoculated control samples were analyzed by the collaborators. L. monocytogenes was identified in 593 samples by the ELISA method and in 574 samples using culture procedures. Identical results were obtained for 506 positive samples and 419 negative samples using the ELISA and culture methods for an overall agreement rate of 85.6%. The enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of L. monocytogenes in dairy, seafood, and meat products has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:7819756

  19. Parameters affecting the adsorption of ligands to polyvinyl chloride plates in enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, F E; Chiabrando, G A; Aldao, M A; Vides, M A

    1992-07-31

    In the present work, we studied the efficacy of three blocking agents (HSA, BSA and OVA) in the inhibition of non-specific binding to PVC plates. According to the inhibition data, 1% OVA was the most effective blocking agent. On the other hand, the presence of detergents in all of the blocking solutions drastically decreased the percent inhibition of the non-specific binding. Furthermore, the effect of ligand concentration on adsorption and the kinetics of ligand adsorption to PVC plates were also investigated. Ligand adsorption is a linear function of input up to a limit (around 8.70 ng/mm2) where saturation is reached. The rate of adsorption of pure human IgG to PVC plates was proportionally increased with the temperature, as shown by proportional rate constants almost 2 times faster at 37 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. These results have practical implications for investigators using PVC for immunoassays and should be taken into consideration when designing such assays. PMID:1640104

  20. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  1. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus by PCR and DNA Enzyme Immunoassay Based on rRNA Gene Unit Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Felleisen, Richard S. J.; Lambelet, Natacha; Bachmann, Philipp; Nicolet, Jacques; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is the causative agent of bovine tritrichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. Diagnosis is hampered by putative contamination of samples with intestinal or coprophilic trichomonadid protozoa which might be mistaken for T. foetus. Therefore, we developed a PCR test optimized for applicability in routine diagnosis. Amplification is based upon primers TFR3 and TFR4 directed to the rRNA gene units of T. foetus. In order to avoid potential carryover contamination by products of previous amplification reactions, conditions were adapted to the use of the uracil DNA glycosylase system. Furthermore, documentation and interpretation of results were facilitated by including a DNA enzyme immunoassay for the detection of amplification products. Specificity was confirmed with genomic material from different related trichomonadid protozoa. The high sensitivity of the test allowed the detection of a single T. foetus organism in diagnostic culture medium or about 50 parasites per ml of preputial washing fluid. The present methods are thus proposed as (i) confirmatory tests for microscopic diagnosis following diagnostic in vitro cultivation and (ii) a direct T. foetus screening test with diagnostic samples. PMID:9466768

  2. Evaluation of direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, centrifugation culture, and conventional culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L; Siegel, C S

    1990-01-01

    Four methods of detecting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from clinical specimens were evaluated. A total of 410 specimens consisting of nasopharyngeal washes, aspirates, and swabs were simultaneously tested for the presence of RSV by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Kallestad Pathfinder), shell vial centrifugation culture (SVC), and conventional culture. DFA identified 146 (83%) of the 175 positive cases, EIA detected 153 (87%), SVC detected 127 (73%), and conventional culture detected 70 (40%). Conventional culture isolated an additional 19 respiratory viruses other than RSV. DFA and EIA were able to detect nonviable virus not isolated by a culture method, and SVC isolated low-titer virus not detected by conventional culture. DFA and EIA gave similar results; however, the EIA system was less dependent on technical expertise. The use of SVC enhanced the conventional culture system with 63 RSV isolates not recovered from the tube culture. We recommend complementary use of both culture and nonculture methods in the detection of RSV. PMID:2254415

  3. Performance of Clostridium difficile Toxin Enzyme Immunoassay and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests Stratified by Patient Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Uslan, Daniel Z.; Rubin, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Many clinical laboratories in the United States are transitioning from toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as the primary diagnostic test for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). While it is known that the analytical sensitivity of the toxin EIA is poor, there are limited clinical data on the performance of these assays for patients with mild or severe CDI. Two hundred ninety-six hospital inpatients with diarrhea and clinical suspicion for CDI were tested prospectively by toxin EIA, by C. difficile NAAT, and with a reference standard toxigenic culture. Following completion of laboratory testing, retrospective chart reviews were performed to stratify patients into mild and severe disease groups based on clinical criteria using a standard point-based system. One hundred forty-three patients with CDI confirmed by toxigenic culture were evaluated in this study. Among the patients with mild CDI, 49% tested positive by toxin EIA and 98% tested positive by NAAT. Among patients with severe CDI, 58% tested positive by toxin EIA and 98% tested positive by NAAT. Increased CDI disease severity was not associated with an increased sensitivity of EIA (P = 0.31). These data demonstrate that toxin EIA performs poorly both for patients with severe CDI and for those with mild CDI and support the routine use of NAAT for the diagnosis of CDI. The presence of stool toxin measured by EIA does not correlate with disease severity. PMID:23269736

  4. Clinical significance of a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay of hepatitis B surface antigen using a novel electron spin resonance technique.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masanori; Saito, Takafumi; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Matsuo, Taku; Saito, Koji; Togashi, Hitoshi; Kawata, Sumio; Ishikawa, Kazuyoshi; Aoyama, Masaaki; Kamada, Hitoshi; Shinzawa, Haruhide

    2002-02-01

    We developed a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the p-AP/HHTIO method, that detects serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by measuring stabilized nitroxide radicals using a novel electron spin resonance technique [Matsuo et al. (1998) Free Radic Biol Med 25:929-935]. To demonstrate the clinical significance of this method and to reveal occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients, we used the method to analyze serum samples of 30 patients with acute or fulminant hepatitis who were negative for HBsAg by standard EIA, and those of seven chronic HBV carriers who became negative for HBsAg during a follow-up period by standard EIA. We also examined serum HBV DNA by amplification of the HBV S gene, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The p-AP/HHTIO method showed that 9 of 20 (45%) patients with acute hepatitis and 2 of 10 (20%) with fulminant hepatitis were positive for HBsAg; PCR detected HBV DNA in these HBsAg-positive patients. Antibody against hepatitis B core antigen was detected in one patient with fulminant hepatitis. The p-AP/HHTIO method demonstrated prolonged seropositivity of HBsAg even after standard EIA showed a loss of HBsAg in all seven HBV carriers. Our p-AP/HHTIO method is useful for screening and diagnosing HBV infection in patients with liver diseases who are negative for conventional HBV-related serological markers. PMID:11782924

  5. Antigenic diversity of the serotype antigen complex of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: analysis by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, K H

    1980-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) has been developed to analyze the antigenic profile of the outer membrane serotype complex of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antisera raised in rabbits to serotype-specific vesicles (SSV) reacted primarily with homologous SSV; however, there was significant cross-reactivity (less than 50%) with heterologous SSV. N. meningitidis SSV cross-reacted with all antigonococcal SSV but at a lower degree (less than 20%). Preimmune sera did not cross-react significantly with all antigonoccoccal SSV. The sensitivity of the ELISA was enhanced when the integral SSV proteins 1a and 2 were used as adsorbed antigen. Heterologous anti-SSV cross-reacted slightly, having ELISA values less than 15% of the homologous reaction. Antisera prepared by immunoabsorbent affinity columns were highly specific. Homologous affinity anti-SSV reacted only with proteins 1a and 2. The reaction of immune sera was inhibited by homologous proteins 1a and 2; lipopolysaccharide and proteins 1a and 2 isolated from heterologous serotypes did not inhibit the reaction. The reaction of affinity-purified antisera could be inhibited only by homologous protein 1a. By the use of affinity-purified antisera, a specific and highly sensitive ELISA was developed to analyze the antigenic profile of strains of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:6769815

  6. Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli as Detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunoassays and Real-Time PCR during the Summer Months in Northern Alberta, Canada ?

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Linda; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Malejczyk, Kathy; Lim, Lillian; Fok, Daniel; Kwong, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in northern Alberta was detected using two enzyme immunoassays and an in-house real-time PCR. Of 2,328 stool samples, 8 were positive for O157:H7 STEC and 13 were positive for non-O157 STEC. No significant gender (P = 0.17) or age (P = 0.81) differences between groups were seen. Most positive diarrheal stool samples were nonbloody. PMID:21940470

  7. Comparative evaluation of tests for detection of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Echevarra, Juan Emilio; Del Mar Mosquera, Mara; Fuertes, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIA) (Euroimmun, Lbeck, Germany) and chemiluminiscent immunoassays (CLIA) (Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy) in their application to detect B19V-IgM and -IgG. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety samples were studied. Of them, 101 came from recent infection cases (B19V-specific IgM (86) and/or PCR (87), 42 from past infections, 18 from non-infected, and 29 from other viral recent infections (Epstein-Barr virus, measles, and rubella). Samples were characterized by capture (for IgM), or indirect (for IgG) EIA (Biotrin, Dublin, Ireland); indeterminate samples were classified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (Biotrin). All the samples were used for testing IgM assays, and all but the cases from other viral infections were used for IgG tests. For IgM, CLIA, and EIA identified 76 and 62 of 86 IgM positives, respectively (sensitivity 88.4% and 72.1%). Considering B19V IgM negative samples, negative result was obtained in 95 and 92 of 104, being the specificity values of CLIA and EIA 91.3% and 88.5%, respectively. For IgG, CLIA and EIA identified correctly 114 and 115 of the 122 positive samples (sensitivity 93.4% and 94.3%, respectively), and 39 and 36 of 39 negative samples (specificity 100% and 92.3%). As conclusion, CLIA methods can be used in clinical laboratories as adequate alternatives to the well-established Biotrin EIAs. PMID:23763266

  8. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to pseudorabies virus in porcine field sera.

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A; Wright, P F; Dulac, G C

    1987-01-01

    The performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the standard serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies to pseudorabies virus in porcine field sera were compared, using 304 sera from pseudorabies-free pigs in Canada, and 1082 and 580 swine sera from the USA and England, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA relative to the serum neutralization test were in the order of 97 to 98%, with the higher agreement between the tests when a 1:40 dilution of serum samples was used for the ELISA. The indirect ELISA was considered to be a rapid and convenient procedure, offering many advantages over the serum neutralization test for routine serodiagnostic use. PMID:2839277

  9. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of porcine gelatine in edible bird's nests.

    PubMed

    Tukiran, Nur Azira; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-01-01

    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry. PMID:25861981

  10. Hapten synthesis for the development of a competitive inhibition enzyme-immunoassay for thiram.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, F; Boisd, F; Queffelec, A L; Haelters, J P; Thouvenot, D; Corbel, B; Nodet, P

    2000-10-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the fungicide thiram. Two types of haptens were synthesized. The first type exhibits the two symmetrical N-alkyl dithiocarbamate patterns of thiram with a spacer arm linked to one of the N-methyl terminal group. The second type exhibits one of the two symmetrical N-alkyl dithiocarbamate patterns of thiram with a variable-length spacer arm linked to one sulfur atom. Polyclonal antibodies suitable for thiram detection were obtained from immunization with an hapten of the first type, while haptens of the second type were used as coating antigens to develop a competitive ELISA against thiram. The IC(50) value for thiram was estimated to be 0.24 microg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 microg/mL. The assay seems to be thiram-specific since no or little cross-reaction with other dithiocarbamates were observed. PMID:11052689

  11. Use of enzyme immunoassay for large water-quality surveys of major herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of major herbicides in several large water-quality surveys of surface water, rainwater, and ground water throughout the United States. The ELISA results were compared with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for accuracy and cross reactivity. In total, five compounds were analyzed: alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Results indicated that the ELISA and GC/MS results were comparable for cyanazine and metolachlor. The atrazine ELISA correlated well with GC/MS for surface- and ground-water samples from the central United States but did not correlate with samples from Texas where the cotton triazine, prometryn, is used. Results using the alachlor ELISA were poor because of cross reactivity with the metabolite, alachlor ethane-sulfonic acid. The ELISA for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid was insensitive at concentrations that occur in most surface water.

  12. Rapid screening of flonicamid residues in environmental and agricultural samples by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Jianfan; Zou, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Jiagao

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the analysis of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. Two haptens of flonicamid differing in spacer arm length were synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To obtain most sensitive combination of antibody/coating antigen, two antibodies were separately screened by homologous and heterologous assays. After optimization, the flonicamid ELISA showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) was 3.86mgL(-1), and the limit of detection (IC20 value) was 0.032mgL(-1). There was no cross-reactivity to similar tested compounds. The recoveries obtained after the addition of standard flonicamid to the samples, including water, soil, carrot, apple and tomato, ranged from 79.3% to 116.4%. Moreover, the results of the ELISA for the spiked samples were largely consistent with the gas chromatography (R(2)=0.9891). The data showed that the proposed ELISA is an alternative tool for rapid, sensitive and accurate monitoring of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. PMID:26897400

  13. Development of an enzyme immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against the psychoactive diterpenoid salvinorin A.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Madan Kumar; Shirota, Osamu; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setsuko; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2013-09-27

    Salvinorin A (1), the main active constituent in Salvia divinorum, is a highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist with hallucinogenic effects, which is regulated in several countries. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against 1 was prepared, and an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) system was developed for the detection of salvinorins. To raise mAbs against 1, salvinorin B (2) hemisuccinate was synthesized and used to prepare the immunogen 2-bovine serum albumin conjugate. This technique was used to prepare a hybridoma cell line, 3D5, which secreted a mAb that recognized 1. The mAb was shown to have specificity for 1 and other salvinorins in cross-reactivity tests. The intra-assay calibration range by icELISA using the mAb against 1 was 0.0195-0.625 μg/mL. After validating the icELISA using intra- and interassays, a recovery experiment and analysis of several plants in the family Lamiaceae, including S. divinorum, confirmed that the analytical method based on ELISA is not only simple but also precise, accurate, sensitive, and sufficiently reliable. The results indicate that icELISA is a useful tool in the identification of S. divinorum. PMID:23987562

  14. [The possibility of the serological differentiation of Clostridium species using enzyme immunoassays].

    PubMed

    Reiche, T; Bhm, R

    1991-06-01

    A method for serotyping and diagnosis of 30 selected Clostridia strains of 12 different species by an enzyme-immuno-assay using polystyrene balls as a solid phase is described and tested for its efficiency. The reference strains and the homologous test strains could be differentiated from the heterologous in principle. A reliable detection of the several serotypes of Cl. perfringens was not perfectly to achieve with the conjugates used here, cross-reaction with Cl. chauvoei could be removed by absorption. The conjugate of Cl. bifermentans reacted with Cl. sordellii and Cl. difficile too, and must be absorbed prior any diagnostic applications with vegetative cells of the corresponding strains. Concerning the antigenic relationships between the Clostridia strains used here, the results of Ellner and Green (7, 8) as well as of Poxton and Byrne (14) could be reconfirmed. Moreover the applied technique offers the possibility to come to a more detailed result concerning the degree of antigenic relationship. The developed method is a valuable tool for the differentiation of pathogenic Clostridia and within the group Cl. bifermentans/Cl. sordellii/Cl. difficile a rapid diagnosis at the species level could be achieved. Some limitations by cross-reactions are given, but results can be improved by absorption of the conjugates. PMID:1887699

  15. An enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of North American pit viper venoms.

    PubMed

    Minton, S A; Weinstein, S A; Wilde, C E

    1984-01-01

    We describe a method for immunodetection of North American pit viper venoms in clinical materials. Antibody-enzyme conjugates prepared against venoms of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus), and copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) detect homologous venoms in concentrations of 0.1-.01 mcg/ml using a double antibody sandwich technique. Venoms of 10 additional species of U.S. pit vipers were detected in concentrations of 10 mcg/ml or less. Venoms of 4 species could not be detected at levels likely to be encountered in clinical situations. There are extensive cross-reactions between venoms of certain species, hence specific identification of a given venom cannot always be made. Venom usually can be detected at injection sites of experimental animals receiving intramuscular doses of 0.5-1.5 mg of venom but can rarely be detected in urine or plasma specimens. Venom was readily detected in specimens from experimental animals bitten by pit vipers of 6 species. The method is relatively rapid, simple, and inexpensive. PMID:6527395

  16. Nanogold-penetrated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer for enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay of cardiac biomarker using cathodic stripping voltammetric method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wenbin; Cui, Bin; Li, Jiabei; Yu, Xuejun; Huang, Lan

    2016-01-21

    Methods based on immunoassays have been developed for cardiac biomarkers, but most involve the low sensitivity and are unsuitable for early disease diagnosis. Herein we design an electrochemical immunoassay for sensitive detection of myoglobin (a cardiac biomarker for acute myocardial infarction) by using nanogold-penetrated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (AuNP-PAMAM) for signal amplification without the need of natural enzymes. The assay was carried out on the monoclonal mouse anti-myoglobin (capture) antibody-anchored glassy carbon electrode using polyclonal rabbit anti-myoglobin (detection) antibody-labeled AuNP-PAMAM as the signal tag. In the presence of target myoglobin, the sandwiched immunocomplex could be formed between capture antibody and detection antibody. Accompanying AuNP-PAMAM, the carried gold nanoparticles could be directly determined via stripping voltammetric method under acidic conditions. Under optimal conditions, the detectable electrochemical signal increased with the increasing target myoglobin in the sample within a dynamic working range from 0.01 to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3.8 pg mL(-1). The electrochemical immunoassay also exhibited high specificity and good precision toward target myoglobin. Importantly, our strategy could be applied for quantitative monitoring of myoglobin in human serum specimens, giving well matched results with those obtained from commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. PMID:26724762

  17. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Dehnhard, Martin; Bonanni, Roberto; Hofer, Heribert; Goymann, Wolfgang; Eulenberger, Klaus; East, Marion L

    2012-09-01

    The use of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to measure faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) is a useful non-invasive technique to monitor adrenocortical activity in vertebrates. The first objective of this study was to validate an 'in-house' EIA (cortisol-3-CMO) for the measurement of fGCM concentrations in spotted hyenas. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise fGCM in samples from a captive hyena that received an i.v. injection of [(3)H] cortisol. All HPLC fractions were analysed with the EIA for the presence and quantities of radiolabelled fGCM. Radiolabelled fGCM consisted of substances with a higher polarity than cortisol and substances of lower polarity that eluted between cortisol and corticosterone. Authentic radiolabelled cortisol was not detected. The EIA measured substantial amounts of immunoreactivity corresponding to the radioactive peaks. It also detected a significant increase in fGCMs after an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in two other captive animals and a significant increase in fGCMs in a fourth captive animal after anaesthesia. The second objective was to investigate an age effect on fGCM: we conducted pairwise comparisons of fGCM concentrations in individual free-ranging juvenile spotted hyenas when less than 6 months of age and when between 6 and 24 months of age. We expected juveniles to experience a more unpredictable and therefore more stressful environment when younger than when older. When younger, juveniles had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than when they were older. Our results demonstrate that our assay can be used to assess adrenocortical activity in spotted hyenas. PMID:22634955

  18. Impact of strain type on detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile: comparison of molecular diagnostic and enzyme immunoassay approaches.

    PubMed

    Tenover, Fred C; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Woods, Christopher W; Peterson, Lance R; Davis, Thomas; Schreckenberger, Paul; Fang, Ferric C; Dascal, Andre; Gerding, Dale N; Nomura, Jim H; Goering, Richard V; Akerlund, Thomas; Weissfeld, Alice S; Baron, Ellen Jo; Wong, Edith; Marlowe, Elizabeth M; Whitmore, Joseph; Persing, David H

    2010-10-01

    A multicenter clinical trial assessed the performance of the Cepheid Xpert C. difficile assay on stool specimens collected from patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 2,296 unformed stool specimens, collected from seven study sites, were tested by Xpert C. difficile enrichment culture followed by cell culture cytotoxicity testing of the isolates (i.e., toxigenic culture with enrichment) and the study sites' standard C. difficile test methods. The methods included enzyme immunoassay (EIA), direct cytotoxin testing, and two- and three-step algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) screening followed by either EIA or EIA and an in-house PCR assay. All C. difficile strains were typed by PCR-ribotyping. Compared to results for toxigenic culture with enrichment, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert assay were 93.5, 94.0, 73.0, and 98.8%, respectively. The overall sensitivity of the EIAs compared to that of enrichment culture was 60.0%, and the sensitivity of combined GDH algorithms was 72.9%; both were significantly lower than that of Xpert C. difficile (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). The sensitivity of the EIA was significantly lower than that of the Xpert C. difficile assay for detection of ribotypes 002, 027, and 106 (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.004, respectively, Fisher's exact test), and the sensitivity of GDH algorithms for ribotypes other than 027 was lower than that for Xpert C. difficile (P < 0.001). The Xpert C. difficile assay is a simple, rapid, and accurate method for detection of toxigenic C. difficile in unformed stool specimens and is minimally affected by strain type compared to EIA and GDH-based methods. PMID:20702676

  19. Highly Sensitive Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen by Use of a Semiautomated Immune Complex Transfer Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Maruki, Mari; Yamagaito, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Machiko; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Tobimatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Mizuno, Yoshiteru; Hamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening assays is continuously improved to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B. In this study, a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (ICT-CLEIA) for the detection of HBsAg, which is as sensitive as hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA PCR, was developed; the ICT-CLEIA assay performance was compared with the performance of the Architect HBsAg QT assay and HBV DNA PCR. The specificities in the initial assay and after retesting were 99.50% (1,988/1,998 samples) and 99.95% (1,997/1,998 samples), respectively. The analytical detection limit was determined to be 0.2 mIU/ml using the 2nd International WHO HBsAg standard, and the cutoff value (0.5 mIU/ml) of the ICT-CLEIA assay was 8.0 standard deviations (SD) above the mean of the HBsAg-negative specimens. The ICT-CLEIA assay could detect HBsAg even in the presence of anti-HBs antibodies and demonstrated a 23.6-day-shorter window period using commercially available HBsAg seroconversion panels than the Architect HBsAg QT assay. Furthermore, the monitoring of the viral kinetics by the ICT-CLEIA assay and the HBV DNA PCR produced very similarly shaped curves during both the HBsAg seroconversion and reverse seroconversion periods. Therefore, the ICT-CLEIA assay may be useful not only for an earlier detection of HBV reactivation but also for the monitoring of hepatitis B patients. PMID:23658266

  20. Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay with ?-d-GalactosidaseFab Conjugate for Detection of Type A Influenza Virus Antigen in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Maurice W.; Russo, Lorrie L.; Wilson, Samuel Z.

    1983-01-01

    The most sensitive method for diagnosis of type A influenza virus infection is isolation of the agent in cell culture. However, detection and identification may require several days to complete. This delay in diagnosis prevents effective use of the antiviral agents available for treatment of type A influenza infection. As a rapid diagnostic method, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is attaining increased usage for direct detection of viral antigen in clinical specimens. Standard EIA techniques, however, are usually not sensitive enough for reliable detection of viral antigen in respiratory secretions. We developed a conjugate consisting of the antigen-binding fragment of goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G coupled to ?-d-galactosidase, using the heterobifunctional reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate. Other immunoreagents in our EIA consisted of guinea pig and rabbit antisera to influenza A/Brazil/11/78 (H1N1) for microtiter plate coating and primary antiserum, respectively. The sensitivity of this EIA was tested with 60 clinical specimens containing influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) which closely resembles A/Brazil. Of 31 initial specimens, collected within 24 h of the onset of symptoms, 27 (87%) were positive, using a fluorgenic substrate, and 18 of 29 (62%) specimens obtained 12 to 60 h after the initial specimens were positive, for a total of 75% (45 of 60). All positive reactions were specific, as shown in a confirmatory test with preimmune and hyperimmune guinea pig globulins. Clinical specimens negative for virus (n = 33) or containing heterologous respiratory viruses (n = 26) were negative in this system. These results indicate that EIA systems can be developed with a sensitivity approaching that required for clinical usefulness. PMID:6403573

  1. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  2. Use of a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay with an internal control to detect Chlamydophila psittaci in turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van Loock, Marnix; Verminnen, Kristel; Messmer, Trudy O; Volckaert, Guido; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2005-01-01

    Background Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci, an important turkey respiratory pathogen, is difficult. To facilitate the diagnosis, a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) was developed to detect the Cp. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene in pharyngeal swabs. Methods The fluorescein-biotin labelled PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and detected with anti-fluorescein peroxidase conjugate and a colorimetric substrate. An internal inhibition control was included to rule out the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification. The diagnostic value of the ompA nested PCR-EIA in comparison to cell culture and a 16S-rRNA based nested PCR was assessed in pharyngeal turkey swabs from 10 different farms experiencing respiratory disease. Results The sensitivity of the nested PCR-EIA was established at 0.1 infection forming units (IFU). Specificity was 100%. The ompA nested PCR-EIA was more sensitive than the 16S-rRNA based nested PCR and isolation, revealing 105 out of 200 (52.5%) positives against 13 and 74 for the latter two tests, respectively. Twenty-nine (23.8%) out of 122 ompA PCR-EIA negatives showed the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification, although 27 of them became positive after diluting (1/10) the specimens in PCR buffer or after phenol-chloroform extraction and subsequent ethanol precipitation. Conclusion The present study stresses the need for an internal control to confirm PCR true-negatives and demonstrates the high prevalence of chlamydiosis in Belgian turkeys and its potential zoonotic risk. The ompA nested PCR-EIA described here is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assay and will help to facilitate the diagnosis of Cp. psittaci infections in both poultry and man. PMID:16185353

  3. Development of magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the detection of 17beta-estradiol in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Wang, Xu; Jin, Hui; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Li, Zhen-Jia

    2009-09-01

    In the present work, a simple, fast, and highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for 17beta-estradiol (E2) in environmental water samples was developed, using magnetic particles (MPs) labeled with secondary antibody as both the immobilization matrix and the separation tools. The specific anti-E2 polyclonal antibody (PcAb) was produced against a conjugate of estradiol-bovine serum albumin. The specificity of the anti-E2 antibody was studied. The results showed that the antibody did not cross-react with the structurally related endocrine-disrupting compounds, including estrone, ethinyl E2, estriol, E2-17-glucuronide, E2-3-sulfate-17-glucuronide, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone. The water samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges for the removal of matrix effects. Several physicochemical parameters including the dilution ratios of E2-6-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and anti-E2 PcAb, immunoreaction time, volume of chemiluminescent substrate and MPs, chemiluminescence reaction time, and pH of assay solution were studied and optimized. At optimal experimental conditions, it was found that the proposed method exhibited high performance with detection limit of 2.0 pg/mL, linear range of 20-1,200 pg/mL, and total assay time of 45 min. Both inter- and intra-assay coefficient of variation were less than 10%. The average recoveries of three different spiked concentration samples ranged from 86.3% to 108%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of E2 in river, waste, and tap water, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. PMID:18841499

  4. Detection of Campylobacter in stool and determination of significance by culture, enzyme immunoassay, and PCR in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T; Fox, James G; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-04-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  5. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical specimens by viral culture, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J H; Mann, D R; Hamparian, V V

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by culture and by direct antigen detection using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), a direct monoclonal immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and a monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Of 221 specimens, 95 (43%) were culture positive for RSV, 4 (1.8%) contained more than one virus, and 17 (7.6%) contained a virus other than RSV. Overall, HEp-2 and Flow 6000 cells grew significantly more RSV isolates (82 and 72%, respectively) than A549 cells, which grew only 29% of the isolates. The mean time for RSV detection with HEp-2 cells was 2.9 days. This was significantly less than the mean time for RSV detection with either Flow 6000 cells (6.1 days) or A549 cells (6.4 days). Of 221 specimens, 129 were tested simultaneously by culture, IFA, and DFA. Of these 129 specimens, 62 (48%) were positive by culture, 69 (53%) were positive by IFA, and 70 (54%) were positive by DFA. For 92 specimens screened simultaneously by culture, IFA, and EIA, positive results were obtained for 33 (36%) of the specimens by both culture and IFA and for 29 (32%) of the specimens by EIA. Of 126 culture-negative specimens, 21 (17%) were positive for RSV when determined by IFA. Conversely, 14 (15%) of 95 RSV culture-positive specimens were negative by IFA, whereas DFA missed 19% of the culture-positive specimens. Compared with culture, the Kallestad EIA kit had a sensitivity and specificity of 73 and 92% respectively, but missed 9 (27%) of 33 culture-positive specimens. These data demonstrate that isolation by culture continues to be important for viral diagnosis of REV infections and that for valid comparative studies between viral isolations and rapid detection methods, both sensitive host cells and appropriate test conditions are required. PMID:3281981

  6. Comparison of a lateral flow milk progesterone test with enzyme immunoassay as an aid for reproductive status determination in cows.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, A; Raud, A

    2016-03-12

    The lateral flow test (LFT) is an immunochromatographic method that utilises an immunostrip for non-laboratory diagnostic purposes. The present study evaluated a milk progesterone LFT against the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to confirm oestrus and a non-pregnancy diagnosis. In total, 277 milk samples from 70 cows were analysed, collected on the day of artificial insemination and at 19 days, 21 days and 24 days post insemination. The level of accuracy of the LFT compared with the EIA was 95.0 per cent for milk samples containing <2 ng/ml progesterone and 97.0 per cent for milk samples containing >10 ng/ml progesterone. The validation of oestrus by the LFT was 98.6 per cent accurate using 2 ng/ml progesterone as the EIA estimate for oestrus. The test performance for a non-pregnancy diagnosis was subject to the day of milk sampling, showing the highest accuracy on day 24 post insemination for both tests. When optimised for maximum specificity, and compared with rectal palpation, the LFT had a sensitivity and specificity for non-pregnancy diagnosis on day 24 post insemination of 75.0 per cent and 100.0 per cent, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 84.4 per cent. The corresponding characteristics for the quantitative EIA were 85.0 per cent, 100.0 per cent and 90.6 per cent, respectively. The LFT results compared favourably with the quantitative milk progesterone EIA. PMID:26873072

  7. Prevalence of Human Calicivirus Infections in Kenya as Determined by Enzyme Immunoassays for Three Genogroups of the Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Shuji; Honma, Shinjiro; Numata, Kazuko; Kogawa, Keiko; Ukae, Susumu; Adachi, Noriaki; Jiang, Xi; Estes, Mary K.; Gatheru, Zippora; Tukei, Peter M.; Chiba, Shunzo

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on human calicivirus (HuCV) infections and associated gastroenteritis in infants was conducted to clarify the prevalence of HuCV infections in infants and adults in Kenya. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for three genogroups of HuCVs, Norwalk virus (NV), Mexico virus (MXV), and Sapporo virus (SV), were used to detect antigen or antibody. We tested 1,431 stool samples obtained from children younger than 6 years old with acute gastroenteritis who visited outpatient clinics in three districts in Kenya from August 1991 to July 1994. Thirty-two (2.2%) of these stool samples were positive for SV antigen. Only one (0.1%) of 1,186 samples was positive for NV antigen and none of 246 samples was positive for MXV antigen. One hundred ninety-three serum samples were tested for antibodies to NV and MXV, and 64 of them were examined for antibody to SV. The pattern of the age-related prevalence of serum antibody to NV was different from that of antibodies to MXV and SV. The acquisition of serum antibodies to HuCVs in the three genogroups appeared in early childhood, at about 1 to 2 years of age. The prevalence of serum antibody to NV was low (about 60%) throughout adulthood compared with a high prevalence of antibody (∼80 to 90%) to MXV and SV. These data indicate that infections with viruses in the three genogroups of HuCVs are common in Kenya, and immunological responses to NV may be different from those to MXV and SV. The EIAs for the detection of NV and MXV antigens appear to be quite specific for prototype NV and MXV strains, respectively, so that they can detect only a few strains of HuCVs related to them. Alternatively, NV and MXV caused less severe infections that did not bring children to the outpatient clinics for gastroenteritis in Kenya. PMID:9774557

  8. Diagnosis of Norwalk Virus Infection by Indirect Enzyme Immunoassay Detection of Salivary Antibodies to Recombinant Norwalk Virus Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Christine L.; Sair, Arnie; Lindesmith, Lisa; Estes, Mary K.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2004-01-01

    Simple diagnostic tests are needed for the detection of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. Salivary antibody assays provide an attractive alternative to collecting and testing serum or stool samples. Antibodies to Norwalk virus (NV) in oral fluid samples were compared with NV antibodies in serum collected from 38 volunteers challenged with NV inoculum. Pre- and postchallenge (day 4, 8, 14, and 21) saliva and serum samples were examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using recombinant NV antigen. Of 18 infected subjects (those who shed NV in stool or who demonstrated immunoglobulin G [IgG] seroconversion), 15 (83%) had ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgA and 15 (83%) had ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG when prechallenge and postchallenge saliva samples were compared. When the results of the IgA and IgG assays were combined, all 18 infected subjects showed ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG or IgA postchallenge titers compared to their prechallenge titers. One of 19 uninfected subjects had a ?4-fold increase in NV-specific salivary IgG. The sensitivity of the combined assay results was 100%, and the specificity was 95%. NV-specific salivary IgA titers peaked around 14 days postchallenge. NV-specific salivary IgG and serum IgG titers continued to rise through 21 days postchallenge. The application of this EIA to an elementary school outbreak indicated that 67% of the subjects with confirmed infections had >4-fold rises in anti-NoV IgA when an antigen in the same genetic cluster as the outbreak virus was used. This is the first documented mucosal antibody response to NoV in children. This EIA provides a useful approach for diagnosing NoV outbreaks. PMID:15539501

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. 3. Detection of IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae by a modified indirect haemagglutination test.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, T. W.; Marmion, B. P.; Varkanis, G.; Worswick, D. A.; Martin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was compared with the complement-fixation (CF) test for the measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A modification of the IHA was used to measure M. pneumoniae IgM antibodies. Sera were obtained from various groups of patients who were either culture or antigen positive for M. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal aspirates or who had fourfold or greater increase in CF antibody or a titre greater than or equal to 320. The results of these comparisons showed that the modified IHA test was specific and more sensitive (89% as opposed to 64%) than the CF test. The modified IHA test for the detection of IgM antibody was highly effective in the recognition of recent or current infection with the mycoplasma. It was also of equal sensitivity to an indirect enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2514114

  10. Comparison of stool enzyme immunoassay and immunochromatographic method for detecting Helicobacter pylori antigens before and after eradication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, I-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Chien-Yu; Ke, Hung-Lung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Wang, Yuan-Yung; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Wang, Tsang-En; Bair, Ming-Jong; Kuo, Fu-Chen

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the performance of enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSA) and immunochromatographic method (ImmunoCard HpSA STAT) in detecting stool Helicobacter pylori antigen before and after eradication therapy. Two hundred forty dyspeptic patients (143 men and 97 women; mean age, 53.2 years old; range, 19-79 years old) volunteered to participate in this study. Those who delivered improper stool samples, including diarrhea, inadequate amount, or delayed delivery after collection, were excluded. All of the participants received endoscopy, biopsy-based tests, and noninvasive tests, including (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) and 2 stool antigen tests. Fifty-eight patients completed all the above tests before and after eradication therapy, and each contributed to 2 person-times. In total, there were 176 person-times in the preeradication group and 100 in the posteradication group that were analyzed for comparison. Follow-up endoscopic examinations were done 2 to 4 months after completion of eradication therapy, and stool samples were collected within 3 days after endoscopy. Positive H. pylori infection was established when either culture was positive or any 2 of the histology, rapid urease test, and UBT were positive. In the preeradication group (n = 176), 99 (56.3%) were H. pylori positive and 77 were Hp negative. In the posteradication group (n = 100), the treatment was successful in 67 (67.0%) of them. In the preeradication group, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were 95.2%, 87.0%, 90.4%, 93.1%, and 91.5%, respectively, for ImmunoCard HpSA STAT, and 83.8%, 90.9%, 92.2%, 81.4%, and 86.9%, respectively, for Premier Platinum HpSA. In the posteradication group, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 100%, 91.0%, 84.6%, 100%, and 94.0%, respectively, for ImmunoCard HpSA STAT, and 84.9%, 92.5%, 84.8%, 92.5%, and 90.0%, respectively, for Premier Platinum HpSA. There were no statistically significant differences between these 2 stool tests. ImmunoCard HpSA STAT is a rapid, simple, and accurate in-clinic test for preeradication diagnosis of H. pylori and posteradication follow-up. PMID:17157673

  11. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin. PMID:1737052

  12. Usefulness and influence of age of a novel rapid monoclonal enzyme immunoassay stool antigen for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Kalach, Nicolas; Nguyen, Van Bang; Bergeret, Michel; Boutros, Nvine; Dupont, Christophe; Raymond, Josette

    2005-06-01

    A novel rapid monoclonal enzyme immunoassay stool antigen for Helicobacter pylori detection (Immunocard STAT!HpSA, Meridian Diagnostic Inc , Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated in 29 infected and 99 noninfected children. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 86.2%, 92.9%, 78.1%, and 95.8%, respectively, with an accuracy of 91.4%. The highest performance was observed in children older that 10 years, with a sensitivity level of 100%, contrasting with a lower level, 75%, in those younger than 5 years. A good negative predictive value was observed in all age groups, particularly in older children achieving 100%. PMID:15964505

  13. [A multistage metrologic approach to the problem of evaluation of the results of the quantitative enzyme immunoassay determination of antitoxic antibodies].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V F; Nikolaeva, A M; Ivanova, V A; Shobukhova, T S; Tumanova, G M

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate a kit for the enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), the metrological approach was used: the total error of the method for the quantitative determination of antibodies, regarded as a multistage process, was determined as the result of the accumulation of errors made in measurements at different stages. The proposed algorithm made it possible to attest the positive control serum, to determine the total error of measurements, to mark a linear section in a limited range of values on a graduation diagram. This led to obtaining well-grounded results, comparable with the results of the reaction of neutralization at good correlation (lc = 0.9). PMID:9662797

  14. An enzyme immunoassay of phaseolinone and its application in estimation of the amount of toxin in Macrophomina phaseolina-infected seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, D; Dhar, T K; Ali, E

    1992-01-01

    A microtiter plate-based enzyme immunoassay has been developed for phaseolinone, a phytotoxin isolated from the culture filtrate of the plant-pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. The smallest amount of phaseolinone detectable by the method is 5 pg per well. The method is validated by comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography and used to confirm and estimate phaseolinone production in seeds infected with the fungus. The degree of seed inhibition correlated well with the amount of toxin produced in infected seeds, 50% inhibition being observed at a toxin concentration of 0.60 micrograms/g of wet tissue. PMID:1622272

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF TRICLOSAN IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay for triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The triclosan ligand and horse radis...

  16. Evaluation of three different antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus SRB51 in vaccinated heifers.

    PubMed

    Robles, C A; Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Willems, P

    2009-01-15

    The live attenuated Brucella abortus SRB51 (SRB51) is a partial O-chain-deprived mutant. The relative lack of the polysaccharide prevents it from inducing antibodies detectable by most of the serological tests used for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The performance of three antigens used in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay test for detecting SRB51 antibodies were evaluated. A homogeneous group of twenty-five 10-month-old Hereford heifers was used. The animals were bled on day 0 and then subcutaneously vaccinated with 2 ml of a commercially available SRB51 vaccine (Schering-Plough) containing 1x10(7) to 3.4x10(7) viable cells. Blood samples without anticoagulant for sera obtaining were then collected at days 30, 90, 210 and 360 post-vaccination. To detect the SRB51 antibodies, Brucella ovis hot saline extract, B. ovis RLPS (RLPS), and SRB51-RLPS were used. The buffered antigen plate agglutination test and an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (I-ELISA) using the smooth LPS (SLPS) antigen from B. abortus were used as control tests. All the sera samples were negative in the BPA test and in the standard I-ELISA using the SLPS. The SRB51-RLPS and the B. ovis RLPS antigens performed better than the B. ovis hot saline extract antigen. PMID:18980780

  17. Application of immunoassay of encephalomyocarditis virus in cell culture with enzyme-labeled virus-specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of virus, neutralizing antibodies, and interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Vlaspolder, F; Harmsen, T; van Veenendaal, D; Kraaijeveld, C A; Snippe, H

    1988-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-specific monoclonal antibody UM 21.1 labeled with horseradish peroxidase was used to detect EMCV in L-cell monolayers. This direct enzyme immunoassay of EMCV, performed in wells of 96-well plates, could be applied for various purposes, such as early detection of virus multiplication, determination of 50% tissue culture infective doses, and rapid titration of interferon and EMCV-neutralizing antibodies. Multiplication of EMCV is indicated by a rapid increase of the absorbance values measured against EMCV-infected L cells starting as early as 4.5 h after virus inoculation. The early rise of absorbance (i.e., virus multiplication) is inhibited by interferon, allowing its rapid titration. Preincubation of the virus inoculum with neutralizing antibodies also yielded decreased absorbance values. With the latter enzyme immunoassay for neutralizing antibodies, performed after an infection period of 8 h, antibody titers measured were comparable to those obtained with a conventional plaque reduction test. We assume that similar assays could be developed for other picornaviruses (e.g., polioviruses). PMID:2852674

  18. Measurements in international units of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen(anti-HBs) after immunization with a yeast-derived, subtype adr hepatitis B vaccine are considerably different between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-04-01

    The worldwide consensus of the minimum protective anti-HBs level against HBV infection is 10 mIU/mL on assays standardized by the World Health Organization (WHO) reference preparations. To investigate whether this value could be applied to recipients of yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine containing the major surface protein of subtype adr (Bimmugen, Astellas Pharmaceutical, Tokyo), we compared anti-HBs measurements between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect Ausab, Abbott Japan, Tokyo) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse Forte, Fujirebio, Tokyo) in given serum samples obtained from the vaccinees. The vaccine and the two assay methods are currently in a wide use in Japan. The study included 300 medical students who completed a standard vaccination course (0, 1 and 6 months). Serum samples obtained 1 month or 13 months after completing the vaccination were simultaneously tested for anti-HBs by CLIA and CLEIA. In 147 samples with quantifiable values on both CLIA and CLEIA (10 to 1000 mIU/mL) the geometric mean titer on CLEIA (225.0 mIU/mL) was significantly higher than that on CLIA (94.5 mIU/mL) (p < 0.0001). Of 26 subjects with CLIA measurements below 10 mIU/mL, 15 samples (57.7%) showed CLEIA measurements more than 10 mIU/mL. Thus, in the subtype adr-vaccinees CLEIA demonstrated considerably high serum anti-HBs measurements compared to CLIA and discordance in determining critical anti-HBs level of 10 mIU/mL was observed in more than half the samples. This suggests that the minimum HBV-protective anti HBs titer of 10 mIU/mL is difficult to be introduced to Japan where subtype adr-HB vaccines or -HBV infection are prevalent, unless characteristics of assay methods are carefully evaluated. PMID:16722452

  19. A New Enzyme Immunoassay for the Quantitative Determination of Classical Autotaxins (ATXα, ATXβ, and ATXγ) and Novel Autotaxins (ATXδ and ATXε)

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Yasunori; Kurano, Makoto; Shimamoto, Satoshi; Igarashi, Koji; Nojiri, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Masuda, Akiko; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Junken; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid, a potent bioactive lipid mediator, through its lysophospholipase D activity. Although five alternative splicing isoforms of ATX have been identified as ATXα, ATXβ, ATXγ, ATXδ, and ATXε and the expression patterns of each isoform differ among several tissues, the clinical significance of each isoform remains to be elucidated. Methods Anti-ATXβ and anti-ATXδ monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant human ATXβ and ATXδ expressed using a baculovirus system, respectively. We then developed enzyme immunoassays to measure the serum concentrations of “classical ATX” (ATXα, ATXβ, and ATXγ) and “novel ATX” (ATXδ and ATXε) antigens and evaluated the usefulness of these assays using human serum samples. Results The with-run and between-run precision, interference, detection limit, and linearity studies for the present assay were well validated. In healthy subjects, the serum concentrations of classical ATX and novel ATX were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in women than in men, while the ratios of classical ATX or novel ATX to total ATX were not different between women and men. The concentrations of both classical ATX and novel ATX in normal pregnant subjects and patients with chronic liver diseases or follicular lymphoma were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, while the ratio of both ATX isoforms to total ATX did not vary among these groups. Conclusions We have developed a new enzyme immunoassay to determine the concentrations of classical ATX and novel ATX in human serum. These assays may be helpful for elucidating the distinct functional roles of each ATX isoform, which are largely unknown at present. PMID:26083365

  20. Magnetic bead-based enzyme-chromogenic substrate system for ultrasensitive colorimetric immunoassay accompanying cascade reaction for enzymatic formation of squaric acid-iron(III) chelate.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wenqiang; Tang, Dianping; Zhuang, Junyang; Chen, Guonan; Yang, Huanghao

    2014-05-20

    This work reports on a simple and feasible colorimetric immunoassay with signal amplification for sensitive determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, used as a model) at an ultralow concentration by using a new enzyme-chromogenic substrate system. We discovered that glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme broadly used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the ability to stimulate in situ formation of squaric acid (SQA)-iron(III) chelate. GOx-catalyzed oxidization of glucose leads to the formation of gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The latter can catalytically oxidize iron(II) to iron(III), which can rapidly (<1 min) coordinate with the SQA. Formation of the iron-squarate complex causes the color of the solution to change from bluish purple to bluish red accompanying the increasing absorbance with the increment of iron(III) concentration. On the basis of the SQA-iron(III) system, a new immunoassay protocol with GOx-labeled anti-PSA detection antibody can be designed for the detection of target PSA on capture antibody-functionalized magnetic immunosensing probe, monitored by recording the color or absorbance (? = 468 nm) of the generated SQA-iron(III) chelate. The absorbance intensity shows to be dependent on the concentration of target PSA. A linear dependence between the absorbance and target PSA concentration is obtained under optimal conditions in the range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 30 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.5 pg mL(-1) (0.5 ppt) estimated at the 3Sblank level. The sensitivity displays to be 3-5 orders of magnitude better than those of most commercialized human PSA ELISA kits. In addition, the developed colorimetric immunoassay was validated by assaying 12 human serum samples, receiving in good accordance with those obtained by the commercialized PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the SQA-based immunosensing system can be further extended for the detection of other low-abundance proteins or biomarkers by controlling the target antibody. PMID:24785462

  1. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Samara, Fatin; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Dahman; Gullett, Brian K

    2010-04-01

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromochloro-dioxins and -furan (PBCDDs/Fs) laboratory standards using a chemically-activated luciferase gene expression cell bioassay (CALUX). The relative effects potency (REP) values obtained were comparable to the World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and in agreement with the concept of additive congener toxicity of mixtures of dioxins and furans. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-based toxic equivalents (TEQs), however, showed overestimation for PCDDs/Fs (0-4 orders of magnitudes higher) and underestimation for PBDDs/Fs (0-1 orders of magnitude lower) when compared to high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)-based TEQ calculation (using WHO TEFs) in samples from an industrial source line. No correlation was found between the EIA and the HRGC/HRMS data, which could be attributed to differences in homologue-specific cross-reactivity responses, sample matrix type, and presence of other compounds competing for antibody binding in the immunoassay. PMID:20110126

  2. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  3. Detection of West Nile Virus Antigen in Mosquitoes and Avian Tissues by a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Capture Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Ann R.; Hall, Roy A.; Kerst, Amy J.; Nasci, Roger S.; Savage, Harry M.; Panella, Nicholas A.; Gottfried, Kristy L.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Roehrig, John T.

    2002-01-01

    An antigen capture immunoassay to detect West Nile (WN) virus antigen in infected mosquitoes and avian tissues has been developed. With this assay purified WN virus was detected at a concentration of 32 pg/0.1 ml, and antigen in infected suckling mouse brain and laboratory-infected mosquito pools could be detected when the WN virus titer was 102.1 to 103.7 PFU/0.1 ml. In a blindly coded set of field-collected mosquito pools (n = 100), this assay detected WN virus antigen in 12 of 18 (66.7%) TaqMan-positive pools, whereas traditional reverse transcriptase PCR detected 10 of 18 (55.5%) positive pools. A sample set of 73 organ homogenates from naturally infected American crows was also examined by WN virus antigen capture immunoassay and TaqMan for the presence of WN virus. The antigen capture assay detected antigen in 30 of 34 (88.2%) TaqMan-positive tissues. Based upon a TaqMan-generated standard curve of infectious WN virus, the limit of detection in the antigen capture assay for avian tissue homogenates was approximately 103 PFU/0.1 ml. The recommended WN virus antigen capture protocol, which includes a capture assay followed by a confirmatory inhibition assay used to retest presumptive positive samples, could distinguish between the closely related WN and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in virus-infected mosquito pools and avian tissues. Therefore, this immunoassay demonstrates adequate sensitivity and specificity for surveillance of WN virus activity in mosquito vectors and avian hosts, and, in addition, it is easy to perform and relatively inexpensive compared with the TaqMan assay. PMID:12037058

  4. Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

    1993-01-01

    An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test. PMID:8308117

  5. Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Smith, Leonard A.; Feldhaus, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2006-06-16

    With the use of high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), two separate immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or the rapid detection of BoNT/A. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT in buffer and clinical fluids. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in diverse samples down to 14 fM (1.4 pg/mL). Using the recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. While the ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers an alternative to the mouse bioassay, the renewable surface assay has potential as a rapid screening assay for the analysis of complex environmental samples.

  6. Detection of pregnancy and fertility status in big cats using an enzyme immunoassay based on 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one.

    PubMed

    Umapathy, Govindhaswamy; Kumar, Vinod; Wasimuddin; Kabra, Meha; Shivaji, S

    2013-01-01

    Development of non-invasive steroid hormone assays using fecal samples is crucial for detection of pregnancy and monitoring of fertility status in big cats and thus facilitates conservation and management of wild animals. Due to changes in metabolism and excretory pattern, animals excrete different steroid metabolites in feces and urine. The present study is an attempt to develop a common enzyme immunoassay for 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one one of the predominant progestogen metabolites in the feces samples of big cats. The developed ELISA showed a high sensitivity and low cross reactivity to other hormones compared to commercially available RIA kits based on progesterone antibody. It could be used in a wide range of animals for monitoring fertility status and pregnancy detection by measuring fecal steroid metabolites. PMID:23142266

  7. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Alastair J; Evans, Natalie E; Williams, O Martin; Spencer, Robert C; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  8. Highly sensitive micro-plate enzyme immunoassay screening and NCI-GC-MS confirmation of flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in hair.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, A; Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Kaleciak, K; Kronstrand, R; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-10-01

    Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) is a benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia as a sedative hypnotic and as preanesthetic medication in European countries and Mexico. Although it has no medicinal purpose in the United States, the occurrence of its abuse is increasing. Sexual abuse of both men and women while under the influence of so-called "date-rape" drugs has been the focus of many investigations. Reported date-rape drugs include flunitrazepam (FN), clonazepam, diazepam, oxazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and many others. FN has been banned in the United States because of its alleged use in such situations. Unfortunately, the detection of FN or its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AFN) and desmethylflunitrazepam in a single specimen such as urine or blood is difficult in criminal situations because of the likelihood of single-dose ingestion and the length of time since the alleged incident. Hair provides a solution to the second of these problems in that drugs tend to incorporate into hair and remain there for longer periods of time than either urine or blood. There are various techniques for the detection of FN in plasma, blood, and urine, but little work has been done with hair. Hair collection is a virtually noninvasive procedure that can supply information on drug use for several months preceding collection. The objective of this paper was to determine if a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay system was sufficiently sensitive for the routine screening of 7-AFN in hair by the development of extraction procedures and optimization of the immunoassay kit. Further, this study used the same solid-phase extraction to isolate FN and its major metabolite, 7-AFN, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization for confirmation. Two seven-point standard curves were established ranging from 0.5 pg/mg to 100 pg/mg for 7-AFN and 2.5 pg/mg to 200 pg/mg for FN with respective deuterated internal standards. A replicate analysis of controls was performed to establish inter- and intraday variabilities. Two suicide cases along with one alleged date-rape case and one case of an emergency room patient whose blood screened positive for benzodiazepines were analyzed. All the hair specimens screened positive for benzodiazepines using micro-plate enzyme immunoassay. Two cases, including the date-rape case, were negative for FN and 7-AFN, and two postmortem hair samples were confirmed positive for FN and its metabolite. PMID:10517547

  9. [IgM myeloma].

    PubMed

    Roujeau, J C; Bisson, M; Segond, P; Massias, P

    1976-11-23

    The authors report the case of a 62 year old woman in whom bony pain led to the discovery of lacunar osteolytic appearances, in particular in the skull, abnormal medullary plasmacytosis and serum monoclonal immunoglobulin with Bence-Jones proteinuria. The case was unusual as the immunoglobulin observed was an IgM. This finding led the authors to a critical revision of the distinctive characteristics of multiple myeloma and Waldenstrm's macro-globulinemia, emphasizing the distinguishing value of the cytological criterion. The authors recall the various neoplastic proliferations of the B lymphocytes at the various stages of their maturation and emphasize the predominance of monoclonal IgM during proliferations affecting the early stages of maturation of the B lymphocytes and the rareness of these IgM during plasma cell neoplasms. PMID:188179

  10. Immunoassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    No other development has had such a major impact on the measurement of hormones as immunoassay. Reagents and assay kits can now be bought commercially but not for the more esoteric or new hormones. This chapter explains the basics of the immunoassay reaction and gives simple methods for immunoassays and immunometric assays and for the production of reagents for both antigenic and hapten hormones. Alternative methods are given for the preparation of labeled hormones as well as several possible separation procedures. The methods described here have been previously used in a wide range of assays and have stood the test of time. They will allow the production of usable immunoassays in a relatively short period of time. PMID:23996355

  11. EQCM Immunoassay for Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase as a Biomarker for Organophosphate Exposures Based on Selective Zirconia Adsorption and Enzyme-Catalytic Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-03-01

    A zirconia (ZrO2) adsorption-based immunoassay by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) has been initially developed, aiming at the detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a potential biomarker for bio-monitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Hydroxyl-derivatized monolayer was preferably chosen to modify the crystal serving as the template for directing the electro-deposition of ZrO2 film with uniform nanostructures. The resulting ZrO2 film was utilized to selectively capture phosphorylated AChE from the sample media. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-AChE antibodies were further employed to recognize the captured phosphorylated protein. Enzyme-catalytic oxidation of the benzidine substrate resulted in the accumulation of insoluble product on the functionalized crystal. Ultrasensitive EQCM quantification by mass-amplified frequency responses as well as rapid qualification by visual color changes of product could be thus achieved. Moreover, 4-chloro-1-naphthol (CN) was comparably studied as an ideal chromogenic substrate for the enzyme-catalytic precipitation. Experimental results show that the developed EQCM technique can allow for the detection of phosphorylated AChE in human plasma. Such an EQCM immunosensing format opens a new door towards the development of simple, sensitive, and field-applicable biosensor for biologically monitoring low-level OP exposures.

  12. Novel colorimetric immunoassay for ultrasensitive monitoring of brevetoxin B based on enzyme-controlled chemical conversion of sulfite to sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wenqiang; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-02-25

    A simple colorimetric immunoassay for quantitative monitoring of brevetoxin B on a functionalized magnetic bead by using glucose oxidase (GOx)/antibrevetoxin antibody-labeled gold nanoparticle as the signal transduction tag was developed. The assay was carried out on the basis of GOx-controlled sulfite-to-sulfate chemical conversion with a silver(I)-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine [Ag(I)-TMB] system. Initially, the sulfite was used as an inhibitor of Ag(I) to hinder the color development of TMB due to the formation of insoluble silver sulfite. Accompanying H2O2 generation with GOx-catalyzed glucose, the sulfite was converted into the sulfate, thus resulting in the colorless-to-blue change. Under the optimal conditions, the absorbance decreased with increasing brevetoxin B from 0.5 to 200 ng/kg with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/kg (ppt). The precision and specificity were acceptable. Furthermore, the methodology gave results matching well with the referenced brevetoxin ELISA kit for monitoring of spiked Musculista senhousia samples. PMID:25660549

  13. Detection of measles virus-specific immunoglobulin M in dried venous blood samples by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Michaela A; Leydon, Jennie A; Catton, Mike G; Kelly, Heath A

    2002-01-01

    The optical densities (ODs) of 216 dried venous blood (DVB) samples submitted to the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory as part of enhanced measles surveillance were compared to the ODs of the corresponding serum samples collected at the same time. DVB samples, stored for up to 24 months at 4 degrees C, were tested by the Dade Behring Enzygnost Anti-Measles-Virus/IgM immunoassay. Elution and testing conditions were optimized with the use of spiked DVB samples. The assay showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 98.8% for DVB samples compared to the results for serum. When the results were analyzed according to the length of time that the DVB sample had been stored, the assay was 100% sensitive and 97% specific according to the ODs for those samples stored for less than 6 months compared to the results for the corresponding serum samples, with 97.7% agreement between the results for the two sample types. These results demonstrate the potential for the use of DVB samples for the diagnosis of measles in routine diagnostic laboratories. PMID:11773084

  14. Nanobody-based enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin in agro-products with high tolerance to cosolvent methanol.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Jiawen; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen

    2014-09-01

    A phage-displayed library of variable domain of heavy chain of the heavy chain antibody (VHH) or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing an alpaca with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) conjugated with bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA). Two AFB1-specific nanobodies were selected. The obtained nanobodies were compared to an aflatoxin-specific monoclonal antibody B5 with respect to stability under organic solvents and high temperature. The two nanobodies could bind antigen specifically after exposure to temperatures as high as 95 C. Besides, the nanobodies showed better or similar tolerance to organic solvents. A competitive ELISA with nanobody Nb26 was developed for the analysis of AFB1, exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.754 ng/mL (2.4 ?M), linear range from 0.117 to 5.676 ng/mL. Due to the high tolerance to methanol, sample extracts were analyzed by nanobody-based ELISA without dilution. The recovery from spiked peanut, rice, corn and feedstuff ranged from 80 to 115%. In conclusion, the isolated nanobodies are excellent candidates for immunoassay application in aflatoxin determination. PMID:25079057

  15. Development of a nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and its application in a highly sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A in cereal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yang; Wan, De-bin; Xiong, Yong-hua; He, Zhen-yun; Wang, Xian-xian; Gee, Shirley J; Ryu, Dojin; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-20

    A rapid and sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (dc-FEIA) for ochratoxin A (OTA) based on a nanobody (Nb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The VHH (variable domain of heavy chain antibody) gene of Nb28 was subcloned into the expression vector pecan45 containing the AP double-mutant gene. The Nb28-AP construct was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)plysS, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Both the Nb properties and AP enzymatic activity were validated by colorimetric and fluorometric analysis. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit of the dc-FEIA were 0.13 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 0.06-0.43 ng/mL. This assay was compared with LC-MS/MS, and the results indicated the reliability of Nb-AP fusion protein-based dc-FEIA for monitoring OTA contamination in cereal. PMID:25531426

  16. Development of a nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and its application in a highly sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A in cereal

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yang; Wan, De-bin; Xiong, Yong-hua; He, Zhen-yun; Wang, Xian-xian; Gee, Shirley J.; Ryu, Dojin; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (dc-FEIA) for ochratoxin A (OTA) based on a nanobody (Nb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The VHH gene of Nb28 was subcloned into the expression vector pecan45 containing the AP double mutant gene. The Nb28-AP construct was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3)plysS and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Both the Nb properties and AP enzymatic activity were validated by colorimetric and fluorometric analysis. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit of the dc-FEIA were 0.13 ng/mL and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 0.060.43 ng/mL. This assay was compared with LC-MS/MS, and the results indicated the reliability of Nb-AP fusion protein-based dc-FEIA for monitoring OTA contamination in cereal. PMID:25531426

  17. Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Bruins, M J; Verbeek, E; Wallinga, J A; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L E S; Kuijper, E J; Bloembergen, P

    2012-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) consists of the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile, and/or its toxins A or B in stool preferably in a two-step algorithm. In a prospective study, we compared the performance of three toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIAs)-ImmunoCard Toxins A & B, Premier Toxins A & B and C. diff Quik Chek Complete, which combines a toxins test and a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen EIA in one device -and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay Illumigene C. difficile. In total 986 stool samples were analyzed. Compared with toxigenic culture as the gold standard, sensitivities, specificities, PPV and NPV values of the toxin EIAs were 41.1-54.8%, 98.9-100%, 75.0-100% and 95.5-96.5% respectively, of the Illumigene assay 93.3%, 99.7%, 95.8% and 99.5%. Illumigene assays performed significantly better for non-014/020 PCR-ribotypes than for C. difficile isolates belonging to 014/020. Discrepant analysis of three culture-negative, but Illumigene-positive samples, revealed the presence of toxin genes using real-time PCRs. In addition to the GDH EIA (NPV of 99.8%), the performance of Illumigene allows this test to be introduced as a first screening test for CDI- or as a confirmation test for GDH -positive samples, although the initial invalid Illumigene result of 4.4% is a point of concern. PMID:22706512

  18. Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Sumner, J W; Roumillat, L F

    1984-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. Glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. Bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G. The assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by Cleveland et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:402-407, 1982) for the typing of herpes simplex viruses. When partially disrupted cells were used, both internal and external viral antigens were available for reaction. The procedure is rapid (less than 4 h for completion) and requires only small amounts of fluid, and the gamma-irradiated antigen is noninfectious. When the procedure was used to screen 145 fluids from rabies-immune spleen-myeloma cell fusions, 132 were positive for rabies antibody. Other commonly used assays for the detection of rabies-specific antibody were less sensitive. Simultaneous analyses of many hybridoma fluids against a battery of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus are possible and allow rapid selection of useful monoclones. PMID:6365963

  19. Plasma cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit validation for three fish species: the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula, the orangefin anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus and the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus.

    PubMed

    Mills, S C; Mourier, J; Galzin, R

    2010-08-01

    Commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits were validated for measuring steroid hormone concentrations in blood plasma from three fish species: the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula, the orangefin anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus and the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus. A minimum of 5 microl plasma was required to estimate hormone concentrations with both kits. These EIA kits are a simple method requiring minimal equipment, for measuring hormone profiles under field conditions. PMID:20701653

  20. [Detection of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidase propeptides of Lysobacter sp. XL1 by sandwich-enzyme immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, N V; Tsfasman, I M; Latypov, O R; Ledova, L A; Krasovskaia, L A; Karatovskaia, A P; Brovko, F A; Vasil'eva, N V; Stepnaia, O A

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular lytic endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB of the bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 are highly homologous and synthesized as precursors consisting of signal peptide, propeptide and mature form. In this work, two monoclonal antibodies against propeptide endopeptidase AlpA (ProA) and eleven against propeptide endopeptidase AlpB (ProB) were obtained to study the AlpA and AlpB endopeptidases secretion. The affinity constants of the antibodies against ProA were 2.9 x 10(9) and 3.5 x 10(9) M(-1), and the affinity constants of the antibodies against ProB were from 1.5 x 10(8) to 2.2 x 10(9) M(-1). The obtained antibodies did not have cross-reactivity between themselves, as well as mature forms of the enzymes. The monoclonal antibodies based sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay has been developed for measuring the propeptide in a native form. The linear range of determination ProA was 1.5-100 ng/mL with 6% error of measurement, and for determining ProB 0.2-6.25 ng/mL with 6% error. Using the developed assay, ProA and ProB propeptides have been detected in cell lysates of Lysobacter sp. XL1 in an amount 1.18 0.03 ng and 0.096 0.002 ng per 1 OD540 of the bacterial culture, respectively. The immunochemical assay for detection various forms of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidases can be useful when dealing with issues related to their secretion into the environment. PMID:25898736

  1. Identification of specific antinuclear antibodies in dogs using a line immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Hanna D; Lattwein, Erik; Renneker, Stefanie; Lilliehk, Inger; Rnnelid, Johan; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2015-12-15

    Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly present in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and in other systemic rheumatic diseases, in humans as well as in dogs. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)-ANA test is the standard method for detecting ANA. Further testing for specific ANA with immunoblot techniques or ELISAs is routinely performed in humans to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Several specific ANA identified in humans have been identified also in suspected canine SLE but, in contrast to humans, investigation of autoantibodies in canine SLE is mainly restricted to the IIF-ANA test. Our aim was to identify both known and novel specific ANA in dogs and to investigate if different IIF-ANA patterns are associated with different specific ANA in dogs. Sera from 240 dogs with suspicion of autoimmune disease (210 IIF-ANA positive (ANA(pos)) and 30 IIF-ANA negative (ANA(neg))) as well as sera from 27 healthy controls were included. The samples were analysed with a line immunoassay, LIA (Euroline ANA Profile 5, Euroimmun, Lbeck, Germany) and four different ELISAs (Euroimmun). The ANA(pos) dogs were divided in two groups depending on the type of IIF-ANA pattern. Of the 210 ANA(pos) samples 68 were classified as ANA homogenous (ANA(H)) and 141 as ANA speckled (ANA(S)), one sample was not possible to classify. Dogs in the ANA(H) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) and anti-nucleosome ANA. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were confirmed in some dogs with the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). The frequency of ANA(H) dogs with values above those observed in the healthy group was significantly higher compared to ANA(S) dogs for anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome, and anti-histone reactivity. Dogs in the ANA(S) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and/or anti-Smith (Sm) antibodies. Reactivity against Sjgren's syndrome related antigens (SS)-A (including the Ro-60 and Ro-52 subcomponents), SS-B, histidyl tRNA synthetase (Jo-1), topoisomerase I antigen (Scl-70), polymyositis-scleroderma antigen (PM-Scl) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was also noted in individual dogs. In conclusion, by using a commercial LIA and different ELISAs originally developed for detection of human ANA, we identified several specific ANA in serum samples from dogs sampled for IIF-ANA testing. Further, we found that the types of IIF-ANA pattern were associated with reactivity against some particular nuclear antigens. PMID:26547884

  2. Performance of a Limiting-Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay for Cross-Sectional Estimation of HIV Incidence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron; Longosz, Andrew F.; Cousins, Matthew M.; Celum, Connie; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Seage, George R.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Moore, Richard D.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Brown, Joelle; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Justman, Jessica E.; Hodder, Sally L.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background A limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (HIV-1 LAg-Avidity assay) was recently developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. We evaluated the performance of the LAg-Avidity assay alone and in multi-assay algorithms (MAAs) that included other biomarkers. Methods and Findings Performance of testing algorithms was evaluated using 2,282 samples from individuals in the United States collected 1 month to >8 years after HIV seroconversion. The capacity of selected testing algorithms to accurately estimate incidence was evaluated in three longitudinal cohorts. When used in a single-assay format, the LAg-Avidity assay classified some individuals infected >5 years as assay positive and failed to provide reliable incidence estimates in cohorts that included individuals with long-term infections. We evaluated >500,000 testing algorithms, that included the LAg-Avidity assay alone and MAAs with other biomarkers (BED capture immunoassay [BED-CEIA], BioRad-Avidity assay, HIV viral load, CD4 cell count), varying the assays and assay cutoffs. We identified an optimized 2-assay MAA that included the LAg-Avidity and BioRad-Avidity assays, and an optimized 4-assay MAA that included those assays, as well as HIV viral load and CD4 cell count. The two optimized MAAs classified all 845 samples from individuals infected >5 years as MAA negative and estimated incidence within a year of sample collection. These two MAAs produced incidence estimates that were consistent with those from longitudinal follow-up of cohorts. A comparison of the laboratory assay costs of the MAAs was also performed, and we found that the costs associated with the optimal two assay MAA were substantially less than with the four assay MAA. Conclusions The LAg-Avidity assay did not perform well in a single-assay format, regardless of the assay cutoff. MAAs that include the LAg-Avidity and BioRad-Avidity assays, with or without viral load and CD4 cell count, provide accurate incidence estimates. PMID:24386116

  3. Rapid immunoenzymatic technique for titration of rabies antibodies IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    Savy, V; Atanasiu, P

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of the enzyme immunoassay to measure the antibodies in humans vaccinated against rabies or presenting symptoms of rabies without having been vaccinated. By the same technique we identify the IgG and IgM classes of antibodies. The antigen (5 microgram/ml), purified virus, is readily adsorbed into polystyrene tube by passive adsorption. The use of only one dilution for each serum assay (1/200) is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies. Antibody response of subjects in the course of rabies vaccination was an obvious application. After 5 inoculations of tissue culture vaccine the IgM response was poor and late; it was even negative in two cases. The IgG response appeared early on the 7th day. In the same way we tried to follow antibody response in three cases of rabies in man. Seroneutralisation (SN) antibody were not detected at the beginning of the illness. In case 1 antibodies were found on the 12th day, in case 2 on the 7th day and in case 3 on the 8th day. When we assayed the serum samples for immunoenzymatic test, we found that the sera became positive some days earlier: on the 5th for case 1, already on the 1st day for the two others. In each of these three cases the positivity of the test corresponded to the presence of IgM class globulins since IgG detection remained negative as did the SN test. Our results could have some clinical interest concerning future rabies treatment and early diagnosis. PMID:355018

  4. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell-core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou

    2015-08-01

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL(-1) with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. PMID:26320802

  5. A modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: RREID-lyssa.

    PubMed

    Perrin, P; Gontier, C; Lecocq, E; Bourhy, H

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a modification of the previously described Rapid Rabies Enzyme Immuno-Diagnosis test (RREID) by using biotinylated antibodies, streptavidin conjugate and a mixture of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against several lyssaviruses. In the modified technique (RREID-lyssa), microplates were sensitized with a mixture of purified antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from Pasteur virus (Lyssavirus serotype 1), European Bat Lyssavirus (EBL, unclassified) and Mokola virus (Lyssavirus serotype 3). Bound RNP was detected by the same antibodies labelled with biotin and peroxidase-strepavidin conjugate. These techniques were used for the detection of RNP of different Lyssavirus serotypes (rabies and rabies-related viruses). For lyssavirus specimens of serotype 1, the threshold of detection of RREID and RREID-lyssa were similar. However, a smaller amount of labelled antibodies was needed when biotinylated antibodies were used. For specimens infected by rabies-related strains (serotypes 2, 3, 4 and EBL), the threshold of detection of the RREID-lyssa was between two and 512 times lower than with the RREID. The sensitivity and the specificity of the RREID-lyssa for rabies virus (serotype 1) when tested on a small field trial (53 specimens) were found to be identical to the RREID. Consequently, RREID-lyssa can be a useful tool for diagnostic laboratories that receive specimens infected by rabies-related viruses. PMID:1610558

  6. An Ultra-Sensitive Monoclonal Antibody-Based Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Sterigmatocystin in Cereal and Oil Products

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Li, Peiwu; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Hengling

    2014-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared. With the novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates, three sensitive and specific mAbs against STG, named VerA 3, VerA 4, and VerA 6, were prepared by semi-solid hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium using a modified two-step screening procedure. They exhibited high affinity for STG and no cross-reactivity (CR) with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. Based on the most sensitive antibody VerA 3, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for STG in wheat, maize, and peanuts. Assays were performed in the STG-GA-BSA-coated (0.5 gmL?1) ELISA format, in which the antibody was diluted to 1?80,000. Several physicochemical factors influencing assay performance, such as pH, ionic strength, blocking solution, and diluting solution, were optimized. The final results showed that the assays had the detection limits of 0.08 ngg?1 for wheat, 0.06 ngg?1 for maize, and 0.1 ngg?1 for peanuts, inter-assay and intra-assay variations of less than 10%, and recoveries ranging from 83% to 110%. These recoveries were in good agreement with those obtained by using HPLC-MS/MS method (90104%), indicating the importance of the mAb VerA 3 in the study of STG in crude agricultural products. PMID:25184275

  7. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

  8. Multicenter Evaluation of a New, Automated Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Eva; Stieler, Myriam; Kaufman, Boris; Kapprell, Hans-Peter; West, Daniel; Sandridge, Arnold; Devare, Sushil; Schochetman, Gerald; Hunt, J. C.; Daghfal, David

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a three-step, fully automated, qualitative microparticle-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo; Abbott Laboratories), designed to simultaneously detect (i) antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or type 2 (HIV-2) and (ii) HIV p24 antigen. A significant reduction in the HIV seroconversion window was achieved by combining detection of HIV antibodies and antigen into a single assay format. For 22 selected, commercial HIV seroconversion panels, the mean time of detection with the combined-format HIV antigen-antibody assay was reduced by 6.15 days compared to that with a similar third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay. The quantitative sensitivity of the combination assay for the p24 antigen (17.5 pg/ml by use of the p24 quantitative panel VIH SFTS96?) was nearly equivalent to that of single-format antigen tests. The combination assay demonstrated sensitive (100%) detection of anti-HIV immunoglobulin in specimens from individuals in CDC stages A, B, and C and from individuals infected with different HIV-1 group M subtypes, group O, or HIV-2. The apparent specificity for hospitalized patients (n = 1,938) was 99.90%. In a random population of 7,900 volunteer blood donors, the specificity (99.87%) was comparable to that of a third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay (99.92%) on the same donor specimens. In addition, the combination assay was robust to potential interfering specimens. The precision of the combination was high, with intra- and interrun variances of ?9.3% for each precision panel specimen or assay control and ?5.3% for the negative assay control. PMID:14715727

  9. Measurement of ?-(1,3)-glucan in household dust samples using Limulus amebocyte assay and enzyme immunoassays: an inter-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Collin R; Siebers, Rob; Crane, Julian; Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Thorne, Peter S; Metwali, Nervana; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-02-01

    Environmental levels of ?-(1,3)-glucan, an inflammatory fungal cell wall component, have been suggested to be related to respiratory symptoms. However there is currently little data comparing ?-(1,3)-glucan detection methods and/or results obtained in different laboratories. The aim of this study was to compare levels of ?-(1,3)-glucans detected in household dust samples (n = 40) using different extraction/detection methods (Limulus amebocyte assay (LAL), inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and sandwich EIA) in five different laboratories. Dust sample aliquots were sent to participating centres, extracted and analysed for ?-(1,3)-glucan according to standard in-house procedures. Significant differences in the levels of ?-(1,3)-glucan were observed between all laboratories (geometric mean levels ranging from 15.4 ?g g (-1) to 4754 ?g g(-1) dust; p < 0.0001) with the exception of those using a similar LAL method. The inhibition EIA used in laboratory D produced mean ?-(1,3)-glucan measurements 80-100 times higher than the LAL assays, 4 times higher than the sandwich EIA in the same lab, 17.6 times those obtained with the EIA in lab E and 363 times those obtained in the EIA in laboratory C. Pearson's correlations generally showed significant associations between methods and laboratories, particularly those using similar methodology (R ranging from 0.5 to 0.8; p < 0.001), although some poor and even inverse correlations were observed. Bland-Altman analyses showed moderate to good agreement between most assays, although clear absolute differences were observed. In conclusion, although results obtained with different methods were often significantly correlated and therefore comparable in relative terms, direct comparison of results between laboratories and assays may be inappropriate. PMID:25208705

  10. Use of the INNO-LIA syphilis score assay in the resolution of discordant positive screening enzyme immunoassay results for the serological diagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lam, T K; Lau, H Y; Lee, Y P; Fung, S M; Leung, W L; Kam, K M

    2014-01-01

    We studied the use of the INNO-LIA syphilis score assay in the resolution of discordant positive screening results of the Murex ICE Syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the confirmatory results of both the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) assays, for the serological diagnosis of syphilis. This was an observational study on the serum samples received by the Syphilis Laboratory, Hong Kong, during the period from January 2006 to December 2012. A total of 801 serum samples with discordant positive screening EIA results were used. Consensus results of such serum samples were derived from results of the EIA, TPPA and FTA-abs assays. The age range of the individuals was 14 to 104 years (median of 52). There were 369 males and 432 females. Of 378 serum samples, 139 showed agreement among positive results, 23 of 310 showed agreement among indeterminate results and 277 of 465 showed agreement among negative results. The proportions of agreement among positive, indeterminate and negative results were 0.37 (95% CI 0.32-0.42), 0.07 (95% CI 0.05-0.11) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.55-0.64), respectively; kappa 0.55 (95% CI 0.49-0.60). There were 60 serum samples with positive consensus results but negative INNO-LIA syphilis score results and 10 with negative consensus results but positive INNO-LIA syphilis score results. Although the INNO-LIA syphilis score assay can be considered a valid alternative confirmatory test for the serological diagnosis of syphilis, the present study showed that its use in the resolution of discordant positive screening EIA results was moderate. A more extensive characterization of serum samples with discordant reactive screening treponemal test results is necessary. PMID:23970631

  11. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for assessing adrenocortical activity and evaluation of factors that affect levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two New World primates.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Heymann, Eckhard W; Link, Andrs; Heistermann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive methods to assess stress hormone output via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs) have become a powerful tool in behavioral studies and conservation biology because they allow exploring the link between behavior, an animal's socio-ecological environment and its adrenocortical activity. However, FGCM levels are influenced by numerous other factors which often confound their interpretation. Thus, before applying these methods, knowledge on the impact of these factors is important. In this study we investigated the effect of (1) time of day, (2) age, (3) sex and (4) female reproductive state on FGCM levels in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Initially, we validated a 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay for monitoring the physiological stress response via fecal analysis in both species. We determined FGCM levels in fecal samples collected from two and six groups of wild spider monkeys (n=461 samples) and howler monkeys (n=166 samples), respectively. Our analyses revealed a strong effect of time of day on FGCM levels in spider monkeys, but no effect in howler monkeys. Adults of both species had significantly higher FGCM levels than subadults. In neither of the two species we found a sex-effect on FGCM output. Reproductive condition strongly affected FGCM levels in female spider monkeys which showed increasing concentrations with progressing gestation. This was not investigated in female howler monkeys due to an insufficient sample size. Our data indicate that the influence of the tested factors on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite output is species-specific, and that these variables need to be considered when interpreting FGCM levels in the species. PMID:23707497

  12. Characterisation and validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Ludwig, C; Wachter, B; Silinski-Mehr, S; Ganswindt, A; Bertschinger, H; Hofer, H; Dehnhard, M

    2013-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical function in cheetahs is an important tool to assess stress in captive and free-ranging individuals, because stress has been suggested to be one of the causes of poor reproductive performance of captive cheetahs. We tested four enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in two captive cheetahs in Germany using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges and identified the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA to be most sensitive to the increase in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations after the ACTH challenge. This EIA performed also well in five captive cheetahs in South Africa. The fGCM concentrations across all seven cheetahs increased within 24h by 681% compared to the baseline levels prior to ACTH. Storage of faecal samples at 0-4C did not strongly affect fGCM concentrations within 24h, simplifying sample collection when immediate storage at -20C is not feasible. The two cheetahs in Germany also received an injection of [(3)H]cortisol to characterise fGCMs in faecal extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) immunograms. HPLC fractions were measured for their radioactivity and immunoreactive fGCM concentrations with the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA, respectively. The results revealed a polar peak of radiolabelled cortisol metabolites co-eluting with the major peak of immunoreactive fGCMs. Thus, our EIA measured substantial amounts of fGCMs corresponding to the radioactive peaks. The peaks were of higher polarity than native cortisol and corticosterone, suggesting that the metabolites were conjugated, which was confirmed by solvolysis of the HPLC fractions. Our results show that the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGCMs in cheetahs. PMID:23108105

  13. ImmunoCard STAT! cartridge antigen detection assay compared to microplate enzyme immunoassay and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast staining technique for detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly

    2012-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species infect humans and a wide range of animals worldwide; outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported in several countries. Routine diagnostic methods may be insufficient to demonstrate the presence of these organisms. The study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the antigen detection immuno-cartridge test, ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA), compared to the combined gold standard: modified Kinyoun's acid-fast technique confirmed with the microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens. Three hundred fifteen formalin-fixed stool specimens were submitted for testing. The Kinyoun's acid-fast-stained smear revealed 24 positive samples for Cryptosporidium (of which 23 specimens were confirmed by the EIA) and 291 negative samples (of which 289 were negative by EIA). Agreement between the three used tests was shown in 22 positive and 288 negative samples for Cryptosporidium. Kappa score of agreement between the immuno-cartridge test and EIA was 0.957, p?=?0.000. The sensitivity of the immuno-cartridge test was 96% (95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 104%) and the total accuracy of the test was 97% (95% CI, 93-103). The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium cartridge assay is easy to use and does not require specialized training or equipment and is useful in routine diagnosis and screening for Cryptosporidium especially where rapid, point of care testing is needed or where other reliable tests are unfeasible with a performance comparable to the EIA and acid-fast technique. PMID:21842383

  14. Drug screening in urine by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lutz; Klpmann, Wolf-Rdiger; Vidal, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Two commercially available drug-screening assays were evaluated: the Roche kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS) assay and the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA). Urine samples from known drug-abuse patients were analyzed for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, cannabinoids, LSD, methadone and opiates. Samples with discordant findings for the two assays were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Amphetamines showed 96.0% concordant results, with two false positive findings by CEDIA, three by KIMS and a further two false negatives by KIMS. Barbiturates showed 99.4% concordant results, with one false negative by KIMS. Benzodiazepines showed 97.4% concordant results, with two false negatives by KIMS (cutoff 100 microg/L, CEDIA cutoff 300 microg/L). Benzoylecgonine showed 17.8% concordant positive and 82.2% concordant negative results and no false finding by either assay. Cannabinoids showed 99.3% concordant results, with one sample negative by KIMS at a cutoff of 50 microg/L and positive by CEDIA (cutoff 25 microg/L). For LSD, 6.7% of findings were not in agreement. Methadone showed 97.5% concordant results, with two false positives by CEDIA, and one false positive and one false negative by KIMS. Opiates showed 96.9% concordant results, with no false KIMS results, but four false positives by CEDIA. The results indicate that the agreement of the CEDIA and KIMS results for the eight drugs is rather good (93.3-100%). PMID:16599844

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Francesconi, Andrea; Kasai, Miki; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Kelaher, Amy M.; Schaufele, Robert; Hope, William W.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Bacher, John; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is widely used for evaluation of patients with suspected invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, the diagnostic yield of BAL for detection of IPA by culture and direct examination is limited. Earlier diagnosis may be facilitated by assays that can detect Aspergillus galactomannan antigen or DNA in BAL fluid. We therefore characterized and compared the diagnostic yields of a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and quantitative cultures in experiments using BAL fluid from neutropenic rabbits with experimentally induced IPA defined as microbiologically and histologically evident invasion. The qPCR assay targeted the rRNA gene complex of Aspergillus fumigatus. The GM EIA and qPCR assay were characterized by receiver operator curve analysis. With an optimal cutoff of 0.75, the GM EIA had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in untreated controls. A decline in sensitivity (92%) was observed when antifungal therapy (AFT) was administered. The optimal cutoff for qPCR was a crossover of 36 cycles, with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of qPCR also decreased with AFT to 50%. Quantitative culture of BAL had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of quantitative culture decreased with AFT to 16%. The GM EIA and qPCR assay had greater sensitivity than culture in detection of A. fumigatus in BAL fluid in experimentally induced IPA (P ± 0.04). Use of the GM EIA and qPCR assay in conjunction with culture-based diagnostic methods applied to BAL fluid could facilitate accurate diagnosis and more-timely initiation of specific therapy. PMID:16825367

  16. Imaging of Lactobacillus brevis single cells and microcolonies without a microscope by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay with a photon-counting television camera.

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, T; Yoda, K

    1997-01-01

    An ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the rapid detection and quantification of Lactobacillus brevis contaminants in beer and pitching yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae slurry collected for reinoculation). L. brevis cells trapped on a 47-mm nucleopore membrane (0.4-micron pore size) were reacted with a peroxidase-labelled Lactobacillus group E antibody and then subjected to an enhanced CLEIA analysis with 4-iodophenol as the enhancer. The combination of a nucleopore membrane with low background characteristics that enables the antigen-antibody reaction to proceed through the pores of the membrane and a labelled antibody prepared by the maleimide hinge method with minimal nonspecific binding characteristics was essential to minimize background in the detection of single cells. An ultrahigh sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fiber optics image intensifier permitted the imaging of single cells. A clear correlation existed between the number of luminescent spots observed and the plate count [y (CLEIA) = 0.990x (plate count) + 15.9, where n = 7, r = 0.993, and P < 0.001]. Microscopic observation confirmed that the luminescent spots were produced by single cells. This assay could be used to detect approximately 20 L. brevis cells in 633 ml of beer within 4 h. Our ultrasensitive CLEIA could also be used to detect microcolonies approximately 20 microns in diameter which had formed on a membrane after 15 to 18 h of incubation. This method, which we called the microcolony immunoluminescence (MIL) method, increased the signal-to-noise ratio dramatically. The MIL method could be used to detect a 10(0) level of L. brevis contamination in 633 ml of beer and a 1/10(8) level of L. brevis contamination in pitching yeast within 1 day (15 to 18 h to form microcolonies and 2 h for CLEIA). PMID:9361439

  17. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. A general strategy for photoelectrochemical immunoassay using an enzyme label combined with a CdS quantum dot/TiO? nanoparticle composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ru; Dai, Pan-Pan; Li, Xiang-Ling; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay has received increasing attention owing to its good analytical performance and attractive potential for future protein assay. This Letter represents a novel and general strategy for elegant PEC immunoassay of the important cardiac marker troponin T (cTnT) at neutral conditions. Specifically, we first developed an efficient CdS quantum dots (QDs)/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) photoelectrode, on the basis of which an exquisite ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) catalytic system was integrated with sandwich immunobinding for probing cTnT. In pH 7.4, ?-Gal could catalyze the conversion of p-aminophenyl galactopyranoside (PAPG) to p-aminophenol (PAP), which could be easily photo-oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI). Because the resulting photocurrent was directly related with the target concentration, an innovative PEC immunoassay could be realized for cTnT detection. The neutral operating condition of this protocol would greatly contribute to its wide applicability for protein assay. This work provides the first PEC immunoassay toward cardiac marker and, more significantly, opens a different perspective for future PEC immunoassay development through a general sensing protocol. PMID:25403364

  19. Measurement of Chlamydia pneumoniae-Specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Antibodies by the Microimmunofluorescence (MIF) Method: Comparison of Seven Fluorescein-Labeled Anti-Human IgA Conjugates in an In-House MIF Test Using One Commercial MIF and One Enzyme Immunoassay Kit

    PubMed Central

    Paldanius, Mika; Bloigu, Aini; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    For the serological diagnosis of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test is the most commonly used method and also the “gold standard” for the measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies. The role of IgA antibodies in diagnosis has not been established. Commercially available fluorescein-labeled anti-human IgA conjugates have not been systematically compared to each other, and this situation may cause considerable variations in IgA results. Therefore, we tested 261 serum samples from 122 patients with pneumonia for IgA antibodies by using six α-chain-specific anti-IgA conjugates in our in-house MIF test, one commercial MIF test, and one enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Interfering IgG antibodies were removed with Gullsorb reagent before the measurement of IgA antibodies. Altogether, 14 significant IgA antibody increases in serum samples between the acute phase and the convalescent phase were detected by at least one of the conjugates in the MIF test, while no increases were found in the IgA EIA. Only one patient showed a significant IgA antibody increase with all of the fluorescein-labeled conjugates. Five significant titer changes were detected by at least two conjugates, and in nine instances, the titer increase was detected by one conjugate only. The titer agreement indicated by kappa coefficients was very good or good for all of the fluorescein-labeled conjugates and the EIA with low antibody titers but decreased with increasing titers. PMID:12522032

  20. Distribution of 14 high risk HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia detected by a non-radioactive general primer PCR mediated enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Nindl, I; Lotz, B; Khne-Heid, R; Endisch, U; Schneider, A

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the presence of high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) in cervical smears showing intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). METHODS: The presence of 14 high risk HPV was evaluated in 114 cervical smears with CIN of different degrees, by comparing a non-radioactive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with conventional PCR followed by radioactive Southern blot hybridisation. General primer PCR amplicons detecting low risk and high risk HPV were typed for 14 different high risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) by a non-radioactive PCR-EIA. Virus load of HPV 16 positive CIN was assessed using the semiquantitative PCR-EIA. RESULTS: Histological evaluation confirmed CIN I in 49 cases (mean age 29.0 years, range 17 to 52), CIN II in 31 cases (mean age 30.8 years, 18 to 54), and CIN III in 34 cases (mean age 31.1 years, 16 to 57). The non-radioactive PCR-EIA showed an overall agreement rate of 90% (kappa value 0.75) when compared with conventional general primer PCR followed by radioactive Southern blot hybridisation. High risk HPVs were detected in 47% of CIN I, 77% of CIN II, and 97% of CIN III (p < or = 0.02). HPV types 39, 51, 56, and 58 were found in CIN I exclusively (between 2% and 8%). HPV 16 and HPV 31 were detected in 12% and 2% of CIN I, 35% and 21% of CIN II, and 74% and 13% of CIN III, respectively (p < or = 0.03 and p < or = 0.04). The virus load estimated by the semiquantitative PCR-EIA of HPV 16 was similar in CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III. CONCLUSIONS: The PCR-EIA has high clinical sensitivity for detecting CIN II/III (90%). There was a significantly higher prevalence rate of HPV 16 and 31 in CIN III than in CIN I and II. PMID:10343607

  1. Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  2. Application of a newly developed high-sensitivity HBsAg chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  3. Establishment of an Algorithm Using prM/E- and NS1-Specific IgM Antibody-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Infections in Humans.

    PubMed

    Galula, Jedhan U; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chuang, Shih-Te; Chao, Day-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The front-line assay for the presumptive serodiagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections is the premembrane/envelope (prM/E)-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Due to antibody cross-reactivity, MAC-ELISA-positive samples may be confirmed with a time-consuming plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In the present study, we applied a previously developed anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-specific MAC-ELISA (NS1-MAC-ELISA) on archived acute-phase serum specimens from patients with confirmed JEV and WNV infections and compared the results with prM/E containing virus-like particle-specific MAC-ELISA (VLP-MAC-ELISA). Paired-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed no statistical differences in the overall assay performances of the VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs. The two methods had high sensitivities of 100% but slightly lower specificities that ranged between 80% and 100%. When the NS1-MAC-ELISA was used to confirm positive results in the VLP-MAC-ELISA, the specificity of serodiagnosis, especially for JEV infection, was increased to 90% when applied in areas where JEV cocirculates with WNV, or to 100% when applied in areas that were endemic for JEV. The results also showed that using multiple antigens could resolve the cross-reactivity in the assays. Significantly higher positive-to-negative (P/N) values were consistently obtained with the homologous antigens than those with the heterologous antigens. JEV or WNV was reliably identified as the currently infecting flavivirus by a higher ratio of JEV-to-WNV P/N values or vice versa. In summary of the above-described results, the diagnostic algorithm combining the use of multiantigen VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs was developed and can be practically applied to obtain a more specific and reliable result for the serodiagnosis of JEV and WNV infections without the need for PRNT. The developed algorithm should provide great utility in diagnostic and surveillance activities in which test accuracy is of utmost importance for effective disease intervention. PMID:26659204

  4. Target-induced nano-enzyme reactor mediated hole-trapping for high-throughput immunoassay based on a split-type photoelectrochemical detection strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianyong; Lai, Wenqiang; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

    2015-09-15

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection is an emerging and promising analytical tool. However, its actual application still faces some challenges like potential damage of biomolecules (caused by itself system) and intrinsic low-throughput detection. To solve the problems, herein we design a novel split-type photoelectrochemical immunoassay (STPIA) for ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Initially, the immunoreaction was performed on a microplate using a secondary antibody/primer-circular DNA-labeled gold nanoparticle as the detection tag. Then, numerously repeated oligonucleotide sequences with many biotin moieties were in situ synthesized on the nanogold tag via RCA reaction. The formed biotin concatamers acted as a powerful scaffold to bind with avidin-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) conjugates and construct a nanoenzyme reactor. By this means, enzymatic hydrolysate (ascorbic acid) was generated to capture the photogenerated holes in the CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays, resulting in amplification of the photocurrent signal. To elaborate, the microplate-based immunoassay and the high-throughput detection system, a semiautomatic detection cell (installed with a three-electrode system), was employed. Under optimal conditions, the photocurrent increased with the increasing PSA concentration in a dynamic working range from 0.001 to 3 ng mL(-1), with a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.32 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the developed split-type photoelectrochemical immunoassay exhibited high specificity and acceptable accuracy for analysis of human serum specimens in comparison with referenced electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method. Importantly, the system was not only suitable for the sandwich-type immunoassay mode, but also utilized for the detection of small molecules (e.g., aflatoxin B1) with a competitive-type assay format. PMID:26291091

  5. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  6. Evaluation of Enzyme Immunoassays and Real-Time PCR for Detecting Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Southern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Fortin, Laura; Kuo, Julie; Li, Vincent; Boras, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Two immunoassays (Shiga Toxin Chek and Shiga Toxin Quik Chek) and real-time PCR were used to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. For enriched culture, the sensitivity and specificity of the three methods ranged from 80.0% to 98.2% and 98.0% to 100.0%, respectively. STEC isolates were identified in 2.6% of the 784 samples. PMID:25588656

  7. A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Slibinskas, Rimantas; Chua, Kaw Bing; Nigatu, Wondatir; Brown, Kevin E; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Samuel, Dhanraj; Brown, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of a newly developed point-of-care test (POCT) for the detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens and to assess if measles virus nucleic acid could be recovered from used POCT strips. Methods The POCT was used to test 170 serum specimens collected through measles surveillance or vaccination programmes in Ethiopia, Malaysia and the Russian Federation: 69 were positive for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 74 were positive for rubella IgM antibodies and 7 were positive for both. Also tested were 282 oral fluid specimens from the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) surveillance programme of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Microimmune measles IgM capture enzyme immunoassay was the gold standard for comparison. A panel of 24 oral fluids was used to investigate if measles virus haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) genes could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction directly from used POCT strips. Findings With serum POCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% (69/76) and 93.6% (88/94), respectively; with oral fluids, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (63/70) and 96.2% (200/208), respectively. Both H and N genes were reliably detected in POCT strips and the N genes could be sequenced for genotyping. Measles virus genes could be recovered from POCT strips after storage for 5 weeks at 20–25 °C. Conclusion The POCT has the sensitivity and specificity required of a field-based test for measles diagnosis. However, its role in global measles control programmes requires further evaluation. PMID:21897488

  8. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  9. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantiani, Lina; Farr, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; Gonzlez, Susana; Lpez de Alda, Maria J.; Petrovi?, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barcel, Dami

    2008-10-01

    SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 ?g/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

  10. Identification of a Novel Host-Specific IgM Protease in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated IdeSsuis (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant IdeSsuis was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that IdeSsuis is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, IdeSsuis modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. IdeSsuis is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by IdeSsuis is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

  11. Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.

    1986-08-01

    Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

  12. A new bioluminescent assay for studies of protein G and protein A binding to IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    Zatta, P F

    1996-04-01

    It has been reported that protein G (PrG) specifically binds to IgG, but not to IgM. In the present paper, I report that using a bioluminescent immunoassay, that utilizes the recombinant calcium-dependent protein, Aequorin, as a photoprobe, IgM as well as IgG binds to PrG. The method presented here may also be used in general to study the glycosylation of proteins. PMID:8773543

  13. Association of mycobacterial-specific and Mycobacterium leprae specific antibody levels with clinical activity in tuberculoid leprosy: a comparative study of three serological enzyme-immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, V; Sinha, S; Girdhar, B K; Katoch, K; Bhatia, A S; Sengupta, U

    1991-06-01

    The ELISAs for polyclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae (ML-ELISA) and specific antibodies against epitopes on 35 kDa protein (SACT-ELISA) and phenolic glycolipid I (PG-ELISA) of M. leprae were evaluated comparatively in a group of 88 tuberculoid leprosy patients. The overall seropositivity rate with a battery of 3 tests (68%) was not significantly higher than that obtained with ML-ELISA alone (55%) for IgG class of antibodies. Seropositivities for SACT-ELISA and PG-ELISA were, respectively, 38% and 26%. ML-ELISA for IgM class of antibodies was least sensitive, showing only 8% positivity. A significant correlation was noted between individual values of the three assays, but the positive proportions overlapped maximally in the case of ML-ELISA (IgG) and SACT-ELISA. Further, positivity for the latter two assays, particularly SACT-ELISA, showed significant associations with the extent of 'active' (largely untreated) infection. Immunoblotting revealed that the main antibody response was directed towards M. leprae antigens in the molecular weight range of 20-40 kDa and the densitometry results of this zone correlated significantly with corresponding SACT-ELISA and ML-ELISA (IgG) values. PMID:1870374

  14. SITE EVALUATION OF FIELD PORTABLE PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four pentachlorophenol (PCP) enzyme immunoassays for environmental analysis have been evaluated through the U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Three assays were formatted for on-site field use and one assay could be used in a field laboratory sett...

  15. [Rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific IgM].

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, A; Nakamura, Y

    1999-12-01

    The rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important in carrying out chemotherapy in appropriate manner. It is also essential to detect the specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in order to diagnose infectious diseases. The ImmunoCard Mycoplasma kit (TFB. Inc./Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.) is a 10-min-card-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae. The ImmunoCard was compared with high density particle agglutination (HDPA) and cold hemagglutinin (CHA). The ImmunoCard test had 98.3% sensitivity, 51.4% specificity, and 72.5% agreement with HDPA (>or =320), but it had 94.3% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity, and 92.2% agreement with clinical diagnosis. Our results indicate that the ImmunoCard Mycoplasma IgM assay is a rapid, simple and valuable procedure which can be analyze small numbers of specimens using a less complicated technique and with no other equipment required. This means that the ImmunoCard is a cost-effective, energy saving and rapid procedure for the detection of M. pneumoniae-specific IgM. PMID:10681711

  16. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  17. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patients serum to develop a...

  18. Colloidal nanomaterial-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Descroix, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed. PMID:22734642

  19. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  20. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more

  1. Microfluidic paper-based analytical device for photoelectrochemical immunoassay with multiplex signal amplification using multibranched hybridization chain reaction and PdAu enzyme mimetics.

    PubMed

    Lan, Feifei; Sun, Guoqiang; Liang, Linlin; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-05-15

    Combining multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR), the photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was fabricated with a microfluidic paper-based analytical devices using different sizes of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized flower-like 3D ZnO superstructures as photoactive materials. Firstly, 4-aminothiophenol (PATP) functioned ZnO was anchored on gold-paper working electrode. With the aid of PATP, large-sized CdTe-COOH QDs (QDs1) were conjugated onto the ZnO surface because of the formation of a strong bond (Zn-S) between the thiol of PATP molecule and the ZnO, and the remaining amino group formed an amide bond with carboxylic acid group capping CdTe. Then the small-sized CdTe-NH2 QDs (QDs2) were modified on the QDs1 by forming amide bond, which leaded to a very strong photocurrent response because of the formation of cosensitized structure. The designed mHCR produced long products with multiple branched arms, which could attached multiple PdAu nanoparticles and catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as anoxidant. Double strands DNA with multiple branched arms (mdsDNA) was formed by mHCR. In the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), PdAu-mdsDNA conjugates-labeled CEA antibody was captured. The concentrations of CEA were measured through the decrease in photocurrent intensity resulting from the increase in steric hindrance of the immunocomplex and the polymeric oxidation product of HQ. In addition, the oxidation product of HQ deposited on the as-obtained electrode, which could efficiently inhibit the photoinduced electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the PEC immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical performance: the detection range of CEA was from 0.001 to 90ngmL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.33pgmL(-1). The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited excellent precision, prominent specificity, acceptable stability and reproducibility, and could be used for the detection of CEA in real samples. The proposed assay opens a promising platform of clinical immunoassay for other biomolecules. PMID:26735876

  2. Clostridium difficile testing algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and C. difficile toxin enzyme immunoassays with C. difficile nucleic acid amplification testing increase diagnostic yield in a tertiary pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kaede V; McGowan, Karin L

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined as positivity by CCNA or positivity by LAMP plus another test (GDH, CDT, or the Premier C. difficile toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay [P-EIA]). A total of 141 specimens from 141 patients yielded 27 TPs and 19% prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 56%, 100%, 100%, and 90% for P-EIA and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 96% for both algorithm 1 and algorithm 2. In summary, GDH-based algorithms detected C. difficile infections with superior sensitivity compared to P-EIA. The algorithms allowed immediate reporting of half of all TPs, but LAMP or CCNA was required to confirm the presence or absence of toxigenic C. difficile in GDH-positive/CDT-negative specimens. PMID:22259201

  3. Enzyme-linked Immunoassay Index for Anti-NC16a IgG and IgE Auto-antibodies Correlates with Severity and Activity of Bullous Pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Kalowska, Monika; Ciepiela, Olga; Kowalewski, Cezary; Demkow, Urszula; Schwartz, Robert A; Wozniak, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by IgG and IgE autoantibodies to the NC16a domain of BP180. This study evaluated the correlation between body surface area (BSA), total serum IgE and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for IgG and IgE anti-NC16a in 77 patients with BP in the active stage, and the degree of conversion to negative of the studied parameters in clinical remission. Statistically positive correlations were observed between BSA and examined parameters (correlation index 0.2548, 0.2491, 0.311, respectively). Originally, patients with BP with positive ELISAs for both IgG and IgE autoantibodies presented twice as extensive skin lesions as those with positive IgG and negative IgE ELISAs. Conversion of ELISAs for IgG and IgE to negative in clinical remission occurred in 9.3% and 81% of patients with BP, respectively. This confirmed that ELISA for IgE anti-NC16a is a helpful parameter in the modification of current treatment and the assessment of risk of relapse in BP. PMID:25791894

  4. Detection of Semliki Forest virus in cell culture by use of an enzyme immunoassay with peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for glycoproteins E1 and E2.

    PubMed Central

    van Tiel, F H; Boere, W A; Vinj, J; Harmsen, T; Benaissa-Trouw, B J; Kraaijeveld, C A; Snippe, H

    1984-01-01

    Four noncompeting monoclonal antibodies (MA) directed against either the E1 (UM 8.64 and 8.139) or E2 (UM 8.55 and 8.73) glycoprotein of Semliki Forest virus were purified and labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Each enzyme-labeled MA was tested alone and in combination with others for its sensitivity to detect virus-infected cells. Semliki Forest virus-infected L cells seeded as monolayers in 96-well plates were screened for the virus after incubation with enzyme-labeled MA and a substrate. In this system single enzyme-labeled MA even at high dilution (10(3.0) to 10(4.5] were able to detect virus-infected cells. The sensitivity of the test could be enhanced by combining two noncompeting MA (10(4.5) to 10(5.0]. Combinations of three and four MA were less effective, due to high absorbance values for noninfected cells. The threshold of virus defection was between 10(5) and 10(6) PFU/ml. This test is sensitive and specific and therefore may be useful for diagnostic purposes. PMID:6386855

  5. Performance of Two Commercially Available Automated Immunoassays for the Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus Serological Status

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, J.; Germi, R.; Semenova, T.; Buisson, M.; Seigneurin, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of two automated Vidas (V) and Liaison (L) immunoassays for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. The detection of the viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM, the VCA/early antigen (VCA/EA) IgG, and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG was assessed on 526 sera collected for routine EBV testing in immunocompetent subjects. The determination of expected EBV status (186 EBV primary infections, 183 past EBV infections, and 157 EBV-seronegative individuals) was based on results of routine laboratory enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) together with clinical data. The sensitivity and specificity of each individual marker were determined in comparison to the expected EBV status. The agreement between the V and L profiles and the expected EBV status was established through the interpretation of combinations of the different EBV markers. Statistically significant differences between the two tests were found for the specificity of the VCA IgM marker (96.2% for V versus 93.2% for L), the sensitivity of the VCA/EA IgG marker (89% for V versus 94% for L), and the specificity of the EBNA IgG marker (96.5% for V versus 74.2% for L). The results determined for the two assays with respect to overall agreement with the established expected EBV status were not significantly different (89.7% for V versus 88.2% for L), with discrepancies mainly observed in sera referenced as primary infections. These findings demonstrated the similar performances of the Vidas and the Liaison assays for the establishment of an EBV serological status using the VCA, EA, and EBNA markers. PMID:22539474

  6. Serum Free Light Chain Only Myeloma with Cytoplasmic IgM.

    PubMed

    Ebana, Hideaki; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Nozawa, Yoshihiro; Seki, Ritsuko; Mita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassays have become widely available enabling greater sensitivity in the diagnosis and management of monoclonal light chain diseases. Here, we describe a rare case of serum free light chain only myeloma with cytoplasmic IgM. A 75-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening lumbosacral pain. FDG PET/CT images showed increased FDG uptake in the sacral mass, vertebral bodies, and ribs. Laboratory data found hypogammaglobulinemia and the bone marrow aspirate revealed only 2.2% of plasma cells. The serum and urine protein electrophoresis did not detect a monoclonal band. However, the serum FLC immunoassays reported an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio (0.001) indicating the presence of monoclonal lambda FLC. The sacral tumor biopsy revealed proliferation of plasma cells and immunohistochemical staining showed that the plasma cells were positive for CD138, IgM, and lambda light chain but negative for CD20. This case may have previously been described as a nonsecretory IgM myeloma but recently would be identified as free light chain only myeloma. The immunohistochemical and genetic features of the clonal plasma cells in free light chain only myeloma need to be further investigated to better understand the relevance and incidence of this myeloma type. PMID:25028614

  7. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG Norwalk virus-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen in adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J J; Cunliffe, C; Ball, J; Graham, D Y; Desselberger, U; Estes, M K

    1994-01-01

    Pre- and postexposure sera collected from 17 adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus as described previously (D. Y. Graham, X. Jiang, T. Tanaka, A. Opekun, P. Madore, and M. K. Estes, J. Infect. Dis. 170:34-43, 1994) were examined for Norwalk virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with recombinant Norwalk virus antigen bound to the solid phase. Sixteen of the 17 volunteers had evidence of past infection, all presenting with preexisting IgG antibody of high avidity; only one volunteer had no evidence of previous infection. Virus infection was detected in 14 of the 16 volunteers with evidence of past infection, and 9 of the infected volunteers had symptomatic illness. A significant rise in both virus-specific IgA and IgG titers was detected after challenge in all of the volunteers who became ill. Five of the asymptomatic volunteers who were infected had rising titers of virus-specific IgG, but only two of the five had a concomitant rise in their virus-specific IgA antibody titers. Antibody rises were detectable in eight of nine ill volunteers 8 to 11 days after challenge but in the asymptomatic volunteers only after more than 15 days had elapsed. Virus-specific IgM was detected after challenge in all 14 infected volunteers. Between symptomatic and asymptomatic volunteers there were no significant differences in titers of virus-specific IgG and IgA in serum before challenge; however, there were significantly higher titers in symptomatic volunteers between 8 and > 90 days after challenge for virus-specific IgG and 8 and 24 days after challenge for virus-specific IgA. PMID:7883902

  8. High-voltage isoelectric focusing in ultrathin gels and enzyme-amplified immunoassay: a new method for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins.

    PubMed

    Kjellin, K G; Hallander, L B

    1982-01-01

    A procedure using high-voltage isoelectric focusing (IF) in ultrathin (02. mm) gels and enzyme-amplified immuno-sandwich assay was elaborated to get optimal IF separation conditions, to avoid CSF concentration, e.g. by ultrafiltration preceding IF with the risk of unequal protein losses, to minimize the amounts of CSF and expensive reagents needed, especially antibodies and to shorten the analysis time, including the selective detection of proteins. The high voltage (2000-3000 V/10 cm) and efficient cooling during IF were obtained using ECPS 3000/150 and FBE 3000 (Pharmacia, Sweden). Ampholytes (Pharmalytes) of different pI intervals were used. The CSF and (diluted) serum samples were microdialysed in polyacrylamide gel before IF to minimize band curvature and to obtain optimal resolution. The IF separation was performed in about 1 h. Owing to the rapid fixation of ultrathin gels after IF, full use could be made of the high-voltage resolving capacity. The thin gels also made histochemical techniques applicable. Different immunological identification assays have been tested. An enzyme-amplified (alkaline phosphatase) immuno-sandwich method was found to be very sensitive and selective, and has so far given the best results. Many proteins in the same sample, applied as a line on the gel before IF, could be detected by overlaying antibody-soaked membrane strips. Furthermore, one specific protein could be examined in many samples simultaneously by overlaying or immersion of diluted antibody solutions. A few microlitres of unconcentrated CSF and diluted serum were used for the analysis performed within 1 day. The findings for albumin, transferrin and IgG in CSF and sera from patients with different neurological diseases, especially including cases with "normal" CSF, barrier damage, degenerative and demyelinating disorders, have been compared with the corresponding protein-stained (Coomassie R-250) patterns where the CSF had been concentrated by a special vacuum evaporation technique before IF. PMID:6184458

  9. Novel Approach to Activity Evaluation for Release-Active Forms of Anti-Interferon-Gamma Antibodies Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Elena S.; Bobrovnik, Sergey A.; Sherriff, Gordon; Myslivets, Andrey A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Epstein, Oleg I.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a suitable assay to measure the activity of drug agents based on release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies (RA forms of Abs) is an important step forward in the investigation of such agents. In this study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was utilized to examine the effect of RA forms of Abs specific for human interferon gamma on the interaction between monoclonal anti-interferon gamma antibodies and recombinant human interferon gamma. The experimental data and the results obtained by using relevant mathematical analysis showed that such RA forms of Abs are able to modulate the monoclonal antibody interaction with both soluble and immobilized (to the assay plate well) interferon gamma. These data demonstrated the importance of using relatively low concentrations of both soluble and plate-immobilized interferon gamma to detect the effects of RA forms of Abs to interferon gamma on the binding of monoclonal antibodies to interferon gamma. It has been suggested that the observed influence of RA forms of Abs on antibody-antigen interaction could be used to detect and analyze the activity of drugs containing RA forms of Abs. PMID:24816648

  10. Enzyme immunoassay and proteomic characterization of troponin I as a marker of mammalian muscle compounds in raw meat and some meat products.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Elena A; Kovalev, Leonid I; Ivanov, Alexei V; Kovaleva, Marina A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Shishkin, Sergey S; Lisitsyn, Andrey B; Chernukha, Irina M; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-07-01

    The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8 ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52 ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.40 3 0.058 mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products. PMID:25777979

  11. Ultrasensitive enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay for free thyroxine based on three dimensionally ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojun; Tu, Fulai; Yao, Cheng

    2014-09-15

    The measurement of free thyroxine concentration in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of thyroid function. Here, a novel enzyme-free sandwich electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of FT4 antigen based on the immobilization of primary antibody (Ab1) on three dimensional ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid (3DOM CS-AuNPs) film electrode, and magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) were used as label of secondary antibody (Ab2). The 3DOM CS-AuNPs film electrode was constructed by one-step electrodeposition of CS-AuNPs composite onto Au electrode with silica opal template. MMWCNTs were prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts on carboxylated MWCNTs. Ru(bpy)3(2+) labeled anti-FT4 (Ru(bpy)3(2+)-Ab2) was covalently attached to MMWCNTs through the formation of amide bond between the carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and the amine groups of antibody. Under the optimal conditions, FT4 was detected in a concentration range from 0.71 fg mL(-1) to 1.15 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 0.20 fg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. Importantly, the developed method was used to assay clinical serum specimens, achieving a good relation with those obtained from the commercialized electrochemiluminescent method. PMID:24752149

  12. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immunoassay in horses from So Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Hilario, Eduardo; Nakaghi, Andra Cristina Higa; Bertolini, Maria Clia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1), is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1). The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of So Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170) were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of So Paulo, Brazil. PMID:21439233

  13. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Jlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  14. Comparison of the Syva MicroTrak enzyme immunoassay and Gen-Probe PACE 2 with cell culture for diagnosis of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-prevalence female population.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, L M; Sierra, M F; Daidone, B J; Lopez, N; Covino, J M; McCormack, W M

    1993-01-01

    Culture is currently considered the "gold standard" for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis infections. We evaluated the Syva MicroTrak enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Gen-Probe PACE 2 tests, which detect chlamydial antigens and rRNA, respectively. These assays were compared with each other and with culture for the detection of C. trachomatis in cervical specimens obtained from 217 women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of infection was 22.1% by culture. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 79.2, 98.2, 92.6, and 94.3%, respectively, for EIA. For PACE 2, the respective values were 77.1, 97.6, 90.1, and 93.7%. After corrections for two false-negative cultures, the sensitivities and specificities were 80 and 99.4%, respectively, for the EIA and 78 and 98.8%, respectively, for the probe assay. Quantitative evaluation of the results showed that false-negative results with either assay were associated with cultures that had low inclusion counts or were negative without subpassage. Analysis of nonculture results revealed that 2.3% of the EIA results and 4.6% of the probe assay results were within +/- 30% of the respective assay cutoff values. These included four false-negative (one EIA and three probe) and two false-positive (one EIA and one probe) results. The Syva MicroTrak EIA and the Gen-Probe PACE 2 assay are comparable to but significantly less sensitive than culture. Use of a grey zone may help identify the need for repeat or confirmatory testing. PMID:7681852

  15. Application of an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for rapid screening of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (DHP) in blood plasma of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T; Rohleder, M; Strauss, G; Meyer, H H; Gritz, F

    2001-01-01

    Populations of African (Loxodonta Africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in zoos and safari parks are at risk due to their low reproductive success. To extend the limited knowledge of their reproductive physiology, the development of easy and practical methods for the analysis of the relevant reproductive hormones is essential to support e.g. assisted reproduction. For the measurement of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (DHP), the predominant ovarian gestagen in both species, an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) based on commercial reagents was applied. Advantages of this EIA are the small volume of plasma needed for evaluation (5 microliters) and the possibility of direct processing without an extraction stage. The lower limit of detection was 0.16 ng/ml, the mean recovery was 101% and the mean coefficients of variation were 7.3% (intra-assay) and 9.9% (inter-assay). In Asian elephants, DHP levels reached 15 ng/ml during the luteal phase and up to 21 ng/ml during pregnancy. Estrous cycle lengths based on the lowest DHP concentrations varied from 12 to 20 weeks (mean 15.4 +/- 2.3). In two Asian elephant cows a calf was still-borne. Thereafter, the animals reassumed ovarian activity after approximately 8 and 13 weeks, respectively. In one animal estradiol implants for hormonal contraception caused a down regulation of the ovarian function as demonstrated by an irregular pattern of DHP secretion over a period of 48 weeks. We propose the direct DHP-EIA as a suitable method for reproductive monitoring in elephants, as it can be easily established in laboratories. PMID:11413705

  16. Clinical Performance of a New Soluble CD14-Subtype Immunochromatographic Test for Whole Blood Compared with Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay: Use of Quantitative Soluble CD14-Subtype Immunochromatographic Tests for the Diagnosis of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Gaku; Shibata, Shigehiro; Onodera, Makoto; Suzuki, Yasushi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that a soluble CD14-subtype (sCD14-ST) immunochromatographic test (ICT) for plasma is more convenient than chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), but plasma separation makes bedside measurements difficult. We developed a new sCD14-ST ICT for whole blood and investigated whether quantitative determinations of sCD14-ST by ICT were useful for diagnosing sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock. We studied 20 patients who fulfilled two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and 32 patients who had been diagnosed with sepsis or severe sepsis/septic shock. Whole blood was collected on day 0 (on admission) and day 7, and the sCD14-ST concentration was quantitatively measured by CLEIA and ICT for whole blood. The patients Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) scores were also calculated. The cut-off values obtained by the quantitative measurements made by ICT were 464.5 pg/mL for sepsis and 762.7 pg/mL for severe sepsis/septic shock (P < 0.0001). A BlandAltman plot showed that no fixed bias or proportional bias was detected between CLEIA and quantitative ICT for whole blood. sCD14-ST concentrations were significantly correlated with APACHE II, SOFA, and MEDS scores (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that the new sCD14-ST ICT for whole blood may be a useful tool for the convenient, rapid bedside diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. PMID:26623644

  17. Reliable confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with an enzyme-linked immunoassay using recombinant antigens derived from the HIV-1 gag, pol, and env genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, V L; Chiang, C S; Debouck, C; McGrath, M S; Grove, T H; Mills, J

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using six recombinant proteins corresponding to large segments of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag, pol, and env gene products (HIVAGEN; SmithKline Bio-Science Laboratories, Van Nuys, Calif.) was developed to confirm the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 in sera reactive in the whole-cell-derived virion screening ELISAs. Serum samples for testing were obtained from healthy seronegative blood donors and from the different categories of HIV-infected individuals (asymptomatic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related complex, and AIDS). A positive reaction was defined as reactivity against an env and at least one other (either gag or pol) HIV-1 gene product; negative was defined as no reaction with any antigen; and indeterminate was defined as reactivity with gag or pol (or both) or with env alone. None of the 1,180 serum samples from healthy seronegative blood donors gave a positive result, and only 49 of these samples (4%) gave indeterminate results. The recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel identified seropositive individuals with a high degree of accuracy, as a positive reaction was seen with 99.3% of asymptomatic healthy seropositive individuals, 98.1% of patients with AIDS-related complex, and 90.4% of patients with AIDS. None of the 725 HIV-1-seropositive subjects had a negative test result. Reactivity with the Kp41 antigen, corresponding to an amino-terminal portion of the gp41 envelope glycoprotein, by itself demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing seronegative from seropositive sera. A subset of seronegative and seropositive samples were tested both with the recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel and by Western blot (Du Pont Co.). The recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel accurately identified more seropositive and seronegative samples and had fewer indeterminate results than did Western blot (interpreted by Du Pont criteria). PMID:2787334

  18. Comparison of premier CAMPY enzyme immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY tests with culture for laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Granato, Paul A; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the "gold standard" for diagnosis. PMID:20810765

  19. Chemiluminescence competitive indirect enzyme immunoassay for 20 fluoroquinolone residues in fish and shrimp based on a single-chain variable fragment.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Chen, Min; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui; Wang, Xia; Wu, Xiaoping; Wen, Kai

    2013-09-01

    A chemiluminescent competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, based on a mutant single-chain variable fragment (scFv), was developed to detect a broad range of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in fish and shrimp matrices. In this study, the best scFvC4A9H1_mut2 was adopted, which showed 10-fold improved affinity to sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF), and trovafloxacin (TRO), while the affinity to other FQs was fully inherited from wild-type scFvC4A9H1. In the optimized generic test, scFvC4A9H1_mut2 in combination with norfloxacin-ovalbumin conjugate and horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-c-myc 9E10 antibody showed 50% binding inhibition (IC50) at 0.12?gkg(-1) for norfloxacin in buffer. Screening for the class of FQ antibiotics is accomplished using a simple, rapid extraction carried out with ethanol/acetic acid (99:1, v/v). This common extraction was able to detect 20 FQ residues such as s ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin, DIF, enoxacin, enrofloxacin (ENR), fleroxacin, amifloxacin, flumequine, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin hydrochloride, marbofloxacin, norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin, orbifloxacin, pazufloxacin, pefloxacin-d5 (PEF), prulifloxacin, SAR, sparfloxacin, and TRO in fish and shrimp. The limit of detection (LOD) for NOR was 0.2?gkg(-1) and the LODs for CIP and ENR were all <0.2?gkg(-1). Values of LODs inferred from the cross-reactivity data will range from approximately 0.23?gkg(-1) for PEF to 2.1?gkg(-1) for TRO. Field fish and shrimp samples were analyzed and compared to the results obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method. All five instances (from 0.25 to 15.6?gkg(-1)) in which FQs were present at concentrations near or above the assay LOD were identified as positive by the newly developed assay, demonstrating the usefulness of this assay as a screening tool. PMID:23842902

  20. PCB immunoassay performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.A.; Pedersen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Field analytical technologies are becoming increasing relied upon in the performance of site investigations and remediation verification activities. Immunoassay screening methods provide a means to perform rapid analyses of soil, groundwater and waste samples in the field. When used in conjunction with a dynamic adaptive sampling/analyses approach immunoassay field screening data provides valuable information for decision making. Soil samples that were collected as part of site characterization and cleanup verification studies at an industrial facility in the northeast were analyzed using immunoassay kits to allow for expedited decisions on investigation and remediation approaches. The 161 samples collected were analyzed in the field using the Millipore EnviroGard{trademark} PCB and EnSys PCB RISc{trademark} immunoassay test methods. Confirmation analyses on all the samples were conducted in a laboratory using EPA Method 8080. Correlation of the field and laboratory results indicate that false negative and false positive rates vary depending on contaminant concentration and sample the matrix properties. Non-parametric statistical methods used to compare the quantified laboratory data to the immunoassay test range results show no significant difference at the 95 percent confidence intervals for some of the data sets although false positive and negative error in excess of 10 percent were observed in some cases. The results of the evaluation suggest that control of error rates can best be achieved by ensuring rigorous control of the field methodologies.

  1. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  2. Interferences in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

  3. Defining the smallest analyte concentration an immunoassay can measure.

    PubMed

    Brown, E N; McDermott, T J; Bloch, K J; McCollom, A D

    1996-06-01

    An immunoassay's minimal detectable concentration (MDC), the smallest analyte concentration the assay can reliably measure, is one of its most important properties. Bayes' theorem is used to unify the five current mathematical MDC definitions. The unified definition has significant implications for defining positive results for screening and diagnostic tests, setting criteria for immunoassay quality control and optimal design, reliably measuring biological substances at low concentrations, and, in general, measuring small analyte concentrations with calibrated analytic methods. As an illustration, we apply the unified definition to the microparticle capture enzyme immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) developed for the Abbott IMx automated immunoassay system. The MDC of this assay as estimated by our unifying approach is shown to be 4.1-7.1 times greater than currently reported. As a consequence, the ability of the assay to measure reliably small concentrations of PSA to detect early recurrences of prostate cancer is probably overstated. PMID:8665681

  4. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  5. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  6. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  7. Duplex Microsphere-Based Immunoassay for Detection of Anti-West Nile Virus and Anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alison J.; Noga, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Alicia A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus was introduced into the United States in 1999, when the first human cases of WN fever and encephalitis appeared in New York City. From there, the virus has spread throughout North America, in some areas cocirculating with the related flavivirus St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. Public health laboratories currently use an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) as a primary test for human serodiagnosis, followed by a confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The MAC-ELISAs take 2 days to perform; therefore there is a need for a more rapid test. This report describes a duplex microsphere-based immunoassay (MIA) that shortens the test processing time to about 4.5 h. The assay employs two sets of microspheres coupled to a single flavivirus group-reactive antibody, which are used to capture the WN and SLE viral antigens independently. Immunoglobulin G-depleted serum is concurrently assayed for IgM antibodies to each of the viral antigens. The results are standardized and classified by using quadratic discriminant analysis so that a single result, anti-WN IgM-positive, anti-SLE IgM-positive, negative, or nonspecific, can be determined. The duplex MIA results compared favorably to those of the plaque-reduction neutralization test and MAC-ELISA. The assay proved to be reproducible, produced accurate classifications as to the infecting virus, and was specific. PMID:15879016

  8. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO) as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA) has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA). Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra) as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio). The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39%) were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1) by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ± 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives) ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection. PMID:27011676

  9. IgG and IgM autoantibody differences in discoid and systemic lupus patients

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Benjamin F.; Tseng, Lin-chiang; Lee, Thomas; Vasquez, Rebecca; Li, Quan Z.; Zhang, Song; Karp, David R.; Olsen, Nancy J.; Mohan, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus (SLE) patients with discoid lupus (DLE) were reported to have milder disease. To test this observation, we employed sandwich arrays containing 98 autoantigens to compare autoantibody profiles of SLE subjects without DLE (DLE?SLE+) (N=9), SLE subjects with DLE (DLE+SLE+) (N=10), DLE subjects without SLE (DLE+SLE?) (N=11), and healthy controls (N=11). We validated differentially expressed autoantibodies using immunoassays in DLE?SLE+ (N=18), DLE+SLE+ (N=17), DLE+SLE? (N=23), and healthy subjects (N=22). Arrays showed 15 IgG autoantibodies (ten against nuclear antigens) and four IgM autoantibodies that were differentially expressed (q-value<0.05). DLE?SLE+ subjects had higher IgG autoantibodies against dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA, histone H2A and H2B, and SS-A (52 kDa) than all other groups including DLE+SLE+ subjects (p<0.05). Immunoassays measuring anti-dsDNA, -ssDNA, and -SS-A (52 kDa) IgG autoantibodies showed similar trends (p<0.05). Healthy and DLE+SLE?subjects expressed higher IgM autoantibodies against alpha beta crystallin, lipopolysaccharide, heat shock cognate 70, and desmoglein-3 than DLE+SLE+ and DLE?SLE+ subjects. IgG:IgM ratios of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens progressively rose from healthy to DLE?SLE+ subjects. In conclusion, lower IgG autoantibodies against nuclear antigens in DLE+SLE+ versus DLE?SLE+ subjects suggest that DLE indicates lower disease severity. Higher IgM autoantibodies against selected antigens in healthy and DLE+SLE?subjects may be non-pathogenic. PMID:22763789

  10. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis. PMID:22076332

  11. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  12. Multiplex Electrochemical Immunoassay Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes and Immunochromatographic Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xun; Baloda, Meenu; Gurung, Anant; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong

    2008-10-20

    We describe a multiplex electrochemical immunoassay based on the use of gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) probes and immunochromatographic strips (ISs). The approach takes advantage of the speed and low cost of the conventional IS tests and the high sensitivities of the nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays. Rabbit IgG(R-IgG) and human IgM (H-IgM) were used as model targets for the demonstration of the proof of concept. The Au-NPs based sandwich immunoreactions were performed on the IS, and the captured gold nanoparticle labels on the test zones were determined by highly-sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved gold ions (III) with a carbon paste electrode. The detection limits are 1.0 and 1.5 ng/mL with the linear ranges of 2.5-250 ng/mL for quantitative detection of R-IgG and H-IgM, respectively. The total assay time is around 25 minutes. Such multiplex electrochemical immunoassay could be readily highly multiplexed to allow simultaneous parallel detection of numerous proteins and is expected to open new opportunities for protein diagnostics and biosecurity.

  13. Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2000-02-15

    Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

  14. IgM nephropathy; time to act.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Much has been published on the epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics of IgM nephropathy, but there is little information on the etiology,pathogenesis and specific therapy of the disease. Controversy still shrouds the definition and nosologic status of the disease. Well-coordinated and concerted international efforts and collaboration between researchers in the developing and developed countries are needed to make further progress on the above aspects of the disease. PMID:24644539

  15. Element-tagged immunoassay with ICP-MS detection: evaluation and comparison to conventional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Razumienko, Eva; Ornatsky, Olga; Kinach, Robert; Milyavsky, Michael; Lechman, Eric; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Tanner, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using element-tagged antibodies for protein detection and quantification in microplate format using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and compared the results to conventional immunoassays, such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The technique was further employed to detect low levels and measure DNA-binding activity of transcription factor p53 in leukemia cell lysates through its interaction with immobilized oligonucleotides and recognition by element-tagged antibodies. The advantages of ICP-MS detection for routine performance of immunoassays include increased sensitivity, wide dynamic range, minimal interference from complex matrices, and high throughput. Our approach advances the ICP-MS technology and demonstrates its applicability to proteomic studies through the use of antibodies directly labeled with polymer tags bearing multiple atoms of lanthanides. Development of this novel methodology will enable fast and quantitative identification of multiple analytes in a single well. PMID:18456275

  16. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  17. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, F. J.; Swanepoel, R.; Braack, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    IgM antibody response to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was monitored in experimentally infected sheep and cattle by an IgM capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Specific binding of antigen was detected by a rabbit anti-CCHF horseradish peroxidase conjugate or a sandwich technique with hyperimmune mouse anti-CCHF ascitic fluid and commercially available anti-mouse immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. The persistence of IgM antibody activity was found to be of shorter duration than in humans, and this may be a function of the relative lack of susceptibility of these animals to infection with CCHF virus. IgG antibody responses in the sheep could be monitored by sandwich ELISA using commercially available anti-sheep immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugates. Total antibody activity in the sera of experimentally infected sheep, cattle and small mammals could be monitored in a competitive ELISA (CELISA) using rabbit anti-CCHF peroxidase conjugate. The CELISA was applied to the sera of 960 wild vertebrates from a nature reserve in South Africa, and the prevalence of antibody was found to be greatest in large mammals such as rhinoceros, giraffe and buffalo, which are known to be the preferred hosts of the adult tick (Hyalomma) vectors of the virus. PMID:8270014

  19. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  20. Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3, 5, 5- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  1. IgM in the kidney: a multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jeffrey L; Cascalho, Marilia

    2015-09-01

    IgM in the blood of normal individuals consists mainly of 'natural' polyreactive antibodies. Natural IgM is thought to provide an initial defense against infection and to promote the healing of wounded cells. Yet, as Panzer and colleagues show, these benefits can be eclipsed when the IgM binds to damaged cells of the glomerulus, activating complement. IgM in glomeruli thus signifies cellular damage and may warn that the pace of that damage exceeds the capacity for repair. PMID:26323070

  2. Variability in telavancin cross-reactivity among vancomycin immunoassays.

    PubMed

    McConeghy, Kevin W; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L; Rodvold, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivity with telavancin. Seven sites were selected to analyze serum samples for vancomycin. Each site received a set of samples (n = 18) which combined drug-free serum with telavancin, 7-OH telavancin metabolite, or vancomycin. Immunoassays demonstrating potential cross-reactivity were further evaluated by sending a duplicate sample set to multiple laboratories. Cross-reactivity was defined as the percent theoretical concentration (reported concentration/theoretical concentration 100). No cross-reactivity was seen with FPIA or EMIT. Within the theoretical concentration range of 5 to 120 ?g/ml of telavancin, the Synchron PETIA system reported vancomycin concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 54.2 ?g/ml compared to vancomycin concentrations from 1.1 to 5.6 ?g/ml for the Vista PETIA system. The Architect CMIA system reported vancomycin concentrations in the range of 0.27 to 0.97 ?g/ml, whereas Advia Centaur XP CMIA reported vancomycin concentrations between 1.6 and 31.6 ?g/ml. The Architect CMIA immunoassay had the lowest percent cross-reactivity (0.8 to 5.4%), while the Synchron PETIA immunoassay demonstrated the highest percent cross-reactivity (45.2 to 53.8%). Telavancin samples measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 93.9 to 122% of theoretical concentrations. Vancomycin concentrations were not measured in any 7-OH telavancin-spiked sample. Vancomycin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 57.2 to 113% of theoretical concentrations. PETIA and CMIA measured vancomycin concentrations in telavancin-spiked samples. Significant variability in percent cross-reactivity was observed for each platform regardless of immunoassay method. PMID:25223996

  3. Biofunctionalized dendritic polyaniline nanofibers for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuling; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Huafeng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Guonan

    2012-04-01

    Multi-armed dendritic polyaniline nanofibers (MPANFs) were first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model analyte here) in this work. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized MPANFs. By using anti-CEA-conjugated core-shell gold-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites (GoldMag) as immunosensing probes and biofunctionalized MPANFs as molecular tags, a new sandwich-type homogeneous immunoassay strategy was developed for the determination of CEA by coupling with a home-made flow-through magneto-controlled microfluidic device. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) CEA at 3?. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The assayed results for clinical serum specimens with the electrochemical immunoassay were received in good accordance with the results obtained from the referenced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. PMID:22355804

  4. ELEGANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemical methods are based on selective antibodies directed to a particular target analyte. The specific binding between antibody and analyte can be used for detection and quantitation. Methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can provide a sensitiv...

  5. Use of aptamers in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Nezlin, Roald

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers, short single-chain DNA or RNA oligonucleotides, react specifically with small molecules, as well as with proteins. Unlike antibodies, they may be obtained relatively easily. Aptamers are now widely employed in immunological studies and could replace antibodies in immunoassays. In this short review, methods for immobilizing aptamers on various insoluble materials (so-called apta-sorbents) are described. Recent findings on their use in the detection and isolation of immunoglobulins and their application in various immunoassays are also discussed. PMID:26774749

  6. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frdric; Descroix, Stphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV?

  7. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-Heng; Li, Yan-Ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-Lou; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ngmL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.680.56ngmL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ngmL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ngmL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. PMID:26592642

  8. Protein Adsorption in Microengraving Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Microengraving is a novel immunoassay forcharacterizing multiple protein secretions from single cells. During the immunoassay, characteristic diffusion and kinetic time scales ?D and ?K determine the time for molecular diffusion of proteins secreted from the activated single lymphocytes and subsequent binding onto the glass slide surface respectively. Our results demonstrate that molecular diffusion plays important roles in the early stage of protein adsorption dynamics which shifts to a kinetic controlled mechanism in the later stage. Similar dynamic pathways are observed for protein adsorption with significantly fast rates and rapid shifts in transport mechanisms when C0* is increased a hundred times from 0.313 to 31.3. Theoretical adsorption isotherms follow the trend of experimentally obtained data. Adsorption isotherms indicate that amount of proteins secreted from individual cells and subsequently captured on a clean glass slide surface increases monotonically with time. Our study directly validates that protein secretion rates can be quantified by the microengraving immunoassay. This will enable us to apply microengraving immunoassays to quantify secretion rates from 104105 single cells in parallel, screen antigen-specific cells with the highest secretion rate for clonal expansion and quantitatively reveal cellular heterogeneity within a small cell sample. PMID:26501282

  9. The importance of IgM positivity in laboratory diagnosis of gestational and congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, E; Vörös, E; Pónyai, K; Párducz, L; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F; Ostorházi, E

    2012-06-01

    From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant's response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis. PMID:24672684

  10. Purification of the Sm nuclear autoantigen. Detection and clinical significance of IgM antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K M; Tan, E M

    1985-01-01

    Sm antigen from rabbit thymus acetone powder was purified using a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxyapatite chromatography. This preparation was devoid of previously identified nuclear antigens including ribonucleoprotein (U1-RNP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Sjgren's syndrome antigen A (SS-A/Ro), Sjgren's syndrome antigen B (SS-B/La), Sjgren's lupus antigen (SL), scleroderma antigen 70 (Scl-70), DNA and histones. The purified material was used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-Sm antibody. All sera with precipitating Sm antibody detected by immunodiffusion gave reactions in ELISA greater than 0.40 OD405 and contained predominantly IgG anti-Sm antibody. Of 112 sera which did not have anti-Sm by immunodiffusion there were five which gave reactions greater than 0.40 OD405. Four of these five sera contained only IgM antibody and the fifth contained both IgM and IgG. Of these five, one came from a 'normal' control who had a positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), facial rash and diabetes, two were from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and two were from patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). These findings demonstrate that there are patients whose anti-Sm response may be restricted to IgM and in some of these patients the clinical presentation may be different from that of classical SLE. PMID:4017287

  11. Europium Nanoparticle-Based High Performing Immunoassay for the Screening of Treponemal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Talha, Sheikh M.; Hytnen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p?=?0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies. PMID:24386329

  12. Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits.

    PubMed

    Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-03-01

    The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits. PMID:25492523

  13. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Paul J.; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R.; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B.; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine

    2014-01-01

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)+IgD+CD27+ B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM+CD27+ B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

  14. Intrafamilial correlation analysis for IgM serum levels.

    PubMed Central

    Guzar-Vzquez, J; Saint-Martin, F P; Rostenberg, I; Surez, P E; Armendares, S

    1977-01-01

    The IgM serum level was determined in the members of 29 healthy families. The IgM mean concentrations between fathers and mothers and between sons and daughters were significantly different (P less than .01), with higher serum IgM levels in females than in males. Simple linear regression analysis was done for the following intrafamilial combinations: son-father, daughter-father, son-mother, and daughter-mother. Significant correlation coefficients (P less than .05) were obtained in all four combinations, which does not support the X-linked gene hypothesis (i.e., that the X chromosome carries quantitative genes for immunoglobulin M). An alternative explanation for the differences between sexes for IgM serum concentration is considered. PMID:930923

  15. PCB detection by immunoassay -- A wipe test for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dautlick, J.X.; Teaney, G.B.; Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassay based field screening methods are gaining acceptance by the environmental diagnostics industry for on-site characterization and remediation monitoring. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of molecules classified as potential carcinogens, can be easily detected on-site by immunoassay screening methods. This results in reduced project cost and improved onsite efficiency, since field screening immunoassays short cut the long turn around time of laboratory analysis while providing reliable results. On site wipe test technology for assessing PCB contamination on surfaces such as walls and floors of PCB storage facilities has been developed to supplement the D TECH{trademark} PCB soil assay. This sampling technique can also be used to monitor for transformer leaks, spills and to evaluate equipment decontamination processes. The D TECH PCB wipe test is quick, cost effective, highly specific and user friendly. The surface is sampled by wiping a 100 cm{sup 2} area with a 1 cm{sup 2} pad saturated with an extractant. The PCB is extracted from the sampling pad during a short extraction step. The sample is filtered, diluted, and run in the D TECH PCB field screening system. The components of the immunoassay include PCB specific antibodies (Ab) covalently linked to small latex particles, a PCB analog which is covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase, and the free PCB from the sample. The free PCB competes with the enzyme linked analog for the Ab binding sites. The latex particles are then collected on a filter device, washed, and an enzyme substrate is added. The amount of color produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of free PCB on the sample, and can be determined using a hand held reflectometer, or a color card.

  16. Comparison of three automated immunoassay methods for the determination of Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunoglobulin M.

    PubMed

    Berth, Mario; Bosmans, Eugene

    2010-04-01

    In this study we compared the performances of three commercially available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays on highly automated immunoassay platforms: BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories), Immulite 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Liaison (DiaSorin). As a confirmatory method, immunoblotting was performed. The specificity of the three EBV IgM assays was evaluated by testing 293 selected sera from patients with various infectious and noninfectious diseases. After the exclusion of 30 samples, the specificities were 96.2% for Liaison, 98.1% for Immulite, and 97.0% for BioPlex. For evaluation of the sensitivity, samples from 70 consecutive patients with a positive heterophile antibody test were examined, irrespective of clinical or biological findings. After the exclusion of six samples, the sensitivities were 89.1% for Liaison, 84.4% for Immulite, and 89.1% for BioPlex. Finally, in a prospective study performed with 500 samples obtained from consecutive patients and sent in by general practitioners, we also determined Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen IgG and viral capsid antigen IgG in a two-phase approach. Concordance of the EBV serologic status was 96.2% between Liaison and Immulite, 96.4% between Immulite and BioPlex, and 97.8% between BioPlex and Liaison. The three EBV IgM immunoassays that we evaluated have acceptable and comparable performances. PMID:20147496

  17. IgM but not IgG monoclonal anti-Nocardia brasiliensis antibodies confer protection against experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:19624737

  18. Diagnostic value of detecting specific IgA and IgM with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in congenital Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Veloso, C; Munoz, P; Bahamonde, M I; Garcia, A

    1995-06-01

    The present study compares the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease with a DOT assay using recombinant antigens with immunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The studies were performed using cord blood and sera of 12 infected newborns (group I) and 12 uninfected ones born to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers (group II). Conventional IFAT and ELISA showed positive results for IgG at high titers, in infants and mothers of both groups; IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in four of the infected infants and IgM was detected in two of them. All sera of the uninfected infants were negative for IgA and IgM in the ELISA. Application of a DOT assay using eight recombinant T. cruzi antigens allowed detection of specific IgA in the cord blood of six of the infected cases and IgM in eight of them. Repetition of these serologic tests in samples obtained during a monthly follow-up gave positive results for IgA in two of the initially negative infants of group I and for IgM in four of them. This means that diagnosis of congenital T. cruzi infection was confirmed, through demonstration of specific IgM, in all infected infants, and of IgA in eight of them. The importance of late detection of IgM in siblings born of infected mothers is discussed. The detection of IgM and IgA in sera obtained after birth is believed to be due to a congenital transmission of the parasite that occurred late in pregnancy. No IgA or IgM antibodies could be detected by the DOT assay in the sera of the negative controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7611556

  19. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens. PMID:26292539

  20. IgM and IgG antibody response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in naturally infected wild armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G F; Deps, P; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Camargo, Z P

    2004-08-01

    We studied the extent to which wild nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, produce immune humoral responses specifically directed against characteristic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens. Such antibody production might reflect direct contact with the ecological microniche of P. brasiliensis, or might merely reflect inhalation of widely distributed airborne propagules. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed containing purified glycoprotein gp43 and gp70 antigens from P. brasiliensis as well as cross-reactive antisera originally targeted against human IgM (mu chain) and armadillo anti-IgG (gamma-chain). It was used to detect and classify IgM and IgG antibodies to P. brasiliensis in the armadillo. In a serological survey of 47 wild armadillos, IgM antibodies to gp43 were detected in seven animals (14.8%), and IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (42.5%). IgM antibodies to gp70 were detected in 10 (21.3%) animals and IgG antibodies were detected in 18 (38.3%). These results, showing a pattern consistent with infection, suggest that P. brasiliensis is enzootic in armadillos. How the animals became exposed could not be determined. PMID:15473362

  1. Protective Roles of Natural IgM Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Grnwall, Caroline; Vas, Jaya; Silverman, Gregg J.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are a vital part of the armamentarium of the adaptive immune system for the fine-tuning of the recognition and response to foreign threats. However, in health there are some types of antibodies that instead recognize self-antigens and these contribute to the enhancement of primitive innate functions. This repertoire of natural IgM antibodies is postulated to have been selected during immune evolution for their contributions to critical immunoregulatory and housekeeping properties. The clearance of dying cells is one of the most essential responsibilities of the immune system, which is required to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. In the murine immune system, natural IgM antibodies that recognize apoptotic cells have been shown to enhance the phagocytic clearance of dead and dying cells and to suppress innate immune signaling pathways. In the mouse, natural IgM are often the products of B-1 cell clones that arise during immune development without an absolute requirement for exogenous antigenic stimulation. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, IgM autoantibodies, which bind to neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells, have been demonstrated to be present at significantly higher levels in patients with lower disease activity and with less severe organ damage. While certain specificities of IgM autoantibodies correlate with protection from lupus renal disease, others may convey protective properties from lupus-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New and unexpected insights into the functional roles of IgM antibodies are still emerging, especially regarding the functions of natural antibodies. Herein, we review recent progress in our understanding of the potential roles of natural IgM autoantibodies in the regulation of immune homeostasis and for protection from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22566947

  2. [Advances in heavy metal ions immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gong-Liang; Wang, Ju-Fang; Li, Zhi-Yong; Liang, Shi-Zhong

    2006-11-01

    Heavy metal leftover on farm and stock products has become a big threat to human. It is necessary to develop some fast and efficient detection methods. Heavy metal immunoassays are new methods for detection of heavy metal ions. Compared to the traditional chemical methods, immunoassays are not only fast, cheap, simple, but also reasonably portable, highly sensitive and selective. It can be used as preliminary screening for rapid determination of heavy metal ions. Except chemical chelators, phytochelatin and metallothionein can also be used for preparing immunogen, both of them can chelate heavy metal ions to carrier protein. There are two prototype assays: polyclonal antibody immunoassay and monoclonal antibody immunoassay. The former includes fluorescence polarization immunoassay; the latter includes indirectly competitive ELISA, one-step competitive immunoassay and KinExA immunoassay. Among these assays, indirectly competitive ELISA which was used for determining heavy metal ions in the early days was easy to be interfered and showed false positive. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay which used polyclonal antibody for determining heavy metal ions was simple and cheap. KinExA instrument could be functioned as an immunosensor for environmental samples. One-step immunoassay which avoided to the addition of second antibody and chromogenic substrate was simple and sensitive. Colloidal gold enhanced immunochromatography assay is a semi-quantitation for determining heavy metal ions. As an adjunctive way for chemical methods, it has the potential application in rapid determination of heavy metal ions. PMID:17168306

  3. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  4. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  5. Application and validation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers immunoassay for environmental and food matrices.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, chicken and soil samples. The assay is rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit ...

  6. A microfluidic indirect competitive immunoassay for multiple and sensitive detection of testosterone in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huashan; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Binfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Cha, Ruitao; Sun, Jiashu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a microfluidic-based indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MIC) for multiple, sensitive, reliable and rapid detection of testosterone in human serum and urine samples. As MIC can detect biomarkers in a cost-effective and easy-to-operate manner, it may have great potential for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care testing (POCT). PMID:26804930

  7. Specific Noncompetitive Immunoassay for HT-2 Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Arola, Henri O; Tullila, Antti; Kiljunen, Harri; Campbell, Katrina; Siitari, Harri; Nevanen, Tarja K

    2016-02-16

    Here we demonstrate a novel homogeneous one-step immunoassay, utilizing a pair of recombinant antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fab), that is specific for HT-2 toxin and has a positive readout. Advantages over the conventional competitive immunoassay formats such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the specificity, speed, and simplicity of the assay. Recombinant antibody HT2-10 Fab recognizing both HT-2 and T-2 toxins was developed from a phage display antibody library containing 6 × 10(7) different antibody clones. Specificity of the immunoassay was introduced by an anti-immune complex (IC) antibody binding the primary antibody-HT-2 toxin complex. When the noncompetitive immune complex assay was compared to the traditional competitive assay, an over 10-fold improvement in sensitivity was observed. Although the HT2-10 antibody has 100% cross-reactivity for HT-2 and T-2 toxins, the immune complex assay is highly specific for HT-2 alone. The assay performance with real samples was evaluated using naturally contaminated wheat reference material. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was 9.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.38 ng/mL (19 μg/kg). The labeled antibodies can be predried to the assay vials, e.g., microtiter plate wells, and readout is ready in 10 min after the sample application. PMID:26785138

  8. Evaluation of the IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is challenging because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection and the low specificity of associated symptoms and signs. As a result, laboratory testing is an essential aid in making an accurate diagnosis. The presence of CMV IgM is indicative of primary CMV infection. In pregnancy, diagnosis of primary infection is important because primary maternal infection increases fetal infection risk substantially. Fetal infection can result in serious sequelae ranging from neurological deficits to death. Diagnosis among the immunocompromised is also critical for the timely initiation of therapy that can reduce morbidity and mortality risk. Methods The IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay qualitatively detects CMV IgM antibodies in human serum or plasma to aid in the diagnosis of current or recent CMV infection. To determine expected values in apparently healthy subjects, 136 samples were tested. Reproducibility, normal range, and method comparison studies were also performed to evaluate the assay's performance. The assay's reproducibility was evaluated across three sites. Seven hundred and eighteen (n = 718) individual patient serum samples, which included samples from CMV IgM-positive (n = 109, determined by the Abbott IMx CMV or the Diamedix CMV IgM assays), pregnant (n = 210), HIV-positive (n = 30), immunosuppressed (n = 102), and transplant patients (n = 17) and from patients with potentially cross-reacting conditions (n = 136) were evaluated in the method comparison study. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay and the VIDAS CMV IgM assay (predicate assay) were determined. Results The assay demonstrated excellent reproducibility with a total CV of less than 10%. The positive, negative, and overall agreement between the IMMULITE 2000 assay and the VIDAS assay were > 95% for the method comparison samples. Among potentially cross-reactive samples, the overall agreement between the two assays was 96%. Similarly, among the immunocompromised and pregnant subjects, the overall agreement was ~96% and ~97%, respectively. Conclusions The IMMULITE 2000 CMV IgM assay demonstrated excellent reproducibility, minimal cross-reactivity, and performance comparable to that of the VIDAS CMV IgM assay. It can aid in the diagnosis of acute CMV or recent CMV infection by qualitatively detecting the CMV IgM antibodies in human serum or plasma. PMID:22377002

  9. Bupropion interference with immunoassays for amphetamines and LSD.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Christian; Skripuletz, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A 50-year-old male patient suddenly had lost consciousness, although he had previously been healthy. On arrival at hospital seizures arose. The authors investigated a urine sample of the patient, and performed toxicological drug screening with immunochemical Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay (CEDIA) assays. Positive findings for amphetamines and LSD could not be confirmed. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), the authors identified bupropion, a drug used to aid in smoking cessation, as the interfering compound, which may cause false-positive results for amphetamines and LSD using the CEDIA assays. PMID:17529897

  10. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  11. Validation of a Microsphere Immunoassay for Serological Leptospirosis Diagnosis in Human Serum by Comparison to the Current Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah J.; Burns, Mary-Anne A.; Graham, Glenn C.; Weier, Steven L.; McKay, David B.; Craig, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT) method (now 100 years old) suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays. PMID:25807009

  12. Validation of a microsphere immunoassay for serological leptospirosis diagnosis in human serum by comparison to the current gold standard.

    PubMed

    Wynwood, Sarah J; Burns, Mary-Anne A; Graham, Glenn C; Weier, Steven L; McKay, David B; Craig, Scott B

    2015-03-01

    A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT) method (now 100 years old) suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays. PMID:25807009

  13. Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Adam; Reed, Zachary; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30–45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n = 24), Gulu, Uganda (n = 20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n = 33), and the Philippines (n = 18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent limitations in the utility of heterologous antigen for diagnostic assays and may assist in the development of antibody-mediated vaccines to EBOV. PMID:21666792

  14. Competitive Immunoassays Using Antigen Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Li, Changming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a non-fouling antigen competitive immunoassay microarray based on the polymer brush is reported to detect multiple mycotoxins. The detection is achieved by utilizing highly specific monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory. The polymer brush, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-co-GMA), is synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on standard glass slides. In the polymer brush, the epoxy groups of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) residues provide covalent binding sites for spotted antigens. Moreover, the abundant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains in the brush are able to ultimately suppress the nonspecific protein adsorption in solution (non-fouling). The polymer brush shows a high and uniform protein loading, along with a high resistance to nonspecific protein absorption that are both important to achieve a highly sensitive immunoassay. As a demonstration of a multiplex assay, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) are selected as antigen targets for simultaneous detections using the microarray. PMID:26614080

  15. Electrokinetic Microstrirring to Enhance Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Hope; Sigurdson, Marin; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    Electrokinetic microstirring is used to improve the sensitivity of microfluidic heterogeneous immuno-sensors by enhancing the transport in diffusion-limited reactions. The AC electrokinetic force, Electrothermal Flow, is exploited to create a circular stirring fluid motion, thereby providing more binding opportunities between suspended and wall-immobilized molecules. This process can significantly reduce test times, important for both field-portable biosensors and for lab-based assays. A 2-D numerical simulation model is used to predict the effect of electrothermal flow on a heterogeneous immunoassay resulting from an AC potential applied to two parallel electrodes. The binding is increased by a factor of 7 for an applied voltage of 10 Vrms. The effect was investigated experimentally using a high affinity biotin-streptavidin reaction. Microstirred reaction rates were compared with passive reactions. The measurements show on average an order of magnitude increase in binding between immobilized biotin and fluorescently-labeled streptavidin after 5 minutes. Therefore, this technique shows significant promise for reducing incubation time and enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays.

  16. IgM rheumatoid factor removal and performance of the FTA-ABS (IgM) test in congenital syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, M P; Roditi, D; Louw, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the performance of the FTA-ABS (IgM) test in congenital syphilis after eliminating interference by IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and preventing competitive inhibition by IgG. DESIGN--The FTA-ABS (IgM) test was carried out before and after RF removal (achieved by immunoprecipitation of the IgG) in infants with congenital syphilis and controls. SETTING--Newborns delivered in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Services in Cape Town and infants presenting at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital. SUBJECTS--Infants with congenital syphilis aged 0-4 months were divided into those with clinical signs at presentation and those who were asymptomatic at delivery. In addition, patients without congenital syphilis but with similar clinical signs at presentation were investigated as were control infants. OUTCOME MEASURE--The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was based on the criteria suggested by Kaufman et al (1977). RESULTS--Amongst symptomatic infants with congenital syphilis the FTA-ABS (IgM) test was positive in 34 (92%) of 37 cases prior to abolishing the RF effect and in 29 (78.4%) of 37 cases afterwards (p = 0.19). In 12 cases of congenital syphilis who were asymptomatic at birth, 10 had positive FTA-ABS (IgM) tests before RF removal and only three had positive tests afterwards (p = 0.006). False positive tests were not found amongst 15 symptomatic infants whose clinical features mimicked those of the infants with congenital syphilis. Among 51 healthy infants the test had a false-positive rate of 2% in newborns and 13% in older infants. The false positive reactions were eradicated by IgG precipitation. CONCLUSIONS--Following IgG and RF removal there was an improvement in the specificity of the FTA-ABS (IgM) test but this was at the expense of a loss of sensitivity, particularly in asymptomatic newborns. For newborns, if the FTA-ABS (IgM) test was positive, the patient was likely to require treatment for congenital syphilis, regardless of whether the result was due to the presence of RF or specific IgM. PMID:1398661

  17. Impact of Natural IgM Concentration on Gene Therapy with Adenovirus Type 5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Qi; Xu, Zhili; Tian, Jie; Moitra, Rituparna; Gunti, Sreenivasulu; Notkins, Abner L.

    2014-01-01

    Natural IgM inhibits gene transfer by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors. We show that polyreactive natural IgM antibodies bind to Ad5 and that inhibition of liver transduction by IgM depends on Kupffer cells. By manipulating IgM concentration in vivo, we demonstrate that IgM inhibits liver transduction in a concentration-dependent manner. We further show that differences in natural IgM between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice contribute to lower efficiency of Ad5 gene transfer in BALB/c mice. PMID:25552715

  18. Hydrophilic, bright CuInS2 quantum dots as Cd-free fluorescent labels in quantitative immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Speranskaya, Elena S; Beloglazova, Natalia V; Abé, Sofie; Aubert, Tangi; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk; Goryacheva, Irina Y; De Saeger, Sarah; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-01

    We report on the synthesis of core-shell CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in organic solution, their encapsulation with a PEG-containing amphiphilic polymer, and the application of the resulting water-soluble QDs as fluorescent label in quantitative immunoassay. By optimizing the methods for core synthesis and shell growth, CuInS2/ZnS QDs were obtained with a quantum yield of 50% on average after hydrophilization. After conjugation with an aflatoxin B1-protein derivative, the obtained QDs were used as fluorescent labels in microplate immunoassay for the quantitative determination of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. QDs-based immunoassay showed higher sensitivity compared to enzyme-based immunoassay. PMID:24892375

  19. Multiple recurrent hordeola associated with selective IgM deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, H K; Akar, Y

    2001-02-01

    An external hordeolum is an acute, suppurative inflammation of the glands of Zeis and sweat glands or hair follicles most commonly caused by staphylococci, usually in the setting of a chronic blepharitis.(1) We report a case of a boy with unilateral multiple recurrent hordeola in association with selective IgM deficiency. PMID:11182678

  20. Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

    2000-03-01

    Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

  1. Varying results for immunoassay screening kits for cotinine level.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Arthur I; Gariti, Peter; Niedbala, R Sam

    2002-09-01

    Our earlier study found that although enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) screening assays for urine cotinine indicated use in former smoking treatment patients who reported abstinence, this finding was sometimes incorrect when validated against gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS; P. Gariti, A. I. Alterman, R. Ehrmann, F. D. Mulvaney, & C. P. O'Brien, 2002). In the current validation study, separate urine samples of 71 of these same patients were reanalyzed by an independent laboratory in blinded fashion using a screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis and GC/MS confirmation. EIA results showed almost total agreement with confirmatory testing. The findings indicate that use of screening ELISA/EIA for urine cotinine can detect unreported cases of smoking in former patients, but that care is needed in selecting a laboratory for conducting these tests. PMID:12236461

  2. A fluorometric enzyme immunoassay for follitropin and lutropin.

    PubMed

    Huguet, J; Bonnin, M R; Guilln, E; Navarro, M A

    1991-09-01

    The analytical performance of the Stratus (Baxter) automatic analyser for human lutropin and follitropin determination was evaluated and compared with that of an immunoradiometric assay. Within-run and between-run imprecision were lower than those of the immunoradiometric assay. No significant differences were obtained in the parallelism study. A good and significant correlation was obtained between both methods. Results obtained for both methods were not interchangeable. The Stratus automatic analyser can replace radioisotopic methods, thus eliminating radioactive hazards. PMID:1760486

  3. Oligopeptide-based enzyme immunoassay for ovine lentivirus antibody detection.

    PubMed Central

    Kwang, J; Torres, J V

    1994-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus which causes a progressive disease in sheep. Immunodominant epitopes have been identified in the envelope gp40 glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides representing these regions are able to detect the presence of OPPV antibodies in 96% of infected sheep. PMID:7929780

  4. A Reassessment of IgM Memory Subsets in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Davide; Squillario, Margherita; Kipling, David; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M; Da Silva, Lucie; Weller, Sandra; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2015-10-15

    From paired blood and spleen samples from three adult donors, we performed high-throughput VH sequencing of human B cell subsets defined by IgD and CD27 expression: IgD(+)CD27(+) ("marginal zone [MZ]"), IgD(-)CD27(+) ("memory," including IgM ["IgM-only"], IgG and IgA) and IgD(-)CD27(-) cells ("double-negative," including IgM, IgG, and IgA). A total of 91,294 unique sequences clustered in 42,670 clones, revealing major clonal expansions in each of these subsets. Among these clones, we further analyzed those shared sequences from different subsets or tissues for VH gene mutation, H-CDR3-length, and VH/JH usage, comparing these different characteristics with all sequences from their subset of origin for which these parameters constitute a distinct signature. The IgM-only repertoire profile differed notably from that of MZ B cells by a higher mutation frequency and lower VH4 and higher JH6 gene usage. Strikingly, IgM sequences from clones shared between the MZ and the memory IgG/IgA compartments showed a mutation and repertoire profile of IgM-only and not of MZ B cells. Similarly, all IgM clonal relationships (among MZ, IgM-only, and double-negative compartments) involved sequences with the characteristics of IgM-only B cells. Finally, clonal relationships between tissues suggested distinct recirculation characteristics between MZ and switched B cells. The "IgM-only" subset (including cells with its repertoire signature but higher IgD or lower CD27 expression levels) thus appear as the only subset showing precursor-product relationships with CD27(+) switched memory B cells, indicating that they represent germinal center-derived IgM memory B cells and that IgM memory and MZ B cells constitute two distinct entities. PMID:26355154

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked hyper IgM syndrome On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2013 What is X-linked hyper IgM syndrome? X-linked hyper IgM ...

  6. Rapid detection of cardioactive bufalin toxicity using fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Datta, P

    1998-02-01

    Intoxication caused by digitalis-like substances after ingestion of cooked toad soup has been reported. Bufalin, a cardioactive compound, is found in toad. Bufalin is also found in many Chinese medicines. Earlier reports demonstrated cross reactivity of bufalin with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digoxin. In this report, the authors demonstrated a significantly higher cross reactivity of bufalin with the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. They supplemented aliquots of normal plasma that had various concentrations of bufalin (1 to 50 micrograms/ml) from a local blood bank and measured apparent digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization immunoassay and chemiluminescent assays (ACS digitoxin) for digitoxin. They measured apparent digoxin and digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization, microparticle enzyme immunoassay, and chemiluminescent assays for digitoxin. They observed apparent digitoxin or digoxin concentrations in sera supplemented with bufalin only with the fluorescence polarization assays. For example, the apparent digitoxin concentration observed in a serum supplemented with 25 ng/ml of bufalin was 24.3 ng/ml of digitoxin equivalent. The apparent digoxin concentration observed in the same specimen was 1.33 ng/ml digoxin equivalent. Bufalin caused positive interference in serum digoxin or digitoxin measurements in specimens containing digoxin or digitoxin when concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization assays. In contrast, bufalin lowered the measured digoxin concentrations in serum pools containing digoxin when digoxin concentrations were measured by the microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The authors conclude that bufalin toxicity can be rapidly detected by the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. PMID:9485564

  7. [GoldMag particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human high sensitive C-reactive protein].

    PubMed

    Guo, Boyang; Ma, Le; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Jiangcun; DU, Haiping; Ma, Ting; Yali, Cui

    2015-11-01

    To develop a sensitive, accurate detection method for high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods With the GoldMag particle as the solid phase carrier, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-lunimo-H2O2 as the chemiluminescence reaction system, we established a chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP detection. Linear range, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and other indicators were evaluated. hsCRP level of 233 clinical human serum specimens were determined and compared by two different methods: the GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay established in this study, and the commercialized scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Results The chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP based on GoldMag particle had a good linear relationship between 0.15 mg/L and 25 mg/L (R(2)=0.9937), with the detection limit of 0.076 mg/L. The intra-assay precision was less than 10.00% and the inter-assay precision was less than 15.00%. The average recovery rate for accuracy was 97.80%. In the contrast experiment of 233 clinical human serum specimens, the results obtained using the approach established in this study showed a high correlation and consistency with scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Conclusion GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for hsCRP has been successfully developed. PMID:26522353

  8. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Jrme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Herv; Carniel, Elisabeth; Crminon, Christophe; Simon, Stphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  9. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  10. Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

  11. Diagnostic value of immunoassays for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Michael; Bachmann, Lucas M; Ten Cate, Hugo; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina

    2016-02-01

    Immunoassays are essential in the workup of patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, the diagnostic accuracy is uncertain with regard to different classes of assays, antibody specificities, thresholds, test variations, and manufacturers. We aimed to assess diagnostic accuracy measures of available immunoassays and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We performed comprehensive literature searches and applied strict inclusion criteria. Finally, 49 publications comprising 128 test evaluations in 15?199 patients were included in the analysis. Methodological quality according to the revised tool for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies was moderate. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated with the unified model (comprising a bivariate random-effects model and a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics model). Important differences were observed between classes of immunoassays, type of antibody specificity, thresholds, application of confirmation step, and manufacturers. Combination of high sensitivity (>95%) and high specificity (>90%) was found in 5 tests only: polyspecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with intermediate threshold (Genetic Testing Institute, Asserachrom), particle gel immunoassay, lateral flow immunoassay, polyspecific chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) with a high threshold, and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-specific CLIA with low threshold. Borderline results (sensitivity, 99.6%; specificity, 89.9%) were observed for IgG-specific Genetic Testing Institute-ELISA with low threshold. Diagnostic accuracy appears to be inadequate in tests with high thresholds (ELISA; IgG-specific CLIA), combination of IgG specificity and intermediate thresholds (ELISA, CLIA), high-dose heparin confirmation step (ELISA), and particle immunofiltration assay. When making treatment decisions, clinicians should be a aware of diagnostic characteristics of the tests used and it is recommended they estimate posttest probabilities according to likelihood ratios as well as pretest probabilities using clinical scoring tools. PMID:26518436

  12. Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology

    PubMed Central

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection. PMID:23638044

  13. A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sujatha; Singhal, Mitra; McKenzie, Katherine G.; Osborn, Jennifer L.; Arjyal, Amit; Dongol, Sabina; Baker, Stephen G.; Basnyat, Buddha; Farrar, Jeremy; Dolecek, Christiane; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Yager, Paul; Lutz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA) platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays. PMID:26835678

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD MATRICES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, and soil samples. The assay was rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit of det...

  15. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  16. Oral fluid for the detection of drugs of abuse using immunoassay and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Crouch, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    The utility of oral fluid as a sample matrix for the analysis of drugs has been increasing in popularity over the last few years. This is largely because of collection advantages over other matrices, but also due to the rapid improvements in analytical assays including highly sensitive liquid reagent format enzyme immunoassays and LC-MS/MS. This review will highlight improvements in assay formats, sensitivity, laboratory equipment and sample processing using low sample volumes to expand drug test profiles. PMID:23795933

  17. Specificity of two-site immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boscato, L M; Egan, G M; Stuart, M C

    1989-02-24

    When cross-reaction in two-site immunoassays was investigated both theoretically and experimentally it was found that such systems do not always result in enhanced specificity. Computer simulation studies indicated that substances which display negligible cross-reaction in a radioimmunoassay could produce an assay response identical to that of the analyte in a two-site immunoassay using excess antibody. Cross-reactivity in two differing two-site immunoassays was compared to that obtained in radioimmunoassays using the same monoclonal antibodies for human chorionic gonadotrophin. In addition to the effects of excess antibody, cross-reactivity was observed in one of the two-site immunoassays which could not have been predicted from the specificity of the antibodies or cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassays. The unexpected cross-reaction of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin in the assay resulted from an apparent alteration in the specificity of one of the antibodies following binding of the beta subunit to the second antibody. These studies emphasise the complexity of binding reactions in two-site immunoassays. PMID:2466086

  18. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. PMID:26920768

  19. Development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for detecting tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  20. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  1. Splenic extrafollicular reactions and BM plasma cells sustain IgM response associated with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lawrence Han Boon; Thiam, Chung Hwee; Soh, Serena Ying; Angeli, Vronique

    2015-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia associated with atherosclerotic disease is known to be associated with increased total and oxidized (ox) low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-specific IgM antibodies in circulation. However, the B-cell responses accounting for this increase remain to be elucidated. Here, we observed an association between total IgM and oxLDL-specific IgM autoantibodies with cholesterol in the plasma of hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Our findings also indicated that oxLDL-specific IgM autoantibodies production was restricted to the spleen, but not the lymph nodes. Further examination of the spleen revealed that the extrafollicular responses, but not germinal center reactions, were the dominant antibody-producing pathway. A quiescent population of IgM(+) plasma cells including oxLDL-specific IgM antibody secreting cells in BM also sustained the elevated IgM antibodies response in circulation. We determined that IgM(+) plasma cells in the BM were, at least in part, splenic derived by depleting CD11c(+) DCs and plasmablasts to disrupt the humoral responses. In addition, lowering hypercholesterolemia reduced IgM response by interfering with extrafollicular and BM responses. By elucidating the mechanism underlying the elevated IgM response observed in hypercholesterolemia, this study provides insight into novel immunotherapeutic avenues. PMID:25639537

  2. Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae in different age groups of Ecuadorian and German children.

    PubMed

    Brssow, H; Baensch, M; Sidoti, J

    1992-11-01

    The age-specific prevalence of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was studied in 1,301 Ecuadorian children enrolled in a national nutrition and health survey. This prevalence was 6% in infants < 6 months old and increased to 28% in children 6 to 11 months old, 49% in those 12 to 17 months old, and 58% in those 18 to 23 months old. About 80% of the 5-year-old children had this antibody. When tested separately against six different capsular polysaccharides, serum IgM antibody reacted with decreasing frequency with serotype 3, 8, 19, 6, 23, and 1 capsular polysaccharides. We did not observe a broadening of the antibody response with increasing age in the sense that more and more serotypes were recognized. A similar age-related prevalence was found for IgM antibody to the species-specific C-polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae and for IgG antibody to capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. A smaller German serum collection showed a comparable age-related prevalence of pneumococcus-specific serum IgG and IgM antibodies. The highest incidence of respiratory diseases was observed in 1- and 2-year-old Ecuadorian children. It thus seems that acquisition of serum antibody to S. pneumoniae reflects more the developmental maturation of an immune response than an actual exposure to different pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:1452644

  3. Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae in different age groups of Ecuadorian and German children.

    PubMed Central

    Brssow, H; Baensch, M; Sidoti, J

    1992-01-01

    The age-specific prevalence of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was studied in 1,301 Ecuadorian children enrolled in a national nutrition and health survey. This prevalence was 6% in infants < 6 months old and increased to 28% in children 6 to 11 months old, 49% in those 12 to 17 months old, and 58% in those 18 to 23 months old. About 80% of the 5-year-old children had this antibody. When tested separately against six different capsular polysaccharides, serum IgM antibody reacted with decreasing frequency with serotype 3, 8, 19, 6, 23, and 1 capsular polysaccharides. We did not observe a broadening of the antibody response with increasing age in the sense that more and more serotypes were recognized. A similar age-related prevalence was found for IgM antibody to the species-specific C-polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae and for IgG antibody to capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. A smaller German serum collection showed a comparable age-related prevalence of pneumococcus-specific serum IgG and IgM antibodies. The highest incidence of respiratory diseases was observed in 1- and 2-year-old Ecuadorian children. It thus seems that acquisition of serum antibody to S. pneumoniae reflects more the developmental maturation of an immune response than an actual exposure to different pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:1452644

  4. Novel signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Kunping; Wei, Yin; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-03-01

    An innovative signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been developed. A novel LIF optical system with high collection efficiency was constructed by using a parabolic mirror. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic beads were used to immobilize antibody for achieving a conventional sandwich assay. Fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G (R6G)-labeled antibody was collected by the newly designed optical system. To reduce photobleaching of R6G under laser irradiation, ethanol instead of commonly used aqueous solution was used as assay buffer in the last stage. The newly developed LIF immunoassay displayed excellent analytical performance for ?-fetoprotein (AFP) detection in the concentration range from 0.005 to 1.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.0016 ng/mL. The detection limit obtained in this work is about 3 orders of magnitude better than that of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the proposed method exhibited excellent precision, acceptable stability, and good reproducibility. Furthermore, the proposed immunoassay was successfully applied to AFP determination in real serum specimens. Therefore, the present immunoassay was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for ultrasensitive biomarker detection. PMID:25655002

  5. Silver deposition directed by self-assembled gold nanorods for amplified electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfang; Ning, Danlei; Ma, Lina; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunoassay was developed based on the signal amplification strategy of silver deposition directed by gold nanorods (AuNRs), which was in-situ assembled on the sandwich immunocomplex. The superstructure formed by the self-assembly of AuNRs provided abundant active sites for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles. In this pathway, the stripping current of silver was greatly enhanced. Using human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) as a model analyte, the ultrasensitive immunoassay showed a wide linear range of six orders of magnitude from 0.1fgmL(-1) to 100pgmL(-1), with the low detection limit down to 0.08fgmL(-1). The practicality of this electrochemical immunoassay for detection of HIgG in serum was validated with the average recovery of 93.9%. In addition, this enzyme-free immunoassay also has the advantages of acceptable reproducibility and specificity, and thus this immunosensing protocol can be extended to the detection of other low-abundant protein biomarkers. PMID:26703256

  6. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  7. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti-A autoreactivity at germline serine and threonine residues. Sustaining the lineage-maintaining position of the classic A allele and the discovery of the OA hybrid alleles at the normal ABO locus and in heterozygous ESC lines have, together with clinical observations, raised discussions about a silent A-allelic support within blood group O reproduction. However, the question of whether a fictional "continued blood group O inbreeding" ultimately occurs without the A-allelic or somatic function remains unanswered because the genetic relationship between non-somatic O-GalNAc-glycosylations that operate before sperm-egg recognition and somatic O-GalNAc-glycosylations that arise after the formation of the zygote remains to be elucidated. PMID:26433867

  8. Miniaturized immunoassays: moving beyond the microplate.

    PubMed

    Verch, Thorsten; Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    After more than 40 years, immunoassays are still the backbone of protein biomarker analysis in clinical diagnostics and drug development. They have come a long way since their inception, incorporating technical developments including monoclonal antibodies, novel labels and lately microfluidics. A number of microfluidic platforms have been tested, such as centrifugational compact disc assays, lab-on-a-chip, arrays and digital electrochemical assays. This review focuses on commercial applications of microfluidic immunoassays with reference to some applied academic examples of interest. Advantages and disadvantages of the platform technologies are discussed in general. PMID:22250800

  9. Development of microfluidic-based heterogeneous immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank Yung Harn; Gao, Yali; Li, Dongqing; Sherman, Philip Martin

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic-based heterogeneous immunoassays are reviewed in this article by first introducing the principle of immunoassay, followed by a discussion of microfluidic-based technology. Microfabrication, surface modification, solution dispensing and detection technology are discussed and their applications to biomolecular detection reviewed. In the future, improved manufacturing processes and integrated assay systems in an automatic fashion with a reduced assay time and reagent consumption will allow for the effective detection of biomolecules that are of interest in medical diagnostics, drug discovery and bioterrorism. PMID:20036929

  10. A novel immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM based on goldmag nanoparticles and graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuting; Hua, Erhui; Liang, Mo; Liu, Bei; Xie, Guoming

    2013-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM (Tg-IgM) was constructed based on goldmag (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS). Thionine (Thi), as a mediator, was first electropolymerized on a nafion-GS (Nf-GS) modified electrode. Subsequently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attached onto the poly-thionine film through ?-stacking interactions, and then were used to immobilize toxoplasma gondii antigen (Tg-Ag) for immunosensor fabrication. A sandwich-type immunoassay for Tg-IgM was performed using Au-Fe(3)O(4) labeled anti-IgM-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as trace label. Electrochemical detection was carried out in the presence of H(2)O(2) as HRP substrate. Using Au-Fe(3)O(4) provided a simple, non-chemical damaging method for regeneration, and enhanced the HRP reduction ability toward H(2)O(2). The AuNPs/Thi/Nf-GS nanocomposite also had good conductivity and biocompatibility, which effectively improved the immunosensor sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor can detect Tg-IgM in two linear ranges from 0.0375 to 1.2 AU mL(-1) and from 2.0 to 18 AU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.016 AU mL(-1) (S/N=3). The immunosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability, and selectivity as well. PMID:23010058

  11. I. Studies on pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase in rat liver mitochondria. II. Identification of the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of IgM in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The orientation of the transmembrane enzyme, pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase, in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver has been determined by evaluating effects of proteases on the integrity of the enzyme in mitoplasts and submitochondrial particles. Following treatment of these membranes with the non-specific protease, proteinase K, antigenic proteolytic products were detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antibody prepared against purified bovine heart enzyme. Information from these proteolysis studies was used to construct a model of the orientation of transhydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this work, I have used the residualizing label, dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({asterisk}I-DLT) to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of the immunoglobulin, IgM. Purified IgM was labeled conventionally with {sup 125}I or with the residualizing label, {asterisk}I-DLT. The circulating half-life of the protein, 2.7 {plus minus} 0.3 days, was the same when measured using either label, indicating that the residualizing label does not affect the kinetics of the protein's catabolism in vivo. At 2.4 or 5.1 days post injection, the liver contained the major fraction of catabolized protein compared to all the other organs in the body. Additionally, following collagenase digestion of the liver, the hepatocytes were shown to be 77% responsible for the catabolism of IgM by the liver. Autoradiography of the liver revealed that the remaining 23% of IgM catabolized by the liver was due to the Kupffer cells.

  12. Immunoassay on Free-standing Electrospun Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckl, Andrew; Wu, Dapeng; Han, Daewoo

    2010-03-01

    For the purpose of immunoassay, electrospun membranes can be thought as the thread-like self-assembling of nano/microbeads. Non-woven membranes of electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers display excellent tenacity, flexibility and suitable surface energy. These PCL membranes exhibit easy handling in air, fast spreading and wetting in aqueous solution, and rapid adsorption of protein molecules by hydrophobic interaction. After a fold-and-press process, the membrane porosity was reduced from 75% to less than 10%, while the thickness increased from 5 to 300 ?m. The resulting fluorescence signal from adsorbed protein increased more than 120 times. With anti-HSA and HSA-FITC as an immunoassay model, a linear detection range from 500 ng/mL down to 1 ng/mL is obtained, with a detection of limit (LOD) of 0.08 ng/mL. By comparison, conventional nitrocellulose and thicker PCL fiber electrospun membrane displayed a much higher LOD of 100 ng/mL. Immunoassay on free-standing electrospun membrane successfully combines the low-cost and simplicity of conventional membrane immunoassay, with the fast reaction speed and high sensitivity characteristic of magnetic nano/microbeads bioassays.

  13. IMMUNOASSAY FOR P-NITROPHENOL IN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary excretion of nitrophenol metabolites is an important index of human exposure to organophosphate pesticides. In particular, p-nitrophenol, a major urinary metabolite of parathion, can be used as a biomarker of human exposure. Immunoassay methods have been recently describe...

  14. In Vivo-Expressed Proteins of Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Autumnalis N2 Elicit Strong IgM Responses of Value in Conclusive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Veerapandian; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Artiushin, Sergey C; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that is underdiagnosed because of limited access to laboratory facilities in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. Timely diagnosis of locally distributed serovars of high virulence is crucial for successful care and outbreak management. Using pooled patient sera, an expression gene library of a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2 isolated in South India was screened. The identified genes were characterized, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) either singly or in combination. Sera (n = 118) from cases of acute leptospirosis along with sera (n = 58) from healthy subjects were tested for reactivity with the identified proteins in an ELISA designed to detect specific IgM responses. We have identified nine immunoreactive proteins, ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, RplS, RnhB, Lp28.6, and Lrr44.9, which were found to be highly conserved among pathogenic leptospires. Apparently, the proteins ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, and Lrr44.9 are expressed during natural infection of the host and undetectable in in vitro cultures. Among all the recombinant proteins used as antigens in IgM ELISA, ArgC had the highest sensitivity and specificity, 89.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the conclusive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The use of ArgC and RecA in combination for IgM ELISA increased the sensitivity and specificity to 95.7% and 94.9%, respectively. ArgC and RecA thus elicited specific IgM responses and were therefore effective in laboratory confirmation of Leptospira infection. PMID:26607308

  15. The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-09-25

    Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

  16. Light Chain Sequences of Human IgM Cold Agglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Capra, J. Donald; Kehoe, J. Michael; Williams, Ralph C.; Feizi, Ten; Kunkel, Henry G.

    1972-01-01

    The amino-terminal amino-acid sequence has been determined for the kappa light chains of nine IgM cold agglutinins with specificity for blood group-related carbohydrate antigens. Six of the nine sequences corresponded to the prototype VKIII subgroup pattern, two to that of subgroup VKII, and only one to the VKI subgroup. This distribution of kappa subgroups differs markedly from that of normal and myeloma proteins sequenced to date, where the VKI subgroup is more prevalent than either VKII or VKIII. Evidence is presented that supports the conclusion that the unusual subgroup distribution relates to the antibody property itself and not to some other attribute of these molecules. PMID:4621549

  17. Development of enantioselective immunoassays for free plasma metanephrines.

    PubMed

    Manz, Bernhard; Kuper, Matthias; Booltink, Essy; Fischer-Brgge, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    The development of an enantioselective radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for L-normetanephrine (NM) and L-metanephrine (M) were studied. Prior to the immunoassay, the protein matrix of the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma samples was removed by acid precipitation, followed by derivatization of the L-metanephrines to N-acyl-L-metanephrines. For the EIA, N-acyl-L-NM and N-acyl-L-M were bound to the surface of microtiter plates. Acylated L-metanephrines from the sample and solid-phase-bound N-acyl-L-NM or N-acyl-L-M competed for a fixed number of rabbit anti-N-acyl-NM or anti-N-acyl-M antibody binding sites. When the system was in equilibrium, free antigens and free antigen-antibody complexes were removed by washing. The antibodies bound to the respective solid-phase N-acyl-L-NM or N-acyl-L-M were detected by a goat anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate using tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The RIAs were conventional double antibody tests using the above rabbit antisera and specific (125)I-N-acyl-L-metanephrine tracers. Chiral recognition of the L-enantiomers was observed not only for the native molecules but for all N-acyl derivatives tested. The cross-reactivity to the corresponding D-enantiomers was always <1%. The detection limits were found to be approximately 0.04 nmol/L (7.5 pg/mL) for M and 0.08 nmol/L (15 pg/mL) for NM in RIA and EIA. PMID:15240418

  18. Automated homogeneous immunoassay analysis of cotinine in urine.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R Sam; Haley, Nancy; Kardos, Stephanie; Kardos, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance comparison of a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) designed to detect cotinine in urine and carbon monoxide (CO) breath measurements to determine smoking status. The clinical comparison was done using urine and breath specimens from 218 volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Breath carbon monoxide was determined by a commercial analyzer. Using cutoffs of 10 ppm for CO and 500 ng/mL for urinary cotinine, the relative sensitivity/specificity was 93.6%/74.0%. The positive predictive value was 86.8%, and the negative predictive value was 86.5%. However, comparison of the EIA to GC-MS showed a sensitivity/specificity of 96.2%/98.4% and a positive predictive value of 99.3%. The EIA was also evaluated non-clinically for precision, stability, recovery, and interferences. In addition, the non-clinical evaluation demonstrated coefficients of variation from 0.37 to 1.09% across cotinine concentrations ranging from 0 to 5000 ng/mL. The assay was found to be highly specific for cotinine and cross-reacted to a limited degree with 3-hydroxycotinine. Finally, multiple freeze-thaw cycles of urines containing cotinine showed no degradation of the drug in the specimen when tested in the EIA. Thus, the EIA tested is a rapid, lab-based test that can reliably determine cotinine levels and their relation to smoking status. PMID:11991533

  19. Theoretical limitations of quantification for noncompetitive sandwich immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Christine F; Hayes, Mark A; Mahanti, Prasun; Douglass Gilman, S; Taylor, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Immunoassays exploit the highly selective interaction between antibodies and antigens to provide a vital method for biomolecule detection at low concentrations. Developers and practitioners of immunoassays have long known that non-specific binding often restricts immunoassay limits of quantification (LOQs). Aside from non-specific binding, most efforts by analytical chemists to reduce the LOQ for these techniques have focused on improving the signal amplification methods and minimizing the limitations of the detection system. However, with detection technology now capable of sensing single-fluorescence molecules, this approach is unlikely to lead to dramatic improvements in the future. Here, fundamental interactions based on the law of mass action are analytically connected to signal generation, replacing the four- and five-parameter fittings commercially used to approximate sigmoidal immunoassay curves and allowing quantitative consideration of non-specific binding and statistical limitations in order to understand the ultimate detection capabilities of immunoassays. The restrictions imposed on limits of quantification by instrumental noise, non-specific binding, and counting statistics are discussed based on equilibrium relations for a sandwich immunoassay. Understanding the maximal capabilities of immunoassays for each of these regimes can greatly assist in the development and evaluation of immunoassay platforms. While many studies suggest that single molecule detection is possible through immunoassay techniques, here, it is demonstrated that the fundamental limit of quantification (precision of 10% or better) for an immunoassay is approximately 131 molecules and this limit is based on fundamental and unavoidable statistical limitations. PMID:26342315

  20. Low molecular weight IgM in selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Kwitko, A O; Roberts-Thomson, P J; Shearman, D J

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-nine persons with selective IgA deficiency were studied. These comprised 27 subjects found by population screening and 12 by other means. Low molecular weight (LMW) serum IgM was sought in 28 of the 39 persons. Nine of the 28 (32%) had LMW IgM detectable by a sensitive gel filtration technique. Of 17 patients discovered by screening, five (29%) had LMW IgM. In the nine positive persons, LMW IgM constituted up to 17% of the total serum IgM concentration. Eight of the nine IgA deficient persons with LMW IgM, had clinical disease while associated disease in the entire IgA deficient population was less frequent. Serum immune complexes were demonstrated in five of seven subjects with LMW IgM using a C1q-dependent radioimmunoassay; four of these had immune complex associated disorders, three with polyarthritis and one with glomerulonephritis. Because circulating immune complexes are frequently detected in IgA deficient persons without disease, it is proposed that the presence of LMW serum IgM in IgA deficiency may be associated with disease due to the formation of specific pathogenic immune complexes. PMID:7172505

  1. Epithelial cells are a source of natural IgM that contribute to innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenwei; Hu, Fanlei; Ma, Junfan; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Qinyuan; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Enyang; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    Currently, natural IgM antibodies are considered to be the constitutively secreted products of B-1 cells in mice and humans. In this study, we found that mouse epithelial cells, including liver epithelial cells and small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), could express IgM that also showed natural antibody activity. Moreover, similar to the B-1 cell-derived natural IgM that can be upregulated by TLR9 agonists (mimicking bacterial infection), the expression of epithelial cell-derived natural IgM could also be significantly increased by TLR9 signaling. More importantly, the epithelial cell-derived IgM was polyreactive, and it could recognize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and insulin with low affinity; additionally, TLR9 agonists could enhance it in a MyD88-dependent manner. Furthermore, epithelial cell-derived IgM could bind various bacteria; therefore, it could be involved in anti-infection responses. Together, these results highlight the fact that epithelial cells are an important source of natural IgM, in addition to that produced by B-1 cells, and IgM contributes to the innate immune responses in local tissues, further demonstrating that the epithelium is a first line of defense in the protection against invading microbes. PMID:26820901

  2. Enzyme markers

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzyme markers are tests for specific enzyme activity in the body. Diseases or defects passed down through families (inherited) can affect how enzymes work. Some enzymes are affected by several genes. Test results ...

  3. IgM autoagglutinins in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a poor prognostic feature.

    PubMed

    McCann, E L; Shirey, R S; Kickler, T S; Ness, P M

    1992-01-01

    The presence of both complete IgM autoagglutinins and IgG autoantibodies in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon finding. Over a 6-year period, only 5 of 115 (4.1%) patients with AIHA had IgM and IgG autoantibodies. In 3 of the 5 cases, the complete IgM autoagglutinins reacted up to 30 degrees C and these patients responded well to corticosteroid or other therapies for warm AIHA. The 2 patients who had warm (37 degrees C) reactive IgM autoagglutinins, were refractory to corticosteroids, splenectomy and cytotoxic drugs, and died due to the complications of hemolytic anemia. The data in these 5 cases suggest that the thermal amplitude of the IgM antibody in these unusual AIHA cases may be predictive of refractoriness to therapy and poor clinical outcome. PMID:1466193

  4. The Long Elusive IgM Fc Receptor, Fc?R

    PubMed Central

    Kubagawa, Hiromi; Oka, Satoshi; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Torii, Ikuko; Takayama, Eiji; Kang, Dong-Won; Jones, Dewitt; Nishida, Naonori; Miyawaki, Toshio; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Sanders, Sheila K.; Honjo, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    IgM exists as both a monomer on the surface of B cells and a pentamer secreted by plasma cells. Both preimmune natural and antigen-induced immune IgM antibodies are important for protective immunity and for immune regulation of autoimmune processes by recognizing pathogens and self-antigens. Effector proteins interacting with the Fc portion of IgM, such as complement and complement receptors, have thus far been proposed but fail to fully account for the IgM-mediated protection and regulation. A major reason for this deficit in our understanding of IgM function seems to be lack of data on a long elusive Fc receptor for IgM (Fc?R). We have recently identified a bona fide Fc?R in both humans and mice. In this article we briefly review what we have learned so far about Fc?R. PMID:24793544

  5. Type ? hyper IgM syndrome with novel mutation from India.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rashid H; Ahmed, Javed; Ahmed, Noor; Picard, Capucine

    2014-06-01

    Hyper IgM syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by normal or raised levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M with low or absent IgG, IgA, and IgE. Five genetic causes of Hyper IgM have been identified. CD40L is deficient on T cells in Type ? Hyper IgM, leading to defective interaction between T and B lymphocytes and consequently an inability to switch from production of IgM to other classes of antibodies. This manuscript reports a patient with X linked Hyper IgM (XHIGM) syndrome caused by a novel mutation in the CD40 Ligand (CD40L) gene and a favorable outcome after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:23604614

  6. Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM antibody in a dental clinic population.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Westfall, H N; Snyder, I S; Miller, R W; Mutchler, B M

    1985-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and Legionella micdadei. Significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 20% and 16%, respectively, of the samples. This compares with 8% and 10%, respectively, for a randomly selected non-clinical group from the region (P less than 0.005). Samples from clinic personnel with significant IgG titers (greater than 1:128) were also evaluated for activity to each of the eight single-species antigens, with the following results: L. pneumophila, 45% (combined six strains); L. micdadei, 37%; and L. bozemanii, 18%. Comparing individuals' "years spent in the clinic environment" with the incidence of significant antibody levels strongly suggests that the risk of Legionella infection increases proportionately with increased clinic exposure time (P less than 0.05). Analysis of these data implies that Legionella may be present in the dental clinic environment, thus creating an increased risk for clinical personnel or patients. PMID:3865949

  7. Saliva IgM and IgA are a sensitive indicator of the humoral immune response to Escherichia coli O157 lipopolysaccharide in children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kerstin; Grabhorn, Enke; Bitzan, Martin; Bobrowski, Christoph; Kemper, Markus J; Sobottka, Ingo; Laufs, Rainer; Karch, Helge; Mller-Wiefel, Dirk E

    2002-08-01

    Saliva antibodies to Escherichia coli O157 were investigated as markers of the immune response in children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Paired serum and saliva samples were collected from 22 children with HUS during acute disease and convalescence and were tested for E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgM and IgA antibodies by ELISA. Serum and saliva samples from 44 age-matched controls were used to establish the cut-off values. Elevated levels of IgM and/or IgA antibodies to O157 LPS were detected in saliva of 13/13 HUS patients with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157 in stool culture and from 4 of 5 HUS patients in whom STEC were not detected. These results closely mirrored the results obtained with paired serum samples. In contrast, saliva and serum samples from four children with STEC isolates belonging to O-groups O26, O145 (n = 2), and O165 lacked detectable O157 LPS-specific antibodies. The specificity of the ELISA was confirmed by western blotting. In STEC O157 culture-confirmed cases, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 92% for saliva IgM and IgA, based on the first available sample, and 100% and 92%, respectively, when subsequent samples were included. The specificity was 98% for IgM and 100% for IgA. Children with E. coli O157 HUS demonstrate a brisk, easily detectable immune response as reflected by the presence of specific antibodies in their saliva. Saliva-based immunoassays offer a reliable, noninvasive method for the diagnosis of E. coli O157 infection in patients with enteropathic HUS. PMID:12149511

  8. Anti-HDV IgM as a Marker of Disease Activity in Hepatitis Delta

    PubMed Central

    Wranke, Anika; Heidrich, Benjamin; Ernst, Stefanie; Calle Serrano, Beatriz; Caruntu, Florin Alexandru; Curescu, Manuela Gabriela; Yalcin, Kendal; Gürel, Selim; Zeuzem, Stefan; Erhardt, Andreas; Lüth, Stefan; Papatheodoridis, George V.; Bremer, Birgit; Stift, Judith; Grabowski, Jan; Kirschner, Janina; Port, Kerstin; Cornberg, Markus; Falk, Christine S.; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Hardtke, Svenja; Manns, Michael P.; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis delta frequently leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. As treatment options are limited, there is a need for biomarkers to determine disease activity and to predict the risk of disease progression. We hypothesized that anti-HDV IgM could represent such a marker. Methods Samples of 120 HDV-infected patients recruited in an international multicenter treatment trial (HIDIT-2) were studied. Anti-HDV IgM testing was performed using ETI-DELTA-IGMK-2-assay (DiaSorin). In addition, fifty cytokines, chemokines and angiogenetic factors were measured using multiplex technology (Bio-Plex System). A second independent cohort of 78 patients was studied for the development of liver-related clinical endpoints (decompensation, HCC, liver transplantation or death; median follow up of 3.0 years, range 0.6–12). Results Anti-HDV IgM serum levels were negative in 18 (15%), low (OD<0.5) in 76 (63%), and high in 26 (22%) patients of the HIDIT-2 cohort. Anti-HDV IgM were significantly associated with histological inflammatory (p<0.01) and biochemical disease activity (ALT, AST p<0.01). HDV replication was independent from anti-HDV IgM, however, low HBV-DNA levels were observed in groups with higher anti-HDV IgM levels (p<0.01). While high IP-10 (CXCL10) levels were seen in greater groups of anti-HDV IgM levels, various other antiviral cytokines were negatively associated with anti-HDV IgM. Associations between anti-HDV IgM and ALT, AST, HBV-DNA were confirmed in the independent cohort. Clinical endpoints occurred in 26 anti-HDV IgM positive patients (39%) but in only one anti-HDV IgM negative individual (9%; p = 0.05). Conclusions Serum anti-HDV IgM is a robust, easy-to-apply and relatively cheap marker to determine disease activity in hepatitis delta which has prognostic implications. High anti-HDV IgM levels may indicate an activated interferon system but exhausted antiviral immunity. PMID:25072849

  9. Industrial fungal enzymes: an occupational allergen perspective.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  10. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  11. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  12. Age-related aspects of human IgM(+) B cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victoria; Wu, Yu-Chang; Kipling, David; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2015-12-01

    The CD27(+) IgD(+) B cell population, known as IgM memory, reduces with age. It is thought that this population is responsible for pneumococcal polysaccharide T-independent responses, and that the age-related reduction might be partially responsible for the increased susceptibility of older people to bacterial pathogens. There are other IgM(+) B cell populations that do not express IgD. We compared the different IgM populations using high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene repertoire and multidimensional cell phenotyping and found that the different populations of IgM cells, defined by CD27 and IgD expression, have repertoire differences. Some of these differences are likely indicative of different selection pressures in an immune response, although the older individuals were found to have a changed repertoire in naive B cells, which may contribute to some of the changes seen in memory cells. In addition, even within the CD27(+) IgD(+) IgM memory population there are multiple cell types. We show that the level of IgM expression varies substantially and hypothesize that this distinguishes between T-dependent and T-independent types of IgM memory cells. Significant age-related changes in the relative proportions of these populations may exacerbate the reduction in T-independent responders in old age. PMID:26152370

  13. Anti-GD2-like IgM autoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Marconi, S; Acler, M; Lovato, L; De Toni, L; Tedeschi, E; Anghileri, E; Romito, S; Cordioli, C; Bonetti, B

    2006-06-01

    Seric IgM autoreactivity in 100 multiple sclerosis (MS) and 106 control (70 of whom had other neurological diseases) patients was assessed either by immunohistochemistry on normal human CNS tissue or to GD2, GD1a, GD3 by ELISA and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. By double immunohistochemistry, we found that 44% of the total MS population showed seric IgM reactivity to oligodendrocytes and myelin, this finding being particularly frequent in patients with secondary progressive MS. In the non-MS cohort, positive signals were seen only in one patient. In all cases, extraction of lipids from CNS sections abolished the immunoreactivity. Among the gangliosides investigated by ELISA, anti-GD2-like IgM autoantibodies were detected in the serum of 30% of MS patients, a subgroup of whom (below 10%) reacted also with GD1a and/or GD3. More than 85% of MS cases with anti-GD2-like IgM immunoreactivity by ELISA showed also IgM antioligodendrocyte/myelin staining by immunohistochemistry. However, no immunostaining in MS sera was observed when gangliosides were resolved by TLC. A positive correlation with neurological disability was observed, as the Expanded Disability Status Scale of MS patients with anti-GD2-like IgM autoreactivity by ELISA was significantly worse than seronegative MS cases. The results of the present study enforce the role of glycolipids as potential autoantigens and of IgM autoantibodies in MS pathogenesis. PMID:16764343

  14. IgM nephropathy; can we still ignore it

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Context:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis , often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Results: IgM nephropathy can present as nephritic syndrome or less commonly with subnephrotic proteinuria or rarely hematuria. About 30% patients respond to steroids whereas others are steroid dependent / resistant. They should be given a trial of Rituximab or stem cell therapy. Conclusions:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an important and rather neglected pathology responsible for renal morbidity in children and adults in developing countries as compared to developed nations with incidence of 2-18.5% of native biopsies. Abnormal T-cell function with hyperfunctioning suppressor T-cells are believed to be responsible for this disease entity. Approximately one third of the patients are steroid responders where as the remaining two thirds are steroid resistant or dependent. Therapeutic trials including cell therapies targeting suppressor T-cells are required. PMID:24475434

  15. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR MEASURING 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by a commercial RaPID immunoassay testing kit. ...

  16. Expression and glycoengineering of functionally active heteromultimeric IgM in plants.

    PubMed

    Loos, Andreas; Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Mehofer, Ulrich; Hensel, Frank; Grandits, Melanie; Oostenbrink, Chris; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Furtmller, Paul G; Steinkellner, Herta

    2014-04-29

    IgM antibodies are an important player of the human's innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the production of therapeutically relevant recombinant proteins. However, whether they are able to express proteins like IgM antibodies, which range among the most complex human proteins, remains unknown so far. Here we report the in planta generation of the functionally active monoclonal antitumor IgM PAT-SM6 (SM6). SM6 efficiently accumulates in plant leaves and assembles correctly into heterooligomers (pentamers and hexamers). Detailed glycosylation analysis exhibited complex and oligomannosidic N-glycans in a site-specific manner on human-serum IgM and on plant- and human-cell-line-produced SM6. Moreover, extensive in planta glycoengineering allowed the generation of SM6 decorated with sialylated human-type oligosaccharides, comparable to plasma-derived IgM. A glycosylated model of pentameric IgM exhibits different accessibility of the glycosylation sites, explaining site-specific glycosylation. Biochemical and biophysical properties and importantly biological activities of plant-derived SM6 glycoforms are comparable to the human-cell-derived counterparts. The in planta generation of one of the most complex human proteins opens new pathways toward the production of difficult-to-express proteins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, the generation of IgMs with a controlled glycosylation pattern allows the study of the so far unknown contribution of sugar moieties to the function of IgMs. PMID:24706782

  17. Expression and glycoengineering of functionally active heteromultimeric IgM in plants

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Andreas; Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Mehofer, Ulrich; Hensel, Frank; Grandits, Melanie; Oostenbrink, Chris; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Steinkellner, Herta

    2014-01-01

    IgM antibodies are an important player of the human’s innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the production of therapeutically relevant recombinant proteins. However, whether they are able to express proteins like IgM antibodies, which range among the most complex human proteins, remains unknown so far. Here we report the in planta generation of the functionally active monoclonal antitumor IgM PAT-SM6 (SM6). SM6 efficiently accumulates in plant leaves and assembles correctly into heterooligomers (pentamers and hexamers). Detailed glycosylation analysis exhibited complex and oligomannosidic N-glycans in a site-specific manner on human-serum IgM and on plant- and human-cell-line–produced SM6. Moreover, extensive in planta glycoengineering allowed the generation of SM6 decorated with sialylated human-type oligosaccharides, comparable to plasma-derived IgM. A glycosylated model of pentameric IgM exhibits different accessibility of the glycosylation sites, explaining site-specific glycosylation. Biochemical and biophysical properties and importantly biological activities of plant-derived SM6 glycoforms are comparable to the human-cell–derived counterparts. The in planta generation of one of the most complex human proteins opens new pathways toward the production of difficult-to-express proteins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, the generation of IgMs with a controlled glycosylation pattern allows the study of the so far unknown contribution of sugar moieties to the function of IgMs. PMID:24706782

  18. Transcriptional Heterogeneity of IgM+ Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abós, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; Pignatelli, Jaime; Luque, Alfonso; González, Lucia; Tafalla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Two major classes of B lymphocytes have been described to date in rainbow trout: IgM+ and IgT+ cells. IgM+ cells are mainly localized in the spleen, peripheral blood and kidney but are also found in other tissues. However, differences among IgM+ cell populations attending to its location are poorly defined in fish. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the expression of different immune molecules such as chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors on sorted IgM+ lymphocytes from different rainbow trout tissues. IgM+ populations from blood, spleen, kidney, gills, intestine and liver were isolated by cell sorting and the constitutive levels of transcription of these genes evaluated by real-time PCR. To further characterize B cells, we identified an MS4A sequence. In humans, the MS4A family includes several genes with immune functions, such as the B cell marker CD20 or FcRβ. Subsequently, we have also evaluated the mRNA levels of this MS4A gene in the different IgM+ populations. The relevant differences in transcriptional patterns observed for each of these IgM+ populations analyzed, point to the presence of functionally different tissue-specific B cell populations in rainbow trout. The data shown provides a pattern of genes transcribed in IgM+ B cells not previously revealed in teleost fish. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of all the TLR genes analyzed in IgM+ cells suggests an important role for these cells in innate immunity. PMID:24324826

  19. Comparison of nine commercial immunoassays for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, P H; Gauntlett, D R; Tente, W E

    1988-01-01

    One hundred fecal specimens obtained from patients with acute gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with nine commercial immunoassays to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of these assays. Kits evaluated included two monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Rotaclone and Pathfinder Rotavirus), three polyclonal antibody-based EIAs (Rotavirus Immunoassay, Rotazyme II, and Wellcozyme Rotavirus), and four latex agglutination assays (Rotastat, Virogen Rotatest, Meritec-Rotavirus, and The Wellcome Latex Test). Thirty-eight of the 100 specimens were found to contain rotavirus by a reference microplate EIA. The accuracy of the reference assay was determined by RNA electrophoresis and a blocking assay on discordant specimens. The two monoclonal antibody EIAs had superior sensitivities (100%) and identified two positive specimens which were negative by the reference method but positive by the blocking assay. Among the polyclonal EIAs, all had sensitivities of greater than 90%, but specificities were variable; Rotazyme II, with a specificity of 50%, showed considerable discrepancy from other polyclonal EIAs. The latex tests had sensitivities ranging from 70 to 90% and specificities of 80 to 100%. Latex agglutination tests were more rapid than EIAs and did not require expensive equipment. The final choice of assay system will depend on the cost, speed, and accuracy requirements of the clinical laboratory. PMID:2846645

  20. Development of an incurred cornbread model for gluten detection by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Slate, Andrew; Jackson, Lauren S; Pardo, Christopher; Williams, Kristina M; Whitaker, Thomas B

    2013-12-11

    Gluten that is present in food as a result of cross-contact or misbranding can cause severe health concerns to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow device (LFD), are commonly used to detect gluten traces in foods. However, the performance of immunoassays can be affected by non-assay-related factors, such as food matrix and processing conditions. Gluten (0-500 ppm) and wheat flour (20-1000 ppm) incurred cornbread was prepared at different incurred levels and baking conditions (204.4 C for 20, 27, and 34 min) to study the accuracy and precision of gluten measurement by seven immunoassay kits (three LFD and four ELISA kits). The stability and immunoreactivity of gluten proteins, as measured by western blot using three different antibodies, were not adversely affected by the baking conditions. However, the gluten recovery varied depending upon the ELISA kit and the gluten source used to make the incurred cornbread, affecting the accuracy of gluten quantification (BioKits, 9-77%; Morinaga, 91-137%; R-Biopharm, 61-108%; and Romer Labs, 113-190%). Gluten recovery was reduced with increased baking time for most ELISA kits analyzed. Both the sampling and analytical variance increased with an increase in the gluten incurred level. The predicted analytical coefficient of variation associated with all ELISA kits was below 12% for all incurred levels, indicative of good analytical precision. PMID:24245605

  1. Comparison of stool antigen immunoassay methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Silvia; Forn, Montserrat; Lacoma, Alicia; Prat, Cristina; Cuesta, Miguel Angel; Latorre, Irene; Viver, Josep Maria; Fernndez, Gema; Molinos, Sonia; Domnguez, Jose

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare 6 stool antigen immunoassays for detecting Helicobacter pylori before and after eradication treatment. We compared 3 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and 3 monoclonal immunochromatographic assays in diagnosing infection and in determining H. pylori status after eradication treatment. We evaluated stool samples from 80 patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection and from 18 patients without infection. To confirm H. pylori eradication, we evaluated 40 patients who received H. pylori treatment. The sensitivity and specificity were 87.3% and 83.3% for Immundiagnostik ELISA, 92.5% and 72.2% for HpSA EIA test, 95% and 66.6% for HpStAR EIA, 83.8% and 66.6% for H. pylori Letitest, 52.5% and 94.4% for ImmunoCard HpSA, and 78.8% and 55.5% for RAPID HpStAR, respectively. From the 40 patients evaluated 6 weeks after eradication therapy, the best agreement between the urea breath tests and immunoassay tests was with HpStAR EIA (90%) and H. pylori Letitest (85%). HpStAR EIA and H. pylori Letitest could be used as a routine diagnostic tool in the microbiology laboratory for assessing clinical significance and eradication control of H. pylori infection. PMID:18304771

  2. Cleavage of metal-ion-induced DNAzymes released from nanolabels for highly sensitive and specific immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2013-04-17

    This work reports a novel electrochemical immunoassay protocol with signal amplification for determination of low-abundance protein (free prostate-specific antigen, PSA, used as a model) with high sensitivity and high selectivity by coupling metal sulfide (PbS)-based nanolabels with cleavage of the corresponding lead ion-induced DNAzymes. The assay mainly consists of an antigen-antibody immunoreaction with metal nanolabel in a transparent 96-well polystyrene microplate, the release of metal ions from the nanolabel, and cleavage of metal ion-induced DNAzyme. The signal is amplified by the labeled redox tag (ferrocene) on the DNAzyme-based sensor. In the presence of target analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex can be formed between the primary antibody on the microplate and the corresponding metal sulfide nanolabel. The carried nanolabel can release numerous metal ions by acid, and induce the cleavage of the corresponding DNAzyme, thus resulting in the change of electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the DNAzyme-based immunoassay presents an obvious electrochemical response for the detection of PSA, and allows detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.1 pg mL(-1). Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were less than 9.5% and 10%, respectively. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 12 clinical serum specimens between the developed immunoassay and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:23451820

  3. Validation of an In-House Assay for Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G (CMV IgG) Avidity and Relationship of Avidity to CMV IgM Levels

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Harry E.; Leber, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity has proven to be a powerful tool for distinguishing primary from nonprimary CMV infection. An in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring CMV IgG avidity was validated using 84 sera from pregnant women who had recently seroconverted following primary CMV infection and 74 sera from individuals with past CMV infection (IgG-positive and IgM-negative profile). Of the 84 sera from pregnant women, 73 sera were collected within 120 days of the last IgG-negative sample, and 72 of these 73 sera (99%) exhibited an avidity index (AI) of <50%. In contrast, 71 of 74 (96%) sera from individuals with past CMV infection exhibited CMV AI values of >60%. Thus, low avidity in the in-house ELISA was defined as an AI of ?50%, whereas high avidity was defined as an AI of ?60%. In additional studies, the relationship between CMV IgG avidity and CMV IgM levels was examined using 64 CMV IgG-positive sera (time since seroconversion unknown) exhibiting equivocal or positive results in a CMV IgM capture ELISA (Diamedix). Of these 64 sera, 29 exhibited IgM index values of ?3.0, and 27 of these 29 (93%) exhibited low IgG avidity. A similar trend was observed when a subset of these 64 sera (n = 48) was tested in another CMV IgM capture ELISA (Trinity); of 18 sera with IgM index values of ?3.0, 17 (94%) exhibited low IgG avidity. These findings demonstrate the validity of an in-house ELISA for CMV IgG avidity and further show that strong reactivity of CMV IgG-positive sera in either of two CMV IgM capture assays is a reliable indicator of low CMV IgG avidity, and thus, recent CMV infection. PMID:12093680

  4. Detection of IgM Antibrucella Antibody in the Absence of IgGs: A Challenge for the Clinical Interpretation of Brucella Serology

    PubMed Central

    Sols Garca del Pozo, Julin; Lorente Ortuo, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 20092013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 612 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context. PMID:25474572

  5. IgM Myeloma or Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Is the Big Question?

    PubMed Central

    BHATT, Vijaya Raj; MURUKUTLA, Srujitha; NAQI, Muniba; PANT, Shradha; KEDIA, Shiksha; TERJANIAN, Terenig

    2014-01-01

    Although critical from therapeutic and prognostic perspectives, differentiating IgM Myeloma (MM) from Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is fraught with failure. WM can usually be distinguished from IgM MM by the lymphoplasmacytic versus pure plasmacytic morphology, absent versus present lytic bone lesions, and immunophenotypic findings. However, all these features have their own limitations; hence, it requires constant vigilance and periodic re-evaluation. Here we describe a case of a 70-year-old woman initially diagnosed as smoldering IgM MM, who eventually turned out to have WM. PMID:25553130

  6. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  7. Multiplexed In-cell Immunoassay for Same-sample Protein Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing; Zrazhevskiy, Pavel; Postupna, Nadia; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas J.; Gao, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    In-cell immunoassays have become a valuable tool for protein expression analysis complementary to established assay formats. However, comprehensive molecular characterization of individual specimens has proven challenging and impractical due to, in part, a singleplex nature of reporter enzymes and technical complexity of alternative assay formats. Herein, we describe a simple and robust methodology for multiplexed protein expression profiling on the same intact specimen, employing a well-characterized enzyme alkaline phosphatase for accurate quantification of all targets of interest, while overcoming fundamental limitations of enzyme-based techniques by implementing the DNA-programmed release mechanism for segregation of sub-sets of target-bound reporters. In essence, this methodology converts same-sample multi-target labeling into a set of isolated singleplex measurements performed in a parallel self-consistent fashion. For a proof-of-principle, multiplexed detection of three model proteins was demonstrated on cultured HeLa cells, and two clinically-relevant markers of dementia, β-amyloid and PHF-tau, were profiled in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain tissue sections, uncovering correlated increase in abundance of both markers in the “Alzheimer’s disease” cohort. Featuring an analytically powerful yet technically simple and robust methodology, multiplexed in-cell immunoassay is expected to enable insightful same-sample protein profiling studies and become broadly adopted in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:26328896

  8. Suppressor T cells prevent in vitro expression of IgM rheumatoid factor in some healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, W.J.

    1981-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from 11 of 30 healthy adults elaborated detectable IgM RF when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. The influence of T cells on IgM RF production by autologous B Cells prepared from donors whose unfractionated MNL synthesized IgM RF in response to PMW was investigated. Untreated T cells supported IgM RF production by autologous B cells with optimal synthesis observed at T:B cell ratios of 2:1 at higher T:B cell ratios a decline in IgM RF production occurred. In contrast, at higher T:B cell ratios irradiated T cells supported consistently higher levels of IgM RF production than untreated T cells suggesting the presence of radiosensitive suppressor T cells for IgM RF in these individuals. Irridiated T cells were compared to untreated T cells for capacity to support IgM RF production by autologous B cells from 12 randomly selected donors at T:B cell ratios of 3:1. Untreated T cells from 4 of 12 individuals were capable of cooperating in induction of IgM RF production by autologous B cells, whereas irradiated T cells supported IgM RF production in 6 of 12 individuals. Levels of IgM RF production in all 6 individuals were significantly higher with irradiated T cells than with untreated T cells; in 2 individuals IgM RF synthesis by autologous B cells was observed only in the presence of irradiated T cells. In 4 of 6 individuals increases in the ratio of IgM RF total IgM synthesis occured with irradiated T cells (when compared to untreated T cells), suggesting disproportionate suppression of RF production. These results indicate the presence of radiosensitive T cells capable of suppressing IgM RF production in a significant fraction of healthy adults and raise the possibility that these cells may regulate in vivo expression of RF.

  9. A nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy for detection of Salmonella infection based on blue silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2015-10-22

    A novel nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy was for the first time designed and utilized for sensitive detection of antibody to Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum (S. pullorum and S. gallinarum) in serum. The optical immunoassay strategy was based on blue silica nanoparticles (Blue-SiNps) and magnetic beads (MB). To construct such an optical immunoassay system, the Blue-SiNPs were first synthesized by inverse microemulsion method, characterized by SEM, Zeta potential and FTIR. Two nanostructures including Blue-SiNPs and MB were both functionalized with antibody against S. pullorum and S. gallinarum (anti-PG) without using enzyme labeled antibody. Anti-PG functionalized blue silica nanoparticles (IgG-Blue-SiNps) were used as signal transduction labels, while anti-PG functionalized magnetic beads (IgG-MB) were selected to separate and enrich the final sandwich immune complexes. In the process of detecting negative serum, a sandwich immunocomplex is formed between the IgG-MB and IgG-Blue-SiNPs. With the separation of the immunocomplex using an external magnetic field, the final plaque displayed bright blue color. While in the detection of infected serum, IgG-MB and anti-PG formed sandwich immunocomplexes, IgG-Blue-SiNPs were unable to bind to the limited sites of the antigen, and a light brown plaque was displayed in the bottom of microplate well. Stable results were obtained with an incubation time of 60 min at room temperature, and different colors corresponding to different results can be directly detected with naked eye. The reaction of IgG-Blue-SiNPs with S. pullorum was inhibited by 1:100 dilution of positive chicken serum. Such a simple immunoassay holds great potential as sensitive, selective and point-of-care (POC) tool for diagnosis of other biological molecules. PMID:26526916

  10. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Fout, G Shay; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H. pylori, and 100% for T. gondii assays and 89% for HAV. Further, the optimized multiplex assay revealed exposure/infection to several other environmental pathogens previously uncharacterized in the samples. PMID:26070441

  11. Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP-AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP-AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP-AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3-300 ng/mL OP-AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

  12. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

  13. Urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids: A highly efficient peroxidase-mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Xu, Mingdi; Lu, Minghua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-08-15

    The development of signal-amplified colorimetric immunoassay relies on the design of highly efficient signal-transduction tags. One promising route is to exploit a novel enzyme mimetic system as the signal label. Herein, we report that urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids (Au@PtNHs) can be utilized as a highly efficient peroxidase mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, one kind of tumor marker). Initially, urchin-like Au@PtNHs were discovered to outperform horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by a vast margin in terms of the turnover number toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) system and the stability against high temperatures and HRP inhibitors. Based on this discovery, the assay was simply carried out on a capture antibody-immobilized microplate by using the Au@PtNH-labeled detection antibody as a signal-transduction tag with a sandwich-type assay mode. The colorimetric signal stemmed from the labeled Au@PtNHs toward catalytic oxidation of TMB-H2O2 system. Experimental results indicated that the Au@PtNH-based colorimetric immunoassay could display a good colorimetric response toward PSA in the dynamic working range of 5-500 pg mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 2.9 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the developed immunoassay exhibited good precision and reproducibility, high specificity and acceptable accuracy for the detection of clinical serum samples. These results open up a new horizon for the development of highly sensitive, highly stable and inexpensive non-enzyme immunoassay platforms as an alternative to conventional enzyme-based immunoassay platforms. PMID:25814409

  14. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterialantibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets. PMID:18371644

  15. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  16. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterialantibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  17. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Hugh W. F.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ?1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ?1:6,400, respectively. PMID:26291089

  18. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Hugh W F; Blacksell, Stuart D; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P J; Paris, Daniel H

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ?1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ?1:6,400, respectively. PMID:26291089

  19. [Comparison of methods for the demonstration of Treponema-specific IgM].

    PubMed

    Panuccio, A; Borroni, G; Gelosa, L

    1989-01-01

    In this research 113 sera have been analysed with three methods for IgM treponema-specific determination: IgM-SPHA, IgM-EIA and 19S IgM FTA-ABS. Among these sera, 33 samples related to non-treated patients at different stages of infection, and 80 samples to treated patients. The results point out a light sensibility of the IgM-SPHA in primary lues. The IgM-EIA test has performed a good specificity, but displayed a sensibility lower to the 19S IgM FTA-ABS, which proved the best of tests. About the cases of treated lues at different stages, in 23 samples with VDRL negative has been found no positivity at three tests used, while in 49 samples with VDRL positive 8 are resulted positive at 19S IgM FTA-ABS. PMID:2518811

  20. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  1. Development of a monoclonal immunoassay selective for chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides.

    PubMed

    Mancls, Juan J; Abad, Antonio; Lebedev, Mijail Y; Mojarrad, Fatemeh; Mickov, Barbora; Mercader, Josep V; Primo, Jaime; Miranda, Miguel A; Montoya, Angel

    2004-05-19

    Organochlorine pesticides still generate public health concerns because of their unresolved health impact and their persistence in living beings, which is demanding appropriate analytical techniques for their monitoring. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of an important group of organochlorine pesticides, the cyclodiene group, has been developed. With this aim, several hapten-protein conjugates, characterized by exposure of the common hexachlorinated bicyclic (norbornene) moiety and differing in the linking structure to the carrier protein, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several MAbs with the ability to sensitively bind the majority of cyclodienes were obtained. Among them CCD2.2 MAb displaying the broadest recognition to cyclodiene compounds (endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, toxaphene: I(50) values in the 6-25 nM range) was selected for the assay. Interestingly, this MAb showed certain stereospecificity toward other polychlorinated cycloalkanes because the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) was also very well recognized (I(50) value of 22 nM). This immunoassay is potentially a very valuable analytical tool for the rapid and sensitive determination of cyclodiene insecticides and related compounds, which in turn may contribute to the understanding of the biological activities and of the overall environmental impact of these persistent organic pollutants. PMID:15137813

  2. Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.

    2007-01-01

    At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 μl of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:17374724

  3. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed. PMID:25938198

  4. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 ?m width and 100 ?m depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  5. Serological diagnosis of Leptospirosis in bovine serum samples using a microsphere immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, S. J.; Burns, M. A.; Graham, G. C.; Weier, S. L.; McKay, D. B.; Craig, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant economic loss within the cattle industry worldwide. Current diagnostic methods are generally inadequate for dealing with large numbers of samples, are outdated, and provide little useful diagnostic and epidemiological information. This aim of this study was to apply a microsphere immunoassay (MIA), utilising Luminex xMap technology, to 200 bovine serum samples to determine this method's usefulness in leptospirosis diagnosis in comparison with the current gold standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Although MAT is the most widely used laboratory test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, its reliance on live cultures, subjective interpretation of results and an inability to differentiate between antibody classes, suggest MAT is no longer the best method for the diagnosis of leptospirosis. The results presented in this paper show that MIA was able to determine reactive from non-reactive samples when compared with MAT, and was able to differentiate IgG and IgM classes of antibody. The results suggest increased sensitivity in MIA and the ability to multiplex up to 500 antigens at one time allows for significant improvements in cost-effectiveness as well as a reduced dependency on live cultures. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and differentiation of antibody class, as shown in previous research, make this assay worthy of consideration for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in small-scale or large-scale bovine populations. PMID:26835139

  6. Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Wilson, S.B.; Tomaski, A.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1985-04-01

    The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, the authors studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. They observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP. They obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3. The authors demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP.

  7. Emerging Functions of Natural IgM and Its Fc Receptor FCMR in Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongsheng; Coligan, John E.; Morse, Herbert C.

    2016-01-01

    Most natural IgM antibodies are encoded by germline Ig sequences and are produced in large quantities by both mice and humans in the absence of intentional immunization. Natural IgM are reactive with many conserved epitopes, including those shared by microorganisms and autoantigens. As a result, these antibodies play important roles in clearing intruding pathogens, as well as apoptotic/necrotic cells and otherwise damaged tissues. While natural IgM binds to target structures with low affinity due to a lack of significant selection by somatic hypermutation, its pentameric structure with 10 antigen-binding sites enables these antibodies to bind multivalent target antigens with high avidity. Opsonization of antigen complexed with IgM is mediated by cell surface Fc receptors. While the existence of Fc alpha/mu receptor has been known for some time, only recently has the Fc receptor specific for IgM (FCMR) been identified. In this review, we focus on our current understandings of how natural IgM and FCMR regulate the immune system and maintain homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27014278

  8. Physiological IgM Class Catalytic Antibodies Selective for Transthyretin Amyloid*

    PubMed Central

    Planque, Stephanie A.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hara, Mariko; Sonoda, Sari; Murphy, Sarah K.; Watanabe, Kenji; Mitsuda, Yukie; Brown, Eric L.; Massey, Richard J.; Primmer, Stanley R.; O'Nuallain, Brian; Paul, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Peptide bond-hydrolyzing catalytic antibodies (catabodies) could degrade toxic proteins, but acquired immunity principles have not provided evidence for beneficial catabodies. Transthyretin (TTR) forms misfolded β-sheet aggregates responsible for age-associated amyloidosis. We describe nucleophilic catabodies from healthy humans without amyloidosis that degraded misfolded TTR (misTTR) without reactivity to the physiological tetrameric TTR (phyTTR). IgM class B cell receptors specifically recognized the electrophilic analog of misTTR but not phyTTR. IgM but not IgG class antibodies hydrolyzed the particulate and soluble misTTR species. No misTTR-IgM binding was detected. The IgMs accounted for essentially all of the misTTR hydrolytic activity of unfractionated human serum. The IgMs did not degrade non-amyloidogenic, non-superantigenic proteins. Individual monoclonal IgMs (mIgMs) expressed variable misTTR hydrolytic rates and differing oligoreactivity directed to amyloid β peptide and microbial superantigen proteins. A subset of the mIgMs was monoreactive for misTTR. Excess misTTR was dissolved by a hydrolytic mIgM. The studies reveal a novel antibody property, the innate ability of IgMs to selectively degrade and dissolve toxic misTTR species as a first line immune function. PMID:24648510

  9. The role of IgM rheumatoid factor in experimental immune vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, M; Tesar, J T

    1979-01-01

    The effect of IgM rhematoid factor (RF) on reversepassive cutaneous Arthus reaction in rats was studied. The RF was obtained from the serum cryoglobulin of a patient with symptoms of purpura, arthralgia and digital gangrene. The cryoglobulins was of IgG-IgM type and when given i.v it induced a prompt hypocomplementaemia in experimental animals. The purified RF also induced low serum complement levels when injected i.v. along with complexes of non-complement-fixing, aggregated IgG. A reverse passive Arthus reaction was induced by intradermal injection of IgG anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA), followed by an i.v. dose of antigen (Ag). The cutaneous inflammatory reaction was aggravated by simultaneous administration of IgM RF intradermally, but not by IgM without antibody (Ab) properties. Intradermal injection of low concentrations of non-complement-fixing IgG anti-BSA, along with normal human IgM, followed by i.v. injection of BSA, resulted in a complete lack of cutaneous inflammation. At higher Ab concentrations there was only a mild inflammation. However, when IgM RF was substituted for normal IgM and injected with non-complement-fixing anti-BSA, an effective reverse passive cutaneous Arthus reaction and vasculitis was induced. The inflammatory response was greatly suppressed by decomplementation of animals by cobra venom factor. This study provides evidence favouring an inflammatory, complement-dependent role for RF in vasculitis. PMID:157238

  10. Unique Ligand-Binding Property of the Human IgM Fc Receptor (Fc?R)

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Kazuhito; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Kearney, John F.; Kubagawa, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    The IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) is the newest FcR and co-ligation of Fc?R and Fas/CD95 on Jurkat cells with agonistic IgM anti-Fas mAb was shown to inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis. The ligand-binding activity of human Fc?R was further examined. Fc?R-mediated protection from apoptosis was partially blocked by addition of 104 molar excess of IgM or its soluble immune complexes, but could be inhibited by addition of 10-fold excess of IgM anti-CD2 mAb. This suggests that Fc?R binds more efficiently to the Fc portion of IgM reactive with plasma-membrane proteins than to the Fc portion of IgM in solution. The former interaction occurred in cis on the same cell surface, but not in trans between neighboring cells. This cis engagement of Fc?R resulted in modulation of Ca2+ mobilization via CD2 on Jurkat cells or BCR on blood B cells upon cross-linkage with the corresponding IgM mAbs. Several functional changes were observed with Fc?R-mutants: (i) significant increase in IgM-ligand binding in the cytoplasmic tail-deletion mutant; (ii) enhanced cap formation in Fc?R upon IgM binding at 4C with a point mutation of the transmembrane His to Phe; and (iii) less protective activity of Fc?R in IgM anti-Fas mAb-mediated apoptosis assays with a point mutation of the membrane-proximal Tyr to Phe. These findings show the importance of the cis engagement of Fc?R and its critical role in receptor function; hence, Fc?R on B-, T- and NK-cells may modulate the function of surface proteins recognized by natural or immune IgM Abs on the shared membrane cell-surface. PMID:25601920

  11. Comparison between drug screening by immunoassay and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry in post-mortem urine.

    PubMed

    Sundstrm, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanper, Ilkka

    2015-05-01

    Immunoassay is currently the most common approach for urine drug screening. However, the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their low urinary concentrations have challenged the scope and sensitivity of immunoassays. Consequently, specialized toxicology laboratories rely more and more on mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS) is an especially attractive technique for comprehensive drug screening. The objective was to compare the performances of immunoassay and UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS in terms of scope, flexibility, sensitivity, and reliability of substance identification. A total of 279 post-mortem urine samples were analyzed using a method representative of each technique. The immunoassay method was an Emit II Plus enzyme immunoassay for the following drug groups: amphetamines, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cannabis, and opiates. The UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS method was a recently published method covering hundreds of drugs: conventional drugs of abuse, abused prescription drugs, and NPS of various classes. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS produced a lower number of false positive (FP) results for the drug groups covered by immunoassay. Many of the false negative (FN, n?=?40) and FP (n?=?22) immunoassay results were obviously due to the higher cut-off concentrations and interfering matrix, respectively. Moreover, the wider scope of UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS allowed detection of NPS and prescription drugs. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS gave FP results related to a few particular substances. The future option of adjusting all compound-specific reporting parameters individually would allow the method's sensitivity and specificity to be fully exploited. PMID:24953563

  12. J chain synthesis and secretion of hexameric IgM is differentially regulated by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 5.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, T D; Parkhouse, R M; Corley, R B

    1992-01-01

    Two functional polymeric forms of IgM can be produced by antibody-secreting B cells. Hexameric IgM lacks detectable J (joining) chain and activates complement 17-fold better than pentameric IgM, which usually contains one J chain per pentamer. Using the inducible B-cell lymphoma CH12, we determined if the synthesis of a particular polymeric form of IgM is a fixed property of B cells or can be altered. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated CH12 cells produced mixtures of IgM hexamers and pentamers, resulting in antibody with high complement-fixing activity. In contrast, interleukin-5-stimulated CH12 cells secreted predominantly pentameric IgM, with a correspondingly lower lytic activity. Differences in lytic activity were due only to the amount of hexameric IgM in the secreted antibody. Interleukin 5 stimulated higher production of J chain RNA and protein than LPS, while LPS induced the highest levels of the secretory form of mu protein. The amount of hexameric IgM secreted was therefore inversely proportional to the level of intracellular J chain protein in the responding B cells. We conclude that the biologic function of IgM produced by B cells differs depending on how they are stimulated and that this difference may be regulated by the relative availabilities of J chain and secretory mu proteins during IgM polymerization. Images PMID:1736312

  13. Environmental monitoring by immunoassay: Current and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Stanker, L.H.; Watkins, B.E.; Vanderlaan, M.

    1990-10-31

    Immunoassays for low molecular weight molecules have become increasingly popular in part, this is a result of the simplicity and potentially low cost of immunoassays when compared with conventional analytical methods. Environmental application of immunoassays, however, poses new challenges. First, not only must the parent compound be detected but often one would also like to detect metabolites or environmentally weathered'' products. Monoclonal antibody technology offers the possibility of selecting antibodies that have specific binding characteristics, eg. those that bind to a family of similar compounds or to broad classes of chemicals. Next, a simple rapid sample preparation method must be available. Unlike clinical assays that run in serum or other biological fluids (ideal matrixes for antibodies), environmental sample consist of soils, sediments, chemical sludges, water and air samples. Thus, in all cases, with the possible exception of water samples, the analyte of interest must be extracted and presented to the antibody in an appropriate buffer system. Once these criteria are met, immunoassays present an attractive alternative for conventional analytical methods. The most direct application of immunoassays will undoubtedly as as screening assays, with positives being confirmed by gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, coupling immunoassay with other analytical methods, such as with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) converts a single residue immunoassay into a multiresidue method. Finally, immunoaffinity chromatography procedures are useful as methods for sample clean-up, followed by immunochemical detection or more traditional detection methods. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A new highly specific buprenorphine immunoassay for monitoring buprenorphine compliance and abuse.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Snyder, Marion L; Jarolim, Petr; Flood, James G

    2012-04-01

    Urine buprenorphine screening is utilized to assess buprenorphine compliance and to detect illicit use. Robust screening assays should be specific for buprenorphine without cross-reactivity with other opioids, which are frequently present in patients treated for opioid addiction and chronic pain. We evaluated the new Lin-Zhi urine buprenorphine enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as a potentially more specific alternative to the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) by using 149 urines originating from patients treated for chronic pain and opioid addiction. The EIA methodology offered specific detection of buprenorphine use (100%) (106/106) and provided superior overall agreement with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 95% (142/149) and 91% (135/149) using 5 ng/mL (EIA[5]) and 10 ng/mL (EIA[10]) cutoffs, respectively, compared to CEDIA, 79% (117/149). CEDIA generated 27 false positives, most of which were observed in patients positive for other opioids, providing an overall specificity of 75% (79/106). CEDIA also demonstrated interference from structurally unrelated drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. CEDIA and EIA[5] yielded similar sensitivities, both detecting 96% (22/23) of positive samples from patients prescribed buprenorphine, and 88% (38/43) and 81% (35/43), respectively, of all positive samples (illicit and prescribed users). The EIA methodology provides highly specific and sensitive detection of buprenorphine use, without the potential for opioid cross-reactivity. PMID:22417836

  15. Differentiation of classical swine fever virus infection from CP7_E2alf marker vaccination by a multiplex microsphere immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Blome, Sandra; Widn, Frederik; Beer, Martin; Belk, Sndor; Liu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs that has a tremendous socioeconomic impact. Vaccines are available for disease control. However, most industrialized countries are implementing stamping-out strategies to eliminate the disease and avoid trade restrictions. These restrictions can be avoided through the use of marker vaccines such as CP7_E2alf. Marker vaccines have to be accompanied by reliable and robust discriminatory assays. In this context, a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was developed to distinguish CSF virus (CSFV)-infected animals from CP7_E2alf-vaccinated animals. To this end, three viral proteins, namely, CSFV E2, CSFV E(rns), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2, were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system; they were used as antigens in a microsphere immunoassay, which was further evaluated by testing a large panel of pig sera and compared to a well-characterized commercial CSFV E2 antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a test version of an improved CSFV E(rns) antibody ELISA. Under a cutoff median fluorescence intensity value of 5,522, the multiplex microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.9% for the detection of antibodies against CSFV E2. The microsphere immunoassay and the CSFV E(rns) ELISA gave the same results for 155 out of 187 samples (82.8%) for the presence of CSFV E(rns) antibodies. This novel multiplex immunoassay is a valuable tool for measuring and differentiating immune responses to vaccination and/or infection in animals. PMID:25378351

  16. Functional characterization of IgM+ B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rnneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  17. Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

  18. The utility of immunoassays for urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy E F

    2012-09-01

    Substance abuse is a significant problem in the United States, with cocaine, marijuana, alcohol and heroin as the most commonly abused drugs. This article focuses on urine drug testing to evaluate potential drug abuse or overdose in the emergent care setting using qualitative immunoassays. Discussion is included regarding the principles of how to validate qualitative immunoassays; how to decide on appropriate specimen type, test menu and cutoff; the limitations of immunoassays; how to communicate test results to clinicians; and use of urine drug testing at point of care. PMID:22939301

  19. Self-concentrating buoyant glass microbubbles for high sensitivity immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Juang, Duane S; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-26

    Here, we report the novel application of a material with self-concentrating properties for enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays. Termed as glass microbubbles, they are antibody functionalized buoyant hollow glass microspheres that simultaneously float and concentrate into a dense monolayer when dispensed in a liquid droplet. This self-concentrating charactaristic of the microbubbles allow for autonomous signal localization, which translates to a higher sensitivity compared to other microparticle-based immunoassays. We then demonstrated a "microbubble array" platform consisting of the glass microbubbles floating in a microfluidic liquid hemisphere array for performing multiplex immunoassays. PMID:26620967

  20. Heterophilic antibodies: a problem for all immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boscato, L M; Stuart, M C

    1988-01-01

    We verified that antibody-binding substances in serum that interfere in two-site immunoassays involving murine antibodies are heterophilic antibodies. Incubation of serum containing heterophilic antibodies and a murine monoclonal antibody to human choriogonadotropin (hCG) leads to formation of a series of soluble immune complexes. We investigated the recognition of hCG by reagent antibody in the presence of heterophilic antibodies and found this recognition to be diminished. Consequently, about 30% of serum samples containing heterophilic antibodies falsely appear to contain increased concentrations of hCG. The effect on analyte recognition probably results from steric inhibition of hCG binding to complexed antibody. Heterophilic antibodies detected with a murine antibody also bound immunoglobulin from several other species but did not bind all of those tested. PMID:3338181

  1. Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1988-04-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

  2. Nanoparticles for Enhanced Sensitivity in Electrochemical Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Hong; Tang, Zhiwen

    2008-10-12

    In this manuscript, we report on electrochemical biosensors based on various nanoparticles (NPs) as labels for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers. We used silica nanoparticle as a carrier to loading a large amount of electroactive species such as poly(guanine) for sensitive immunoassay of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). We took the advantages of the unique hollow structure and reconstruction properties of apoferritin to prepare Cd3(PO4)2 nanoparticles as labels for sensitive assay of TNF-a. A novel immunochromatographic/electro-chemical biosensor based on quantum dots as labels has also been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. These biosensors are quite sensitive with the detection limit at pM level and these approaches based on nanoparticle labels offer a new avenue for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers.

  3. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG+ plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  4. The Omentum Is a Site of Protective IgM Production during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Derek D.; Racine, Rachael; Wittmer, Susan T.; Harston, Louise; Papillion, Amber M.; Dishaw, Lisa M.; Randall, Troy D.; Woodland, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with the bacterium Ehrlichia muris elicits a protective T cell-independent (TI) IgM response mediated primarily by a population of CD11c-expressing plasmablasts in the spleen. Although splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells are considered to be important for TI responses to blood-borne pathogens, MZ B cells were not responsible for generating plasmablasts in response to Ehrlichia muris. Moreover, antigen-specific serum IgM was decreased only modestly in splenectomized mice and in mice that lacked spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches (SLP mice). Both splenectomized and SLP mice were protected against lethal ehrlichial challenge infection. Moreover, we found a high frequency of Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts in the omentum of both conventional and SLP mice. Omental plasmablasts elicited during Ehrlichia infection lacked expression of CD138 but expressed CD11c in a manner similar to that of their splenic counterparts. Selective ablation of CD11c-expressing B cells nearly eliminated the omental Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts and reduced antigen-specific serum IgM, identifying the omental B cells as a source of IgM production in the SLP mice. Generation of the omental plasmablasts was route dependent, as they were detected following peritoneal infection but not following intravenous infection. Our data identify the omentum as an important auxiliary site of IgM production during intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:25776744

  5. Natural IgM: Beneficial autoantibodies for the control of inflammatory and autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Grnwall, Caroline; Silverman, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural IgM are highly represented in the circulation at birth, and these often autoreactive antibodies have been postulated to have innate-like properties and play crucial roles in apoptotic cell clearance, tissue homeostasis, and immune modulation. This review summarizes the known properties of these IgM autoantibodies, and the evidence that these anti-apoptotic cell IgM natural antibodies can regulate inflammatory responses through ancient pathways of the innate immune system that first arose long before the initial emergence of the adaptive immune system. While the regulatory contributions of these natural IgM autoantibodies are certainly not an essential and fundamental component of host defenses, these provide an additional layer to further protect the host. More importantly, these IgM antibody responses are highly inducible and their up-regulation can be a powerful means for the host to survive in a setting of chronic inflammation. The observed beneficial clinical associations for cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity, as well as opportunities for potential therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:24691998

  6. West Nile virus IgM and IgG antibodies three years post- infection

    PubMed Central

    Papa, A; Anastasiadou, A; Delianidou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) causes to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic infection to severe neuroinvasive disease. In a previous study, it was shown that WNV IgM antibodies persisted in three of 26 (12%) patients, nine months after onset of the symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test 10 of these patients, three years post-infection for probable persistence of IgM antibodies and to investigate their IgG antibody patterns. Material and Methods: In summer 2013 serum samples were collected from 10 persons who were infected with WNV in 2010; 6 of them had a neuroinvasive disease. The three persons with detectable WNV IgM antibodies, nine months after onset of the symptoms, were included in the study. All samples were tested by ELISA in parallel with their stored paired samples taken in 2011. The positive results were confirmed by neutralization test. Results: WNV IgM antibodies were still detectable in the three persons, while high levels of WNV IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in nine of the 10 persons, regardless the involvement of the nervous system. Conclusions: WNV IgM antibodies persist for more than three years in 12% of patients with WNV infection, while WNV IgG antibodies persist and even increase their levels, regardless the involvement of the nervous system, suggesting that the immune response in the symptomatic WNV infections is strong and long-lasting. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 34-36. PMID:26435644

  7. Roles of heavy and light chains in IgM polymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, K D; Brewer, J W; Beck-Engeser, G B; Corley, R B; Haas, I G; Jäck, H M

    1995-01-01

    IgM antibodies are secreted as multisubunit polymers that consist of as many as three discrete polypeptides: mu heavy chains, light (L) chains, and joining (J) chains. We wished to determine whether L chains that are required to confer secretory competence on immunoglobulin molecules must be present for IgM to polymerize--that is, for intersubunit disulfide bonds to form between mu chains. Using a L-chain-loss variant of an IgM-secreting hybridoma, we demonstrated that mu chains were efficiently polymerized independent of L chains, in a manner similar to that observed for conventional microL complexes, and that the mu polymers incorporated J chain. These mu polymers were not secreted but remained associated with the endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone BiP (GRP78). This finding is consistent with the endoplasmic reticulum being the subcellular site of IgM polymerization. We conclude that mu chain alone has the potential to direct the polymerization of secreted IgM, a process necessary but not sufficient for IgM to attain secretory competence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761423

  8. Enzyme databases.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Dietmar; Schomburg, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are catalysts for the chemical reactions in the metabolism of all organisms and play a key role in the regulation of metabolic steps within the cells, as drug targets, and in a wide range of biotechnological applications. With respect to reaction type, they are grouped into six classes, namely oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, and ligases. EC-Numbers are assigned by the IUBMB. Enzyme functional databases cover a wide range of properties and functions, such as occurrence, kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, structure, or metabolic function. BRENDA stores a large variety of different data for all classified enzymes whereas KEGG, MEROPS, MetaCyc, REBASE, CAzy, ESTHER, PeroxiBase, and KinBase specialize in either certain aspects of enzyme function or specific enzyme classes, organisms, or metabolic pathways. Databases covering enzyme nomenclature are ExplorEnz, SIB-ENZYME, and IntEnz. PMID:20221916

  9. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  10. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  11. Development of immunoassays for human urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmune assays (RIA) and enzyme linked immune assays for measurement of pro-urokinase and the two active forms of the enzyme were developed. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, with desired specificities against preselected synthetic regions of urokinase (UK), were obtained by immunization with the respective synthetic peptides and used to develop RIA for zymogen and the two activated forms of UK.

  12. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, H.R.

    1993-12-31

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  14. Reversal of IgM deficiency following a gluten-free diet in seronegative celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Lucia; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giorgio, Floriana; Covelli, Claudia; Fiore, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Principi, Mariabeatrice

    2014-12-14

    Selective IgM deficiency (sIGMD) is very rare; it may be associated with celiac disease (CD). We present the case of an 18-year-old man with sIGMD masking seronegative CD. Symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Laboratory tests showed reduced IgM, DQ2-HLA and negative anti-transglutaminase. Villous atrophy and diffuse immature lymphocytes were observed at histology. Tissue transglutaminase mRNA mucosal levels showed a 6-fold increase. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and six months later the symptoms had disappeared, the villous architecture was restored and mucosal tissue transglutaminase mRNA was comparable to that of healthy subjects. After 1 year of GFD, a complete restoration of normal IgM values was observed and duodenal biopsy showed a reduction of immature lymphocytes and normal appearance of mature immune cells. PMID:25516687

  15. Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Annette C.; Willicott, Corey W.; Hage, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoassays have long been an important set of tools in clinical laboratories for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease. Over the last two decades there has been growing interest in utilizing capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a means for conducting immunoassays with clinical samples. The resulting method is known as a CE immunoassay. This approach makes use of the selective and strong binding of antibodies for their targets, as is employed in a traditional immunoassay, and combines this with the speed, efficiency, and small sample requirements of CE. This review discusses the variety of ways in which CE immunoassays have been employed with clinical samples. An overview of the formats and detection modes that have been employed in these applications is first presented. A more detailed discussion is then given on the type of clinical targets and samples that have been measured or studied by using CE immunoassays. Particular attention is given to the use of this method in the fields of endocrinology, pharmaceutical measurements, protein and peptide analysis, immunology, infectious disease detection, and oncology. Representative applications in each of these areas are described, with these examples involving work with both traditional and microanalytical CE systems. PMID:24132682

  16. Quantitative Immunoassay To Measure Plasma and Intracellular Atazanavir Levels: Analysis of Drug Accumulation in Cultured T Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Roucairol, Camille; Azoulay, Stéphane; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Créminon, Christophe; Lavrut, Thibault; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Grassi, Jacques; Burger, Alain; Duval, Danièle

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay to measure atazanavir (ATV) levels in plasma and cells. Anti-ATV polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits by using a synthetic ATV derivative coupled to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen, and the enzyme tracer was prepared by chemically coupling the ATV derivative with acetylcholinesterase. These reagents were used to develop a sensitive competitive enzyme immunoassay performed in microtitration plates, and the lowest limit of quantification was 150 pg/ml, which is about 10 times more sensitive than previously published techniques. The plasma assay was performed, after a simple methanol extraction, with a minimum of 30 μl of plasma. This assay showed good precision and efficiency, since the rates of recovery from human plasma and cell extracts spiked with ATV ranged form 93 to 113%, with coefficients of variation of less than 10%. ATV concentrations were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells incubated with various ATV concentrations and in CEM cells in the absence or presence of antiretroviral drugs and drug transporter inhibitors. The results indicated a dose-dependent uptake (intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratio range, 0.04 to 19). A significant increase in the accumulation of ATV was noticed in the presence of P-glycoprotein and MRP1 inhibitors (dipyridamole, inter alia). Interestingly, efavirenz significantly increased the baseline accumulation of ATV, whereas nevirapine induced a marked reduction. This new enzyme immunoassay for measuring plasma and intracellular ATV levels was fully validated and provides an inexpensive and useful tool for routine therapeutic drug monitoring. Moreover, in vitro results suggested the implication of drug transporters and interactions with other antiviral drugs that should be further explored in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. PMID:17116661

  17. Characterization of the receptor for IgM present on human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, G F; Cawley, J C; Barker, C R

    1979-01-01

    The presence of a receptor for the Fc of IgM (muFcR) was demonstrated on the pathological B cells of all of sixteen patients with hairy-cell leukaemia and most, but not all, of twenty-four cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, by a rosette method employing ox erythrocytes sensitized with purified IgM (EAm). This muFcR was also demonstrated on a small population of normal human mononuclear cells from peripheral blood. Pathological B cells with this receptor (Bm) simultaneously expressed a different and distinct receptor for the Fc of IgG, and were detectable without preincubation in medium containing foetal calf serum (FCS). The muFcR on B cells was blocked by Fc5mu and IgM, but not by F(ab')2mu fragments, or by IgG, whether monomeric or aggregated. Monomeric IgM and IgM bound to its antigen blocked much more effectively than pentameric IgM. B cells also possessed surface immunoglobulin and the Ia-like P29, 34 antigen, and an antiserum to this antigen blocked the muFcR. The muFcR on B cells differs in a number of ways from the muFcR reported on T cells, and these differential characteristics are discussed in some detail. The muFcR was rapidly shed and resynthesized when washed Bm cells were maintained in medium not containing FCS and the general importance of this phenomenon in any study of muFcR is considered. It is suggested that Bm cells are memory cells and that the muFcR plays a part in the immune response. Images Figure 2 PMID:312263

  18. Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

  19. Reinvestigating the Role of IgM in Rabies Virus Postexposure Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Dorfmeier, Corin L.; Shen, Shixue; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P.

    2013-01-01

    B cells secreting IgG antibodies, but not IgM, are thought to be solely responsible for vaccine-induced protection against rabies virus (RABV) infections in postexposure settings. In this report, we reinvestigated the potential for IgM to mediate protection in a mouse model of RABV vaccination. Immunocompetent mice immunized with an experimental live replication-deficient RABV-based vaccine produced virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) within 3 days of vaccination. However, mice unable to produce soluble IgM (sIgM?/?) did not produce VNAs until 7 days postimmunization. Furthermore, sIgM?/? mice were not protected against RABV infection when challenged 3 days postimmunization, while all wild-type mice survived challenge. Consistent with the lack of protection against pathogenic RABV challenge, approximately 50- to 100-fold higher viral loads of challenge virus were detected in the muscle, spinal cord, and brain of immunized sIgM?/? mice compared to control mice. In addition, IgG antibody titers in vaccinated wild-type and sIgM?/? mice were similar at all time points postimmunization, suggesting that protection against RABV challenge is due to the direct effects of IgM and not the influence of IgM on the development of effective IgG antibody titers. In all, early vaccine-induced IgM can limit dissemination of pathogenic RABV to the central nervous system and mediate protection against pathogenic RABV challenge. Considering the importance for the rapid induction of VNAs to protect against RABV infections in postexposure prophylaxis settings, these findings may help guide the development of a single-dose human rabies vaccine. PMID:23760250

  20. Suppression of IgM Proteolysis by Conformational Stabilization Through Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Monika; Loh, Maybelle Q. T.; Gagnon, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Protease activity from host cell lines may cause product loss or affect the quality of recombinant proteins. In this study, we showed that excipients like glycine and sorbitol reduce the proteolysis of an immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the presence of added proteases like ?-chymotrypsin, papain, and pepsin. The activity of the proteases in the IgM-protective environments was conserved or even enhanced as tested using low molecular weight substrates. Thus, a higher resistance against proteolytic degradation appears to be caused by the conformational stabilization of the IgM due to preferential exclusion of sorbitol and glycine. PMID:26839826

  1. IgM+ Memory B Cell Expression Predicts HIV-Associated Cryptococcosis Status

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Metzger, Brian; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Guh, Alice; Rucker, Lisa; Badri, Sheila; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans disease (i.e., cryptococcosis) is unknown. Given evidence that IgM+ memory B cells are required for immunity to other encapsulated pathogens, we hypothesized that these cells might contribute to resistance to cryptococcosis. Methods We compared levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in 29 HIV-infected individuals who had a history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group) with levels in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN? group) and 20 HIV-uninfected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV? group) (cohort 1). We also determined levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in banked samples obtained before cryptococcosis onset from 31 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, of whom 8 had HIV infection and subsequently developed cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group), 8 had HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN? group), and 15 did not have HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV? group) (cohort 2). Results In cohort 1, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower among HIV+CN+ subjects, compared with HIV+CN? subjects (P < .01) and HIV? subjects (P <.05); expression of IgM on ?50% of memory B cells was a significant predictor of C. neoformans disease status (odds ratio, 5.5; P = .03). In cohort 2, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower in HIV+CN+ subjects than in HIV+CN? subjects (P = .02) and HIV? subjects (P < .01); an IgM+ memory B cell percentage of ?38.5% was a significant predictor of future development of cryptococcosis (odds ratio, 14; P = .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that HIV-infected persons in whom the percentage of memory B cells that express IgM is decreased might be at greater risk for the development of cryptococcosis. PMID:19527168

  2. Enzyme Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  3. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  4. Integrated optic immunoassay for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiarski, Anthony A.; Busch, James R.; Miller, Larry S.; Zulich, A. W.; Burans, James

    1995-05-01

    An integrated optic refractometer device was developed to perform a rapid one-step, label-free immunoassay. The device measures refractive index changes at the surface of a planar waveguide using interferometry. Antibodies were applied to the waveguide surface to provide a bioselective coating for detecting and quantifying a specific antigen of interest. The detection limit of this biosensor was determined for adenovirus as a model for other viral analytes of military, medical, and environmental interest. As binding of the antigen occurred on the sensor surface, a time-dependent phase shift of the helium-neon laser light beam was detected and was measured over a 10-minute time period. Adenovirus was detected at levels of 250 - 2500 viral particles/ml. This detection limit was obtained for a mono-layer of antibody attached to the sensor. Use of a high-density, multi-layer antibody coating approach resulted in improved detection limits for bacteria and protein analytes of general interest.

  5. Photoelectrochemical detection of enzymatically generated CdS nanoparticles: Application to development of immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Javier; Saa, Laura; Grinyte, Ruta; Pavlov, Valeri

    2016-03-15

    We report an innovative photoelectrochemical process (PEC) based on graphite electrode modified with electroactive polyvinylpyridine bearing osmium complex (Os-PVP). The system relies on the in situ enzymatic generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzes the hydrolisis of sodium thiophosphate (TP) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which in the presence Cd(2+) ions yields CdS semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs). Irradiation of SNPs with the standard laboratory UV-illuminator (wavelength of 365nm) results in photooxidation of 1-thioglycerol (TG) mediated by Os-PVP complex on the surface of graphite electrode at applied potential of 0.31V vs. Ag/AgCl. A novel immunoassay based on specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) combined with the PEC methodology was developed. Having selected the affinity interaction between bovine serum albumine (BSA) with anti-BSA antibody (AB) as a model system, we built the PEC immunoassay for AB. The new assay displays a linear range up to 20ngmL(-1) and a detection limit (DL) of 2ngmL(-1) (S/N=3) which is lower 5 times that of the traditional chromogenic ELISA test employing p-nitro-phenyl phosphate (pNPP). PMID:26432195

  6. Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-Lin; Zeng, Dao-Ping; Yang, Jin-Yi; Shen, Yu-Dong; Beier, Ross C; Lei, Hong-Tao; Wang, Hong; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2011-11-01

    The development of easy-to-use and rapid-monitoring immunoassay methods for organic environmental pollutants in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this work, a heterologous competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) with broad-specificity for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was applied to the detection of O,O-diethyl and O,O-dimethyl OPs in water samples. The ciELISA conditions were carefully optimized to obtain a three to five-fold improvement of sensitivity for most OPs, and thirteen OPs were determined at concentrations ranging from 0.017 to 30 ng mL(-1). The determination of spiked environmental water samples showed average recoveries from 81.5% to 115.1%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 6.1% to 20.9%, which showed satisfactory reproducibility of the developed ciELISA. To overcome the negative aspect of broad-specificity immunoassays not providing qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual OPs in blind samples, we used "percent inhibition rate" to make the developed ciELISA a semi-quantitative method, which allows the monitoring of positive samples from hundreds of negative samples. The determination of OPs in blind water samples by the developed ELISA with confirmation by HPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that the assay is ideally suited as a screening method for OP residues prior to chromatographic analysis. PMID:21915424

  7. Ultrasensitive On-Chip Immunoassays with a Nanoparticle-Assembled Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hee; Sudheendra, L.; Kim, Hee-Joo; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) is employed to generate 2D array of nanoparticles coated with biological molecules (i.e. antibodies). Phase matching of the excitation and the emission in the 2D arrays with particles produces a highly enhanced fluorescence signal that was shown to improve the limit of detection in immunoassays. The phase matching is achieved when the particle are in the sub-100 nm range. A comparison between different size particles shows that the sensitivity of an immunoassay is extended to a range that is difficult to achieve with standard technology (e.g. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-ELISA). The effectiveness of this novel configuration of particle-in-a well was demonstrated with an assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; breast cancer biomarker), with a detection limit as low as 10 aM in less than 10 ?l of serum-based sample. The limit of detection of HER2 indicated far superior assay performance compared to the corresponding standard 96-well plate-based ELISA. The particle-based photonic platform reduces the reagent volume and the time for performing an assay in comparison to competing methods. The simplicity of operation and the level of sensitivity demonstrated here can be used for rapid and early-stage detection of biomarkers. PMID:22957818

  8. Protein immunoassay methods for detection of biotech crops: applications, limitations, and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Stave, James W

    2002-01-01

    Immunoassay methods are available for detection and quantitation of proteins expressed by most biotechnology-derived crops in commercial production. The 2 most common test formats are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic (lateral flow) strip tests. Two ELISA methods, one for Roundup Ready soybeans and one for MON810 CrylAb corn, were the subject of large international collaborative studies and were demonstrated to quantitatively determine the concentrations of biotech crops in samples of ground grain. Quantitative ELISA methods are also useful for analysis of processed fractions of agricultural commodities such as soybean toasted meal or corn flour. Both strip tests and ELISAs for biotech crops are currently being used on a large scale in the United States to manage the sale and distribution of grain. In these applications, tests are used to determine if the concentration of biotech grain is above or below specified threshold limits. Using existing U.S. Department of Agriculture sampling techniques, the reliability of the threshold determination is expressed in terms of statistical confidence rather than analytical precision. Combining the use of protein immunoassays with Identity Preservation systems provides an effective means of characterizing the raw and processed agricultural inputs to the food production system in a way that allows food producers to comply with labeling laws. PMID:12083275

  9. Distribution of two urinary ribonuclease-like enzymes in human organs and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Niwata, Y; Ohgi, K; Ogawa, M; Irie, M

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the distribution of two human urinary RNase (RNase Us and RNase UL)-like enzymes in human tissues and body fluids, enzyme immunoassay systems were established using rabbit anti-RNase sera. The sensitivity of the assay systems was of similar order to that of radioimmunoassay systems previously reported. In the enzyme immunoassay, the cross reactivities of anti-RNase UL serum towards RNase Us, bovine kidney RNase K2, bovine RNase A, and bovine seminal RNase Vs were less than 1%. The cross reactivity of anti-RNase Us-serum towards RNase UL was less than 0.5% and cross reactivities were minimal for RNase A, RNase K2, and RNase Vs. The RNase levels in human organs and body fluids were measured by enzyme immunoassay. In milk, semen and saliva, only RNase UL-like enzyme was found. Both RNase Us- and RNase UL-like enzymes were found in kidney, stomach, and pancreas and the RNase Us/RNase UL ratios were 0.49, 1.35, and 0.34, respectively. In lung, liver, spleen, and leukocytes, most of the RNase activity was accounted for by RNase Us-like enzyme. The activity of RNase Us-like enzyme was especially high in lung, spleen, and leukocytes. The crude extracts of several tissues and body fluids were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and the contents of the two urinary RNase-like enzymes were determined by enzyme immunoassay. In stomach, kidney, pancreas, and serum, both enzymes were present in multiple forms. In spleen and lung, both the major RNase (RNase Us) and minor RNase (RNase UL) existed in two forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3514589

  10. Concentration Gradient Immunoassay I. A Rapid Immunoassay Based on Interdiffusion and Surface Binding in a Microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kjell E.; Foley, Jennifer O.; Yager, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel microfluidic immunoassay method based on the diffusion of a small molecule analyte into a parallel-flowing stream containing cognate antibody. This interdiffusion results in a steady-state gradient of antibody binding site occupancy transverse to convective flow. In contrast to the diffusion immunoassay (Hatch et al. Nature Biotechnology,19:461−465 (2001)), this antibody occupancy gradient is interrogated by a sensor surface coated with a functional analog of the analyte. Antibodies with at least one unoccupied binding site may specifically bind to this functionalized surface, leading to a quantifiable change in surface coverage by the antibody. SPR imaging is used to probe the spatial distribution of antibody binding to the surface and, therefore, the outcome of the assay. We show that the pattern of antibody binding to the SPR sensing surface correlates with the concentration of a model analyte (phenytoin) in the sample stream. Using an inexpensive disposable microfluidic device, we demonstrate assays for phenytoin ranging in concentration from 75 to 1000 nM in phosphate buffer. At a total volumetric flow rate of 90 nL/sec, the assays are complete within 10 minutes. Inclusion of an additional flow stream on the side of the antibody stream opposite to that of the sample enables simultaneous calibration of the assay. This assay method is suitable for rapid quantitative detection of low-molecular weight analytes for point-of-care diagnostic instrumentation. PMID:17437332

  11. Spitzer Observations of Stephan's Quintet -- IGM Dust and Gas in a Multi-galaxy Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. K.; Appleton, Ph.; Dopita, M.; Gao, Y.; Lu, N. Y.; Popescu, C.; Reach, W.; Tuffs, R.; Sulentic, J.; Yun, M.

    2005-12-01

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is the most famous and well studied compact group of galaxies. The rich literature archive of multi-wavelength data reveal one of the most fascinating pictures in the universe. We see a complex web of interactions between member galaxies and various constituents of the intragroup medium (IGM) which, in turn, have triggered spectacular activities such as a 40 kpc large scale shock and a strong IGM starburst. In this poster we will present our new Spitzer observations of SQ with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. The observations impose new constraints on the physical conditions of the IGM gas and dust, the distribution and history of the star formation activity in member galaxies and in the IGM, as well as the effects of various interaction events that have occurred in the recent ( ˜ 1 Gyr) history of the group. Our results may have far-reaching inferences on studies of multi-nuclei ULIRGs and 'chain galaxies' found in high-z surveys. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech

  12. Postsplenectomy cytomegaloviral mononucleosis: marked lymphocytosis, TCRgamma gene rearrangements, and impaired IgM response.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang Y; Lin, Pei; Amin, Hesham M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2005-04-01

    People who have undergone splenectomy mount a poor IgM response to bacterial polysaccharide vaccines. Whether this defect is true during natural bacterial and viral infections is unknown. We present 2 cases of postsplenectomy cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced mononucleosis with impaired IgM but normal to augmented IgG response. The cases presented initial diagnostic challenges owing to a prolonged course of infection, marked lymphocytosis (peak lymphocyte count, 27,900/microL [27.9 10(9)/L]), clonal T-cell proliferation with T-cell receptor g gene rearrangements, and remote history of splenectomy. However, the acute nature of the infections, serial determinations of the anti-CMV IgM and IgG, exclusion of other causes, and detection of CMV in the blood established the diagnosis and revealed the deranged antibody response. The infections resolved without specific treatment. These cases suggest that the spleen might be a primary site for specific anti-CMV IgM response. PMID:15743745

  13. Atypical IgM multiple myeloma with deletion of c-MAF.

    PubMed

    Jurez Salcedo, L M; Lpez Rubio, M; Gil Fernndez, J J; Garcia-Suarez, J; Magro, E; Arranz, E; Gutirrez Jomarrn, I; Marcellini Antonio, S; Blasco, A; Burgaleta, C

    2015-10-01

    IgM multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare subtype of myeloma that shares clinical and pathological features with Waldenstrm's macroglobulinaemia. These are two separate entities that differ both in therapy and prognosis. We report a 57-year-old male, who presented with anaemia, hypercalcaemia, acute renal failure and several vertebral fractures that clinically suggested a multiple myeloma. Further investigations revealed a serum monoclonal component of IgM lambda type and a bone marrow infiltrated by small, lymphoplasmocytic cells. IgM MM was finally diagnosed by means of both inmunophenotypic and immunohistochemistry techniques, stressing the importance of inmunophenotypic evaluation when clinical and morphological features are discordant. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies disclosed a particular combination of deletion 13q14, t(11;14) and monoallelic deletion C-MAF without t(14;16). The clinical evolution after a Bortezomib-containing polychemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) conditioned with busulphan and melphalan is also presented. This very uncommon case highlights the impact of immunophenotyping on the differential diagnosis between IgM MM and WM, to choose the best treatment and establish an appropriate outcome. PMID:25996654

  14. [A case of selective IgM deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Kasahara, M; Miyawaki, T; Yahata, K; Hashimoto, H; Sugawara, A; Ueda, S; Matsuo, T; Kuwahara, T

    1996-04-01

    We report a case of selective IgM deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A 34-year-old female suffering from SLE was admitted with proteinuria and general fatigue. Laboratory findings revealed a very low serum IgM level, almost lower than 12 mg/dl. Renal biopsy findings showed diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN). In immunofluorescent microscopy, IgG was the most strongly stained followed by IgA, but IgM staining was only faint. As for the immunophenotype of the T cells, the OKT4/OKT8 ratio was normal. Response to both phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) was normal. However, responses of B cells to both pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) were significantly reduced. Surface IgM-positive B cells were decreased. These results indicate that the patient had B cell dysfunction, involving impairment of B cell differentiation. In this report, we discuss selective IgM deficiency and SLE documented in the literature. PMID:8709418

  15. Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

    2007-01-01

    Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

  16. AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.

    1996-04-01

    AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

  17. Detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in river water with a colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Aihua; Hu, Jing; Lin, Manman; Wen, Mengtang; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Chongxin; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhong, Jianfeng; Jiao, Lingxia; Xie, Yajing; Zhang, Cunzhen; Yu, Xiangyang; Liang, Ying; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-08-15

    3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) is a general metabolite of synthetic pyrethroids. It could be used as a generic biomarker for multiple pyrethroids exposure for human or pyrethroid residues in the environment. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 3-PBA were developed by using PBA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an immunogen. In the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format, the I50 and I10 values of purified mAbs were 0.63 and 0.13 ?g/ml, respectively, with a dynamic range between 0.19 and 2.04 ?g/ml. Then, the colloidal gold (CG)-based lateral flow immunoassay was established based on the mAbs. The working concentration of coating antigen and CG-labeled antibodies and the blocking effects were investigated to get optimal assay performance. The cutoff value for the assay was 1 ?g/ml 3-PBA, and the detection time was within 10 min. A total of 40 river water samples were spiked with 3-PBA at different levels and determined by the lateral flow immunoassay without any sample pretreatments. The negative false rate was 2.5%, and no positive false results were observed at these levels. This lateral flow immunoassay has the potential to be an on-site screening method for monitoring 3-PBA or pyrethroid residues in environmental samples. PMID:25957127

  18. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against human recombinant interferon beta using genetic immunization with simultaneous expression of IgM and IgG isotypes.

    PubMed

    Cantelli, Carina Pacheco; da Glria Martins Teixeira, Maria; Santos, Eneida Almeida; da Silva, Haroldo Cid; da Silva E Mouta, Sergio; Pimenta, Marcia Maria Arajo; Vianna, Carlos Otvio Alves; de Souza, Natlia Plnio; Batoreu, Ndia Maria; Galler, Ricardo; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni

    2009-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human recombinant interferon beta (hrIFNbeta) were generated by genetic immunization (GI). In order to test two viral promoters frequently used in mammalian expression plasmid vectors, mice were inoculated four times by intramuscular injection, without adjuvant, with 100 microg of either pcDNA 3.1hrIFNbeta or pZeoSV2IFNbeta containing the entire human interferon beta gene and under the control of, respectively, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early promoter or early SV-40 enhancer/promoter. Only serum samples from mice immunized with pZeoSV2IFNbeta were positive to anti-hrIFNbeta. The spleens of the immunized mice were fused with myeloma Sp2/0 cells and the hybridoma clones generated screened by an in house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fourteen MAbs were selected as reactive with hrIFNbeta. Western blot analysis was performed and only one recognized the 18 kDa isoform (non-glycosylated) of hrIFNbeta. All MAbs were subjected to antibody isotype characterization with a commercial ELISA and showed unusual profile with simultaneous expression of both IgM and IgG2a isotypes. This observation is further supported by RT-PCR amplification of the IgM CH4 domain using total RNA from hybridomas. PMID:19519248

  19. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM among individuals who were referred to medical laboratories in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Ebrahimnejad, Zahra; Gholami, Shirzad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Borhani, Samaneh; Lamsechi, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in humans. However, there is no current data regarding Toxoplasma infection among individuals who were referred to medical laboratories in Mazandaran province (northern Iran). Therefore, we performed a population-based study of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in this region. A total of 1832 sera samples (from 654 men and 1178 women) were collected from people who were referred to medical laboratories in different cities throughout Mazandaran province between March and July 2012. The serum titers of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 55.5%; and 14.4% of the positive samples were seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The highest seroprevalence was observed among people who were >50 years old (90.6%), and the lowest seroprevalence was observed among children who were 0-9 years old (9.4%; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalences for each sex in the study population. However, a regional sex-specific difference in seroprevalence was observed between men (54.1%) and women (70.6%; P=0.003) in the western cities of Mazandaran. As the seroprevalence of T. gondii in western and eastern Mazandaran was higher than that in the central cities, there is a need to evaluate the nature of the infection chain in these areas. PMID:26159578

  20. Enzymes, Industrial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes serve key roles in numerous biotechnology processes and products that are commonly encountered in the forms of food and beverages, cleaning supplies, clothing, paper products, transportation fuels, pharmaceuticals, and monitoring devices. Enzymes can display regio- and stereo-specificity, p...

  1. Soil Enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functionality and resilience of natural and managed ecosystems mainly rely on the metabolic abilities of microbial communities, the main source of enzymes in soils. Enzyme mediated reactions are critical in the decomposition of organic matter, cycling of nutrients, and in the breakdown of herbic...

  2. Understanding Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the way enzymes operate through reaction energetics, and explains that most of the catalytic power of enzymes lies in the strong noncovalent forces responsible for initial binding of substrate, which are only manifested at the transition state of the reaction. (Author/GA)

  3. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Immunoassay for Fat Cell Differentiation Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Johlfs, Mary G.; Gorjala, Priyatham; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Le, Thuc T.; Fiscus, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling cellular proteome is critical to understanding signal integration during cell fate determination. In this study, the capability of capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays to detect post-translational modifications (PTM) of protein isoforms is demonstrated. cIEF immunoassays exhibit protein detection sensitivity at up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods. This detection ultra-sensitivity permits proteomic profiling of several nanograms of tissue samples. cIEF immunoassays are employed to simultaneously profile three protein kinases during fat cell differentiation: cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I) of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, protein kinase B (Akt) of the insulin signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Interestingly, a switch in the expression level of PKG- isoforms is observed during fat cell differentiation. While both PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ isoforms are present in preadipocytes, only PKG-Iβ isoform is expressed in adipocytes. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level increases for Akt while decreases for ERK1 and ERK2 following the maturation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Taken together, cIEF immunoassay provides a highly sensitive means to study fat cell differentiation proteomics. cIEF immunoassay should be a powerful proteomics tool to study complex protein signal integration in biological systems. PMID:26132171

  4. Novel electrochemical immunoassay for quantitative monitoring of biotoxin using target-responsive cargo release from mesoporous silica nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Liao, Jiayao; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2013-10-01

    A novel homogeneous immunoassay protocol was designed for quantitative monitoring of small molecular biotoxin (brevetoxin B, PbTx-2, as a model) by using target-responsive cargo release from polystyrene microsphere-gated mesoporous silica nanocontainer (MSN). Initially, monoclonal mouse anti-PbTx-2 capture antibody was covalently conjugated onto the surface of MSN (mAb-MSN), and the electroactive cargo (methylene blue, MB) was then trapped in the pores of mAb-MSN by using aminated polystyrene microspheres (APSM) based on the electrostatic interaction. Upon addition of target PbTx-2, the positively charged APSM was displaced from the negatively charged mAb-MSN because of the specific antigen-antibody reaction. Thereafter, the molecular gate was opened, and the trapped methylene blue was released from the pores. The released methylene blue could be monitored by using a square wave voltammetry (SWV) in a homemade microelectrochemical detection cell. Under optimal conditions, the SWV peak current increased with the increasing of PbTx-2 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 3.5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1) PbTx-2 at the 3Sblank criterion. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation with identical batches were ?6% and 9.5%, respectively. The specificity and sample matrix interfering effects were acceptable. The analysis in 12 spiked seafood samples showed good accordance between results obtained by the developed immunoassay and a commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Importantly, the target-responsive controlled release system-based electrochemical immunoassay (CRECIA) offers a promising scheme for the development of advanced homogeneous immunoassay without the sample separation and washing procedure. PMID:23998398

  5. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

  6. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION PLAN FOR WESTINGHOUSE BIO-ANALYTIC SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan provides a detailed design and description of the demonstration and evaluation program for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems immunoassay technologies specific for the analysis of pentachlorophenol. he immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachl...

  7. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  8. The Effects of Sample Matrices on Immunoassays to Detect Microcystin-LR in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Immunoassays are widely used biochemical techniques to detect microcystins in environmental samples. The use of immunoassays for the detection of microcystins is vulnerable to matrix components and other interferents. This study is an evaluation of the effects of interf...

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies for sandwich immunoassay detection of Pacific ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of Pacific ciguatoxins CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were prepared by immunization of mice with the protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxin. Haptenic groups that possess a surface area larger than 400 A(2) were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTX3C or 51-hydroxyCTX3C. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these mAbs was established to detect CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C at the ppb level with no cross-reactivity against the other marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, or maitotoxin. PMID:19523973

  10. Survivability of immunoassay reagents exposed to the space radiation environment on board the ESA BIOPAN-6 platform as a prelude to performing immunoassays on Mars.

    PubMed

    Derveni, Mariliza; Allen, Marjorie; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Richter, Lutz; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C

    2013-01-01

    The Life Marker Chip (LMC) instrument is an immunoassay-based sensor that will attempt to detect signatures of life in the subsurface of Mars. The molecular reagents at the core of the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use; therefore, the design of such an instrument must take into account a number of risk factors, including the radiation environment that will be encountered during a mission to Mars. To study the effects of space radiation on immunoassay reagents, primarily antibodies, a space study was performed on the European Space Agency's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-Earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform to complement a set of ground-based radiation studies. Two antibodies were used in the study, which were lyophilized and packaged in the intended LMC format and loaded into a custom-made sample holder unit that was mounted on the BIOPAN-6 platform. The BIOPAN mission went into LEO for 12 days, after which all samples were recovered and the antibody binding performance was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The factors expected to affect antibody performance were the physical conditions of a space mission and the exposure to space conditions, primarily the radiation environment in LEO. Both antibodies survived inactivation by these factors, as concluded from the comparison between the flight samples and a number of shipping and storage controls. This work, in combination with the ground-based radiation tests on representative LMC antibodies, has helped to reduce the risk of using antibodies in a planetary exploration mission context. PMID:23286207

  11. Pre-cut Filter Paper for Detecting Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus IgM from Dried Cerebrospinal Fluid Spots

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Tehmina; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Phuangpanom, Soumphou; Phonemixay, Ooyanong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Lee, Sue; Newton, Paul N.; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of filter paper as a simple, inexpensive tool for storage and transportation of blood, ‘Dried Blood Spots’ or Guthrie cards, for diagnostic assays is well-established. In contrast, there are a paucity of diagnostic evaluations of dried cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spots. These have potential applications in low-resource settings, such as Laos, where laboratory facilities for central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics are only available in Vientiane. In Laos, a major cause of CNS infection is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). We aimed to develop a dried CSF spot protocol and to evaluate its diagnostic performance using the World Health Organisation recommended anti-JEV IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). Methodology and Principal Findings Sample volumes, spotting techniques and filter paper type were evaluated using a CSF-substitute of anti-JEV IgM positive serum diluted in Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) to end-limits of detection by JEV MAC-ELISA. A conventional protocol, involving eluting one paper punch in 200μl PBS, did not detect the end-dilution, nor did multiple punches utilising diverse spotting techniques. However, pre-cut filter paper enabled saturation with five times the volume of CSF-substitute, sufficiently improving sensitivity to detect the end-dilution. The diagnostic accuracy of this optimised protocol was compared with routine, neat CSF in a pilot, retrospective study of JEV MAC-ELISA on consecutive CSF samples, collected 2009–15, from three Lao hospitals. In comparison to neat CSF, 132 CSF samples stored as dried CSF spots for one month at 25–30°C showed 81.6% (65.7–92.3 95%CI) positive agreement, 96.8% (91.0–99.3 95%CI) negative agreement, with a kappa coefficient of 0.81 (0.70–0.92 95%CI). Conclusions/Significance The novel design of pre-cut filter paper saturated with CSF could provide a useful tool for JEV diagnostics in settings with limited laboratory access. It has the potential to improve national JEV surveillance and inform vaccination policies. The saturation of filter paper has potential use in the wider context of pathogen detection, including dried spots for detecting other analytes in CSF, and other body fluids. PMID:26986061

  12. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individuals stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38?ppt range with a measurement range of 10?ppt100?ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8?min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R?=?0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:25152888

  13. Fenton reaction-based colorimetric immunoassay for sensitive detection of brevetoxin B.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wenqiang; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2016-06-15

    We designed a new colorimetric immunoassay for sensitive monitoring of brevetoxin B (BTB) using enzyme-controlled Fenton reaction with a high-resolution 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-based visual colored system. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the equivalent iron(II) could be first converted into iron(III) and free hydroxyl radical (•OH) via the classical Fenton reaction. Then the as-produced iron(III) and •OH could cause a perceptible change from colorless to blue with the increasing H2O2 concentration in the presence of TMB. Based on Fenton reaction-triggered visual colored system, a novel competitive-type colorimetric enzyme immunoassay was developed for the quantitative screening of target BTB on the bovine serum albumin-BTB-modified magnetic bead using glucose oxidase/anti-BTB antibody-labeled gold nanoparticle as the signal-transduction tag. Upon target BTB introduction, the analyte competed with the conjugated BTB on the magnetic bead for anti-BTB antibody on gold nanoparticle. The carried glucose oxidase with the gold nanoparticle could implement the oxidation of glucose to produce H2O2, and the generated H2O2 promoted the above-mentioned Fenton reaction for color development. Under the optimal conditions, the absorbance decreased with the increasing target BTB in the range from 0.1 to 150ngkg(-1) with a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.076ngkg(-1). The LOD was 500-fold lower than that of commercialized Abraxis BTB ELISA kit. Non-specific adsorption was not observed. The precision, reproducibility and specificity were acceptable. Finally, the method accuracy was also validated for monitoring spiked seafood samples, giving results well matched with the referenced brevetoxin ELISA kit. PMID:26851583

  14. Pancreatic Enzymes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This fluid contains pancreatic enzymes to help with digestion and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid as it ... the formation of toxic substances due to incomplete digestion of proteins. Increased risk for intestinal infections. Amylase ...

  15. Architecture of Human IgM in Complex with P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Akhouri, Reetesh Raj; Goel, Suchi; Furusho, Hirotoshi; Skoglund, Ulf; Wahlgren, Mats

    2016-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum virulence is associated with sequestration of infected erythrocytes. Microvascular binding mediated by PfEMP1 in complex with non-immune immunoglobulin M (IgM) is common among parasites that cause both severe childhood malaria and pregnancy-associated malaria. Here, we present cryo-molecular electron tomography structures of human IgM, PfEMP1 and their complex. Three-dimensional reconstructions of IgM reveal that it has a dome-like core, randomly oriented Fab2s units, and the overall shape of a turtle. PfEMP1 is a C- shaped molecule with a flexible N terminus followed by an arc-shaped backbone and a bulky C terminus that interacts with IgM. Our data demonstrate that the PfEMP1 binding pockets on IgM overlap with those of C1q, and the bulkiness of PfEMP1 limits the capacity of IgM to interact with PfEMP1. We suggest that P. falciparum exploits IgM to cluster PfEMP1 into an organized matrix to augment its affinity to host cell receptors. PMID:26776517

  16. Comparison of 3 automated immunoassays for detection of anti-hepatitis A virus immunoglobulin M in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyewon; Lee, Yu-joo; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lee, Do-Hoon; Park, Myoung Hee; Song, Eun Young

    2013-03-01

    Three automated immunoassay kits for anti-Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) IgM-Architect, (Abbott Laboratories, USA), Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), and ADVIA Centaur (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA)-were compared. We included 178 consecutive samples, for which an anti-HAV IgM test was requested at Seoul National University Hospital from September 2009 to January 2010. Reviewing of medical records, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for HAV RNA, or total anti-HAV assay were performed on 16 (9.0%) samples with discrepant results. The percent agreements (kappas) of the Architect and ADVIA Centaur, Architect and Elecsys, and ADVIA Centaur and Elecsys kits were 96.6% (0.91), 96.6% (0.92), and 97.8% (0.94), respectively. Eight out of 16 discrepant samples showed gray-zone values in Architect but were nonreactive in the others. Slightly earlier seroconversion was suspected in Elecsys. The 3 assays showed comparable performances with excellent agreements in a tertiary care hospital setting. PMID:23483019

  17. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  18. Inadequacy of IgM antibody tests for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Jennifer H; Wiedeman, Caleb; Singleton, Joseph; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Mosites, Emily; Chung, Ida; Kato, Cecilia; Morris, Kevin; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Porter, Susan; Dunn, John

    2014-10-01

    Among 13 suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) cases identified through an enhanced surveillance program in Tennessee, antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii were detected in 10 (77%) patients using a standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were observed for 6 of 13 patients (46%) without a corresponding development of IgG, and for 3 of 10 patients (30%) at least 1 year post-onset. However, recent infection with a spotted fever group rickettsiae could not be confirmed for any patient, based on a lack of rising antibody titers in properly timed acute and convalescent serologic specimens, and negative findings by polymerase chain reaction testing. Case definitions used in national surveillance programs lack specificity and may capture cases that do not represent current rickettsial infections. Use of IgM antibodies should be reconsidered as a basis for diagnosis and public health reporting of RMSF and other spotted fever group rickettsiae in the United States. PMID:25092818

  19. Antibodies to steroids from a small human naive IgM library.

    PubMed

    Dörsam, H; Rohrbach, P; Kürschner, T; Kipriyanov, S; Renner, S; Braunagel, M; Welschof, M; Little, M

    1997-09-01

    Human antibodies specific for digoxigenin, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have been isolated from a small combinatorial IgM repertoire (4 x 10(7)) of single chain antibodies (scFv). The affinities of both the anti-estradiol and antiprogesterone scFv were approximately 10(8) M(-1). Naive IgM genes appeared to be highly represented, since only the heavy chain variable domain of the anti estradiol antibody contained differences to corresponding germline sequences. The light chain variable domain of the progesterone receptor was also identical to a germline sequence, showing that it is possible for completely naive antibodies to bind steroids with affinities comparable to those obtained after a secondary immune response. PMID:9305722

  20. Tyramine-based enzymatic conjugate repeats for ultrasensitive immunoassay accompanying tyramine signal amplification with enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Tang, Yun; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Tang, Dianping

    2014-08-19

    A new impedimetric immunoassay protocol based on enzyme-triggered formation of tyramine-enzyme repeats on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was designed for highly sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model) by virtue of utilizing enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation toward 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) on anti-CEA antibody (Ab1)-modified immunosensor. Initially, AuNP was functionalized with horseradish peroxidase and detection antibody (HRP-AuNP-Ab2), and then HRP-tyramine conjugate was utilized for the formation of tyramine-HRP repeats through the triggering of the immobilized HRP on the AuNP with the aid of H2O2. In the presence of target CEA, the carried HRP-tyramine repeats accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex catalyzed the 4-CN oxidation to produce an insoluble precipitation on the immunosensor, thus causing a local alteration of the conductivity. Three signal-transduction tags including HRP-Ab2, HRP-AuNP-Ab2, and HRP-AuNP-Ab2 with HRP-tyramine repeats were employed for target CEA evaluation, and improved analytical properties were achieved by HRP-AuNP-Ab2 with HRP-tyramine repeats. Using the unique signal-transduction tag, the analytical performance of the impedimetric immunoassay was studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the impedimetric immunosensor displayed a wide dynamic working range of between 0.5 pg mL(-1) and 40 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.38 pg mL(-1) relative to target CEA. The coefficients of variation (CVs) were ≤9.3% and 13.3% for the intra-assay and interassay, respectively. The levels of CEA in eight clinical serum specimens were measured by using the developed impedimetric immunosensor. The obtained results correlated well with those from the electrochemiluminescent (ECL)-based immunoassay with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. PMID:25088522

  1. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victor; Huang, Jing Li; Lui, Ming Fai; Malecek, Karolina; Ohta, Yuko; Mooers, Arne; Hsu, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1-D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer loci, and characterized the IgH isotypes for organization, functionality, and the somatic diversification mechanisms that act upon them. Gene numbers differ slightly between individuals (~15), but five active IgM subclasses are always present. Each gene undergoes rearrangement that is strictly confined within the minilocus; in B cells there is no interaction between adjacent loci located ?120 kb apart. Without combinatorial events, the shark IgM H chain repertoire is based on junctional diversity and, subsequently, somatic hypermutation. We suggest that the significant contribution by junctional diversification reflects the selected novelty introduced by RAG in the early vertebrate ancestor, whereas combinatorial diversity coevolved with the complex translocon organization. Moreover, unlike other cartilaginous fishes, there are no germline-joined VDJ at any nurse shark ? locus, and we suggest that such genes, when functional, are species-specific and may have specialized roles. With an entire complement of IgM genes available for the first time, phylogenetic analyses were performed to examine how the multiple Ig loci evolved. We found that all domains changed at comparable rates, but VH appears to be under strong positive selection for increased amino acid sequence diversity, and surprisingly, so does C?2. PMID:18490746

  2. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks. PMID:23881231

  3. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  4. Nomenclature of Toso, Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 3, and IgM FcR.

    PubMed

    Kubagawa, Hiromi; Carroll, Michael C; Jacob, Chaim O; Lang, Karl S; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Mak, Tak; McAndrews, Monica; Morse, Herbert C; Nolan, Garry P; Ohno, Hiroshi; Richter, Günther H; Seal, Ruth; Wang, Ji-Yang; Wiestner, Adrian; Coligan, John E

    2015-05-01

    Hiromi Kubagawa and John E. Coligan coordinated an online meeting to define an appropriate nomenclature for the cell surface glycoprotein presently designated by different names: Toso, Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 3 (FAIM3), and IgM FcR (FcμR). FAIM3 and Faim3 are the currently approved symbols for the human and mouse genes, respectively, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ensembl, and other databases. However, recent functional results reported by several groups of investigators strongly support a recommendation for renaming FAIM3/Faim3 as FCMR/Fcmr, a name better reflecting its physiological function as the FcR for IgM. Participants included 12 investigators involved in studying Toso/FAIM3(Faim3)/FμR, representatives from the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee (Ruth Seal) and the Mouse Genome Nomenclature Committee (Monica McAndrews), and an observer from the IgM research field (Michael Carroll). In this article, we provide a brief background of the key research on the Toso/FAIM3(Faim3)/FcμR proteins, focusing on the ligand specificity and functional activity, followed by a brief summary of discussion about adopting a single name for this molecule and its gene and a resulting recommendation for genome nomenclature committees. PMID:25888699

  5. Monitoring Pesticides and Personal Care Chemicals in Water by Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bo...

  6. Effect of phenolic compounds on immunoassays of peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are antioxidants. Because of their health benefit, PCs may be added to some food products. Occasionally, these products may be subjected to screening for food allergens (i.e. peanuts). In this case, the screening (an immunoassay technique) may or may not be affected by the P...

  7. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

  8. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

  9. Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

    2014-10-01

    Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG.

  10. Galactomannan Enzymatic Immunoassay Cross-Reactivity Caused by Prototheca Species

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bossche, D.; Hendrickx, M.; De Becker, A.; Jacobs, R.; Naessens, A.; Pirard, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report a reactive Aspergillus galactomannan enzymatic immunoassay against the serum of a patient with invasive Prototheca zopfii infection. Analysis of the supernatants of suspensions of P. zopfii and other Prototheca isolates revealed positive results as well. These data suggest cross-reactivity with the serum Aspergillus galactomannan assay in invasive protothecosis. PMID:22837317

  11. AN EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration f...

  12. EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, conducted an evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis. he evaluation revealed numerous deficiencies. often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. everal d...

  13. A fluorescence immunoassay for soluble antigens employing flow cytometric detection.

    PubMed

    Lisi, P J; Huang, C W; Hoffman, R A; Teipel, J W

    1982-04-01

    A "sandwich" fluorescence immunoassay is described which does not require the physical separation of bound from free label. Antibody coated microspheres, sample and fluorescent antibody are reacted together as in a conventional 'sandwich' immunoassay except that separation and washing steps are omitted. After the reaction is completed, the suspension is introduced directly into a flow cytometer equipped with a laser light source and both fluorescent and scattered light detection capabilities. By gating fluorescence light accumulation on scattered light pulses, particles associated fluorescence may be selectively measured. The system was evaluated in a model immunoassay for human immunoglobulin (hIgG), employing anti-hIgG coated microspheres (1--5 micrometer and 40--50 micrometer polyacrylamide beads and 30--40 micrometer dextran beads), fluorescein-labeled rabbit anti-hIgG and a Spectrum III flow cytometer. Sensitivities of 10 ng/ml and intra-assay precisions of 2--10% were achieved in a serum matrix. The approach potentially provides a general nonseparation immunoassay format for quantitatively measuring both small and large molecular weight soluble antigens, as well as cell surface antigens. PMID:7039872

  14. Detection of immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid from syphilis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J B; Farshy, C E; Hunter, E F; Hambie, E A; Wobig, G H; Larsen, S A

    1986-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated in an immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) for syphilis with sonic extracts of Treponema pallidum coated on polystyrene plates. The ELISA procedure was reproducible, and T. pallidum antigens were stable., A total of 15 CSF samples from patients with neurosyphilis, 18 CSF samples from patients with syphilis, 12 CSF samples from patients treated for syphilis, and 494 CSF samples from patients with neurologic or other systemic diseases were tested. The IgM ELISA gave reactive results in all of six symptomatic and congenital neurosyphilitic patients and none of nine asymptomatic neurosyphilitic patients. Of 524 CSF samples from nonneurosyphilitic individuals, 513 were nonreactive, resulting in 98% test specificity. The IgM ELISA in CSF should prove to be useful for confirmation of symptomatic neurosyphilis. PMID:3533984

  15. Development of an immunoassay to detect benzene adducts in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Grassman, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an immunoassay to detect the adducts formed in hemoglobin after exposure to benzene, which is known to cause bone marrow degeneration and acute myelogenous leukemia. The use of benzene-adduct detection as a biological monitoring method would permit measurement of low exposures and exposures sustained weeks earlier. The reactivity of hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite, with blood proteins and amino acids was investigated in order to decide which antigens and analytes were likely to be suitable for immunoassay development. The second section determined the combination of benzene-metabolite and antigen need to produce an immunoassay with the requisite low detection limit and specificity. The immunoassays with the best performance were tested on hemoglobin from benzene-exposed mice. In vitro studies showed that hydroquinone efficiently formed adducts with erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin but not with albumin. Adduction efficiency was greater in incubations using purified hemoglobin than whole blood. Cysteine accounted for 15 to 27% of the adducts formed by hydroquinone. The site of the other adducts were not identified although there was evidence that the hemoglobin heme was adducted. Adducts were found on only 1 of the 2 globin chains. Tryptic digestion of the globin failed to associate the adducts with a specific peptide. Antigens made from hydroquinone-adducted hemoglobin but not hydroquinone-adducted cysteines coupled to carrier proteins effectively elicited adduct-specific antibodies. Interference due to reactivity to hemoglobin was controlled by using uniform quantities of hemoglobin in all wells. The mid-range of the best assays were approximately 12 pmoles HQ per well. Antibodies directed toward hemoglobin adducted with the benzene metabolites phenol, catechol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were also made. The performance of the anti-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were suitable for quantitative immunoassays.

  16. Effect of Polymer Hydration State on In-Gel Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Vlassakis, Julea; Herr, Amy E

    2015-11-01

    Applications as diverse as drug delivery and immunoassays require hydrogels to house high concentration macromolecular solutions. Yet, thermodynamic partitioning acts to lower the equilibrium concentration of macromolecules in the hydrogel, as compared to the surrounding liquid phase. For immunoassays that utilize a target antigen immobilized in the hydrogel, partitioning hinders introduction of detection antibody into the gel and, consequently, reduces the in-gel concentration of detection antibody, adversely impacting assay sensitivity. Recently, we developed a single-cell targeted proteomic assay with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of single cell lysates followed by an in-gel immunoassay. In the present work, we overcome partitioning that both limits analytical sensitivity and increases consumption of costly detection antibody by performing the immunoassay step after dehydrating the antigen-containing polyacrylamide gel. Gels are rehydrated with a solution of detection antibody. We hypothesized that matching the volume of detection antibody solution with the hydrogel water volume fraction would ensure that, at equilibrium, the detection antibody mass resides in the gel and not in the liquid surrounding the gel. Using this approach, we observe (compared with antibody incubation of hydrated gels): (i) 4-11 fold higher concentration of antibody in the dehydrated gels and in the single-cell assay (ii) higher fluorescence immunoassay signal, with up to 5-fold increases in signal-to-noise-ratio and (iii) reduced detection antibody consumption. We also find that detection antibody signal may be less well-correlated with target protein levels (GFP) using this method, suggesting a trade-off between analytical sensitivity and variation in immunoprobe signal. Our volume-matching approach for introducing macromolecular solutions to hydrogels increases the local in-gel concentration of detection antibody without requiring modification of the hydrogel structure, and thus we anticipate broad applicability to hydrogel-based assays, diagnostics, and drug delivery. PMID:26457450

  17. Comparative biochemical characterization of a human IgM produced in both ascites and in vitro cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Monica, T.J.; Goochee, C.F.; Maiorella, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Researchers have conducted a comparative analysis of a monoclonal human IgM obtained from cells cultured in nude-mouse ascites and from the same cells cultured in a bioreactor. We studied the glycosylation of the IgMs using lectin blotting and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD), and we also developed reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) peptide maps of the IgM samples. The HPAE-PAD data indicate that the samples differ in both the type and distribution of oligosaccharides present on the IgMs. In addition, the proteins differ in their solubility behavior and in their RPLC peptide maps. We conclude that the method of cell culture of capable of significantly altering the characteristics of the glycoprotein product. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roodbari, F.; Roustai, M. H.; Mostafaie, A.; Soleimanjdahi, H.; Foroshani, R. Sarrami; Sabahi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious respiratory virus infection, with typical clinical symptoms including maculopapular rash, fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. Despite implementation of widespread vaccination programs throughout the world, the rates of global morbidity and mortality are still considerable. This study was performed to design a reliable indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM). First, human IgM was purified, and then an anti-IgM antibody was produced in rabbits and purified in a multistep process. The rabbit IgG against human IgM was conjugated with peroxidase. Measles virus-infected Vero cells produced viral antigen. One hundred serum samples from infants of 9 to 18 months of age, mostly vaccinated, were evaluated for determining the presence of specific IgM antibodies against measles virus. The samples were also evaluated for neutralizing antibodies against measles virus by a microneutralization test (MNT). By comparing the results of the ELISA with those of MNT, it was demonstrated that ELISA had a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 92%, respectively. On the other hand, when the results obtained by our ELISA system were compared with those of an imported measles virus IgM ELISA kit (EIAgen; Adaltis Italia SPa, Bologna, Italy), a high level of agreement was shown (k = 0.926). PMID:12738645

  19. Single-Digit Pathogen and Attomolar Detection with the Naked Eye Using Liposome-Amplified Plasmonic Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Ahmed, Snober; Abbas, Abdennour

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an enzyme-free plasmonic immunoassay with a binary (all-or-none) response. The presence of a single pathogen in the sample results in a chemical cascade reaction leading to a large red to dark-blue colorimetric shift visible to the naked eye. The immediate and amplified response is initiated by a triggered breakdown of cysteine-loaded nanoliposomes and subsequent aggregation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles. Our approach enabled visual detection of a single-digit live pathogen of Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli O157 in water and food samples. Furthermore, the assay allowed a naked-eye detection of target antibody concentrations as low as 6.7 attomolar (600 molecules in 150 ?L); six orders of magnitude lower than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:26308387

  20. Pathogenic Relevance of IgG and IgM Antibodies against Desmoglein 3 in Blister Formation in Pemphigus Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Ota, Takayuki; Saito, Masataka; Hata, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ishiko, Akira; Yamada, Taketo; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.; Amagai, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease caused by IgG antibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Previously, we isolated a pathogenic mAb against Dsg3, AK23 IgG, which induces a pemphigus vulgaris-like phenotype characterized by blister formation. In the present study, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing AK23 IgM to examine B-cell tolerance and the pathogenic role of IgM. Autoreactive transgenic B cells were found in the spleen and lymph nodes, whereas anti-Dsg3 AK23 IgM was detected in the cardiovascular circulation. The transgenic mice did not develop an obvious pemphigus vulgaris phenotype, however, even though an excess of AK23 IgM was passively transferred to neonatal mice. Similarly, when hybridoma cells producing AK23 IgM were inoculated into adult mice, no blistering was observed. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed IgM binding at the edges of desmosomes or interdesmosomal cell membranes, but not in the desmosome core, where AK23 IgG binding has been frequently detected. Furthermore, in an in vitro dissociation assay using cultured keratinocytes, AK23 IgG and AK23 IgM F(ab?)2 fragments, but not AK23 IgM, induced fragmentation of epidermal sheets. Together, these observations indicate that antibodies must gain access to Dsg3 integrated within desmosomes to induce the loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. These findings provide an important framework for improved understanding of B-cell tolerance and the pathophysiology of blister formation in pemphigus. PMID:21718682