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1

Enzyme immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was developed. The EIA was evaluated on the basis of results in the M. pneumoniae complement fixation (MPCF) test and the cold agglutinin test. Serum samples from 430 patients with respiratory infections of known or unknown etiology, from 91 healthy children and adults and from 20 patients with rheumatoid factor, were investigated. By the criteria chosen for positive diagnostic EIA values, we found that the combined measurement of specific IgM and IgG gave a specificity of 99.7% and a sensitivity of 97.8%. If only IgM antibodies were measured, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 88%. For IgG alone the specificity was 99.7%, but the sensitivity was only 46% because of the high EIA cutoff value chosen for IgG. We found no false positives among serum samples from patients with non-M. pneumoniae respiratory infection of known etiology, and there were no false IgM positives due to rheumatoid factor. In some cases the IgM EIA results became positive earlier in the course of illness than the MPCF titer. While children and teenagers responded predominantly with IgM antibodies, patients older than 40 years often had an IgG response only (56% of cases), probably because of reinfection. We conclude that this EIA is a good alternative to the combined MPCF and cold agglutinin tests in the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection.

Uldum, S A; Jensen, J S; S?ndergard-Andersen, J; Lind, K

1992-01-01

2

A recombinant protein-based enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibody to human cytomegalovirus.  

PubMed

The reliability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which used recombinant antigen to detect human cytomegalovirus IgM was studied. Serum samples from each of 283 children aged 5 +/- 2 years were studied. In all samples the anti-IgM antibodies were investigated with the ELISA techniques Enzygnost (Behring) and ETI-Cito (Sorin) which were both based on whole viral particles, and OPUS (Behring) based on recombinant antigen. Of the samples, 254 (89.4%) were negative with all three tests. The 29 remaining samples were positive with one or two of the three techniques. The diagnostic efficacy of Enzygnost, ETI-Cito and OPUS, respectively, was for sensitivity of 50%, 66.7% and 50%, and for specificity of 100%, 95.6% and 96%, respectively. The results with each of the three ELISAs did not differ widely and their diagnostic efficacy was similar. The method based on recombinant antigen was not found to be more effective than tests based on whole viral particles. PMID:9697339

Gutiérrez, J; Rodríguez, M; Pardal, J; Piédrola, G; Maroto, M C

1998-01-01

3

Evaluation of serological diagnostic indices for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: immunofluorescence tests and enzyme-linked immunoassays for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies.  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and efficiency of immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were assessed on sera from mucocutaneous leishmaniasis patients and controls. The sensitivity of the IgG-ELISA test was 93.3% with 95% confidence interval higher than what could be due to a random test not associated with the disease. The specificity of all tests, except the IgM-ELISA, gave indices that could not have been due to chance. The IgG-ELISA and IgG-IF had the highest positive predictive value and the kappa statistic showed that the strength of agreement between the disease and the test was strongest for IgG-ELISA. The IgG-ELISA had a negative predictive value with 95% confidence limits that were not due to chance alone. Efficiency was highest for IgG-ELISA and IgG-IF. These results were obtained using sera from patients with severe or long-standing disease and from controls in whom the disease was ruled out by a negative Montenegro skin test. In field surveys where the differences between cases and controls are less easy to define the diagnostic indices of these tests may vary with the disease prevalence.

Guimaraes, M. C.; Celeste, B. J.; Franco, E. L.; Cuce, L. C.; Belda, W.

1989-01-01

4

Enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and filter paper blood  

PubMed Central

Background The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients. Methods 781 pairs of acute (t0) and convalescent sera, obtained after three weeks (t3) and 161 corresponding pairs of filter paper blood spots were tested with ELISA for dengue IgG and IgM. 74 serum pairs were tested again in another laboratory with similar methods, after a mean of 252 days. Results Cases were classified as no dengue (10 %), past dengue (55%) acute primary (7%) or secondary (28%) dengue. Significant differences between the two laboratories' results were found leading to different diagnostic classification (kappa 0.46, p < 0.001). Filter paper results correlated poorly to serum values, being more variable and lower with a mean (95% CI) difference of 0.82 (0.36 to 1.28) for IgMt3, 0.94 (0.51 to 1.37) for IgGt0 and 0.26 (-0.20 to 0.71) for IgGt3. This also led to differences in diagnostic classification (kappa value 0.44, p < 0.001) The duration of storage of frozen serum and dried filter papers, sealed in nylon bags in an air-conditioned room, had no significant effect on the ELISA results. Conclusion Dengue virus IgG antibodies in serum and filter papers was not affected by duration of storage, but was subject to inter-laboratory variability. Dengue virus IgM antibodies measured in serum reconstituted from blood spots on filter papers were lower than in serum, in particular in the acute phase of disease. Therefore this method limits its value for diagnostic confirmation of individual patients with dengue virus infections. However the detection of dengue virus IgG antibodies eluted from filter paper can be used for sero-prevalence cross sectional studies.

Tran, Thanh Nga T; de Vries, Peter J; Hoang, Lan Phuong; Phan, Giao T; Le, Hung Q; Tran, Binh Q; Vo, Chi Mai T; Nguyen, Nam V; Kager, Piet A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Groen, Jan

2006-01-01

5

Stabilization of enzyme immunoassays for atrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reagent stability is an important issue in immunoassay technology. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for atrazine are used as an example for investigating the influence of different stabilizing agents on the activity of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (Ab), enzyme tracer (ET) as well as enzyme substrate after storage at different temperatures. When lyophilized Ab were stored for two weeks at 30°C, ca.

Andrea Dankwardt; Jutta Müller; Bertold Hock

1998-01-01

6

Enzyme-Enhanced Electrochemical Immunoassay for Phenytoin,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important application of enzyme-mediated electrocatalysis is in immunoassays where the current amplification of the enzyme reaction enhances the sensitivity of the measurement. The immunological utility of the ferrocene/glucose oxidase (Fer/GOx) system...

M. Umana J. Walker M. Wani C. Whisnant E. Cook

1988-01-01

7

Determination of anti-HBsAg IgM monoclonal antibodies in cell culture media by perfusion immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, specific, perfusion immunoassay for active anti-HBsAg monoclonal IgM is described. The immunoassay requires less than 3.5 min per sample. The precision was found to be 3.6% at an IgM concentration of 17 ?g\\/ml. A detection limit of 1 ?g\\/ml IgM in culture media was determined. Assay results were found to correlate very well with standard size exclusion chromatography

John M. Brackett; Kristen L. Cousineau; Hongqi Wang; Ananth V. Annapragada; Odin D. Cabal; Gary S. Gall; Bruce Peterson; W. Gerard Robey

1997-01-01

8

Status of Solid-Phase Enzyme Immunoassays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid-phase enzyme immunoassays are becoming increasingly popular due to their sensitivity, simplicity, and versatility. The three most common types of these assays (indirect, double-antibody, and competitive binding) have been described and examples give...

G. C. Saunders

1978-01-01

9

An enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone was developed using betamethasone-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate as a labelled antigen and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as a fluorescence substrate. The performances of the enzyme immunoassay were compared with that of a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-betamethasone and the same antiserum. The minimal detectable level for the enzyme immunoassay was 0.15 pg/tube or 0.15 ng/ml of plasma, which was remarkably more sensitive than the radioimmunoassay level of 10 pg/tube or 2 ng/ml of plasma. The specificity was sufficient, in particular, the cross reactivity of cortisol as 0.008%. However, the precision of the enzyme immunoassay was inferior to that of the radioimmunoassay.

Kominami, G.; Yamauchi, A.; Ishihara, S.; Kono, M.

1981-03-01

10

Rapid Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis by Using an Immunoglobulin M Dot Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurs in rural settings in southern and eastern Asia, where diagnostic facilities are limited. For the diagnosis of JE virus (JEV) infection, we developed a nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture dot enzyme immunoassay (MAC DOT) that is rapid, simple to use, requires no specialized equipment, and can distinguish JEV from dengue infection. In a prospective field

TOM SOLOMON; THI THU THAO; NGUYEN MINH DUNG; RACHEL KNEEN; ANANDA NISALAK; DAVID W. VAUGHN; JEREMY FARRAR; TRAN TINH HIEN; NICHOLAS J. WHITE; MARY JANE CARDOSA

1998-01-01

11

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

1997-01-01

12

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

1997-11-25

13

Toxocariasis: serological diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-immunoassay was developed to measure the concentration of serum antibody specific for the secretory antigens released by migrating toxocaral larvae. This technique was evaluated by testing sera from healthy UK adults, and from patients with and without toxocariasis. In 922 healthy adults, 2.6% were found to have elevated specific antibody levels. Elevated values were observed twice as frequently in

D H de Savigny; A Voller; A W Woodruff

1979-01-01

14

Enzyme immunoassay with enhanced specificity for detection of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Two different methods for preventing the binding of cross-reacting antibodies to the genus-reactive chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to improve the specificity of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis. Coated elementary bodies were treated with either sodium periodate, to oxidize the antigenic sites of the LPS, or Triton X-100, to extract the LPS. By using these new enzyme immunoassays, the standard enzyme immunoassay, and the whole inclusion fluorescence (WIF) assay, antibodies to C. trachomatis were determined in sera from different groups of patients and controls. Paired serum samples from patients with culture-proven urogenital C. trachomatis infections showed similar responses in all three assays. Paired serum samples from patients with Chlamydia psittaci infections showed similar responses in the WIF assay and the standard enzyme immunoassay, whereas significantly reduced titers were obtained in the enzyme immunoassays with treated antigen, especially in the convalescent-phase serum samples. Serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of infection with C. trachomatis, pregnant women, and blood donors were evaluated by all three types of assays. Eighty percent of the significant reductions in immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM titers were observed in sera with WIF assay titers in the lower classes (IgG, 1: < or = 256; IgA, 1: < or = 32; IgM, 1: < or = 16). From these results we conclude that oxidation of the antigen by sodium periodate is a simple and effective method of producing an enzyme immunoassay with enhanced specificity that could be useful for diagnostic purposes and seroepidemiological studies.

Ossewaarde, J M; de Vries, A; van den Hoek, J A; van Loon, A M

1994-01-01

15

Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques.  

PubMed Central

In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests.

Voller, A; Bartlett, A; Bidwell, D E

1978-01-01

16

Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests.

A Voller; A Bartlett; D E Bidwell

1978-01-01

17

Detection of Immunoglobulin M Antibodies to Hepatitis E Virus by Class Capture Enzyme Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

The measurement of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) has been essential for understanding the epidemiology of hepatitis E. Studies to determine the prevalence of HEV infections require a reliable serologic assay that is sensitive and specific. It is also important to distinguish the acute from the convalescent phase of an infection; this usually requires the detection of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class of antibody. Few enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) that measure IgM anti-HEV have been described, and most have utilized the sandwich method. The present study describes an EIA that detects IgM anti-HEV by antibody class capture methodology. The assay was validated by using serum and/or plasma panels from experimentally infected nonhuman primates. It was used to demonstrate an anamnestic response and the reappearance of IgM anti-HEV in a chimpanzee experimentally challenged with HEV at two different times 45 months apart. The class capture method was more sensitive than the sandwich EIA when used to test clinical samples from two hepatitis E epidemics in Pakistan; it also had the advantage of distinguishing IgM anti-HEV in the presence of high titers of IgG anti-HEV.

Yu, C.; Engle, R. E.; Bryan, J. P.; Emerson, S. U.; Purcell, R. H.

2003-01-01

18

DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

19

Preparation of Enzyme Conjugate through Adipic Acid Dihydrazide as Linker and Its Use in Immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct coupling of the carboxylic derivative of steroids to the amino group of enzymes is a well-established method in steroid enzyme immunoassays for making enzyme conjugates (1). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), containing six lysine residues in the sequence, is a widely used enzyme in enzyme immunoassays; in practice, how- ever, only one or two of these are generally available for

Anupam Basu; Tulsidas G. Shrivastav; Kiran P. Kariya

20

Marked digoxin-like immunoreactive factor interference with an enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

A case in which digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) interfered with an enzyme immunoassay in a patient with renal insufficiency is reported. A 79-year-old woman was found to have a serum digoxin concentration (SDC) determined by enzyme immunoassay of 5.0 ng/ml. Although all subsequent SDC determined by the enzyme immunoassay system were elevated, identical samples run on a fluorescence polarization immunoassay revealed SDC within the therapeutic range. Marked DLIF-related assay interference has been reported to occur with some digoxin assays; however, the enzyme immunoassay methods have never been reported to cross-react to the magnitude seen in this case. PMID:3063480

Karboski, J A; Godley, P J; Frohna, P A; Horton, M W; Reitmeyer, W J

1988-09-01

21

An indirect enzyme immunoassay for the mycotoxin citrinin.  

PubMed Central

An indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay using rabbit antisera could detect citrinin in buffer solutions at 1 to 13 ng/ml (0.05 to 0.65 ng per assay). Cross-reactivity with austdiol, alternariol, ochratoxin A, and deoxynivalenol was < 0.1% relative to citrinin. Recovery of citrinin added to wheat flour at 200 to 2,000 ng/g was 89 to 104%, with a coefficient of variation of 6.9 to 13%.

Abramson, D; Usleber, E; Martlbauer, E

1995-01-01

22

Enzyme-Labeling of Antibodies and Their Fragments for Enzyme Immunoassay and Immunohistochemical Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an enzyme as a label has a number of advantages over the use of other labels in both immunohistochemistry and immunoassay. Immunofluorescence techniques are not suitable for ultrastructural research on cells, and ferritin-labeled antibodies allow only electronmicroscopic studies. By contrast, enzyme-labeled antibodies permit localization of cellular antigens in relation to tissue structures under light microscope and also

Eiji Ishikawa; Masayoshi Imagawa; Seiichi Hashida; Shinji Yoshitake; Yoshitaka Hamaguchi; Tetsuo Ueno

1983-01-01

23

Diagnostic performance indices for immunofluorescent tests and enzyme immunoassays of leishmaniasis sera from northern and north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A total of 341 sera were screened for anti-Leishmania IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescent (IF) tests and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Altogether, 292 of the sera originated from patients with clinically as well as parasitologically diagnosed (positive lesion imprint or the Montenegro skin test) cutaneous leishmaniasis; 49 of the sera were from controls from the same base population. In terms of diagnostic performance, the ELISAs for IgG and IgM yielded indices of diagnostic utility, and the positive predictive value for the IgG-ELISA was 94.6%. A remarkably high specificity (100%) was obtained with the IgA-IF test, but its sensitivity was very low.

Guimaraes, M. C.; Celeste, B. J.; Franco, E. L.

1990-01-01

24

Human-isotype-specific enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

A simple enzyme immunoassay has been developed to allow the quantitation of the human response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide. The assay uses the 14-valent vaccine (Pneumovax) as a convenient antigen to adsorb to the solid-phase microdilution plate wells and commercially available isotype-specific antibody conjugates. The results have been expressed as arbitrary pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody units by reading off a standard curve constructed by using heterogeneous pooled serum. All nonimmunized subjects tested had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies present in serum. All six control subjects who were immunized with Pneumovax demonstrated an IgG response, and the majority responded with a rise in IgA- and IgM-specific antibody concentrations at a mean of 6 weeks postimmunization. Five out of six cord sera tested contained IgG antibodies only, which were present in concentrations similar to those seen in adults, whereas in 6- to 12-month-old infants only low levels of IgG and IgM and no IgA antibodies were detected. Serum taken from 10 hypogammaglobulinemic patients immediately prior to infusion of immunoglobulin showed low to negative IgG antibody concentrations, and no IgA or IgM antibody was present.

Shyamala, G N; Roberton, D M; Hosking, C S

1988-01-01

25

Development and evaluation of an indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of porcine antibodies to pseudorabies virus.  

PubMed Central

An indirect enzyme immunoassay is described for detection of porcine serum antibody to pseudorabies virus. The analytical sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay was found to be approximately 4.5 log 4 X 10 (5120 times) greater than the serum neutralization test, based on parallel end point titrations. The diagnostic sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay was comparable or superior to that of the serum neutralization, based on the earliest detectable antibody after infection of swine with pseudorabies virus by intranasal or intrauterine routes or by contact with infected pigs. The enzyme immunoassay, at a screening dilution of 1:20, gave 100% agreement with ELISA results provided with a U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service proficiency panel of 40 sera. One serum having demonstrable antibody by the enzyme immunoassay was seronegative by the serum neutralization test.

Afshar, A; Wright, P F; Dulac, G C

1986-01-01

26

Influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacer-containing enzyme conjugates on functional parameters of steroid immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on functional parameters of enzyme immunoassays, using cortisol as a model steroid. Cortisol-3-O-carboxymethyloxime–bovine serum albumin (F-3-O-CMO-BSA) was used as

Seema Nara; Vinay Tripathi; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran Rangari; Harpal Singh; Kiran P. Kariya; Tulsidas G. Shrivastav

2008-01-01

27

Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine.  

PubMed

Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food. PMID:21795101

Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

2011-10-15

28

Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

2011-10-01

29

Quality assurance in immunoassay performance--comparison of different enzyme immunoassays for the determination of caffeine in consumer products.  

PubMed

Enzyme immunoassays with optical detection are amongst the most widely used bioanalytical tools. We defined seven parameters for the quality assessment of immunoassays that were addressed in a systematic study of direct and indirect immunoassays, using the enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), the chromogenic substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and para-nitrophenyl phosphate, and the fluorescent substrates 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The same monoclonal antibody against caffeine was used throughout the study. The four quality parameters regarding the standard curve were the test midpoint (sensitivity), the measurement range, the relative dynamic range of the signal, and the goodness of fit of the adjusted four-parameter logistic function. All HRP immunoassays showed a higher sensitivity compared to the AP assays. On the basis of all four criteria, it was established that the direct assay format is superior to the indirect format, the immunoassay using HRP TMB fulfilling all requirements best. In a second step, caffeine concentrations in 24 beverage and cosmetics samples were determined and three more quality parameters were assessed with this application. The direct HRP TMB assay showed one of the best intra- and inter-plate precisions and the best accuracy, defined by the correlation of results with those from the chosen reference method liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering all criteria, HRP TMB seems to be the enzyme substrate system of choice preferably used in the direct assay format. PMID:23224576

Grandke, Julia; Oberleitner, Lidia; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

2013-02-01

30

Performance of a cytomegalovirus IgG enzyme immunoassay kit modified to measure avidity.  

PubMed

The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity accurately discriminates recent and past CMV infections. We sought to determine if the Wampole Laboratories CMV IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) could be modified to measure avidity. The evaluation panel consisted of 156 serum samples we used in 2002 to validate a laboratory-developed EIA, in which 78 serum samples exhibited low avidity, 7 exhibited intermediate avidity, and 71 exhibited high avidity. The qualitative agreement between the two avidity assays was 94% (147/156); all 9 sera with discordant results exhibited intermediate avidity in one of the assays. The avidity index (AI) values in the two assays showed excellent correlation (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001). The definition of high avidity was verified for the Wampole assay by demonstrating high avidity in 91/93 (98%) recently collected CMV IgG-positive/IgM-negative serum samples. The performance of the Wampole avidity assay in a reference laboratory setting was assessed using 470 consecutive serum samples submitted for CMV IgG avidity testing. Surprisingly, 101 serum samples were negative when screened for CMV IgG using the Wampole kit per the package insert; 98 of these 101 serum samples were tested using a CMV IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay, and only 5 were positive. Of the 369 CMV IgG-positive samples, 6% exhibited low IgG avidity, 6% exhibited intermediate avidity, and 88% exhibited high avidity; CMV IgM detection rates were inversely related to AI levels. These findings show that (i) the Wampole CMV IgG EIA can be modified to measure CMV IgG avidity, (ii) many samples are apparently submitted for avidity testing without knowledge of their CMV IgG status, and (iii) most CMV IgG-positive sera submitted for avidity testing exhibit high avidity. PMID:24671557

Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Novak-Weekley, Susan M

2014-06-01

31

Detection of the dengue virus NS1 antigen using an enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Current diagnostic methods for dengue virus (DV) rely primarily on detection of anti-DV antibodies and/or DV RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. Several limitations exist however: seroconversion is delayed following infection, and DV RT-PCR assays are not yet readily available. The DV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen is an alternative acute phase DV biomarker, and here, we evaluated the new InBios (InBios International, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA) DENV Detect(TM) NS1 enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) compared to DV RT-PCR and serology for detection of recent DV infection. We report a positive, negative, and overall percent agreement of 96% (24/25), 86.0% (43/50), and 89.3% (67/75) for the InBios NS1 ELISA compared to DV RT-PCR. Performance of the NS1 ELISA compared to serology for anti-DV IgM antibodies showed a positive, negative, and overall percent agreement of 78.0% (85/109), 90.7% (333/367), and 87.8% (418/476), respectively. Collectively, the InBios NS1 ELISA can be used as an alternative to DV RT-PCR for identification of acute DV infection. PMID:24657172

Anderson, Neil W; Jespersen, Deborah J; Rollins, Leonard; Seaton, Brent; Prince, Harry E; Theel, Elitza S

2014-06-01

32

Enzyme immunoassay of thyroxin with a centrifugal analyzer  

SciTech Connect

We have applied a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for determination of thyroxinin serum to the ''Cobas Bio'' centrifugal analyzer. To unbind thyroxin from its protein complex, serum is treated for 20 min with a solution of NaOH containing ''Lipex,'' an agent for sequestering free fatty acids. The immunoenzymic reaction is then automatically performed by the analyzer at 37/sup 0/C. To 20 ..mu..L of sample mixture is added 125 ..mu..L of reagent (thyroxin antibodies and NAD/sup +/) and this mixture is incubated for 10 s. Then 25 ..mu..L of start reagent (enzyme-thyroxin conjugate and malate substrate) is added and the change in absorbance is monitored at 340 nm. The standard curve is linear up to at least 200 ..mu..g of thyroxin per liter. Within-assay precision (CV) varied from 1.1 to 2.9%, between-assay precision from 3.1 to 7.8%. Analytical recovery of thyroxin was complete. The deviation of control samples from target values ranged from -2.1% to 7.0%. Interference by hemoglobin or bilirubin is negligible. Results compare favorably with those by radioimmunoassay.

Izquierdo, J.M.; Sotorrio, P.; Quiros, A.

1982-01-01

33

Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

34

Enzyme-Linked Immunoassays for the Detection of Microbial Antigens and Their Antibodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages of enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) over radioactive assay techniques are mainly convenience in use, in that the labelled immunoreagents are stable for long periods, and the precautions and disposal procedures required for radioisotopes are unneces...

J. E. Herrmann

1986-01-01

35

Suitability of chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of blood tacrolimus concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) for the monitoring of whole-blood tacrolimus concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Kumi Hirano; Shuji Maruyama; Yasuaki Mino; Takafumi Naito; Junichi Kawakami

2011-01-01

36

Bioluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Norovirus Capsid Antigen  

PubMed Central

An ultrasensitive and fully automated bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) was developed for the detection of norovirus (NV) capsid antigen. In the evaluation tests with recombinant virus-like particles, the BLEIA demonstrated broad reactivity against several NV genotypes (genotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 12 in genogroup I [GI] and genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, and 13 in GII), a wide dose-response range from 0.25 pg/ml to 10,000 pg/ml, and good reproducibility with low coefficients of variation (CVs) (within-run CVs of <2.8%, between-day CVs of <3.7%). In the evaluation tests with NV-positive fecal samples, a good correlation (y = 0.66x ? 3.21, r = 0.84) between the BLEIA and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was obtained. Furthermore, in the dilution test with NV specimens, the analytical sensitivity of NV was estimated to be 105 to 106 copies/g of fecal sample, indicating that the analytical sensitivity of the BLEIA is comparable to that of commercially available molecular methods. All assay steps are fully automated, the turnaround time is 46 min, and the throughput of the assay is 120 tests/h. These results indicate that the BLEIA is potentially useful for the rapid diagnosis of NV in epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis.

Ohiro, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Mitsuki; Makinodan, Mitsuru; Ohta, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Wataru; Takayasu, Susumu; Tsuge, Harufumi

2012-01-01

37

Development of enzyme immunoassay for detection of DDT.  

PubMed

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) widely found in the environment and in the general population. In this study, a direct competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been developed for the quantitative analysis of DDT. To generate a specific polyclonal antibody for EIA, p, p'-DDT was conjugated to porcine thyroglobulin for rabbit immunization. At optimized EIA conditions, the standard curves ranged from 0.137 to 100 ng/mL with the quantification limit of 0.41 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation (CV%) were 5.42-10.53% for intra-assay and 6.04-7.26% for inter-assay. Cross-reactivities with DDT metabolites (DDTs, including o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP), o, p'-DCBP) were investigated. The polyclonal antibody showed relatively low and/or no cross-reactivity with these compounds, and the assay was seen to be highly selective for p, p'-DDT. Moreover, the DDTs could be ranked by their reactivity: DDT > DDD > DDE > DCBP. In addition, the characterization of the polyclonal antibody indicated that the antiserum possesses a high specificity for p, p'-isomers. The results indicated that the developed EIA using this antibody could be a convenient and supplemental analytical tool for monitoring DDT. PMID:18161572

Hirano, Masashi; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Kato, Ikuo; Yanaihara, Chizuko; Iwamoto, Ken-ichi; Sekiyama, Makiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Nakamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Onishi, Yuta; Arizono, Koji

2008-01-01

38

Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pholcodine (3-O-(2'-morpholinoethyl)-morphine) is used in many countries as an antitussive without analgesic or addictive properties. It is of forensic relevance that pholcodine interferes with opiate immunoassays. In this paper a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) procedure for the precise and sensitive detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair, after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation, is presented. Furthermore, detection of pholcodine using radio immunoassay (RIA), fluorescence polarisation immunoassay (FPIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for opiates is described. Using GC-MS, unmodified pholcodine could be detected in urine samples 4-7 weeks after ingestion of a single therapeutic dose of 50mg of pholcodine, the desmorpholinohydroxy metabolite for 1-2 weeks and the other metabolites (nor-, nordesmorpholinohydroxy-, hydroxy-, oxo- and noroxo-pholcodine) only during the first few hours. Morphine could also be detected in urine samples for the first few days. It was however mainly formed artificially during acid hydrolysis and only in trace amounts by metabolism. All the immunoassays tested gave positive results in urine samples during the first week taking the cut-off values recommended by the manufacturer into consideration. If values between the cut-off and the detection limit were taken into consideration, RIA and FPIA gave positive results for 2-4 weeks and EIA up to 2 weeks. Pholcodine could also be detected by RIA and GC-MS in samples of head hair clipped 10 weeks after ingestion of 50mg and in daily shaved samples of beard hair over a period of three weeks after ingestion of three doses of 60mg. It can be concluded that the widely used immunoassays for opiates show positive results in urine and hair samples for a long time after ingestion of the non-opioid pholcodine and that these results can be confirmed by the GC-MS procedure described in this paper. PMID:11453092

Maurer, H H; Fritz, C F

1990-12-01

39

Quantitation of Immunoglobulin to Hepatitis E Virus by Enzyme Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

We developed a quantitative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to hepatitis E virus (HEV) by using truncated HEV capsid protein expressed in the baculovirus system to improve seroepidemiology, to contribute to hepatitis E diagnosis, and to enable vaccine evaluations. Five antigen lots were characterized; we used a reference antiserum to standardize antigen potency. We defined Walter Reed antibody units (WR U) with a reference antiserum by using the four-parameter logistic model, established other reference pools as assay standards, and determined the conversion factor: 1 WR U/ml = 0.125 World Health Organization unit (WHO U) per ml. The EIA performed consistently; median intra- and intertest coefficients of variation were 9 and 12%, respectively. The accurate minimum detection limit with serum diluted 1:1,000 was 5.6 WR U/ml; the test could detect reliably a fourfold antibody change. In six people followed from health to onset of hepatitis E, the geometric mean antibody level rose from 7.1 WR U/ml to 1,924.6 WR U/ml. We used the presence of 56- and 180-kDa bands by Western blotting as a confirmatory test and to define true-negative and -positive serum specimens. A receiver-operating characteristics plot identified 30 WR U/ml as an optimum cut-point (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 89%). The EIA detected antibody more sensitively than a commercially available test. The EIA was transferred to another laboratory, where four operators matched reference laboratory results for a panel of unknowns. Quantitation of antibody to HEV and confirmation of its specificity by Western blotting make HEV serology more meaningful.

Innis, Bruce L.; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Robinson, Robin A.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Yarbough, Patrice O.; Longer, Charles F.; Scott, Robert M.; Vaughn, David W.; Myint, Khin Saw Aye

2002-01-01

40

Performance of a Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay for Measuring Varicella-Zoster Virus Immunoglobulin G Levels in Adults and Comparison with Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays and Merck Glycoprotein Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly sensitive and specific, quantitative assays are needed to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immu- noglobulin G in human sera, particularly for determining immune status and response following vaccination. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) has been developed, and its performance was compared to that of two commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and Merck glycoprotein EIA (gpEIA). The TRFIA had equivalent sensitivity (97.8%)

P. A. C. Maple; J. Gray; J. Breuer; G. Kafatos; S. Parker; D. Brown

2006-01-01

41

Optimization of condition for conjugation of enrofloxacin to enzymes in chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, in order to find out a proper method for conjugation of enrofloxacin to label enzymes, two methods were compared and carbodiimide condensation was proved to be better. The results showed that the binding ratio of enrofloxacin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 8:1 and that of enrofloxacin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was 5:1. This indicated that conjugate synthesized by carbodiimide condensation was fit for chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Furthermore, data revealed that dialysis time was an important parameter for conjugation and 6 days was best. Buffer to dilute conjugate had little effect on CLEIA. The storage condition for conjugates was also studied and it was shown that the conjugate was stable at 4 °C with no additive up to 30 days. These data were valuable for establishing CLEIA to quantify enrofloxacin.

Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

2014-06-01

42

Incorporation of Different Bridge Length Linkers in Enzyme and Its Use in the Preparation of Enzyme Conjugates for Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a starting material, has been used to introduce different bridge length linkers, and its use in the preparation of enzyme conjugates for immunoassay is described. HRP was conjugated to adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), followed by ADH and 6?amino caproic acid (6ACA) followed by ADH. The different bridge length linkers?incorporated

Tulsidas G. Shrivastav

2005-01-01

43

Quantifying serum antibody class and subclass responses by enzyme immunoassay in humidifier-related disease.  

PubMed

Antibody activity in the major classes and IgG subclasses against antigens in factory humidifier water was quantified by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in 88 subjects who were exposed at work to the output from these contaminated humidifiers. Those with work-related symptoms had significantly higher mean titres than those who were symptom free, although values overlapped. The individuals with the highest IgG antibody titres also had the highest titres of IgM and IgA antibody, and these parameters did not discriminate between those with and without symptoms any better than the IgG titre. This was also true for the IgG subclasses where activity was predominantly measured in IgG1. Quantifying the IgG antibody allowed us to demonstrate a significant correlation with years of work exposure (P less than 0.001). There was no significant association between antibody and cigarette smoking, as assessed by smoking history and confirmed objectively by serum cotinine levels. There was a significant correlation with total IgG level (P less than 0.001) suggesting that a non-specific immune enhancement may accompany the specific response. The antibody titres were followed up to 3 years after modification of the humidification systems, and during this time symptoms resolved and the antibody levels progressively fell to undetectable levels. The EIA was adapted to measure antigen at nanogram levels thus providing a rapid test for screening of humidifer water as well as a technique that may help identify the nature of the antigens involved. PMID:1742653

Lewis, C; McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Speekenbrink, A; Kemeny, D M; Durnin, S; Feyerabend, C; Sinclair, D; Watt, A D; Boyd, G

1991-09-01

44

Investigation of several parameters influencing signal generation in flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid-response analytical tests that can be performed at the point of sampling are based on a visual detection system. The\\u000a influence of different factors on the signal generation in a membrane-based enzyme immunoassay was investigated. The research\\u000a was applied to a flow-through immunoassay for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). This assay format is a very convenient,\\u000a simple and fast

Anna Yu. Kolosova; Sarah De Saeger; Sergei A. Eremin; Carlos Van Peteghem

2007-01-01

45

Enzyme conversion immunoassay for determining total homocysteine in plasma or serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and precise immunoassay for quantification of total homocysteine in blood samples is presented. The method avoids the use of radioisotopes and chromato- graphic separations and relies on enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, fol- lowed by quantification of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine by an enzyme-linked immunoassay in microtiter format. The within- and between-assay imprecision is <6% and 8%, respectively, and results

Frank Frantzen; Arne Ludvig Faaren; Ingrid Alfheim; Arne Kristian Nordhei

46

Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oropouche (ORO) virus is an emerging infectious agent that has caused numerous outbreaks of an acute febrile (dengue-like) illness among humans in Brazil, Peru, and Panama. Diagnosis of ORO virus infection is based mainly on serology. Two different antigens, hamster serum antigen (HSA) and Vero cell lysate antigen (VCLA), are currently used in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in Brazil and Peru,

MOHAMMAD F. SAEED; MARCIO NUNES; PEDRO F. VASCONCELOS; ROBERT E. SHOPE; ROBERT B. TESH; ALAN D. T. BARRETT

2001-01-01

47

False-Positive Results of Enzyme Immunoassays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria may impact upon human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results. We evaluated two HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) by testing 1,965 Ugandans with malaria. We found poor positive predictive values (53% and 76%), particularly with younger age. Combining EIAs eliminated false positives but missed 21% of true positives. Performance of HIV EIAs in malaria may be unsatisfactory.

Gasasira, Anne F.; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane; Kiggundu, Moses; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

2006-01-01

48

Clinical evaluation of enzyme immunoassay in rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of antigen detection by IDEIA (NovoNordisk Ltd) in the rapid diagnosis of potentially serious herpes simplex (HSV) infections. METHODS: Nine hundred and twelve specimens from a variety of clinical sites, including ocular, mucocutaneous, respiratory and genital material, urines and necropsy tissue, were compared by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and conventional culture for the presence of HSV.

M Sillis

1992-01-01

49

Use of polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer of peroxidase-antibody conjugate for enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of a peroxidase-antibody conjugate was greatly stabilized while in solution through the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This stabilizing effect was dependent upon the molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis of the PVA used. The concentrations of PVA necessary for maximum stabilization had no adverse effects upon enzyme immunoassay. Thus, the conjugate stabilized by PVA can be used

Scott Boyd; Hiroshi Yamazaki

1994-01-01

50

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROBIAL ANTIGENS AND THEIR ANTIBODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages of enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) over radioactive assay techniques are mainly convenience in use, in that the labelled immunoreagents are stable for long periods, and the precautions and disposal procedures required for radioisotopes are unnecessary. In addition, the us...

51

Evaluation of a new enzyme immunoassay for detecting Helicobacter pylori in feces: a prospective pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing interest in noninvasive tests for detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Unlike serological and urea breath tests, the possibility of searching for H. pylori in feces has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new enzyme immunoassay for detecting H. pylori antigens in feces, as

Lucio Trevisani; Sergio Sartori; Fabrizio Galvani; Maria Rita Rossi; Marco Ruina; Carlo Chiamenti; Michele Caselli

1999-01-01

52

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Stool Specimens by PCR and Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive seminested PCR assay to detect Helicobacter pylori DNA in feces was developed. PCR with stool specimens and a novel antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for H. pylori detection in feces were evaluated as diagnostic tools and in follow-up with samples from 63 infected and 37 noninfected persons. Infected individuals received eradication therapy followed by endoscopic follow-up 35 days

ATHANASIOS MAKRISTATHIS; EVA PASCHING; KURT SCHUTZE; MARGIT WIMMER; MANFRED L. ROTTER; ALEXANDER M. HIRSCHL

1998-01-01

53

Comparing tandem repeats and multiple antigenic peptides as the antigens to detect antibodies by enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short synthetic peptides are useful alternatives to whole lysate or recombinant proteins as the antigens used for serodiagnosis of bacterial or viral infections. However, certain known antigenic peptides displayed low seroreactivities in direct enzyme immunoassay. This was believed to be due to the low coating efficiency, a constrained orientation, or loss of flexibility required for optimal antibody binding. Using a

Peter Kim; Chou-Pong Pau

2001-01-01

54

Characterization of protein adsorption on membrane surface by enzyme linked immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for determining the amount of adsorbed protein on membrane surface is developed on the basis of immunoassay using alkaline phosphotase as enzyme label and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on HT Tuffryn, a kind of polysulfone microfiltration membrane, in the absence and presence of an electric field is investigated experimentally. It is

Gang Yin; Jan-Christer Janson; Zheng Liu

2000-01-01

55

Seroprevalence of hantavirus antibodies in Germany as determined by a new recombinant enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the epidemiological importance of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Germany, the prevalence of antibodies against hantaviruses was determined in 13,358 sera from residents of various geographic regions, 1,284 sera from occupational risk groups and 287 sera from chronic hemodialysis patients. Serological investigations were performed using a highly specific transferable solid phase enzyme immunoassay based on

L. Zöller; M. Faulde; H. Meisel; B. Ruh; P. Kimmig; U. Schelling; M. Zeier; P. Kulzer; C. Becker; M. Roggendorf; E. K. F. Bautz; D. H. Krüger; G. Darai

1995-01-01

56

A highly sensitive immunoassay using antibody-conjugated spherical mesoporous silica with immobilized enzymes.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive immunoassay was developed by using antibody-conjugated spherical mesoporous silica with immobilized enzymes. The higher ratio of enzyme/antibody than conventional ELISA improved both the sensitivity and dynamic range. Especially, the use of spherical mesoporous silica could achieve a limit of detection (LOD) with a sensitivity that is 20 times more than that of ELISA using amorphous silica. PMID:24402353

Eum, Ji Young; Hwang, Sang Youn; Ju, Youngjun; Shim, Jong Min; Piao, Yunxian; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Jungbae

2014-04-01

57

High Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in Acute Q Fever by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)  

PubMed Central

Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.

Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-01-01

58

Influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacer-containing enzyme conjugates on functional parameters of steroid immunoassay.  

PubMed

Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on functional parameters of enzyme immunoassays, using cortisol as a model steroid. Cortisol-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin (F-3-O-CMO-BSA) was used as immunogen to raise the antiserum in New Zealand white rabbits. Three enzyme conjugates were prepared using cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (F-21-HS) as carboxylic derivative of cortisol and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an enzyme label. These were F-21-HS-HRP (without spacer), F-21-HS-adipic acid dihydrazide-HRP (adipic acid dihydrazide as hydrophobic spacer), and F-21-HS-urea-HRP (urea as hydrophilic spacer). The influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers on the functional parameters of assays such as lower detection limit, ED50, and specificity was studied with reference to enzyme conjugate without spacer. The results of the present investigation revealed that the presence of a hydrophilic spacer in the enzyme conjugate decreases the lower detection limit, decreases the ED50, and marginally improves the specificity of assays. These improvements in functional parameters of assays may be due to the decreased magnitude of the overall hydrophobic interactions existing between the spacer in enzyme conjugate and the antigen binding site of the antibody. PMID:18023401

Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Chaube, Shail K; Rangari, Kiran; Singh, Harpal; Kariya, Kiran P; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

2008-02-01

59

Characterization of a Rapid and Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) for Progesterone Applied to Conditioned Cell Culture Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progesterone accumulation in conditioned media is a frequently employed endpoint for in vitro cell culture of steroidogenic cells. Although radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been the predominant method for measurement of progesterone, a number of nonradiometric immunoassays have been described but they have not been applied to conditioned media. Here, we report the characterization of a microtitre plate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for

Barry G. Kasson; Shuzhen Bai; James Liu; Chris Tobin; Bruce Kessel

1993-01-01

60

A microplate enzyme-immunoassay for toxoplasma antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new test for the detection and measurement of toxoplasma antibody is described. Test sera are reacted with antigen-sensitized wells in micro-haemagglutination plates. Any attached antibody is shown by the addition of an enzyme-labelled antiglobulin followed by assay of the enzyme reaction with its substrate. The test is easy to carry out on a large scale, and there is a

A Voller; D E Bidwell; A Bartlett; D G Fleck; M Perkins; B Oladehin

1976-01-01

61

[Determination of thyroxine in serum by a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay: results of a joint trial].  

PubMed

This paper describes the evaluation of a heterologous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of total thyroxine in serum by a group of seven clinical chemical laboratories. The test follows the principles of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and uses peroxidase as a marker. The evaluation of analytical reliability yielded the following results within the analytical range from 39 unto 322 nmol/l: 1. Within-batch precision ranged from 3.1 unto 10.4% (coefficient of variation) with single analyses. 2. Between-batch precision ranged from 3.7 unto 20.4% with single analyses. 3. Between-laboratories precision ranged from 5.4 unto 6.8%. 4. Pure thyroxine, added to serum or thyroxine-free serum, gave recoveries between 93 and 120%. 5. Analysis of control sera gave results essentially comparable to the assigned values based upon radioimmunoassays. 6. Analysis of 288 clinical sera gave slightly higher results by the enzyme immunoassay than by the analogous radioimmunoassay from the same manufacturer. 7. Comparison with other methods of analysis (radioimmunoassays, competitive protein ligand assays, hormonal iodine assay) yielded partly comparable, partly higher results. 8. Comparison with the homogenous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) led to comparable results. 9. Interference due to hyperlipemia or hemolysis was not observed. 10. There might be an interference in hyperbilirubinaemic sera, due to an as yet unknown factor. With respect to practicability the ELISA-test compares favourably with the analogous solid phase radioimmunoassay. The main differences are the absence of radioactive material and a longer shelf-live of reagents. Following the manual procedure the time taken to perform the enzyme immunoassay is slightly longer than for the analogous radioimmunoassay. PMID:383882

Borner, K; Colombo, J P; Bachmann, C; Haeckel, R; Oellerich, M; Westerink, D; Fischer, M; Wimmer, P; Vogt, W; Tausch, A; Knedel, M; Minder, W; Blum, J; Portenhauser, R

1979-07-01

62

Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

2014-02-01

63

Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput. PMID:16682828

Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

2006-04-30

64

Design of liquid level measurement for sampling module of full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the need for the design of sampling module in the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument, this paper completed the design and verification of liquid level detector based on capacitive sensor. Using the capacitance effect existing between the sample needle and the ground (the machine frame), we take the sample needle and the ground as the capacitor poles. By means of the RC oscillation circuit, we convert the change of capacitance to frequency for a measure, in order to achieve the level detection. The stepping motor controls the sample arm with the modular design, and C8051F330 is chosen as main control chip in this system. Through the experimental analysis, we proved the reliability of the detection of the sample level based on the capacitance liquid level detection principle. This study provided a theoretical basis to the level parameters of the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument.

Li, Hong; Zhu, Lianqing; Chang, Haitao; Bao, Yan

2010-12-01

65

Evaluation of a Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Coxiella burnetii Antibody in Animal Sera. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A competitive enzyme immunoassay (CEIA) was established and compared with other serological techniques for detecting Coxiella burnetii antibody in camels, goats, and sheep. This technique was evaluated because a conjugated anti-camel immunoglobulin was no...

A. K. Soliman B. A. Botros D. M. Watts

1992-01-01

66

Prospective Field Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunoassay: Detection of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Antigen in Pools of Culiseta Melanura.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquit...

T. W. Scott J. G. Olson T. E. Lewis J. W. Carpenter L. H. Lorenz

1987-01-01

67

Novel Recombinant-Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Syphilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is an ideal method for screening large numbers of patients for syphilis. We evaluated a novel immune-capture EIA (ICE Syphilis; Murex Diagnostics) that uses three recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens (TpN15, TpN17, and TpN47) and compared the results with those obtained by the native T. pallidum antigen EIA (Captia SelectSyph-G; Centocor) that we currently use for the serodiagnosis

H. YOUNG; A. MOYES; L. SEAGAR; A. MCMILLAN

1998-01-01

68

Monoclonal antibody based two?site enzyme immunoassays for wheat gluten proteins. 2. Specificity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity characteristics of monoclonal antibody based two?site enzyme immunoassays for gluten proteins were analyzed using unlabelled antibody?labelled antibody competition assays with whole gliadin, and by two?site assays using various gluten protein fractions. Specificities for gliadin and glutenins were often predictable from direct ELISA or immunoblotting results, although some additional antigenic specificities were noted that would not have been predicted

John H. Skerritt; Kathryn L. Jenkins; Amanda S. Hill

1989-01-01

69

[Enzyme immunoassay for the determination of serotonin in stored platelet concentrates].  

PubMed

A new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was applied on measurements of serotonin (5-HT) in stored platelet concentrates (PC). PC were prepared by apheresis of two separators (Cobe, Fresenius) or from buffy coats and stored for a period of 7 days at 22 degrees C and agitating. Measurements were done in pellets and suspension medium (plasma). Detection of 5-HT was specific and sensitive within the bounds of 2 and 1,000 ng/10(9) PLT. PMID:9480138

Ganschow, I; Benn, H P; Fischer, R; Cassens, U; Dittmer, R; Kühnl, P

1994-01-01

70

Sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in human serum.  

PubMed

A sandwich chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for measuring the level of VEGF/VPF in serum was constructed. The detectability of the assay is very low (1.0 pg/ml) and the measurable range of the assay was very wide (1-1000 pg/ml). The assay showed that the average level of VEGF/VPF in human sera from healthy blood donors was approximately 19 pg/ml. PMID:8534992

Hanatani, M; Tanaka, Y; Kondo, S; Ohmori, I; Suzuki, H

1995-10-01

71

European Multicenter Evaluation of Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays for Detecting Norovirus Antigen in Fecal Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2,254 fecal samples were tested in a European multicenter evaluation of commercially available norovirus antigen detection assays. Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, IDEIA Norovirus (Oxoid; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ely, United Kingdom) and RIDASCREEN Norovirus (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany), were included in the evaluation, and their performance was compared with the results of reverse transcription- PCR (RT-PCR). Included in the

Jim J. Gray; Evelyne Kohli; Franco M. Ruggeri; Harry Vennema; Alicia Sanchez-Fauquier; Eckart Schreier; Chris I. Gallimore; Miren Iturriza-Gomara; Helene Giraudon; Pierre Pothier; I. Di Bartolo; N. Inglese; E. de Bruin; B. van der Veer; S. Moreno; V. Montero; M. C. de Llano; M. Hohne; S. M. Diedrich

2007-01-01

72

Evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for detection of norovirus in outbreak specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study presented here was to use faeces from 41 gastroenteritis outbreaks (130 specimens) in Victoria, Australia,\\u000a to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the RIDASCREEN norovirus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit relative to reverse transcription-polymerase\\u000a chain reaction and\\/or electron microscopy. Seven specimens known to contain sapovirus, adenovirus, astrovirus and rotavirus\\u000a were also tested. For single-specimen diagnosis the

A. Dimitriadis; J. A. Marshall

2005-01-01

73

Evaluation of three commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for detecting faecal Clostridium difficile toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of faecal cytotoxicity using tissue culture was compared with three commercial Clostridium difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits; Premier C difficile toxin A (Meridian Diagnostic, Inc.); CD-TOX C difficile toxin A (Porton Cambridge); and Cytoclone A+B EIA (Cambridge Biotech Corporation). Of 160 faecal samples examined by all four methods, 52 (32.5%) were cytotoxic, 44 (27.5%) were positive by Premier,

S A Arrow; L Croese; R A Bowman; T V Riley

1994-01-01

74

Enzyme immunoassay determination of atrazine degradation in soil: Moisture, sterilization, and storage effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) microtiter plate analysis was used to quantify atrazine (2?chloro?4?ethylamino?6?isopropylamino?1,3,5 triazine), fortified at 0, 50, and 500 or 549 ng\\/g, to Baxter and Maury silt loam soil sampled in 1965 and 1991. In the first experiment, aged soils (sampled in 1965 and stored air?dried) were fortified with atrazine and then incubated in the dark at 0, 75, 150,

G. K. Stearman

1993-01-01

75

Development of a sensitive micro-magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micro-magnetic chemiluminescence (CL) enzyme immunoassay with high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility was developed\\u000a for the determination of the tumor marker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. A sandwich scheme assay has been\\u000a utilized with fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody (FITC)-labeled anti-CEA antibody and alkaline phosphate (ALP)-labeled anti-CEA\\u000a antibody being used in the CL detection. The CL signal produced by the emission

Wijitar Dungchai; Weena Siangproh; Jin-Ming Lin; Orawon Chailapakul; Si Lin; Xitang Ying

2007-01-01

76

A direct non-competitive idiometric enzyme immunoassay for serum oestradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a novel non-competitive enzyme immunoassay for oestradiol based on the use of two types of anti-idiotypic antibody that recognize different epitopes within the hypervariable region of the primary anti-oestradiol idiotypic antibody (Ab1). The first anti-idiotype, the betatype, competes with the analyte for an epitope of the primary antibody at the binding site. On the other hand, the second

A Mares; J De Boever; J Osher; S Quiroga; G Barnard; F Kohen

1995-01-01

77

Optimization and validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative detection of the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb. Polyclonal rabbit antisera, raised against protein conjugates of four haptenic derivatives of fenoxycarb, were utilized in immobilized antigen-based, competitive immunoassays. With ELISA systems that were both hapten- and carrier-heterologous, most antiserum titers fell in the range of 1:1000–1:30,000. Assay conditions, including concentrations

András Székács; Hong T. M Le; Ferenc Szurdoki; Bruce D Hammock

2003-01-01

78

Comparison of Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay Performance Levels when Testing Serum and Plasma Samples  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic galactomannan (GM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing is formally validated only for serum, though in practice, plasma is occasionally tested. It is assumed, but not confirmed, that results will be comparable to those for serum. GM EIA when testing plasma was evaluated, providing sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (85.4%) comparable to those for serum. Plasma index values were higher than those for serum; if plasma GM EIA were used to define probable cases, four additional cases would have been diagnosed.

Jones, Tim; Whittle, Katie; Watkins, Joanne; Barnes, Rosemary A.

2013-01-01

79

Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by galactomannan antigenemia detection using an enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis is a serious and often fatal infection in patients who are neutropenic or have undergone solid organ\\u000a or stem cell transplantation. Delayed diagnosis and therapy may lead to poor outcomes. Diagnosis may be facilitated by a test\\u000a for galactomannan antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay. Other rapid methods for diagnosis include (1?3)-?-d-glucan determination and polymerase chain reaction. The

L. J. Wheat; T. J. Walsh

2008-01-01

80

Solidphase enzyme-immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results of a solid-phase enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are presented. This method has been compared with the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for HBsAg in dilution series of four HBsAg positive sera four national reference panels (The Laboratory Panel of the Central Laboratory of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Netherlands Red Cross,

G Wolters; L Kuijpers; J Kacaki; A Schuurs

1976-01-01

81

Typing of Human Astroviruses from Clinical Isolates by Enzyme Immunoassay and Nucleotide Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typing enzyme immunoassay (TYPE-EIA) was used to determine the antigenic types of 64 astrovirus- positive specimens from nine collections from seven countries. Six of the seven known astrovirus types were detected in the collections, with HAstV-1 predominating in all collections except for one from the United Kingdom. Selected specimens were analyzed further by reverse transcriptase PCR and nucleotide sequencing

JACQUELINE S. NOEL; TERRY W. LEE; JOHN B. KURTZ; ROGER I. GLASS

1995-01-01

82

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in the urine of young Norwegian males by enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-void urine samples from 392 Norwegian military conscripts were investigated for the presence ofChlamydia trachomatis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on day 1 and day 5 after collection. Positive samples were subsequently investigated by direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy for the presence of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) in the urine pellet, and urethral swab material taken from the EIA-positive individuals was cultured.

O. Scheel; G. Ĺnestad; R. Mundal; B. P. Berdal

1993-01-01

83

Evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for HIV screening in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as a screening test for detecting HIV-1 antibody in urine in a population at risk for HIV infection in Catalonia, Spain. Paired urine and serum samples were collected consecutively from 99 patients who attended two drug-dependency treatment centres and 151 patients who attended a sexually

J. Almeda; J. Casabona; L. Matas; V. González; R. Muga; B. Sanz; F. Bolao; V. Ausina

2004-01-01

84

Automation of the enzyme immunoassay for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases in cattle  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is a versatile and highly sensitive new tool that can be used to detect a wide variety of infectious diseases or toxic agents and other low molecular weight compound. The paper describes the present state of development of the EIA-modified Technicon Autoanalyzer II instrumentation, standardization of quality control criteria for the automated EIA and standardization of the diagnostic decision process. (ACR)

Seawright, G.L.; Sanders, W.M.; Bryson, M.

1980-01-01

85

Development of a sensitive microtitration plate enzyme?immunoassay for the anabolic steroid trenbolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a competitive microtitration plate enzyme?immunoassay for monitoring trenbolone application to animals is described. ‘Bridge heterology’ was achieved with a rabbit antibody raised against 17ß?trenbolone?hemisuccinate?BSA and 17??trenbolone glucuronide?alkaline phosphatase as a tracer. The required 17??trenbolone glucuronide was prepared by application of trenbolone acetate to a calf following isolation from urine by three HPLC steps. The glucuronide was linked

Heinrich H. D. Meyer; Susann Hoffmann

1987-01-01

86

Micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 in agricultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay by antibody-coated for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in agricultural products has been established. Aflatoxin B1 antibody (AFB1-Ab) was adsorbed physically on polystyrene micro-plate hole as solid phase antibody, which took place immunity-reaction between antigen and antibody with AFB1 standard solution or samples by direct competition. Luminol–hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence system catalyzed

Luqiu Fang; Hui Chen; Xitang Ying; Jin-Ming Lin

2011-01-01

87

Incorporation of different bridge length linkers in enzyme and its use in the preparation of enzyme conjugates for immunoassay.  

PubMed

An enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a starting material, has been used to introduce different bridge length linkers, and its use in the preparation of enzyme conjugates for immunoassay is described. HRP was conjugated to adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), followed by ADH and 6-amino caproic acid (6ACA) followed by ADH. The different bridge length linkers-incorporated enzyme was coupled to a carboxylic derivative of cortisol. Four enzyme conjugates with different bridge length were prepared, such as cortisol-21-hemisuccinate-HRP (cortisol-21-HS-HRP), cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP, cortisol-21-HS-ADH-GABA-HRP, and cortisol-21-HS-ADH-6ACA-HRP. The influence of linker on sensitivity and specificity of the cortisol assay was studied. The study revealed that incorporation of a linker between hapten and enzyme increases the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. PMID:15461384

Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

2004-01-01

88

Quantitative determination of nuclear estrogen receptors by an enzyme immunoassay: applicability and caveats.  

PubMed

A method is presented with which approx. 95% of nuclear estrogen receptors appear to be extracted from MCF-7 cells. Since both nuclear isolation and nuclear estrogen receptor extraction take place in a single test tube with only vortex mixing, loss of nuclear material is minimized. The amount of nuclear estrogen receptors in the nuclear extract was determined by direct [3H]estradiol labeling of monolayer cultures and with a commercially available estrogen receptor immunoassay (ER-EIA) kit. Since the ER-EIA kit was designed and calibrated for quantitative determination of cytosolic estrogen receptor isolated in low ionic strength buffer, the applicability of the ER-EIA to quantitative determination of estrogen receptor content in high ionic strength nuclear extraction buffer was tested. A linear relationship exists between the amount of nuclear estrogen receptor detected by the immunoassay, the amount of receptor present in serial dilutions of the nuclear extract and the amount of nuclear estrogen receptor detected in cells by [3H]estradiol labeling of monolayer cultures, the absolute amount of nuclear estrogen receptors determined by the immunoassay consistently exceeded the amount of receptor detected by [3H]estradiol labeling. The possibility that the enzyme immunoassay must be properly calibrated for the specific conditions of the nuclear estrogen receptor assay is discussed. PMID:3050279

Kral, L G; Doherty, L M; Brooks, S C

1988-10-01

89

Inorganic pyrophosphatase-labelled enzyme immunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin.  

PubMed

beta 2-Microglobulin was purified from human peritoneal dialysate by ultrafiltration, gel chromatography and DEAE-high performance chromatography. Anti-beta 2-monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice and a pair of the antibodies was utilized to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the analyte with utilizing a new enzyme label, inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.6 microgram/l (3 x SD) and the assay was linear up to absorbance values of around 2.0. No hook effect occurred in any putative concentrations of beta 2-microglobulin in serum. The precision of the assay of one run varied within 5-7% CV and the interassay precision was 2.8-8.6% CV, while the recovery was 99.2 +/- 6.0%. Excellent correlation occurred against an established radioimmunoassay method. All the used reagents were storable for a minimum of 1 year at +4 degrees C. It was decided that inorganic pyrophosphatase is a label of choice for ELISA. PMID:9212833

Peuravuori, H; Kunelius, R; Eskola, J; Korpela, T

1997-05-26

90

Sugar additives improve signal fidelity for implementing two-phase resorufin-based enzyme immunoassays.  

PubMed

Enzymatic signal amplification based on fluorogenic substrates is commonly used for immunoassays; however, when transitioning these assays to a digital format in water-in-mineral oil emulsions, such amplification methods have been limited by the leakage of small reporting fluorescent probes. In the present study, we used a microfluidic system to study leakage from aqueous droplets in a controlled manner and confirmed that the leakage of fluorescent resorufin derivatives is mostly due to the presence of the lipophilic surfactant Span80, which is commonly used to preserve emulsion stability. This leakage can be overcome by the addition of specific sugars that most strongly interfered with the surfactants ability to form micelles in water. The application of the microfluidic system to the quantitative analysis of droplets and the implementation of the described sugar additives would allow for alternatives to fluorinated surfactant-based platforms and improve the signal fidelity in enzyme immunoassays implemented through multiphase microfluidics. PMID:24870310

Sandoz, Patrick A; Chung, Aram J; Weaver, Westbrook M; Di Carlo, Dino

2014-06-17

91

A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

92

Evaluation of cardiac assays on a benchtop chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer, PATHFAST.  

PubMed

Devices for cardiac immunoassay are widely available at point of care settings. The lateral flow method is the most popular solution for ease of use. But its major shortcomings, poor assay precision, and low analytical sensitivity may lead to false negative results. Therefore, confirmatory testing by a routine lab analyzer sometimes is necessary. In the current study, we evaluated the cardiac assays troponin I, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, myoglobin, and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide on a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer, PATHFAST. All of the assays demonstrated correlation coefficients higher than 0.97 against the predicate devices along with good total precision (coefficients of variation <10%), and the troponin I assay showed analytical sensitivity in conformance with the guidelines of European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology and National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. We concluded that the system was rapid and easy to use without compromising analytical performance. PMID:18211813

Kurihara, Takashi; Yanagida, Atsushi; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Koyata, Atsushi; Matsuya, Takeshi; Ogawa, Junichi; Okamura, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Daishi

2008-04-01

93

A testosterone specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for monitoring water quality.  

PubMed

Testosterone, an androgen and a primary male sex hormone, migrates through the environment in ways which could pose a threat to water quality and, subsequently, environmental and human health. This paper describes the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is capable of measuring testosterone with high specificity. The testosterone ELISA displayed the IC20 (as the limit of detection) and IC50 values of 0.05 ± 0.01 ?g L(-1) and 0.33 ± 0.18 ?g L(-1), respectively. In addition, the assay showed <0.1 % cross-reactivity against structurally related steroidal compounds. However, this assay was found to be sensitive to environmental matrices such as certain metal ions, pH, and high humic acids, and sample clean-up to remove such interference was necessary before analysis. The analyses of 50 surface water samples collected in rural and urban areas in New South Wales, Australia showed that ELISA results correlated well with the androgenic activity measured by the recombinant yeast-based androgen screen assay. PMID:23400864

Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

2013-05-01

94

[Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].  

PubMed

Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáńez Sandín, M D; Ureńa Vilardell, V

1986-01-01

95

Practical application of bioluminescence enzyme immunoassay using enhancer for firefly luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence.  

PubMed

Firefly luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence is known for its high quantum yield (41.0 ± 7.4%). Given this high quantum yield, application of this bioluminescence is expected to be useful in the field of clinical diagnostics. The kinetic profile of this bioluminescence exhibits an instant rise (<1 s) and a rapid decay in light emission (decreased to 42% after 5 s). In this study, we applied four enhancers including coenzyme A, inosine5'-triphosphate sodium salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and potassium pyrophosphate to prolong light emission. When these enhancers were used, luminescence was only decreased to 89, 83, 87 and 82% after 5 s, respectively. These materials modified the kinetic profile of bioluminescence so that the luminescence is more suitable for clinical application. It becomes more suitable because they enable highly sensitive integration and simplification of a device by separating luminescence measurements from dispensing of reagents. Using these enhancers, we then developed a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) that employed firefly luciferase as a labeling enzyme. We compared the results obtained from the HBsAg BLEIA method with the conventional chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay method, and found a satisfactory correlation (r=0.984, n=118). PMID:21681909

Minekawa, Takayuki; Ohkuma, Hiroshi; Abe, Katsushi; Maekawa, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

2011-01-01

96

An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

1987-01-01

97

Application of magnetic nanoparticles in full-automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Therma-Max™ were used as a carrier to develop an automated sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) to detect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a sensitive and specific way. The Therma-Max™ particles allow for automation because, unlike magnetic microspheres, they are completely dispersed in aqueous solution and allow for accurate automatic handling. Signal intensities detected with MNPs were 8-fold higher than those found with conventional micron-sized magnetic particles. A reproducibility study suggests that these particles allow for a stable detection method, as the coefficient of variation (CV) is less than 6% ( n=10).

Xie, Xiaomao; Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Yuki; Kondo, Akihiko

2009-05-01

98

Stool diagnosis of giardiasis using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay to detect Giardia-specific antigen 65 (GSA 65).  

PubMed Central

A commercially available enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of giardiasis was evaluated in a clinical trial. The ProSpecT/Giardia diagnostic test (Alexon, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.) was compared with the standard ova and parasite (O&P) microscopic examination. Additionally, several widely used stool fixatives and a commonly used transport medium were assessed for compatibility with the immunoassay. A total of 325 stool specimens were collected and used to evaluate assay performance. Of those, 93 specimens were collected from symptomatic Giardia O&P-positive patients and 232 specimens were randomly collected from patients as part of a routine health screening procedure. All 93 Giardia O&P-positive stool specimens were strongly positive by visual and spectrophotometric examination using the immunoassay. Of the 232 randomly collected specimens, 16 were positive by O&P examination and immunoassay, 6 were negative by O&P examination but positive by immunoassay, and 1 was positive by O&P examination and negative by immunoassay. There was substantial supportive evidence that indicated that the six immunoassay-positive, O&P-negative specimens were true-positives. When these six specimens were accepted as true-positives, the immunoassay detected almost 30% more cases of Giardia infection than did O&P examination. Its sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination were 74 and 100%, respectively. The immunoassay also performed well on specimens treated with 10% neutral Formalin, sodium acetate-Formalin fixative, and Cary-Blair transport medium. However, the test was not compatible with polyvinyl alcohol-treated specimens. Overall, the ProSpecT/Giardia test was a sensitive, specific immunoassay which was easy to run and interpret. It offers a simple solution to traditional difficulties encountered in diagnosing Giardia infection.

Rosoff, J D; Sanders, C A; Sonnad, S S; De Lay, P R; Hadley, W K; Vincenzi, F F; Yajko, D M; O'Hanley, P D

1989-01-01

99

Enzyme immunoassay--a new technique for estimating hemoglobin A1c.  

PubMed

We describe a method for estimating hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay system. The method is based on microtiter plate technology, utilizing an antibody raised to hemoglobin, the epitope being the Amadori product of glucose plus the first eight amino acids on the N-terminal end of the beta chain of hemoglobin. The enzyme immunoassay displays good within-batch (CV 2.3-2.4%) and between-batch (CV 2.6-5.0%) precision, and the results were not affected by different types of anticoagulant. The method was linear within the expected range of results and showed good correlation (r = 0.88-0.98) with established methods for estimating glycohemoglobin. Using this method, we obtained a reference interval of 2.8-4.9% (central 95%) for HbA1c in a nondiabetic population. The percentages of hemoglobin that were HbA1c in diabetics (6.86% +/- 2.51%) were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than in nondiabetics (3.46% +/- 0.52%). PMID:8472363

John, W G; Gray, M R; Bates, D L; Beacham, J L

1993-04-01

100

[Use of soybean peroxidase for the enzyme immunoassay of sulfamethoxipyridazine in milk].  

PubMed

An enzyme immunoassay with colorimetric detection of sulfamethoxipyridazine (SMP), the most widely used sulfamide, was developed with the soybean anionic peroxidase as an enzyme marker. The range of SMP detection is 1.3-63.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.4 ng/ml. The root square deviation of detection results did not exceed 6%. It was demonstrated that 0.15% casein added to the working buffer prevented the effect of the milk matrix on the detection. The results obtained demonstrate that the assay developed is promising, displaying a sensitivity that exceeds the maximum permissible concentration of sulfamides in milk (100 microg/l) by several orders of magnitude. PMID:18038682

Berlina, A N; Zherdev, A V; Dzantiev, B B; Sakharov, I Iu

2007-01-01

101

Human rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme-immunoassay with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus.  

PubMed Central

A four-layer solid phase enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (NCDV) as immunoreagents was developed to detect human rotavirus antigens from stool specimens of patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, guinea-pig and rabbit anti-NCDV immunoglobulin as the catching and secondary antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin as the indicator antibody. A comparison of the developed NCDV-EIA with an identical EIA, using antisera against human rotavirus (HRV-EIA) instead of NCDV antisera, was made with 216 stool specimens positive or negative for rotavirus. A complete agreement was obtained between the two methods provided that appropriate confirmatory tests were included. The developed NCDV-EIA was as sensitive and specific for rotavirus as the HRV-EIA, and it allowed the detection of both established rotavirus types 1 and 2 from stools with equal sensitivity. The difficulties in cultivating human rotavirus in vitro for immunisation and the relative ease of growing NCDV in widely-used continuous cell lines make NCDV a good alternative in the preparation of the highly specific and sensitive rotavirus antisera required in immunoassays, and facilitate the setting-up methods for the routine diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis by EIA or RIA in diagnostic virus laboratories.

Sarkkinen, H K

1981-01-01

102

Use of a microquantity enzyme immunoassay in a large-scale study of measles, mumps, and rubella immunity in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seroprevalence of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses (MMR) was determined in 1498 subjects in Catania, Italy, ranging in age from 1 month to 25 years. The study population was divided into seven age groups and sceeened by enzyme immunoassay using microquantities (10 µl) of whole blood collected by fingerprick on filterpaper discs. The results showed that seroconversion

F. Condorelli; A. Stivala; R. Gallo; A. Marino; C. M. Battaglini; A. Messina; G. Russo; A. Castro; G. Scalia

1998-01-01

103

Performance Characteristics of the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of galactomannan in bron- choalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in solid organ transplant patients with aspergillosis. The precision and reproducibility in serum or BAL to which galactomannan was added were similar. Sensitivity was 81.8% in patients with aspergillosis, and specificity was 95.8% in lung transplant patients who underwent BAL for surveillance

S. Husain; C. J. Clancy; M. H. Nguyen; S. Swartzentruber; H. Leather; A. M. LeMonte; M. M. Durkin; K. S. Knox; C. A. Hage; C. Bentsen; N. Singh; J. R. Wingard; L. J. Wheat

2008-01-01

104

Comparison of an enzyme immunoassay and latex agglutination test for detection of galactomannan in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus antigenemia was followed up in 215 consecutively observed bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients over a period of two years, using both a latex agglutination test and a sandwich immunocapture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a rat antigalactomannan monoclonal antibody as capture and detector antibody. For each patient, sequential sera (3 to 20) were obtained before and after BMT. No positivity

A. Sulahian; M. Tabouret; P. Ribaud; J. Sarfati; E. Gluckman; J. P. Latgé; F. Derouin

1996-01-01

105

Detection of Galactomannan Antigenemia by Enzyme Immunoassay for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis: Variables That Affect Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a frequent complication of blood or marrow transplantation. Previous studies have reported that the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA) may be a useful diagnostic tool for IA, but its sensitivity is variable. We examined the performance of the GM EIA in 986 serum samples from 67 patients. Results demonstrated that decreasing the index cutoff for

Lisa McLaughlin; Marc Tabouret; Christopher Bentsen

2004-01-01

106

The European Sero-Epidemiology Network: standardizing the enzyme immunoassay results for measles, mumps and rubella.  

PubMed Central

The ESEN (European Sero-Epidemiology Network) project was established to harmonize the seroepidemiology of five vaccine preventable infections including measles, mumps and rubella in eight European countries. This involved achieving comparability both in the assay results from testing in different centres and also sampling methodology. Standardization of enzyme immunoassay results was achieved through the development of common panels of sera by designated reference centres. The panels were tested at the reference laboratory and then distributed to each participating laboratory for testing using their routine methods. Standardization equations were calculated by regressing the quantitative results against those of the reference laboratory. Our study found large differences in unitage between participants, despite all using an EIA method standardized against an international or local standard. Moreover, our methodology adjusted for this difference. These standardization equations will be used to convert the results of main serosurvey testing into the reference country unitage to ensure inter-country comparability.

Andrews, N.; Pebody, R. G.; Berbers, G.; Blondeau, C.; Crovari, P.; Davidkin, I.; Farrington, P.; Fievet-Groyne, F.; Gabutti, G.; Gerike, E.; Giordano, C.; Hesketh, L.; Marzec, T.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Osborne, K.; Pleisner, A. M.; Raux, M.; Tischer, A.; Ruden, U.; Valle, M.; Miller, E.

2000-01-01

107

Detection of Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites Using the Cross Reactivity of Enzyme Immunoassays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Enzyme immunoassay is an important environmental analysis method that may be used to identify many pesticide analytes in water samples. Because of similarities in chemical structure between various members of a pesticide class, there often may be an unwanted response that is characterized by a percentage of cross reactivity. Also, there may be cross reactivity caused by degradation products of the target analyte that may be present in the sample. In this paper, the concept of cross reactivity caused by degradation products or by nontarget analytes is explored as a tool for identification of metabolites or structurally similar compounds not previously known to be present in water samples. Two examples are examined in this paper from various water quality studies. They are alachlor and its metabolite, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, and atrazine and its class members, prometryn and propazine. A method for using cross reactivity for the detection of these compounds is explained in this paper.

Thurman, E. M.; Aga, D. S.

2001-01-01

108

Rapid determination of MICs of 15 antichlamydial agents by using an enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme).  

PubMed Central

An enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories), was evaluated for its determination of MICs of 15 antimicrobial agents against Chlamydia trachomatis (MRC-1, LB, TRIC/GB/MRC-1 Gf [ATCC VR-1]). The inoculum size, incubation time, and enhancers were defined for the assessment of chlamydial antigen synthesis in HeLa 229 cells seeded as monolayers in 96-well plates. MICs were determined and defined as the lowest antibiotic concentrations required to inhibit, after 24 or 48 h of incubation, antigen production as determined by the EIA. The MICs (after 48 h) were similar to those determined by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining of inclusions. MIC determinations after 24 h were suitable for screening the activities of quinolones, but less so for measuring the susceptibility of C. trachomatis to macrolides and tetracyclines. MIC determination by EIA was rapid, appropriate for standardization, and less cumbersome than determination by quantification of inclusions.

Bianchi, A; Scieux, C; Salmeron, C M; Casin, I; Perol, Y

1988-01-01

109

A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for amygdalin in food extracts using a recombinant antibody.  

PubMed

Amygdalin (laterile) is a cyanogenic glycoside commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. When amygdalin-containing seeds are crushed and moistened, free cyanide is formed. Pits and nuts containing unusually high levels of amygdalin can therefore cause cyanide poisoning, and detection of amygdalin in food extracts can be a life-saving measure. In this study, we generated recombinant antibodies against amygdalin from a phage display of a combinatorial rabbit/human chimeric antibody library and used it in a sensitive competition enzyme immunoassay system to detect amygdalin in extracts of pits and nuts. The detection limit was determined to be 1 x 10(-9) M. PMID:18939751

Cho, A-Yeon; Shin, Kum-Joo; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

2008-10-01

110

Use of a urine enzyme immunoassay as a diagnostic tool for Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis in men.  

PubMed Central

We collected first-voided urine specimens from 659 males attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and performed both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of chlamydial antigen and leukocyte esterase testing on these urine samples. The overall prevalence of chlamydial urethritis in the study population as determined by culture of urethral swabs was 11%. However, 46% of all men in the study had no symptoms of urethritis. Compared with urethral cultures for chlamydiae, the urine EIA had a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 99%. The sensitivity of the EIA strongly correlated with the amount of antigen present in culture as assessed by numbers of inclusion-forming units. The sensitivity of the leukocyte esterase test compared with that of chlamydia culture was 88%. We conclude that in this population of men, which included many patients without symptoms of urethritis, the urine EIA was a relatively insensitive means of screening for chlamydial infection.

Schwebke, J R; Clark, A M; Pettinger, M B; Nsubga, P; Stamm, W E

1991-01-01

111

Automated enzyme immunoassay to measure prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid.  

PubMed

An automated enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of humans and dogs was developed as an indicator of periodontal disease. GCF is noninvasively collected on Periopaper strips and the PGE2 is extracted by a simple method. Samples containing 10-500 pg/ml PGE2 can be measured. A commercially available kit is used to perform the competitive EIA in microtiter plates. In the EIA, rabbit anti-PGE2 antisera binds to either the PGE2 in the sample or to the acetylcholinesterase-linked PGE2. The assay is automated using the Biomek 1000 workstation, resulting in day-to-day variability of less than 5% CV. Dog models of chronic and ligature-induced periodontitis were used to demonstrate that increased GCF PGE2, as measured by our assay, correlates with increased pocket depth and gingival bleeding scores. PMID:1532203

Nelson, S L; Hynd, B A; Pickrum, H M

1992-03-01

112

Development of a highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using enhanced luminol as substrate.  

PubMed

In this study, a high sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) based on novel enhancers was developed. Under optimal conditions, we developed an enhanced chemiluminescence reaction (ECR) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) in the presence of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl) propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORP) as enhancers. The limit of detection of the newly prepared chemiluminescent cocktail for HRP was 0.33?pg/well, which is lower than that of commercial Super Signal substrate. The results showed that this novel chemiluminescent cocktail can significantly increase the light output of HRP-catalyzed ECR, which can be translated into a corresponding improvement in sensitivity. Similar improvements were observed in CLEIA for the determination of chloramphenicol in milk. In addition, the ECR of N-azoles as secondary enhancer was also presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23785024

Tao, Xiaoqi; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Zhanhui; Cao, Xingyuan; Zhu, Jinghui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Jianzhong

2014-06-01

113

Development of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Clostridium novyi type B alpha toxin.  

PubMed

Clostridium novyi type B alpha toxin was purified to homogeneity and shown to have a molecular weight of 200 kD by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxin was toxoided and used to produce a pair of non-interfering monoclonal antibodies. Their specificity was confirmed by immunoblotting and bioassay. The monoclonal antibodies were used to develop an enzyme immunoassay which was more sensitive than bioassay, and permitted less than 1 ng/ml toxin to be detected in a rapid 10 min assay format. Use of the assay can eliminate the requirement for in vivo testing of novyi toxin and toxoid, provided measurements of biological activity are not required. Because of its speed and sensitivity, the assay can be used to monitor toxin production during fermentation and as an alternative to bioassay to measure antigen content during toxoiding and vaccine formulation. PMID:1797041

Pietrzykowski, E; Cox, J; Zachariou, M; MacGregor, A

1991-10-01

114

Dot enzyme immunoassay: an alternative diagnostic aid for dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed Central

A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to dengue virus was tested for use as a tool in the presumptive diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Paired sera from the following groups of patients were tested using the DEIA and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test: those with primary dengue fever; those experiencing a second dengue infection; and febrile patients who did not have dengue. The data obtained show that the DEIA can be effectively used at a serum dilution of 1:1000 to confirm presumptive recent dengue in patients with a second dengue infection. However, demonstration of seroconversion proved necessary for patients with primary dengue. At a serum dilution of 1:1000 the DEIA has a specificity of 97.3%. The role of this simple and rapid test in improving the effectivity of programmes for the control of dengue virus infection is discussed.

Cardosa, M. J.; Tio, P. H.

1991-01-01

115

Determination of metallothionein in biological fluids using enzyme-linked immunoassay with commercial antibody.  

PubMed

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight cysteine-rich protein with a number of roles in the pro/antioxidant balance and homeostasis of essential metals, such as zinc and copper, and in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and mercury. Until now, detection of metallothionein in biological fluids remained difficult because of a lack of a broadly reactive commercial test. Meaningful comparison of the values of metallothionein concentrations reported by different authors using their specific isolation procedures and different conditions of enzyme-linked immunoassay is difficult due to the absence of a reference material for metallothionein. Therefore in the present study, we describe a quantitative assay for metallothionein in biological fluids such as plasma and urine performed by a direct enzyme-linked immunoassay using a commercially available monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody and commercial standards of metallothionein from rabbit liver and a custom preparation of metallothionein from human liver. The sensitivity of the assay for the standard containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II from human liver was 140 pg/well. The reactivity of the commercial standards and standards containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II isolated from human liver in our laboratory with a commercial monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody were similar. This suggests that the described ELISA test can be useful for determination of metallothionein concentration in biological fluids. The concentrations of metallothionein in human plasma, erythrocyte lysate and in urine of smoking and non-smoking healthy volunteers are reported. Tobacco smoking increases the extracellular metallothionein concentration (plasma and urine) but does not affect the intracellular concentration (erythrocyte lysate). PMID:20349027

Milnerowicz, Halina; Bizo?, Anna

2010-01-01

116

Extraction and enzyme immunoassay of sulfadimethoxine residues in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) muscle.  

PubMed

Four commercially available enzyme immunoassays were evaluated for the detection of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) residues in channel catfish muscle. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extracts of samples (n = 60, 0.5 g) fortified with SDM at 0, 25, 50, 100, and 250 ng/g were used in all assays. Intra-assay variations for 2 MICROTITER well-based quantitative assays, SIGNAL sulfamethazine test and IDS SDM One-Step ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), were 5.6 and 7.7%. Interassay variations for these tests were 7.9 and 16.6%. The agreements between evaluators for 2 membrane-based, visually determined assays, CITE Sulfa Trio and EZ-SCREEN: SDM, were 77 and 95%. Performance values, as indicated by sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and positive and negative predictive values, were 100, 92, 95, 89, and 100%, respectively for the SIGNAL test; 100, 94, 97, 92, and 100% for the IDS test; 98, 71, 82, 69, and 98% for the CITE test; and 98, 94, 96, 92, and 99% for the EZ-SCREEN assay. Eight sulfonamides cross-reacted in the SIGNAL test; EC-50 values (concentrations causing 50% inhibition of color development compared with blanks) varied from < 0.1 to 45 micrograms/mL. The EC-50 value for SDM was 0.25 microgram/mL. The CITE test cross-reacted with sulfachloropyridazine at 10 micrograms/mL. The IDS and EZ-SCREEN tests had no significant cross-reactivity with other sulfonamides. N-Acetyl SDM reacted like the parent SDM in all assays. Performance results indicated that MSPD extracts of catfish muscle may be used in these immunoassays to screen catfish muscle samples for violative levels of SDM residue. PMID:8069122

Walker, C C; Barker, S A

1994-01-01

117

Micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 in agricultural products.  

PubMed

In this work, a micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay by antibody-coated for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in agricultural products has been established. Aflatoxin B1 antibody (AFB1-Ab) was adsorbed physically on polystyrene micro-plate hole as solid phase antibody, which took place immunity-reaction between antigen and antibody with AFB1 standard solution or samples by direct competition. Luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence system catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with p-iodophenol enhancement was used as signal detecting system. The effects of several factors, including composition and pH of coating solution, dilution ratio and amount of antibody and enzyme labeled antigen, time of antibody-coating, incubation and chemiluminescence reaction, and other relevant variables upon the immunoassay were studied and optimized. The linear range of proposed method for AFB1 was 0.05-10.0 ng g(-1) with a correlative coefficient of -0.9997. The sensitivity of the proposed method was 0.01 ng g(-1). The RSDs of intra- and inter-assay were less than 12.2% and 10.0%, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of AFB1 in agricultural products with recoveries of 79.8%, 101.9% and 115.4% for low, middle and high concentration samples, respectively. It shows a good correlation with the commercial available ELISA kit for AFB1 with correlative coefficient of 0.9098 indicating that the established CLEIA method can be used to determine AFB1 in real samples. PMID:21315923

Fang, Luqiu; Chen, Hui; Ying, Xitang; Lin, Jin-Ming

2011-03-15

118

Diagnosis of multiple myeloma using enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine on microparticles.  

PubMed

Immunoassay on polymeric particles with covalently bound N-acetyl glucosamine was applied for detection of appropriate antibodies. Antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine were detected in sera of patients with multiple myeloma. The assay was conducted on polymeric microparticles by enzyme immunoassay. The sensitivities of the assays on microparticles and on glass microtubes were compared. It was shown that the level of antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine correlated with the number of myeloma cells. The comparison of assays on microparticles and glass tubes demonstrate the advantage of microparticle technology. PMID:18616881

Melkonyan, Varduhi Z; Dagbashyan, Smbat S; Melkikyan, Nata A; Gasparyan, Vardan K

2008-04-01

119

Enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of brucellosis: chimeric Protein A–Protein G as a common enzyme labeled detection reagent for sera for different animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant protein combining the immunoglobulin binding sites of Proteins A and G, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used as a universal detection reagent for the assessment of antibodies against Brucella spp. The reagent was applied in an indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen in sera from Brucella spp. exposed and non-exposed cattle, sheep, goats

K. Nielsen; P. Smith; W. Yu; P. Nicoletti; P. Elzer; A. Vigliocco; P. Silva; R. Bermudez; T. Renteria; F. Moreno; A. Ruiz; C. Massengill; Q. Muenks; K. Kenny; T. Tollersrud; L. Samartino; S. Conde; G. Draghi de Benitez; D. Gall; B. Perez; X. Rojas

2004-01-01

120

Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pholcodine (3-O-(2'-morpholinoethyl)-morphine) is used in many countries as an antitussive without analgesic or addictive properties. It is of forensic relevance that pholcodine interferes with opiate immunoassays. In this paper a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) procedure for the precise and sensitive detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair, after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation, is presented. Furthermore,

Hans H. Maurer; Christian F. Fritz

1990-01-01

121

Taxane-specific monoclonal antibodies: measurement of taxol, baccatin III, and "total taxanes" in Taxus brevifolia extracts by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Three monoclonal antibodies with either specificity to taxol or baccatin III, or cross-reactivity with several common taxanes have been prepared and used to develop sensitive competitive-inhibition enzyme immunoassays. The hybridomas producing these monoclonal antibodies were obtained by fusing P3X63Ag8.653 plasmacytoma cells and splenocytes from mice hyperimmunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-7-succinyltaxol or -7-succinylbaccatin III conjugates. Direct and indirect competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassays were developed with these monoclonal antibodies and microtiter plates coated with bovine serum albumin conjugates of the complementary hapten. Detection limits for the direct competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassays, conducted in buffer containing 10% MeOH, were 0.6 nM taxol for 3C6 (anti-taxol); 1.1 nM baccatin III for 3H5 (anti-baccatin III); and 0.6 nM taxol or baccatin III for 8A10 (anti-taxane). The immunoassays accurately detected taxol, baccatin III, and "total taxanes" in crude MeOH extracts of Taxus brevifolia bark and in hplc fractions of these extracts. PMID:7561893

Grothaus, P G; Bignami, G S; O'Malley, S; Harada, K E; Byrnes, J B; Waller, D F; Raybould, T J; McGuire, M T; Alvarado, B

1995-07-01

122

The TUBEX typhoid test based on particle-inhibition immunoassay detects IgM but not IgG anti-O9 antibodies.  

PubMed

A serological test kit (TUBEX, IDL Biotech, Sweden) developed recently for the diagnosis of typhoid fever detects antibodies to the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O9 antigen. The antibodies are detected by their ability to inhibit the interaction between two types of reagent particles: (a). indicator latex microspheres sensitized with an anti-O9 monoclonal antibody, and (b). magnetic microspheres sensitized with S. typhi LPS. Following rapid mixing of the serum with these reagents and sedimentation of the magnetic particles by magnetic force, the concentration of indicator particles left in suspension provides a measure of the inhibition. Whereas it was previously assumed that both IgM and IgG antibodies could inhibit in the system, the present study reveals, surprisingly, that only the IgM antibodies do. It is not clear why IgG anti-O9 antibodies, both of mouse and human origin, do not inhibit, although these can bind to the LPS-sensitized magnetic particles as efficiently as the IgM antibodies. In addition, they can also inhibit very well in another detection system (ELISA) which uses a similar assay format and the same antibody and antigen reagents. Increasing the size of the LPS-sensitized microspheres made no difference; microscopic analysis of the TUBEX reaction mixture revealed that while the indicator particles bound abundantly to the IgG-aggregated LPS-sensitized particles, forming large clumps, these only formed a very light decoration on the IgM-aggregated particles. Thus, the TUBEX system is ideally suited for use in the diagnosis of infections as it allows IgM antibodies to be detected easily and rapidly from whole sera. PMID:14604543

Tam, Frankie Chi Hang; Lim, Pak Leong

2003-11-01

123

Effect of multiple freeze and thaw cycles on the sensitivity of IgG and IgM immunoglobulins in the sera of patients with syphilis.  

PubMed

We describe the effects of multiple freeze and thaw cycles on the sensitivity of the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays in the sera of patients with syphilis. Stored frozen sera can withstand repeated freezing and thawing cycles with a minimal detrimental effect on the sensitivity of the sera. PMID:24113410

Castro, Arnold R; Jost, Heather A

2013-11-01

124

Rapid serologic diagnosis of pediatric typhoid fever in an endemic area: a prospective comparative evaluation of two dot-enzyme immunoassays and the Widal test.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of two dot-enzyme-linked immunoassays (Typhidot and Typhidot-M; Malaysian Biodiagnostic Research SDN BHD, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), assessing IgG and IgM antibodies against the outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella typhi, and the Widal test in comparison with blood culture in a consecutive group of children with suspected typhoid fever. Of 97 children with suspected typhoid fever, the disease was confirmed bacteriologically in 46 (47%), whereas 25 (26%) were considered to have typhoid fever on clinical grounds. An alternative diagnosis was made in 26 (27%). The Typhidot and Typhidot-M were superior to the Widal test in their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, although values (sensitivity = 85-94% and specificity = 77-89%) were significantly lower than in other regional reports. The lower specificity of the Typhidot in our series may represent regional differences in the genomic structure and plasticity of the OMP of S. typhi and merits further evaluation of these tests in diverse geographic locations. PMID:10548305

Bhutta, Z A; Mansurali, N

1999-10-01

125

Investigation of several parameters influencing signal generation in flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Rapid-response analytical tests that can be performed at the point of sampling are based on a visual detection system. The influence of different factors on the signal generation in a membrane-based enzyme immunoassay was investigated. The research was applied to a flow-through immunoassay for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). This assay format is a very convenient, simple and fast qualitative screening tool. Conjugates of OTA with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were used as enzyme tracers. A new conjugate OTA-AP has been synthesized in our laboratory and its performance in the assay was compared with that of OTA-HRP. Different substrate systems for HRP and AP were compared. Several reagents, including polymers and surfactants, were tested for their possible effect on signal generation with the use of OTA-HRP conjugate. Polymers such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 exerted a favourable effect on signal amplification, whereas surfactants negatively affected assay performance. The highest signal amplification (30-70% compared to the standard assay procedure) was achieved using 0.5% PVA in tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) Colorburst substrate solution and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for the washing step. It allowed more reliable visual estimation of the results from OTA-HRP assay. Exclusion of the detergent (Tween 20) from the washing solution exerted a favourable effect on assay performance using both enzyme tracers. The assay using OTA-HRP was more susceptible to matrix interferences than the assay with OTA-AP. Signal development in the matrix was better for the OTA-AP assay and visual estimation of the results was easier to perform in this case. For the analysis of spiked wheat samples, OTA-AP conjugate gave a more sensitive, stable and reproducible assay with a cut-off level of 4 microg kg(-1) for OTA. The application of the new OTA-AP conjugate resulted in improved assay performance for the food samples. PMID:17146620

Kolosova, Anna Yu; De Saeger, Sarah; Eremin, Sergei A; Van Peteghem, Carlos

2007-02-01

126

Comparative assessment of a double antibody enzyme immunoassay test kit and a triple antibody enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of Trichinella spiralis spiralis and Trichinella spiralis nativa infections in swine.  

PubMed Central

Enzyme immunoassays using the triple antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with both Trichinella spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a commercial Trichinella spiralis enzyme immunoassay test kit were carried out on sera from pigs that were infected with light, moderate and high doses of infective T. spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa respectively. Seroconversion occurred in all pigs given infective Trichinella larvae although no trichinae were recovered from pigs given T. spiralis nativa larvae and examined between days 92 and 99 postinfection by pepsin digestion. Anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in pigs infected with T. spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa by ELISA using either the homologous or heterologous ES antigen. The commercial Trichinella spiralis enzyme immunoassay test kit also detected anti-Trichinella antibodies in both the T. spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa infected pigs. The commercial test kit did not appear to be as sensitive as the triple antibody ELISA since it usually took two to three days longer for seroconversion to be detected by the former procedure. Finally seroconversion occurred more rapidly in swine infected with T. spiralis spiralis than with pigs receiving comparable doses of T. spiralis nativa.

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

1989-01-01

127

Performance characteristics of the Euroimmun enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for Brucella IgG and IgM.  

PubMed

Brucella IgG and IgM ELISA kits manufactured by Euroimmun (Lubeck, Germany) were evaluated in a reference laboratory setting. Intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) values were < or =10% for positive sera and < or =12% for negative sera; interassay CVs were < or =12% for positive sera and < or =20% for negative sera. The tube agglutination test (TAT) was performed on 51 sera exhibiting various ELISA reactivity profiles. All 18 sera negative for both IgG and IgM by ELISA were TAT negative (titer <1:80), whereas 31 (94%) of 33 sera positive for IgG and/or IgM were TAT positive; the 2 discordant sera were IgG positive IgM negative by ELISA. None of 41 sera from healthy laboratory employees were ELISA IgG positive, whereas 1 (2%) of 41 was ELISA IgM positive. Similarly, 0 of 149 potentially cross-reactive sera (containing rheumatoid factor or antibodies to selected Gram-negative bacteria) was ELISA IgG positive, whereas 4 (3%) of 149 were ELISA IgM positive. These findings demonstrate the acceptable performance of the Euroimmun ELISAs for Brucella antibodies. PMID:19748418

Prince, Harry E; Lopez, Janice; Yeh, Cindy; Tablante, Joselita; Morgan, Joseph; Kaneko, Beverly; Duffey, Paul

2009-10-01

128

Role of Triton X-100 in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays capable of diagnosing genetic disorders.  

PubMed

The use of Triton X surfactants in developing 1,1'-oxalylimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (ODI CEIs) with extended linear response range for the quantification of unconjugated estriol (uE3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is reported for the first time. The wider linear dynamic range in ODI CLEIA results from Triton X series (e.g., Triton X-100, -114, -405, -705) acting as an inhibitor in the interaction between Amplex Red (hydrophobic substrate) and horseradish peroxidase (hydrophilic enzyme) to produce resorufin (hydrophobic fluorescent dye). Triton X-100 acts as the appropriate inhibitor in ODI CLEIA. The maximum concentrations of AFP and hCG quantified with sandwich ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 were 8 times higher than when analyzed with the same system in the absence of Triton X-100. In addition, the lowest concentration of uE3 determined using competitive ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 was 20 times lower than that measured with competitive ODI CLEIA in the absence of Triton X-100. These results indicate that rapid quantification of AFP, uE3, and hCG using cost effective and highly sensitive ODI CLEIAs in the presence of Triton X-100 can be applied as an accurate, precise, and reproducible method to diagnose genetic disorders (e.g., trisomy 18 and trisomy 21) in fetuses. PMID:24148422

Chong, Richard; Rho, Jee-Eun R; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Park, Paul S; Rho, Tae-Ho D; Park, Jee Y; Park, Lucienne; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Ji Hoon

2013-11-15

129

Development of ultra-high sensitivity bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus surface antigen using firefly luciferase.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a global public health concern. Efficient diagnosis of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) is useful for identification of infection, treatment and prevention of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. Seronegative window reduction afforded by a highly sensitive measurement methodology is necessary as a small quantity of virus with infection risk exists for the period characterized by undetectable HBsAg following HBV infection. In this study, a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for HBsAg was developed employing firefly luciferase as a labeling enzyme and a two-step sandwich immunoassay method. The cut-off value (10 mIU/mL) was 50-fold more sensitive relative to conventional chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay based on luminol luminescence involving peroxidase as the labeling enzyme and the identical antibodies. Preliminary clinical data for this BLEIA revealed that the HBV seroconversion panel derived sequentially from HBV-infected human blood was detected 11 days following window closure from the first bleed, whereas detection occurred 14-25 days following window closure with the three conventional commercial kits. PMID:19424965

Minekawa, Takayuki; Ohkuma, Hiroshi; Abe, Katsushi; Maekawa, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

2009-01-01

130

Production and evaluation of reagents for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The detection of urinary Histoplasma capsulatum polysaccharide antigen (HPA) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has proven useful for the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Assay limitations include (i) detection of a largely uncharacterized antigen and (ii) difficulty in reproducibly generating antibodies for use in the EIA. To improve antibody production for use in this test and to better understand the antigen being detected, we compared rabbit antibodies elicited using various immunization schedules, routes, and H. capsulatum-derived antigens. Antibodies were evaluated by EIA for their ability to detect purified H. capsulatum C antigen (C-Ag) and antigenuria. Reported as enzyme immunoassay (EI) units (the A(450) with antigen divided by the A(450) without antigen), results demonstrated that intravenous immunization of rabbits with whole, killed yeast-phase cells (yeast-i.v. regimen) produced antibodies giving the highest EI values in the C-Ag EIA (mean EI units +/- standard deviation, 14.9 +/- 0.6 versus 6.4 +/- 0.4 for rabbits immunized with C-Ag versus 2.4 +/- 0.3 for all other regimens combined). Yeast-i.v. antibodies were highly sensitive for the detection of antigenuria in patients with histoplasmosis, as shown by the following results: 12/12 patients compared to 10/12, 6/12, 3/12, and 3/12, respectively, for antibodies from rabbits immunized with (i) C-Ag; (ii) whole, killed yeast-phase cells administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly; (iii) yeast-phase culture filtrates; and (iv) HPA-positive urine. Rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen also gave higher peak antibody titers than rabbits immunized by any other regimen (P < 0.03), and their antibodies were most comparable in reactivity to antibodies produced for use in the standard HPA-EIA test (P < 0.001). Therefore, rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen produced the most sensitive antibodies with the highest titers for detection of C-Ag and antigenuria in histoplasmosis patients. PMID:17428951

Lindsley, Mark D; Holland, Heather L; Bragg, Sandra L; Hurst, Steven F; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Morrison, Christine J

2007-06-01

131

Production and Evaluation of Reagents for Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum Antigenuria by Enzyme Immunoassay?  

PubMed Central

The detection of urinary Histoplasma capsulatum polysaccharide antigen (HPA) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has proven useful for the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Assay limitations include (i) detection of a largely uncharacterized antigen and (ii) difficulty in reproducibly generating antibodies for use in the EIA. To improve antibody production for use in this test and to better understand the antigen being detected, we compared rabbit antibodies elicited using various immunization schedules, routes, and H. capsulatum-derived antigens. Antibodies were evaluated by EIA for their ability to detect purified H. capsulatum C antigen (C-Ag) and antigenuria. Reported as enzyme immunoassay (EI) units (the A450 with antigen divided by the A450 without antigen), results demonstrated that intravenous immunization of rabbits with whole, killed yeast-phase cells (yeast-i.v. regimen) produced antibodies giving the highest EI values in the C-Ag EIA (mean EI units ± standard deviation, 14.9 ± 0.6 versus 6.4 ± 0.4 for rabbits immunized with C-Ag versus 2.4 ± 0.3 for all other regimens combined). Yeast-i.v. antibodies were highly sensitive for the detection of antigenuria in patients with histoplasmosis, as shown by the following results: 12/12 patients compared to 10/12, 6/12, 3/12, and 3/12, respectively, for antibodies from rabbits immunized with (i) C-Ag; (ii) whole, killed yeast-phase cells administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly; (iii) yeast-phase culture filtrates; and (iv) HPA-positive urine. Rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen also gave higher peak antibody titers than rabbits immunized by any other regimen (P < 0.03), and their antibodies were most comparable in reactivity to antibodies produced for use in the standard HPA-EIA test (P < 0.001). Therefore, rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen produced the most sensitive antibodies with the highest titers for detection of C-Ag and antigenuria in histoplasmosis patients.

Lindsley, Mark D.; Holland, Heather L.; Bragg, Sandra L.; Hurst, Steven F.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Morrison, Christine J.

2007-01-01

132

Performance characteristics of bioassay, radioenzymatic assay, homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of serum gentamicin  

SciTech Connect

We compared the accuracy, precision, and between-method error of the microbiological assay, the radioenzymatic assay, the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of gentamicin in serum. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by reference samples prepared to contain 0.0 to 32.7 micrograms of gentamicin per ml. Correlations between the methods utilized patient sera with gentamicin concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 13.3 micrograms/ml. All methods were reliable within acceptable limits for routine clinical use; intermethod correlation coefficients exceeded 0.96. Relative to the microbiological assay, the alternative methods offer the advantage of rapid analysis. The elapsed times for acquiring data on a set of 10 specimens under routine operating conditions were 0.5 h by the enzyme immunoassay, 4 h by the radioenzymatic assay, 5 h by the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, and 10 h by the microbiological assay.

Delaney, C.J.; Opheim, K.E.; Smith, A.L.; Plorde, J.J.

1982-01-01

133

Comparison of colorimetric, fluorescent, and enzymatic amplification substrate systems in an enzyme immunoassay for detection of DNA-RNA hybrids.  

PubMed Central

The monoclonal antibody solution hybridization assay is a novel enzyme immunoassay for detection of RNA with a biotinylated DNA probe. To increase the sensitivity of this test, a fluorescent substrate and an enzymatic amplification cycling system were compared with a conventional colorigenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase. The fluorescent, cycling, and colorigenic substrates detected, respectively, 10, 10, and 100 amol of unbound alkaline phosphatase in 2 h. With a prolonged incubation period of 16.6 h, the conventional substrate measured 10 amol of the enzyme. In the immunoassay for RNA detection, the fluorescence and cycling assays were faster than that using the colorigenic substrate and reached an endpoint sensitivity of 3.2 pg/ml (0.16 pg per assay) of cRNA. However, longer incubation periods (16.6 h) for optimal generation of the colorigenic product led to a comparable level of sensitivity for the conventional substrate.

Coutlee, F; Viscidi, R P; Yolken, R H

1989-01-01

134

A Monoclonal Inhibition Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Antibodies Against Hepatitis B Core Antigen: Confirmation of an Immunodominant Epitope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against hepatitis B virus core produced by a recombinant clone of Eschehchia coli (rHBc). The three mAbs recognized rHBc by Western blot, suggesting that they reacted with non-conformational epitopes. Competition experiments between mAbs and human anti-HBc sera confirmed the existence of an immunodominant HBc epitope within the viral antigen. A monoclonal competition enzyme immunoassay using

Flor H. Pujol; Andrea Bertolotti; Howard A. Fields; Yury E. Khudyakov; Tatiana I. Kalinina; Ferdinando Liprandi

1994-01-01

135

Comparison of a new, rapid enzyme immunoassay with a latex agglutination test for qualitative detection of rubella antibodies.  

PubMed Central

A total of 450 sera were tested for rubella virus antibodies by using a new, rapid enzyme immunoassay, SUDS Rubella. The results were compared with those obtained by using the Rubascan test, a well-established latex agglutination method. The sensitivity of the SUDS Rubella was 99.5%, and the specificity was 100%, when compared with Rubascan. The SUDS Rubella test can be performed in 10 min and provides an accurate screening test for the detection of rubella antibodies. Images

Ferraro, M J; Kallas, W M; Welch, K P; Lau, A Y

1987-01-01

136

Measurement of cytokeratin 19 fragments as a marker of lung cancer by CYFRA 21-1 enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble cytokeratin fragment 19 levels were measured with an enzyme immunoassay method developed by Boehringer Mannheim (Enzymun-Test CYFRA 21-1) in the serum of 185 patients with lung cancer [149 with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 36 with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)] and 97 patients with benign lung diseases in order to determine its clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of lung

M Takada; N Masuda; E Matsuura; Y Kusunoki; K Matui; K Nakagawa; T Yana; I Tuyuguchi; I Oohata; M Fukuoka

1995-01-01

137

Quantitation of bcl-2 protein in bladder cancer tissue by enzyme immunoassay: comparison with Western blot and immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the genes regu- lating this process (e.g., bcl-2), have recently become a focus of interest in the study of cancer development and progression. We adapted and evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay method (EIA) for quanitifying bcl-2 in cell lysates. The range of detection of the assay was 5- 400 kilounits\\/L with inter- and intraassay CVs

Sanaa Eissa; Laila S. Seada

1998-01-01

138

Comparison of Commercial Enzyme Immunoassay Kits with Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection of Measles Virus Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits were evaluated in comparison with the plaque reductionneutralization(PRN)testfordetectionofmeaslesvirusantibody.TheEIAkits,Enzygnost(Behring), Diamedix, Vidas (bioMerieux Vitek), and Measlestat (Biowhittaker), were assessed with two PRN cutoff titers: a PRN titer of 8, the lowest detectable antibody level by the PRN test under the test conditions, and a titer of 120, which has been shown to be the minimum

SAMUEL RATNAM; VEERABHADRA GADAG; ROY WEST; JUDY BURRIS; ELIZABETH OATES; FLORENCE STEAD; ANDNICOLE BOUILIANNE

1995-01-01

139

Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of PCR-amplified enterotoxin A from Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

A PCR protocol was developed for the rapid and specific detection of Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the enterotoxin A gene in artificially contaminated ground beef. A biotinylated primer pair was designed for amplification of a 750 bp fragment of the C. perfringens enterotoxin A gene. A combination of 4 h enrichment incubation and nucleic acid extraction, followed by 2 h of PCR amplification allowed detection at levels below 10 CFU of freshly grown cells in raw and cooked beef samples. PCR amplified products were confirmed by a Southern hybridization assay using a digoxigenin-labeled internal probe, and two hybridization ELISA protocols (PCR-ELISA) applying a streptavidin capture step for the hybridized PCR products. Both enzyme immunoassays utilized chemiluminescent detection with Lumiphos 530TM as substrate, after hybridization to an internal digoxigenin-labeled probe or a 5' conjugated alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe. The PCR-ELISA resulted in faster confirmation of the PCR products while providing a level of sensitivity comparable to Southern hybridization, and has potential for development into an automated method. PMID:8880335

Baez, L A; Juneja, V K; Sackitey, S K

1996-09-01

140

Laboratory and epidemiologic evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to HTLV-III  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) were rapidly adopted for screening donated blood and plasma. To evaluate the significance of a positive EIA reaction, test performance was examined in a blood bank screening program. Specimens were tested by EIA, Western blot assay, and HTLV-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) culture. The EIA was positive in 0.25% of 67 190 blood donations. Specimens were categorized and 57.3% had low (weak) reactivity, 12.7% had moderate reactivity, and 30.0% had high reactivity. Highly reactive specimens were strongly associated with a positive Western blot or culture (86.7%) in contrast to moderately and weekly reactive specimens (1.9%). Twenty-five of 29 donors interviewed with a highly reactive EIA had risk factors for HTLV-III/LAV infection. Risk factors were not identified for 74 of 75 interviewed donors with specimens of lower reactivity. The minimum calculated specificity was 99.82%. The use of the HTLV-III EIA has virtually eliminated the use of blood and plasma for HTLV-III/LAV infected donors.

Ward, J.W.; Grindon, A.J.; Feorino, P.M.; Schable, C.; Parvin, M.; Allen, J.R.

1986-07-18

141

[Comparative evaluation of two enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to mumps virus].  

PubMed

Two enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) for mumps antibody detection using the Enzygnost (Germany) and Parotit-screen (Russia) were comparatively assayed using sera of randomly assigned 70 healthy young adult volunteers. The neutralization test (NT) was performed for all sera using mumps viruses (MVs) of the relevant strains Enders and Leningrad-3. The proportion of positive results was significantly higher with the Parotit-screen than with the Enzygnost (80% versus 52.9%, p < 0.05). The proportion of the concordant results in both ELISAs was as 72.9% (50% for positive results and 22.9% for negative results). There was significantly better agreement between the NT with MV strain Enders and Enzygnost (98.6%, r = 0.9, p < 0.05) than between the NT with MV strain Leningrad-3 and Parotit-screen (77.1%, r = 0.6, p < 0.05). It was concluded that the Enzygnost was apparently more specific than the Parotit-screen. PMID:23012984

Otrashevskaia, E V; Bukin, E K; Otrashevskaia, A V; Ignat'ev, G M

2012-01-01

142

Sensitive enzyme-amplified electrical immunoassay for protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus in foods.  

PubMed Central

An amperometric electrochemical immunoassay specific for protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The method was based on a sandwich immunosorbent assay and incorporated an enzyme amplification step, using a NAD-specific redox cycle generating NADH (C. H. Stanley, A. Johannsson, and C. H. Self, J. Immunol. Methods 83:89-95, 1985). Reduction of the mediator, ferricyanide, was dependent on the initial concentration of antigen. The final potential was measured by using a Pt disk electrode polarized at +0.8 V to the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The assay was rapid (4 h) and generated protein A- and cell (S. aureus)-dependent signals. The system was highly sensitive and could detect 10 pg of protein A ml-1 and less than 100 CFU of S. aureus ml-1. Similar sensitivities were observed with S. aureus cultures inoculated into beef and milk, but the sensitivity was reduced slightly (ca. 10(3) g-1) with samples of Cheddar cheese.

Brooks, J L; Mirhabibollahi, B; Kroll, R G

1990-01-01

143

Diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by enzyme immunoassay using membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the reactivity of membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis for the diagnosis of ACL by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis were grown in medium 199 and lysed in a sonicator. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting showed that specific proteins of L. (V.) braziliensis (apparent molecular weights 36 kDa and 48-56 kDa) were recognized by sera from ACL patients. These proteins were eluted from the SDS-PAGE and tested in EIA-IgG with sera from ACL patients, healthy individuals, patients with toxoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and Chagas disease. The EIA-IgG with membrane antigens allowed us to distinguish patients with ACL from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases (P < 0.0001), and showed a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 90.8%, not including Chagas disease patients. 2D-SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting was performed to improve the characterization of the antigens, and showed a component with isoelectric points near the acid pH side and apparent molecular weights of 48-56 kDa. The results showed good sensitivity and specificity of EIA-IgG with membrane antigens, indicating their potential use for diagnosis of ACL, as well as seroepidemiological surveys and follow-up of clinically cured patients. PMID:24485589

Skraba, Cissiara Manetti; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Fiorini, Adriana; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

2014-04-01

144

Potentiometric enzyme immunoassay using miniaturized anion-selective electrodes for detection  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection in human serum was developed based on the potentiometric detection of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferone (DiFMU). The assays were carried out in anti-human PSA capture-antibody modified microtiter plates (150 µl volume). After incubation in the PSA containing serum samples, ?-galactosidase-labeled PSA tracer antibody was added. The ?-galactosidase label catalyzed the hydrolysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (DiFMUG) and the resulting DiFMU? anion was detected by potentiometric microelectrodes with anion-exchanger membrane. The selectivity of the anion-exchanger electrode is governed by the lipophilicity of the anions in the sample. Since DiFMU? is much more lipophilic (log P = 1.83) than any of the inorganic anions normally present in the working buffers and occurs in its anionic form at the physiological pH (pKa = 4.19), it was chosen as the species to be detected. The potentiometric ELISA-based method detects PSA in serum with a linear concentration range of 0.1–50 ng/mL. These results confirm the applicability of potentiometric detection in diagnostic PSA assays. Owing to simple methodology and low cost, potentiometric immunoassays seem to offer a feasible alternative to the development of in vitro diagnostic platforms.

Szucs, Julia; Pretsch, Erno; Gyurcsanyi, Robert E.

2010-01-01

145

A magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ovalbumin.  

PubMed

Egg allergy is an important public health and safety concern, so quantification and administration of food or vaccines containing ovalbumin (OVA) are urgently needed. This study aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive magnetic particles-chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of OVA. The proposed method was developed on the basis of a double antibodies sandwich immunoreaction and luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system. The MPs served as both the solid phase and separator, the anti-OVA MPs-coated polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were used as capturing antibody, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) was taken as detecting antibody. The parameters of the method were evaluated and optimized. The established MPs-CLEIA method had a linear range from 0.31 to 100ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.24ng/ml. The assays showed low reactivities and less than 5% of intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs), and the average recoveries were between 92 and 97%. Furthermore, the developed method was applied in real samples analysis successfully, and the correlation coefficient with the commercially available OVA kit was 0.9976. Moreover, it was more rapid and sensitive compared with the other methods for testing OVA. PMID:24769049

Feng, Xiao-Li; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Yan, Dong-Ming; Hui, Qi; Liu, Dong; Lin, Chao; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Lu, Shi-Ying

2014-08-15

146

Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of plasma oxytocin  

PubMed Central

Objective There is increased interest in measuring peripheral oxytocin levels to better understand the role of this peptide in mammalian behavior, physiology, and disease. The purpose of this study was to compare methods for plasma oxytocin measurement using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the need for sample extraction, and to assess the immunospecificity of the assays. Methods Oxytocin was measured in extracted and unextracted human plasma samples (n = 39). Oxytocin and its degradation products were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and gel filtration chromatography and then assayed by EIA or RIA to identify oxytocin immunoreactive peaks. Results Without extraction, plasma measured by EIA was more than 100-fold higher than in extracted plasma, and the correlation between oxytocin levels in extracted and unextracted plasma was minimal (Spearman’s rho = ?0.10, p = 0.54). Using the RIA, most samples (> 90%) were below the level of detection with or without extraction. Following chromatographic fractionation of sample extracts, multiple immunoreactive products were found to be present in addition to oxytocin, which casts doubts on the specificity of the assays. Conclusions Changes in oxytocin levels have been reported in social and behavioral challenge studies. This study indicates that sample extraction is necessary to obtain valid assay results. Changes in oxytocin degradation products are likely to contribute to the previously observed responses in circulating oxytocin levels to behavioral and social challenge. There is a critical need for validated and reliable methods to measure oxytocin in biological samples.

Szeto, Angela; McCabe, Philip M.; Nation, Daniel A.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Rossetti, Maria A.; McCullough, Michael E.; Schneiderman, Neil; Mendez, Armando J.

2011-01-01

147

High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices.  

PubMed

In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future. PMID:24016577

Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

2013-09-24

148

Production of monoclonal antibodies to calcitonin and development of a two-site enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for the production of calcitonin-specific hybridomas which involves primary and secondary immunization of Balb/c mice in the hind footpads with free, synthetic human calcitonin and cell fusion of lymphocytes from popliteal lymphonodes with a P3 x 63 myeloma line. This protocol offers the following advantages: (a) it is short and easy to perform, (b) it requires small amounts of unconjugated antigen, and (c) it gives a high yield of antigen-specific IgG-secreting hybridomas. Routine screening was carried out by ELISA on solid phase calcitonin and binding of the monoclonals to free antigen was studied with calcitonin linked to biotin through a 13 carbon atom spacer. Monoclonal couples capable of simultaneously binding calcitonin in solution were found by pairing in all possible combinations 25 purified antibodies, in their unlabelled and biotinylated form, in a checkerboard matrix experimental system. Of the over 30 positive pairs identified, four were used in a one-step enzyme immunoassay for calcitonin determination on microtiter plates in a concn range between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. With the detecting monoclonal directly conjugated to peroxidase with a heterobifunctional crosslinker, the range of the assay with one monoclonal pair was between 25 and 1000 pg/ml with an 18 hr incubation at 4 degrees C. PMID:3696166

Racchetti, G; Fossati, G; Comitti, R; Putignano, S; Galante, Y M

1987-11-01

149

Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

An inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 (App-5) in pig sera, based on the inhibition of the binding of an App-5 specific monoclonal antibody was established. The monoclonal antibody (MAb 210-F11) was found to be directed against an epitope on the O-chain of App-5 LPS. In the inhibition EIA, highly purified App-5 LPS was used to coat microtitre plates. Serial dilutions of pig sera were added to the plates prior to the addition of the MAb 210-F11. The degree of binding of App-5 antibodies from pig sera was determined as the percentage inhibition of the MAb 210-F11. Pig serum from specific pathogen free (SPF) herds, from experimentally infected animals, and from acutely and chronically infected herds were tested. A serum dilution of 1/30 was found to be optimal, when using 50% inhibition as the discriminating inhibition percentage. No cross-reactivity was observed with serum from pigs infected with other App serotypes or bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, such as A. suis and H. parasuis. The inhibition EIA will be used for surveillance of App-5 antibodies in SPF and conventional herds. Images Figure 1.

Stenbaek, E I; De LaSalle, F; Gottschalk, M

1997-01-01

150

[Enzyme immunoassay of the secondary metabolites of micromycetes as components of lichen substances].  

PubMed

The composition of low-molecular biologically active metabolites typical of microscopic fungi has been studied in blastemas of fruticose lichens of the genera Cladonia, Cetraria, Evernia, Bryoria, and Usnes. The enzyme immunoassay method showed the presence of sterigmatocystin, emodin, mycophenolic acid, citrinin, alternariol, and diacetoxyscirpenol, which occurred regularly and, in most cases, at a frequency of 55 to 100%. The highest levels of accumulation were 0.001-0.003% for emodin, 0.0002% for alternariol and citrinin, 0.0001% for sterigmatocystin and mycophenolic acid, and 0.00005% of the weight of air-dry material for diacetoxyscirpenol. Other metabolites (cyclopiazonic acid, ergot alkaloids, ochratoxin A, PR toxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisins) were detected in these lichens less frequently (sometimes only upon the expansion of the territory of sampling), and their content was no more than 0.00005%. The peculiarities of the component composition and the levels of accumulation of fungal metabolites in lichens of different taxonomic affiliation were discussed. PMID:22567889

Kononenko, G P; Burkin, A A; Tolpysheva, T Iu

2012-01-01

151

Automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay for neural thread protein in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

An automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) with the IMx analyzer for the detection of neural thread protein (NTP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was developed. This assay uses monoclonal antibodies produced against the purified pancreatic form of the protein. The assay employs one monoclonal antibody covalently coupled to the microparticle to capture immunoreactive material in CSF or brain tissue. The second monoclonal antibody was conjugated to alkaline phosphatase and serves as detection antibody. The assay provides results in approximately 45 minutes with a sensitivity of 60 pg/ml (3 fmoles/ml). The titration curve of both normal and AD CSF resulted in a linear relationship with respect to the volume of CSF used. A similar relationship was observed when normal and AD brain tissue extracts were serially diluted. The molecular weight of NTP in CSF was approximately 20 kD as determined by gel filtration method under non-denaturing conditions. The recovery for pancreatic thread protein (PTP) spiked in either normal or AD CSF was 104% and 108%, respectively. Intra-, inter-, and total assay CVs (coefficient of variation) for controls were less than 2.9%, 3.3% and 3.0%, respectively. This assay will provide a useful tool in the study of the Alzheimer's disease and may help research in diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. PMID:1432364

Chong, J K; Cantrell, L; Husain, M; Riesing, S; Miller, B E; Wands, J; de la Monte, S; Ghanbari, H A

1992-01-01

152

Rapid Enzyme Immunoassay for Determination of Toxigenicity among Clinical Isolates of Corynebacteria  

PubMed Central

A rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for the phenotypic detection of diphtheria toxin among clinical isolates of corynebacteria. The assay uses equine polyclonal antitoxin as the capture antibody and an alkaline phosphatase-labeled monoclonal antibody, specific for fragment A of the toxin molecule, as the detecting antibody. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific: a final result is available within 3 h of colony selection, and the limits of detection are 0.1 ng of pure diphtheria toxin/ml. Toxigenicity could be detected with isolates grown on a diverse range of culture media, including selective agars. Toxin detection using the EIA was compared to that with the Elek test and PCR detection of fragment A of the diphtheria toxin (tox) gene, using 245 isolates of corynebacteria. The results for the EIA were in complete concordance with those of the Elek test: 87 toxigenic and 158 nontoxigenic isolates. Ten of the phenotypically nontoxigenic strains were found to contain fragment A of the tox gene but did not express the toxin protein. These isolates were found to be nontoxigenic in the Vero cell tissue culture cytotoxicity assay and were therefore nontoxigenic for diagnostic purposes. The EIA is a simple rapid phenotypic test which provides a definitive result on toxigenicity within one working day.

Engler, Kathryn H.; Efstratiou, Androulla

2000-01-01

153

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors eliminated from serum samples by hydrophobic silica-gel extraction and enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Elimination of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) that interfere with accurate measurement of digoxin requires use of a highly specific anti-digoxin antibody, or that DLIF be separated from digoxin before immunoassay. Several commercial digoxin-assay kits include a step for separating serum proteins and other substances from digoxin before immunoassay. We tested six different immunoassay methods (some having pretreatment steps) for their ability to detect DLIF in serum from patients in renal failure, pregnant women, and neonates, all of whom were not taking digoxin. Extracting digoxin on a column of derivatized silicagel eliminated detectable DLIF from serum as measured by enzyme immunoassay (EMIT; Syva Co.), but recovery of added digoxin was quantitative. In contrast, protein precipitation with 5-sulfosalicylic acid left significant amounts of DLIF in samples, most probably because the procedure (TDx assay; Abbott Labs.) disrupted protein-DLIF binding. A glass-bead radioimmunoassay (Immophase; Corning Medical) had the most digoxin-specific antisera. By preparative silica-gel-chromatography of serum we could eliminate or significantly minimize inaccurate digoxin measurements attributable to endogenous DLIF. PMID:3545537

Skogen, W F; Rea, M R; Valdes, R

1987-03-01

154

The determination of thyroxine and thyroxine uptake with new homogeneous enzyme immunoassays using Boehringer Mannheim/Hitachi analysis systems.  

PubMed

New homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for the determination of thyroxine and thyroxine uptake have been developed. The CEDIA assays are based on the cloned enzyme donor immunoassay technology, which involves fragments of beta-galactosidase prepared by genetic engineering. The assays have been adapted for Boehringer Mannheim/Hitachi analysers. The CEDIA T4/T Uptake assays were evaluated in eleven clinical chemistry laboratories on various Boehringer Mannheim/Hitachi analysis systems, using a 2-point calibration. The analytical range of the T4 test was 10 to 258 nmol/l thyroxine. The T uptake test had a measuring range between 20-50%. Depending on the concentration of the analyte (samples from hypo-, eu- or hyperthyroid patients), mean coefficients of variation ranged from 1.8 to 4.8% within-run and from 4.1 to 6.5% between-run for the T4 assay. Even better coefficients of variation were obtained for the T uptake assay (1.4 to 2.3% within-run, 2.8 to 3.3% between run). The relative inaccuracy of the CEDIA assays with respect to values assigned by other tests was satisfactory in various control sera. The T4 assay was compared with one radioimmunoassay, one enzyme immunoassay and one fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Slopes ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 and intercepts ranging from -10 to +10 nmol/l thyroxine were obtained with two exceptions. The results of the T uptake test correlated reasonably with those of other thyroxine-binding methods. No interference was observed with icteric and lipaemic sera. Haemoglobin up to 4 g/l had no significant influence. Results of the CEDIA T Uptake test are mainly used for calculation of the free thyroxine index, in which the thyroxine value is corrected for variations of thyroxine-binding protein concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764546

Horn, K; Castińeiras, M J; Ortolá, J; Kock, R; Perriard, F C; Bittner, S; Pairet, J V; Ers, P; Boulanger, J; Zeidner, S

1991-10-01

155

Biotin-avidin amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of canine serum IgA, IgG and IgM.  

PubMed

An amplified capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed by the use of the biotin-avidin detection system, for the measurement of canine plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G and M. Test responses of dilutions of both the Ig standards and test plasma samples were consistently linear (r > 0.987) for the three Ig classes. The within-assay variation was 3.53 per cent for IgG, 5.84 per cent for IgM and 6.34 per cent for IgA. The analytical recoveries were 95 per cent for IgA, 97 per cent for IgG and 98 per cent for IgM. The lower detection limits of the assay were 38.4 ng ml-1 for IgG, 20.3 ng ml-1 for IgM and 41.2 ng ml-1 for IgA. The results indicate that this ELISA has a much higher sensitivity than the single radial immunodiffusion assay or the non-amplified ELISA for measurements of canine Igs, but has a comparable specificity and precision. PMID:8685529

Ginel, P J; Margarito, J M; Molleda, J M; López, R; Novales, M; Bernadina, W E

1996-03-01

156

Dried venous blood samples for the detection and quantification of measles IgG using a commercial enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether samples of dried venous blood (DVB) were an acceptable alternative to serum for detecting measles-specific IgG in a commercial enzyme immunoassay. METHODS: Paired samples of serum and DVB were collected from 98 suspected cases of measles and 1153 schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia. All samples were tested using the Dade Behring Enzygnost Anti-Measles-Virus/IgG immunoassay. DVB samples were eluted using either the sample buffer provided with the kit or 5% dry milk powder in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. FINDINGS: DVB samples eluted by sample buffer showed significantly better linear correlation to the serum samples than did DVB samples eluted in 5% dry milk in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. To improve the comparability of serum and DVB samples an adjustment factor of 1.28 was applied to the optical density (OD) values of DVB. This adjustment also enabled quantification of the titre of measles IgG in mIU/ml directly from the OD value using the alpha calculation as specified by the kit protocol. For DVB samples stored for less than six months at 4 degrees C, the assay showed an overall sensitivity of 98.4% and a specificity of 97.2% compared with the results of serum testing. CONCLUSION: These results illustrate the potential for DVB samples to be widely used with the Dade Behring enzyme immunoassay system for determining the immunity of the individual and the population to the measles virus.

Riddell, Michaela A.; Byrnes, Graham B.; Leydon, Jennie A.; Kelly, Heath A.

2003-01-01

157

Evaluation of a new valproic acid enzyme immunoassay and comparison with a capillary gas-chromatographic method.  

PubMed

A new homogeneous immunoassay (EMIT) for valproic acid was evaluated. Besides testing the manual version of this enzyme immunoassay, we also developed two mechanized procedures for centrifugal analyzers (the CentrifiChem and the COBAS system), which take less time and are more precise than the manual method. Within-assay precision (CV) was 4.5% with the manual technique and 2% with the analyzers. Between-assay precision (CV) ranged from 4 to 13% for all three techniques. Accuracy of th manual method was checked by dilution and analytical recovery experiments. Our comparison of the EMIT results with those obtained by a comparison method (capillary gas chromatography) showed no significant difference. No interference from hemolysis, hyperbilirubinemia, or aliphatic amino acids was observed. At high concentrations of bile acids and with lipemic sera the analytical recovery rates decreased slightly, to 87% and 92%, respectively. PMID:6778635

Braun, S L; Tausch, A; Vogt, W; Jacob, K; Knedel, M

1981-01-01

158

Use of enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Fusobacterium necrophorum in cattle.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with HCl heat-extracted antigen of Fusobacterium necrophorum was conducted to detect specific immunoglobulins G and M in infected cattle. The ELISA revealed an increase (> 0.40) in specific IgG in most of the animals with hepatic abscesses but not that in specific IgM. All the lesions were positive for F. necrophorum. These findings indicated that the ELISA for immunoglobulin G detection may prove to be a useful tool for predictive serodiagnosis of F. necrophorum infection in cattle. PMID:9082147

Kanoe, M; Hirabayashi, T; Matsuoka, Y; Inoue, M; Uraoka, Y; Taguchi, S; Motoyoshi, S

1996-01-01

159

Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen.  

PubMed

We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1). The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the "diagnostic gray zone" of serum f-PSA levels (4-10 ng mL(-1)). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL(-1)). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum. PMID:24139579

Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

2013-11-01

160

Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum Antigen from Urine Specimens  

PubMed Central

Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum urinary antigen (UAg) is important for the initial diagnosis of infection and for monitoring of patient responses to antifungal therapy. This study evaluated an analyte-specific reagent (ASR) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of H. capsulatum UAg from Immuno Mycologics, Inc. (IMMY) (Norman, OK) in comparison with routine testing with the MiraVista (MVista) H. capsulatum quantitative EIA (MiraVista Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Using prospectively collected urine specimens (n = 1,003), we observed an overall percent agreement between the two assays of 97.6% (979/1,003 samples). Compared with the MVista EIA, the sensitivity and specificity of the IMMY ASR EIA were 64.5% (40/62 samples) and 99.8% (939/941 samples), respectively, using a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/ml. Based on available clinical histories for 23/24 discordant samples, 5 IMMY assay-negative/MVista assay-positive samples were considered falsely positive. Furthermore, 10/23 discordant samples were positive by the MVista EIA but were below the limit of quantitation (<0.4 ng/ml). The clinical significance of these low positive results in the MVista EIA is unclear. In addition to the prospective study, we tested 11 urine specimens collected from patients with culture-confirmed Histoplasma infections, and 100% (11/11 samples) were positive by the IMMY ASR EIA. In conclusion, the IMMY ASR EIA may offer an alternative approach for the detection of Histoplasma UAg. Additional prospective studies are needed to better characterize the performance of the IMMY ASR EIA in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings.

Jespersen, Deborah J.; Harring, Julie; Mandrekar, Jay; Binnicker, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

161

Evaluation of a Brucella enzyme immunoassay test (ELISA) in comparison with bacteriological culture and agglutination.  

PubMed

An ELISA test for IgG and IgM antibrucella antibodies was found to be effective in diagnosis of human brucellosis. Assays for IgG and IgM in 30 culture-positive cases gave significant ELISA values. By the standard agglutination test, 10% of these cases gave readings less than 1:160. These are considered insignificant, taking 1:160 as the accepted cut-off value. Moreover, in an extra 135 samples from suspected brucella cases, where only serology was requested (77.6% of all cases), 7.4% were found to have IgM brucella antibodies by ELISA. In all of these, the corresponding agglutination titres were less than 1:80 and hence reported as insignificant. We report the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in samples from patients with both acute and chronic disease. In few patients with acute disease, only IgM was detected. These findings are discussed in comparison with earlier studies. Finally, the ELISA test, in addition to measuring antibody classes directly, also detects incomplete antibodies. By this, it can efficiently replace the 2 mercaptoethanol test (2ME) and the Coomb's antihuman-globulin test. This saves considerable laboratory cost and time. PMID:9570654

Gad El-Rab, M O; Kambal, A M

1998-03-01

162

Accuracy of immunoglobulin M immunoassay for diagnosis of chlamydial infections in infants and adults.  

PubMed Central

An improved solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with Chlamydia trachomatis L2 434/Bu elementary bodies was developed for the measurement of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to C. trachomatis in serum. Comparison of EIA and microimmunofluorescence IgM antibody titers of 156 serum samples revealed an EIA sensitivity and specificity of 100% for infants, but reduced sensitivity (85%) and specificity (76%) for sera from adults. Sera containing IgM class rheumatoid factor produced false-positive IgM results which could easily be eliminated by pretreatment of the sera with anti-human IgG. Analysis of sera from infants with chlamydial infections revealed that 17 of 17 infants with C. trachomatis pneumonia had high IgM antibody titers (geometric mean titer, 1:64,812), whereas two infants with conjunctivitis only lacked detectable IgM antibody. EIA detected IgM antibody to several serovar groups in serum, including serovars B, BDE, FG, and J. IgM antibody to C. trachomatis in serum was detected as early as 5 days after the infection that was acquired at delivery and persisted for 3 months. The availability of an EIA possessing good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgM antibody to C. trachomatis may permit more laboratories to diagnose perinatal chlamydial infections.

Mahony, J B; Chernesky, M A; Bromberg, K; Schachter, J

1986-01-01

163

Expanded gold standard in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in a low prevalence population: diagnostic efficacy of tissue culture, direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, PCR and serology.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of chlamydia culture, direct immunofluorescence (DFA), direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology by defining positive culture or at least two positive non-culture tests as true positive. SETTING--Three gynaecological departments located in separate areas of Sweden. PATIENTS AND DESIGN--All pregnant women requesting abortion during a six month period were included. In cases with unconfirmed non-culture tests, reculture with multiple passage and PCR on the culture transport medium was performed for confirmation. Serum was analysed for chlamydial antibodies type IgG, IgM and IgA using microimmunofluorescence. RESULTS--18 of 419 (4.3%) patients were positive for chlamydia according to the defined criteria. Twelve of 419 (2.9%) were positive in standard culture (primary inoculation). The sensitivity of standard culture, DFA, EIA and PCR were 66.7%, 77.8%, 64.7% and 71.4% respectively. The specificity 100% (by definition), 99.5%, 100%, 100% respectively. The positive predictive value 100% (by definition), 87.5%, 100%, 100% respectively. Negative predictive value 98.5%, 99.0%, 98.5%, 98.9% respectively. Serum IgG titre of > or = 64 and > or = 1024 gave positive predictive values of 10% and 21% respectively. CONCLUSIONS--When an expanded gold standard is used, the specificity and positive predictive value of the non-culture tests used are comparable with that of standard culture even in this low prevalence population. Standard culture underestimated the chlamydia prevalence by 33%. The prevalence found represents a decrease from 10 to 2.9% of culture verified chlamydia during four years in comparable populations. Chlamydial antibodies of certain immunological classes are not necessarily present in cases with chlamydia.

Thejls, H; Gnarpe, J; Gnarpe, H; Larsson, P G; Platz-Christensen, J J; Ostergaard, L; Victor, A

1994-01-01

164

A thin layer-based amperometric enzyme immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections.  

PubMed

A simple electrochemical sandwich immunoassay involving a polystyrene microarray slide coated with monoclonal capture antibodies and carbon screen-printed sensors (SPS) was designed for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The detection of the antibody-antigen complex formation relied on the use of a horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Its chronoamperometric measurement detection was performed by confining a droplet of H(2)O(2)/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine enzyme substrate/mediator solution within a thin layer between one spot of the microarray and the surface of one screen-printed electrochemical cell. The accumulation of the enzyme product in the thin film of liquid enhanced the electrochemical response which allowed the development of a rapid (25 min) and sensitive thin layer-based amperometric (TLA) enzyme immunoassay. The method was successfully compared to commercially-available immunofluorescent and real-time PCR assays for RSV testing in respiratory secretion clinical samples. This suggests that owing to its rapidity, convenience, low-cost, portability and ability to provide quantified results, the reported concept could be a promising point-of-care diagnostic tool to screen patients with suspected respiratory infection or other types of infectious diseases. PMID:23141321

Rochelet, Murielle; Solanas, Sébastien; Grossiord, Céline; Maréchal, Patricia; Résa, Cécile; Vienney, Fabienne; Barranger, Come; Joannes, Martine

2012-10-15

165

Enzyme immunoassay of progesterone in the feces from beef cattle to monitor the ovarian cycle.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to measure fecal progesterone concentration of beef cattle using antibody against authentic progesterone and to examine whether this method can monitor the ovarian cycle in beef cattle. Rectal fecal samples collected from 14 beef cattle were mixed with 6 ml of 100% methanol and shaken for 15 min. After centrifugation, supernatant was extracted with petroleum ether followed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for progesterone. Specificity of the assay was examined by HPLC separation of fecal solution followed by the EIA in each fraction. The present assay identified only progesterone but not other metabolites in the feces sample that was extracted with petroleum ether. Sensitivity of the assay was estimated to be 0.0055 ng/ml (0.11 ng/g). Coefficient variations of intra- and inter-assay were 9.6-10.9% and 10.8-16.6%, respectively. Recovery rates ranged between 73 and 84%. Patterns in the fecal progesterone concentrations during the ovarian cycle were almost parallel to the plasma concentrations. A significant positive correlation was established between the fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations in individual animal (r=0.59-0.84, P<0.001, n=10) as well as pooled data (r=0.70, P<0.001, n=65). Fecal progesterone concentrations of day 0 (showing the nadir of concentration) of the ovarian cycle were less than 50 ng/g, which increased significantly toward day 9 (P<0.01). From days 14 to 18, there was significant reduction of fecal progesterone concentration (P<0.01). Ovarian cycles had at least 48 ng/g (mean=74 ng/g) of difference between minimum and maximum fecal progesterone concentrations. All cattle at days 9, 11 and 14 had higher fecal progesterone concentrations by more than 20 ng/g compared with day 0. These results suggest that the present EIA is suitable to measure the progesterone in cattle feces and can monitor ovarian cycle. PMID:15885436

Isobe, N; Nakao, T; Yamashiro, H; Shimada, M

2005-06-01

166

Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum.  

PubMed

The detection and measurement of snake venom in blood is important for confirming snake identification, determining when sufficient antivenom has been given, detecting recurrence of envenoming, and in forensic investigation. Venom enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have had persistent problems with poor sensitivity and high background absorbance leading to false positive results. This is particularly problematic with Australasian snakes where small amounts of highly potent venom are injected, resulting in low concentrations being associated with severe clinical effects. We aimed to develop a venom EIA with a limit of detection (LoD) sufficient to accurately distinguish mild envenoming from background absorbance at picogram concentrations of venom in blood. Serum samples were obtained from patients with taipan bites (Oxyuranus spp.) before and after antivenom, and from rats given known venom doses. A sandwich EIA was developed using biotinylated rabbit anti-snake venom antibodies for detection. For low venom concentrations (i.e. <1 ng/mL) the assay was done before and after addition of antivenom to the sample (antivenom difference method). The LoD was 0.15 ng/mL for the standard assay and 0.1 ng/mL for the antivenom difference method. In 11 pre-antivenom samples the median venom concentration was 10 ng/mL (Range: 0.3-3212 ng/mL). In four patients with incomplete venom-induced consumption coagulopathy the median venom concentration was 2.4 ng/mL compared to 30 ng/mL in seven patients with complete venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. No venom was detected in any post-antivenom sample and the median antivenom dose prior to this first post-antivenom sample was 1.5 vials (1-3 vials), including 7 patients administered only 1 vial. In rats the assay distinguished a 3-fold difference in venom dose administered and there was small inter-individual variability. There was small but measurable cross-reactivity with black snake (Pseudechis), tiger snake (Notechis) and rough-scale snake (Tropidechis carinatus) venoms with the assay for low venom concentrations (<1 ng/mL). The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis. PMID:20223258

Kulawickrama, S; O'Leary, M A; Hodgson, W C; Brown, S G A; Jacoby, T; Davern, K; Isbister, G K

2010-07-01

167

Enhanced colorimetric immunoassay accompanying with enzyme cascade amplification strategy for ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance protein.  

PubMed

Methods based on enzyme labels have been developed for colorimetric immunoassays, but most involve poor sensitivity and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we design an enhanced colorimetric immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) coupling with an enzyme-cascade-amplification strategy (ECAS-CIA). In the presence of target PSA, the labeled alkaline phosphatase on secondary antibody catalyzes the formation of palladium nanostructures, which catalyze 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-H2O2 system to produce the colored products, thus resulting in the signal cascade amplification. Results indicated that the ECAS-CIA presents good responses toward PSA, and allows detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.05?ng mL(-1). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation are below 9.5% and 10.7%, respectively. Additionally, the methodology is validated for analysis of clinical serum specimens with consistent results obtained by PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the ECAS-CIA opens a new horizon for protein diagnostics and biosecurity. PMID:24509941

Gao, Zhuangqiang; Hou, Li; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

2014-01-01

168

Non-invasive detection of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections in asymptomatic males and females by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme).  

PubMed

First voided urine, urethral and cervical swabs were collected from 300 asymptomatic inmates made up of 200 males and 100 females from prisons in Fiji. The enzyme immunoassay for detection of chlamydial antigen test was performed on the sediment of the urine samples. The prevalence of chlamydial urethritis in the study population of men as determined by culture of urethral swabs was 15%. Compared with the urethral cultures for chlamydia the urine EIA had a sensitivity of 86.6% and a specificity of 98.2%. In women the incidence of urogenital chlamydia infection was 18%. Using the results of the cervical swabs as a reference standard the urine EIA in the females showed a sensitivity of 61.1% with a specificity of 97.6%. Culturing urine sediments from both men and women showed low results (30.0% for men and 22.2% for women). The rapid enzyme immunoassay testing of male FVU sediment appears to be a reliable, non-traumatic and rapid method of diagnosing Chlamydia infection. The judicious use of this non-invasive method may help in detecting and treating men, thus reducing the rapid spread of the pathogen in the community. PMID:8107174

Adjei, O; Lal, V

1994-02-01

169

Enhanced Colorimetric Immunoassay Accompanying with Enzyme Cascade Amplification Strategy for Ultrasensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Protein  

PubMed Central

Methods based on enzyme labels have been developed for colorimetric immunoassays, but most involve poor sensitivity and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we design an enhanced colorimetric immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) coupling with an enzyme-cascade-amplification strategy (ECAS-CIA). In the presence of target PSA, the labeled alkaline phosphatase on secondary antibody catalyzes the formation of palladium nanostructures, which catalyze 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine-H2O2 system to produce the colored products, thus resulting in the signal cascade amplification. Results indicated that the ECAS-CIA presents good responses toward PSA, and allows detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.05?ng mL?1. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation are below 9.5% and 10.7%, respectively. Additionally, the methodology is validated for analysis of clinical serum specimens with consistent results obtained by PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the ECAS-CIA opens a new horizon for protein diagnostics and biosecurity.

Gao, Zhuangqiang; Hou, Li; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

2014-01-01

170

Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunoassay of Phosphorylated Proteins Based on Enzyme-Functionalized Gold Nanorod Labels and Electric Field-Driven Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

A multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay integrating enzyme amplification and electric field-driven strategy was developed for fast and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated p53 at Ser392 (phospho-p53 392), Ser15 (phospho-p53 15), Ser46 (phospho-p53 46) and total p53 simultaneously. The disposable sensor array has four spatially separated working electrodes and each of them is modified with different capture antibody, which enables simultaneous immunoassay to be conducted without cross-talk between adjacent electrodes. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by multi-enzymes amplification strategy using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as nanocarrier for co-immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody (Ab2) at high ratio of HRP/Ab2, which produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by the reduction of HRP oxidized thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The immunoreaction processes were accelerated by applying +0.4 V for 3 min and then -0.2 V for 1.5 min, thus the whole sandwich immunoreactions could be completed in less than 5 min. The disposable immunosensor array shows excellent promise for clinical screening of phosphorylated proteins and convenient point-of-care diagnostics.

Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

2011-09-09

171

A Semester-long Student-directed Research Project Involving Enzyme Immunoassay: Appropriate for Immunology, Endocrinology, or Neuroscience Courses  

PubMed Central

The following project aimed at promoting integrated and long-lasting learning is described for an Immunology course, but it may be adapted to other disciplines. Students were asked to develop and carry out a research project to examine the relationship between immune function and stress. The experiments were required to include the assessment of salivary cortisol and salivary IgA (sIgA) with enzyme immunoassays. All other aspects of the experiments were developed by student groups with appropriate guidance from the instructor. Data are presented for one group project that assessed the effect of music on cortisol and sIgA. Overall levels of sIgA and cortisol were consistent with reported values. Students found a significant decrease in cortisol over time. Additionally, there was a trend that supported the overall student hypothesis regarding the effect of stress and immune function. Compared with the same Immunology course that included an instructor-designed experiment using enzyme immunoassays for cortisol and sIgA, several assessments (e.g., final grades and comments on student evaluations) show that overall learning seemed to be much better in the course with the student-directed research project.

DeLuca, Jane

2007-01-01

172

Detection of attachment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to human small intestinal cells by enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple immunoassays were developed to study the binding between enterocytes of the small intestine and other cell types, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). CFA\\/I or CFA\\/II pilus protein or CFA-positive E. coli bacteria were wells of microtitre plates and incubated with vesicles or crude mucus prepared from human brush border enterocytes. Binding of the cell preparations was detected by adding

Tracey L. Mynott; Richard K. J. Luke; David S. Chandler

1995-01-01

173

Enzyme immunoassays for total and allergen specific IgE in population studies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--Extensive IgE serology in occupational or environmental health studies is often hampered by a lack of technical facilities and finance. The use in population studies of relatively simple and inexpensive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) was therefore evaluated for the assessment of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and of specific IgE reactions with various common (house dust mites, grass and birch pollen, and cat) or occupational (fungal alpha-amylase and rat urinary protein) allergens. METHODS--Total IgE was measured with a sandwich EIA, calibrated with commercially available IgE standards. Reproducibility was studied by testing pooled normal human serum samples in each of a large series of test plates. A panel of 156 children's serum samples with known IgE values was used to compare the assay with other total IgE assays. A previously developed EIA for anti-yeast IgE was adapted for the measurement of IgE reacting with various common and occupational allergens. Binding of IgE to microwells coated with commercially available allergen extracts, or allergen preparations from our own laboratory, was measured with a monoclonal anti-human IgE antibody and subsequent incubations with biotinylated rabbit anti-mouse Ig and avidin-peroxidase. Panels of serum samples from school children (n = 116), bakery workers (n = 126), and laboratory animal workers (n = 52) were used to study sensitivity and specificity, with reference to skin prick tests as the standard, and to compare the EIAs with commercially available test kits. RESULTS--The detection limit of the EIA for total IgE was 0.5-1 kU/l for undiluted serum samples, and the coefficient of variation between assays was less than 15% at serum concentrations between 1 and 150 kU/l. Results obtained with the panel of 156 children's serum samples were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.86) with IgE concentrations measured previously by radioimmunoassay. The results of the EIA for various occupational allergens correlated very well, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the results of commercial test kits. Sensitivity and specificity of the EIA results as a predictor of skin prick test reactivity towards common allergens (house dust mite, grass pollen, birch pollen, and cat) were remarkably high (> 80%-90%) in the series of 116 children's serum samples. In a population of bakery workers the specificity of the EIAs was also very high (> 90%). The sensitivity was notably lower (30%-70%) in this adult population, which is, however, in agreement with results reported for conventional IgE tests. CONCLUSION--As the costs were estimated to be at least five to 10-fold lower than those of commercial test kits, the EIAs for total and specific IgE may be very useful tools in epidemiological studies of atopic respiratory or other disorders.

Doekes, G; Douwes, J; Wouters, I; de Wind, S; Houba, R; Hollander, A

1996-01-01

174

Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Immunoglobulin M Antibodies to West Nile Virus and the Importance of Background Subtraction in Detecting Nonspecific Reactivity?  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in the United States in 1999, several assays have become commercially available to detect antibodies against WNV. Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical testing and are available from Focus Diagnostics and PanBio, Inc. The Focus Diagnostics IgM capture ELISA utilizes a background subtraction protocol in order to detect nonspecific reactivity due to rheumatoid factor, heterophile antibodies, or other interfering substances. A background subtraction procedure is not currently recommended for the PanBio IgM capture ELISA. In previous experiments, we determined the agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the PanBio first-generation IgM capture ELISA compared to an immunofluorescence assay and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM capture ELISA. The PanBio assay has since been reformulated to improve the specificity of the assay. We evaluated the reformulated PanBio assay with and without an antigen subtraction procedure and compared the results to the Focus IgM capture ELISA. Agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the PanBio assay were, respectively, 85%, 95%, and 76% without the subtraction protocol and 94%, 95%, and 93% with the subtraction protocol. In general, when the subtraction protocol was applied to the PanBio IgM capture ELISA, there was a reduction in some, but not all, false-positive results. We suggest that all WNV IgM assays be standardized with a procedure such as background subtraction to eliminate nonspecific reactivity that may cause false-positive results.

Rawlins, Mindy L.; Swenson, Erica M.; Hill, Harry R.; Litwin, Christine M.

2007-01-01

175

Development of a highly sensitive bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus surface antigen capable of detecting divergent mutants.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are sometimes overlooked when using commercial kits to measure hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) due to their low sensitivities and reactivities to mutant strains of various genotypes. We developed an ultrasensitive bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for HBsAg using firefly luciferase, which is adaptable to a variety of HBsAg mutants, by combining four monoclonal antibodies with a polyclonal antibody against HBsAg. The measurement of seroconversion panels showed trace amounts of HBsAg during the early infection phase by the BLEIA because of its high sensitivity of 5 mIU/ml. The BLEIA detected HBsAg as early as did PCR in five of seven series and from 2.1 to 9.4 days earlier than commercial immunoassay methods. During the late infection phase, the BLEIA successfully detected HBsAg even 40 days after the disappearance of HBV DNA and the emergence of antibodies against HBsAg. The HBsAg BLEIA successfully detected all 13 recombinant HBsAg and 45 types of HBsAg mutants with various mutations within amino acids 90 to 164 in the S gene product. Some specimens had higher values determined by the BLEIA than those by a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay; this suggests that such discrepancies were caused by the dissociation of preS1/preS2 peptides from the particle surface. With its highly sensitive detection of low-titer HBsAg, including various mutants, the HBsAg BLEIA is considered to be useful for the early diagnosis and prevention of HBV infection because of the shorter window of infection prior to detection, which facilitates early prediction of recurrence in HBV-infected individuals. PMID:23761660

Minekawa, Takayuki; Takehara, Shizuka; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

2013-08-01

176

An enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunoassay developed for detection of Butocarboxim from agricultural products based on monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

In this study, four different haptens around the oxime moiety of Butocarboxim were designed and synthesised. Two of the haptens were conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to serve as the immunogen and all the haptens were conjugated with ovalbumin (OVA) for the coating antigen. The anti-Butocarboxim monoclonal antibody (Mab) was selected based on eight immunogen/coating antigen combinations. The first enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunoassay (ELCIA) for determining Butocarboxim in agricultural products was developed. Under the optimised conditions, the detection limit for the ELCIA was 20ng·mL(-1) and the linear range was 27-2700ng·mL(-1). Analyte recoveries for extracts of spiked agricultural (apple and greengrocery) products and tap water ranged from 97.18% to 107.00%. The developed immunoassay has great potential to be developed as a test kit offering a simple and cost-effective approach (such as lateral flow test strip) for screening purposes and evaluating environmental exposure to Butocarboxim. PMID:25053070

Fang, Qingkui; Wang, Limin; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Yulong; Wang, Suyan; Cheng, Qi; Cai, Jia; Liu, Fengquan

2015-01-01

177

Evaluation of a New Dot Blot Enzyme Immunoassay (Directigen Flu A+B) for Simultaneous and Differential Detection of Influenza A and B Virus Antigens from Respiratory Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective evaluation of a new dot blot enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method for the direct, rapid, qualitative, simultaneous, and differential detection of the influenza A (IA) and B (IB) virus antigen in different respiratory samples. The EIA method was compared with the shell vial culture system (MDCK cell line) used with the same samples. We studied 160 samples

Jordi Reina; Emma Padilla; Fermin Alonso; Enrique Ruiz de Gopegui; Maria Munar; Margarita Mari

2002-01-01

178

Determination of phenytoin in plasma: a comparison of procedures using a new radioimmunoassay, gas chromatography, and enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

A new commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure for the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin has been assessed and compared with a gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) and an enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) procedure. One hundred and thirty-four plasma samples containing phenytoin were analyzed by the three methods and the results were found to be essentially independent of the procedure used and so would indicate similar clinical interpretation. The correlation coefficients were: RIA/GLC = 0.988; EMIT/RIA = 0.978; EMIT/GLC = 0.981. The cross reactivity of 33 drugs and related compounds was tested in the RIA and EMIT procedures and only a few very closely related substances showed significant cross reactivity. In addition, the three methods were compared with respect to the technical difficulties involved as well as time and cost for the assay of single and multiple samples. PMID:354921

Stanley, P E; Peikert, M R

1978-06-01

179

A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

1987-01-01

180

Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.  

PubMed

An enzyme immunoassay-based antigen test (Ridascreen Campylobacter; R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany) was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in 1050 clinical stool samples as compared with culture on selective medium. After routine inoculation for Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Campylobacter, the same swab specimens were used for the antigen test. The positivity rate for Campylobacter was 9.3% in culture, and the antigen test gave a sensitivity of 69%. Forty-six stool samples culture-negative for Campylobacter grew other enteropathogens; one (positive for Salmonella sp.) was positive in the antigen test. Of all the 952 Campylobacter culture-negative samples, 830 were negative in the antigen test, giving a specificity of 87%. Almost 5% of the samples showed equivocal antigen test results. If the moderate sensitivity of the antigen test was due to a low sensitivity of culture or receiving the stool samples in transportation tubes remains to be studied. PMID:17300899

Tissari, Päivi; Rautelin, Hilpi

2007-06-01

181

Comparison between DOT EIA IgM and Widal Test as early diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

A recently developed DOT enzyme immunoassay known as "Typhidot" for detecting IgM antibody against 50 KDa OMP antigen of Salmonella typhi, was evaluated on 100 clinically suspected typhoid fever cases and 40 age-sex matched controls, in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during, the period from June 2006 to July 2007. Blood culture, Widal test, and DOT EIA for IgM test were performed in all patients. Among 100 clinically suspected typhoid fever cases, 35 were subsequently confirmed on the basis of positive blood culture for S. typhi and/or significant rising titre of Widal test. The DOT EIA IgM test could produce results within 1 hour. The result of the DOT EIA IgM test showed a good diagnostic value for typhoid fever. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the test was found as 91.42%, 90.00%, 88.88% and 92.30% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 42.85%, 85.00%, 71.42% and 62.96% respectively. Thus, The DOT EIA IgM seems to be a practical alternative to Widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:19182742

Begum, Z; Hossain, M A; Musa, A K; Shamsuzzaman, A K; Mahmud, M C; Ahsan, M M; Sumona, A A; Ahmed, S; Jahan, N A; Alam, M; Begum, A

2009-01-01

182

[Enzyme immunoassay of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood spot on filter paper using specific antibody for 17-hydroxyprogesterone].  

PubMed

Specific antiserum for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P) was prepared by immunizing 7 alpha-(2-carboxyethylthio)-17-OH-P conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in rabbits. Using this antiserum, 17-OH-P enzyme immunoassay for dried blood spots on filter paper was established. As a label, alkaline phosphatase was coupled covalently with 7 alpha-carboxy-methylthio-17-OH-P by carbodiimide method. B/F separation was carried out by the addition of anti-rabbit IgG goat antiserum. All specimens used were punched out with a paper puncher of 3mm diameter. The assay sensitivity was 2pg/tube, which was estimated by two standard deviation at zero concentrations of the calibration curve. Cross reactivities of this antibody were as follows: 11-deoxycortisol (8.21%), 17-OH-pregnenolone (3.33%), progesterone (1.67%), 11-deoxycorticosterone (0.31%), cortisol (0.16%), pregnenolone-3-sulfate Na salt (0.03%), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (less than 0.03%), 16 alpha-OH-DHEA (less than 0.03%), DHEA-3-glucuronide (less than 0.03%), DHEA-3-sulfate Na salt (less than 0.03%), pregnenolone (less than 0.02%). Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variations were 4-14% and 9-18%, respectively. In normal babies, 17-OH-P concentrations measured directly (without sample extraction) were below 23pg/disk (n=204). The histogram of 17-OH-P level in normal babies obtained by the direct method was distributed lower than that obtained by the enzyme immunoassay system (range: 4-79pg/disk, n=268) which used antibody raised against 17-OH-P-3-O-carboxymethyloxime conjugated BSA (Enzaplate, Sapporo Diagnostic Laboratory).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2687042

Kobayashi, Y; Nishiguchi, Y; Watanabe, F; Yamairi, T; Hase, Y; Tsuruhara, T; Miyai, K

1989-10-20

183

Evaluation of the PATHFAST Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Measuring Progesterone in Whole Blood and Serum of Mares  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of a new chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, the PATHFAST assay system (PATHFAST), for measurement of circulating progesterone in mares was performed. Five mares at the mid-luteal stage were administrated a single i.m. injection of prostaglandin F2? analog (PGF2?; cloprostenol 250 ?g/ml), and then blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min, at one-hour intervals until 24 and at 48 hr via a catheter in the jugular vein. To monitor the physiological changes in circulating progesterone in mares after induced luteolysis, concentrations of progesterone in whole blood and serum samples were measured by PATHFAST. In addition, concentrations of progesterone in serum samples measured by PATHFAST were compared with those measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Using PATHFAST, the serum concentrations of progesterone in mares correlated highly with those of whole blood samples (r=0.9672, n=88). The serum concentrations of progesterone as measured by PATHFAST correlated well with RIA (r=0.9654, n=88) and EIA (r=0.9323, n=112). An abrupt decline in circulating progesterone in whole blood samples was observed within 2 hr (50%), followed by a gradual decline until 48 hr later. The results for progesterone in whole blood samples correlated highly with those in serum samples, and the declining pattern paralleled that of the serum samples. These results demonstrated that PATHFAST is useful in the equine clinic as an accurate diagnostic tool for rapid assay of progesterone within 26 min, using unextracted whole blood.

TOISHI, Yuko; TSUNODA, Nobuo; TAGAMI, Masaaki; HASHIMOTO, Hiromitsu; KATO, Fumiki; SUZUKI, Tsukasa; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; TOKUYAMA, Shota; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAYA, Kazuyoshi

2013-01-01

184

IgM, IgG and IgA class enterobacterial antibodies in serum and synovial fluid in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY IgM, IgG and IgA class antibodies against three Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular types, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, as well as total immunoglobulin concentrations, were measured by enzyme immunoassay and radial immunodiÄusion tech- nique, respectively, in paired serum and synovial fluid samples from eight patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 10 with rheumatoid arthritis. No clear evidence for intra-articular antibody production

O. MAKI-IKOLA; M. PENTTINEN; R. VON ESSEN; C. GRIPENBERG-LERCHE; H. ISOMAKI; K. GRANFORS

1997-01-01

185

Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG Chemiluminescent Immunoassays for Detection of EBV Antibodies and Categorization of EBV Infection Status Using Immunofluorescence Assays as the Reference Method.  

PubMed

Commercial immunoassays for detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral capsid antigens (VCA), and IgGs toward EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are routinely used in combination to categorize EBV infection status. In this study, we evaluated the performances of the Architect EBV VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG chemiluminescent microparticle assays (CMIAs) in EBV serological analyses using indirect immunofluorescence assays and anticomplement immunofluorescence assays as the reference methods for VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG antibody detection, respectively. A total of 365 serum samples representing different EBV serological profiles were included in this study. The ? values (concordances between the results) obtained in the Architect CMIA and those in the reference assays were 0.905 (P < 0.0001) for VCA IgM, 0.889 (P < 0.0001) for VCA IgG, and 0.961 (P < 0.0001) for EBNA-1 IgG. The sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 91.08% and 99.48% for VCA IgM, 99.23% and 86.27% for VCA IgG, and 96.77% and 99.16% for EBNA-1 IgG. The sensitivities and specificities of the Architect CMIA panel were, respectively, 99.15% and 98.6% for diagnosing a primary infection, 97.62% and 93.39% for diagnosing a past EBV infection, and 92.42% and 97.82% for diagnosing the absence of an EBV infection. In summary, we demonstrated that the Architect EBV antibody panel performs very well for EBV antibody detection and correctly categorizes clinically relevant EBV infection states. PMID:24623623

Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

2014-05-01

186

Comparison of Antibody Titers Determined by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Enzyme Immunoassay for JC Virus and BK Virus  

PubMed Central

A comparison of antibody titers to JC virus (JCV) or BK virus (BKV) was made by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with 114 human plasma samples. Antibody titers to JCV or BKV determined by HI were lower than those determined by EIA. Nevertheless, as HI titers increased so did EIA titers. When antibody data were compared by the Spearman rank correlation test, highly significant correlations were found between HI and EIA titers. Results obtained by plotting EIA antibody titers for JCV against those for BKV generally showed a reciprocal relationship, i.e., samples with high antibody titers to JCV had lower antibody titers to BKV and vice versa. Some samples, however, had antibody titers to both viruses. Of the samples tested, 25.4% (25 of 114) had HI and EIA antibody titers to JCV and BKV which were identical or closely related. This is not the scenario one would expect for cross-reactive epitopes shared by the two viruses, but one suggesting that these samples were from individuals who had experienced infections by both viruses. Adsorption with concentrated JCV or BKV antigen of sera with high antibody titers to both JCV and BKV and testing by JCV and BKV EIA gave results which support this conclusion. Although 52.6% (51 of 97) of the samples from the Japanese population tested had very high antibody titers (?40,960) to either JCV or BKV, none of the samples were found by a dot blot immunoassay to have antibodies which cross-reacted with simian virus 40. The results from this study, in agreement with those of others, suggest that humans infected by JCV or BKV produce antibodies to species-specific epitopes on their VP1 capsid protein, which is associated with hemagglutination and cellular binding.

Hamilton, R. S.; Gravell, M.; Major, E. O.

2000-01-01

187

A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays  

PubMed Central

Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) have traditionally been evaluated using indirect fluorescence assays (IFA) with HEp-2 cells. Quantitative immunoassays (EIA) have replaced the use of HEp-2 cells in some laboratories. Here, we evaluated ANA in 400 consecutive and unselected routinely referred patients using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique patients were compared. The majority of the results were the same between the two methods (n = 325, 84%); however, 8% (n = 30) yielded equivocal results (equivocal-negative and equivocal-positive) and 8% (n = 31) yielded divergent results (positive-negative). The results showed fairly good agreement, with Cohen's kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14–0.46), which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06–0.40) when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test.

Baronaite, Renata; Engelhart, Merete; M?rk Hansen, Troels; Thamsborg, Gorm; Slott Jensen, Hanne; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela

2014-01-01

188

Immunopurified extracellular Bartonella henselae antigen for detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Protein antigens of Bartonella henselae bacterial sonicate supernatant and concentrated cell-free culture filtrate were examined by SDS-PAGE. The sonicate supernatant gave 38 bands and the culture filtrate at least 21, of which 18 were of bacterial origin. Immunoblotting against 13 monoclonal antibodies obtained from mice infected with live B. henselae showed that 10 of these antibodies reacted with a narrow 225 kDa band and varying smears of bands ranging from 36 to 240 kDa in the sonicate, but only with a single 200 kDa band in the culture filtrate. Testing of pre- and post-infection rabbit sera in immunoblotting against culture filtrate demonstrated that the 200 kDa component gave the most prominent specific reaction with post-infection sera. The 200 kDa antigen was isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography of concentrated culture filtrate, and its molecular size determined by size-exclusion chromatography as > 1000 kDa. The immunopurified antigen was compared with bacterial sonicate as coating antigen in EIA for determining humoral immune responses in rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae. The two antigens gave almost identical results for IgM and IgG responses. The specificity of the immunopurified antigen was tested in EIA against hyperimmune rabbit sera and sera of rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae, B. quintana and Afipia felis. Only the hyperimmune serum against B. henselae and the sera of the rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae reacted with the immunopurified antigen, whereas the B. henselae sonicate cross-reacted with hyperimmune and post-infection sera of rabbits inoculated with B. quintana and A. felis. PMID:9463512

Engbaek, K; Uttenthal, L O; Koch, C

1997-12-01

189

Validation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection and Semiquantification of Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is gaining prominence as an alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in the workplace, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs programs. It is important to characterize assay performance and limitations of screening techniques for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in OF. METHODS We collected OF specimens by use of the Quantisal™ OF collection device from 13 daily cannabis users after controlled oral cannabinoid administration. All specimens were tested with the Immunalysis Sweat/OF THC Direct ELISA and confirmed by 2-dimensional GC-MS. RESULTS The limit of detection was <1 µg/L THC equivalent, and the assay demonstrated linearity from 1 to 50 µg/L, with semiquantification to 200 µg/L. Intraplate imprecision (n = 7) ranged from 2.9% to 7.7% CV, and interplate imprecision (n = 20) was 3.0%–9.1%. Cross-reactivities at 4 µg/L were as follows: 11-hydroxy-THC, 198%; ?8-tetrahydrocannabinol (?8-THC), 128%; 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), 121%; THC (target), 98%; cannabinol, 87%; THCCOOH-glucuronide, 11%; THC-glucuronide, 10%; and cannabidiol, 2.4%. Of 499 tested OF specimens, 52 confirmed positive (THC 2.0–290 µg/L), with 100% diagnostic sensitivity at the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration screening cutoff of 4 µg/L cannabinoids and GC-MS cutoff of 2 µg/L THC. Forty-seven specimens screened positive but were not confirmed by 2D-GC-MS, yielding 89.5% diagnostic specificity and 90.6% diagnostic efficiency. Thirty-one of 47 unconfirmed immunoassay positive specimens were from 1 individual and contained >400 ng/L THCCOOH, potentially contributing to cross-reactivity. CONCLUSIONS The Immunalysis Sweat/OF THC Direct ELISA is an effective screening procedure for detecting cannabinoids in OF.

Schwope, David M.; Milman, Garry; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2011-01-01

190

Residue screening for the beta-agonists clenbuterol, salbutamol and cimaterol in urine using enzyme immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The antibody for enzyme immunoassay was raised against clenbuterol-diazo-BSA, and salbutamol-carboxymethyl ether-biocytin was used as a label. Procedural blanks from 500 negative urine samples were always less than 0.2 ppb salbutamol or less than 0.02 ppb clenbuterol equivalents, and a residue level of 1 ppb was detected with good reliability. After treatment of veal calves with anabolic dosages, residue levels in urine amounted to 10-200 ppb clenbuterol or salbutamol. beta-Agonists were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on LiChrospher RP-Select B columns, and acidic methanol-buffer or acetonitrile-buffer mobile phases. Combinations of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay were used for confirmation. PMID:1678746

Meyer, H H; Rinke, L; Dürsch, I

1991-04-01

191

Detection of Serum Transforming Growth Factor-? in Patients of Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancers by Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a potent mitogenic polypeptide. It is secreted by a variety of transformed cells and tumors, modifying tumor growth through autocrine or paracrine mechanism. In the present study, serum levels of TGF-? were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 27 normal females, 116 patients with benign ovarian tumors, and 42 patients with epithelial ovarian cancers

Chin-Hsiang Chien; Chien-Chu Huang; Yu-Hung Lin; Jenta Shen; Song-Nan Chow

1997-01-01

192

A Critical Evaluation of Enzyme Immunoassay Kits for Detection of Antinuclear Autoantibodies of Defined Specificities. III. Comparative Performance Characteristics of Academic and Manufacturers' Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To analyze the performance of different commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for measuring antinuclear antibodies (ANA) specific for dsDNA, SSB\\/La, Sm, and Scl-70. Methods. EIA kits for detection of ANA from 9 commercial manufacturers were evaluated. The manufacturers were advised that they would be sent coded sera containing mixtures of the Arthritis Foundation\\/Centers for Disease Control reference reagents, and

MARVIN J. FRITZLER; ALLAN WIIK; ENG M. TAN; JOSEF S. SMOLEN; J. STEVEN; EDWARD K. L. CHAN; THOMAS P. GORDON; JOHN A. HARDIN; JOACHIM R. KALDEN; ROBERT G. LAHITA; RAVINDER N. MAINI; WESTLEY H. REEVES; NAOMI F. ROTHFIELD; YOSHINARI TAKASAKI; MERLIN WILSON; MARTHA G. BYRD; LLOYD SLIVKA; JAMES A. KOZIOL

193

Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli as detected by enzyme-linked immunoassays and real-time PCR during the summer months in northern Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in northern Alberta was detected using two enzyme immunoassays and an in-house real-time PCR. Of 2,328 stool samples, 8 were positive for O157:H7 STEC and 13 were positive for non-O157 STEC. No significant gender (P = 0.17) or age (P = 0.81) differences between groups were seen. Most positive diarrheal stool samples were nonbloody. PMID:21940470

Chui, Linda; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Malejczyk, Kathy; Lim, Lillian; Fok, Daniel; Kwong, Pauline

2011-12-01

194

3,3?,5,5?-Tetramethylbenzidine as an Ames Test Negative Chromogen for Horse-Radish Peroxidase in Enzyme-Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine as non-mutagenic chromogen for the end point determination in enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) is described. In sandwich EIAs for HCG and HBsAg and in a competitive EIA for testosterone, the colour yield with TMB was superior to that obtained with o-phenylene diamine (OPD), which was by far the best chromogen for horse-radish peroxidase until now. This led to

E. S. Bos; A. A. van der Doelen; N. van Rooy; A. H. W. M. Schuurs

1981-01-01

195

Two Enzyme Immunoassays and PCR for Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Stool Specimens from Pediatric Patients before and after Eradication Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of pediatric patients was intended to determine the suitability of stool PCR and two antigen enzyme immunoassays (EIAs; Premier Platinum HpSA and the novel FemtoLab H. pylori), which detect Helicobacter pylori antigens in feces, as pretreatment diagnostic tools and especially as posttreatment control. Forty-nine H. pylori-infected children with dyspepsia received eradication therapy. Successful treatment was determined by a

ATHANASIOS MAKRISTATHIS; WOLFGANG BAROUSCH; EVA PASCHING; CHRISTA BINDER; CHRISTA KUDERNA; PETRA APFALTER; MANFRED L. ROTTER; ALEXANDER M. HIRSCHL

2000-01-01

196

Levels of indole-3-acetic acid in intact and decapitated coleoptiles as determined by a specific and highly sensitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for the detection of as little as 3–4 pg of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is described. The assay involves minimal procedural efforts and requires only standard laboratory equipment. Up to 50 samples in triplicate, processed simultaneously, can be assayed and evaluated in 2.5 h. As little as 1 mg oat coleoptile tissue is sufficient for a

E. W. Weiler; P. S. Jourdan; W. Conrad

1981-01-01

197

Relationship of Serum Estradiol and Progesterone Concentrations to the Excretion Profiles of Their Major Urinary Metabolites as Measured by Enzyme Immunoassay and Radioimmunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired daily blood and urine samples were collected from 10 apparently healthy premenopausal women to compare the hormone profiles of estradiol (E2) and progesterone in serum with those of estrone conjugates (E,Conj) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) in urine. Serum hor- mones were measured by radioimmunoassay (AlA) kits, whereas the urinary steroid metabolites were assessed by both AlA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

C. J. Munro; G. H. Stabenfeldt; J. R. Cragun; L. A. Addiego; J. W. Overstreet; B. L. Lasley

1991-01-01

198

Comparison of the Directigen Flu AB Membrane Enzyme Immunoassay with Viral Culture for Rapid Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Respiratory Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a commercially available, rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay for influenza A and B virus detection was compared to that of viral culture in 4,092 respiratory specimens collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms during the 2002-2003 influenza season. The test's overall sensitivity was 43.83%, lower than previously reported but similar for detection of both influenza A and B

Andreea C. Cazacu; Sooyoung E. Chung; Jewel Greer; Gail J. Demmler

199

Development and validation of a simple, sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for quantification of prolactin in buffalo plasma.  

PubMed

A simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed and validated for prolactin quantification in buffalo plasma (on a microtitreplate) using the biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase amplification and immobilized antiserum in a competitive assay. Prolactin standards (range: 5-5000 pg/(well 50 microL)) were prepared in hormone-free plasma collected from minimal stress non-lactating buffalo heifers in temperate weather. The sensitivity of the EIA procedure was 5 pg/(well 50 microL) (corresponds to 0.1 ng/mL plasma); the 50% relative binding sensitivity occurred at 160 ng/(well 50 microL). Plasma volumes for the EIA, viz. 12.5, 25, and 50 microL, did not influence the shape of standard curve. A parallelism test was carried out to compare the endogenous buffalo plasma prolactin with bovine prolactin standard. To validate the assay biologically, 11 Murrah buffaloes were given a third-generation antiprolactin (Norprolac; 10 mg/animal, i.m.). Blood samples were collected 1 d prior to the start of Norprolac administration and continued up to seventh day in an Ovsynch treatment program. In all animals, there were abrupt declines in prolactin concentrations following Norprolac treatments, which confirmed the biological validation of the EIA. After development and validation of EIA procedure, the concentration of plasma prolactin was determined efficiently in samples collected during both summer and winter samples. PMID:17049591

Roy, K S; Prakash, B S

2007-02-01

200

Evaluation of QuickVue, a rapid enzyme immunoassay test for the detection of serum antibodies to Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

QuickVue is an enzyme immunoassay test for qualitative detection of serum immunoglobulin-G antibodies to Helicobacter pylori. We evaluated its ability to predict infection by H. pylori in 100 adult and 49 pediatric patients referred for gastric endoscopy. A patient was defined as infected with H. pylori if either culture or histology was positive. Of the 100 adult patients, 64 had H. pylori infection and QuickVue correctly identified 59 of the 64. Of 36 H. pylori-negative patients, 20 were correctly identified as negative by the test. In this sample of patients, QuickVue had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 56%. In the 49 pediatric patients, QuickVue correctly identified nine of 11 infected cases and 34 of 38 noninfected patients. In this group, the sensitivity was 82% and the specificity was 89%. Overall the test had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 73%. The positive predictive value was 77% and the negative predictive value was 89%. PMID:8495587

Westblom, T U; Lagging, L M; Midkiff, B R; Czinn, S J

1993-01-01

201

Efficacies of US Food and Drug Administration-licensed HIV-1-screening enzyme immunoassays for detecting antibodies to HIV-2.  

PubMed

To determine the efficacy of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibodies against HIV-1 in detecting HIV-2-infected blood, we tested 55 HIV-2-positive sera with seven Food and Drug Administration-licensed EIA kits. The percentage detection of HIV-2 sera giving positive reactions with these kits varied between the various manufacturers from 60 to 91%. Observations based on a small number of sera (n = 13), suggest that HIV-2-positive blood collected from apparently healthy people (blood donors, prenatal clinics) are detected with a greater frequency (means = 89%) than blood from AIDS patients or patients (n = 32) hospitalized with other infectious diseases (means = 72%). Based on these results and the low incidence of HIV-2 infection observed in the USA, it was concluded that screening with HIV-2-specific tests would not significantly increase the number of HIV-2-positive people detected by current screening programs. However, due to the poor sensitivity of certain HIV-1 assays for HIV-2 antibodies, HIV-2 sera without cross-reacting antibodies will escape detection. Surveillance for HIV-2 might then be improved by the availability of HIV-1 and HIV-2 combination assays. PMID:2350452

George, J R; Rayfield, M A; Phillips, S; Heyward, W L; Krebs, J W; Odehouri, K; Soudre, R; De Cock, K M; Schochetman, G

1990-04-01

202

A computer-interfaced photometer and systematic spacing of duplicates to control within-plate enzyme-immunoassay variation.  

PubMed

A Multiskan photometer for reading microtiter plate enzyme immunoassays was linked with a time sharing computer to facilitate control of assay variation and analysis of results. The interface that converted photometer output to RS-232-C format required changes to divide the output into segments short enough for input to the computer. To measure within-plate variation and investigate how the method of allocating sample duplicates to plate wells may affect the estimation of sample variance, uniformity tests were conducted with 47 plates. Coefficients of variation (CV) among wells within-plates ranged from 4.6 to 20.7% and in two-thirds of the plates exceeded 10%. Duplicates allocated to adjacent wells (method 1) gave consistently higher CV for sample means than duplicates allocated to opposite plate quadrants (method 2). In general, the CV by method 2 was about 30% smaller than that by method 1. Analysis of variance confirmed the effectiveness of the quadrant pattern of duplicate allocation as a method of controlling variation that arises from well position effects. PMID:6348166

Stemshorn, B W; Buckley, D J; St Amour, G; Lin, C S; Duncan, J R

1983-07-29

203

Monoclonal anti-nucleoside antibodies. Characterization and application in an enzyme immunoassay of single-stranded DNA.  

PubMed

Two mouse monoclonal antibodies were raised against adenosine and guanosine coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) by periodate oxidation. They were named A-16 and G-K21 respectively and selected for their ability to recognize single-stranded DNA. Their epitope specificities were assessed and their dissociation constants determined by an indirect ELISA method. The KD values for adenosine and guanosine coupled to BSA were 9.9 X 10(-7) M and 1.1 X 10(-10) M for G-K21 respectively, and 2.5 X 10(-8) M and 1.0 X 10(-6) M for A-16. These monoclonal anti-nucleoside antibodies were used to develop a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for single-stranded DNA. The purified IgG antibodies were coupled to beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase by the one-step glutaraldehyde method and used in a test optimized for pH, saturating proteins, coating antibody, nature of the conjugate and protein concentrations. Less than 100 pg/well of single-stranded DNA could be detected, and the detection was linear over a DNA concentration ranging from 0.34 to 34 ng/ml. The assay could quantitate single-stranded DNAs of differing origin, but not RNAs. The test was compared to another titration method, and used to calibrate target DNA amounts in non-radioactive hybridization experiments. PMID:2477462

Traincard, F; Chevrier, D; Mazie, J C; Guesdon, J L

1989-09-29

204

Comparison of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigens in the faeces with the urea breath test  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Current diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori are invasive (endoscopy) or indirect (urea breath test, serology).?AIMS—To evaluate a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which detects H pylori antigens in faeces, by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in children with the 13C urea breath test (UBT).?METHODS—A total of 119 children underwent a UBT and provided a faecal sample for antigen testing within seven days. After an overnight fast each child provided a pretest breath sample, and samples at 30 and 40 minutes after ingestion of 100 mg 13C labelled urea. 13C enrichment of breath was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Faeces were stored at ?70°C until antigen testing, using the EIA. Samples were read spectrophotometrically at 450 nm and results were interpreted using recommended cut offs of optical density <0.14 as negative, ?0.16 as positive, with ?0.14 and <0.16 representing equivocal results. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the manufacturer's cut off compared with UBT.?RESULTS—Sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 82%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 97% and 58%.?CONCLUSIONS—The EIA is an alternative, non-invasive, and easy to use method for the detection of H pylori in children. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected children.??

Shepherd, A.; Williams, C.; Doherty, C.; Hossack, M.; Preston, T.; McColl, K.; Weaver, L.

2000-01-01

205

An enzyme immunoassay for the determination of taxol and taxanes in Taxus sp. tissues and human plasma.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA) method has been developed for quantitating taxanes in extracts of Taxus brevifolia Nutt. tissue and in human plasma. High titer rabbit polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were raised against a conjugate of 7-succinyltaxol and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The presence of taxane analyte competitively inhibited the binding of the rabbit anti-taxane pAbs to a 7-succinyltaxol-bovine serum albumin solid phase coating antigen. The CIEIA detected taxol and cephalomannine in concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml (3.5 x 10(-4) microM), but did not detect baccatin III or 10-deacetylbaccatin III at concentrations below 1000 ng/ml (1.7 microM and 1.8 microM, respectively). This method is useful for estimating the taxane content of T. brevifolia extracts and may be useful for monitoring the taxol plasma level of taxol-treated patients. PMID:8094087

Grothaus, P G; Raybould, T J; Bignami, G S; Lazo, C B; Byrnes, J B

1993-01-14

206

Development of miniaturized immunoassay: influence of surface chemistry and comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot.  

PubMed

Protein microarray technology provides a useful approach for the simultaneous serodetection of various antibodies in low sample volumes. To implement functional protein microarrays, appropriate surface chemistry must be designed so that both the protein structure and the biological activity can be retained. In the current study, two surface chemistries for protein microarrays and immunofluorescent assays were developed. Glass slides were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester via a monofunctional silane or maleic anhydride-alt-methyl vinyl ether (MAMVE) copolymer to allow covalent grafting of histone proteins. Analytical performance of these microarrays was then evaluated for the detection of anti-histone autoantibodies present in the sera of patients suffering from a systemic autoimmune disease, namely systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the results were compared with those of the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The detection limit of our MAMVE copolymer microarrays was 50-fold lower than that of the classical ELISA. Furthermore, 100-fold less volume of biological samples was required with these miniaturized immunoassays. PMID:20079705

El Khoury, Graziella; Laurenceau, Emmanuelle; Chevolot, Yann; Mérieux, Yves; Desbos, Agnčs; Fabien, Nicole; Rigal, Dominique; Souteyrand, Eliane; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

2010-05-01

207

Modifying an enzyme immunoassay of immunoreactive trypsinogen to use time-resolved fluorescence.  

PubMed

A coated microtiter-well, enzyme-linked immunometric assay for quantifying immunoreactive trypsinogen in dried blood spots was modified to use time-resolved fluorescence of europium in place of end-point enzymatic color development as the quantification step. The streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase and color development solutions supplied as packaged reagents were replaced by europium-labeled avidin, and the signal was developed with commercially available enhancement solution and read by time-resolved fluorescence. The change of label from enzyme to europium increased the dynamic range of the assay by about 5-fold, reduced the detection limit 10-fold, and halved the intra- and interassay imprecision. The improved analytical precision and stability of the modified assay resulted in a more precise description of the population distribution of immunoreactive trypsinogen values in newborns, showing less variance in the upper centiles. This effect is of paramount importance when using this assay for neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis. PMID:8432010

Ryall, R G; Gjerde, E M; Gerace, R L; Ranieri, E

1993-02-01

208

Development and validation of an indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of ovine antibody to Brucella ovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of Brucella ovis infection was developed. The assay uses a mouse monoclonal antibody to bovine IgG1 horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) conjugate that cross-reacts with immunoglobulin from sheep and a purified antigen from Brucella ovis. The ELISA data were read and analyzed according to a targeting procedure. The ELISA results were compared with

Ana M. Vigliocco; Patricia S. Silva Paulo; Joaquín Mestre; Gabriel C. Briones; Graciela Draghi; Mirta Tossi; Klaus Nielsen

1997-01-01

209

Detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens by PCR-solution hybridization enzyme-linked immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

By using a recently developed PCR-solution hybridization enzyme-linked assay (PCR-SHELA), we investigated Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and induced sputa of patients with pneumocystosis. In detecting P. carinii, PCR-SHELA proved more sensitive than immunofluorescence staining or a single PCR and significantly more diagnostically specific than a nested PCR. Our data suggest that PCR-SHELA could be used to detect P. carinii organisms in respiratory samples, particularly in patients with uncertain diagnoses.

Ortona, E; Margutti, P; Tamburrini, E; Mencarini, P; Visconti, E; Zolfo, M; Siracusano, A

1997-01-01

210

Enzyme immunoassay for macrolide antibiotics: characterization of an antibody to 23-amino-O-mycaminosyltylonolide.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of macrolide antibiotics by using a polyclonal antibody generated in rabbits immunized with 23-amino-O-mycaminosyltylonolide (23-amino-OMT) covalently linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The specificity and sensitivity of this antibody were characterized by using 23-amino-OMT coupled to alkaline phosphatase as an enzyme-linked label in a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The assay sensitivity was as low as 0.3 ng/ml for 23-amino-OMT, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 8 ng/ml. This antibody exhibited good reactivity with 12-, 14- or 16-membered macrolides possessing amino-substituted sugar moieties, regardless of the presence of neutral sugar residues. Little or no cross-reactivity was observed with the macrocyclic lactone ring structure (tylactone) or macrolides containing only neutral sugars. No cross-reaction was observed with polyenes or nonmacrolide antibiotics. Known macrolide-producing cultures grown in fermentation broth also showed good reactivity, indicating that this assay is useful in detecting this class of metabolites in fermentation.

Yao, R C; Mahoney, D F

1989-01-01

211

Rapid enzyme immunoassays for the detection of carbaryl and methoprene in grains.  

PubMed

In order for grain handlers and traders to reliably estimate residues of grain protectants in the field, antibody-based rapid tests were developed for carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and methoprene [isopropyl (E,E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate]. To complement the rapid analysis, a simple and rapid extraction technique was developed. In these tests, a pesticide-containing methanol extract of the grain sample and an enzyme-labeled component are added to precoated strips. After a brief incubation, the strips are washed and a substrate/chromogen for the enzyme is added. The color developed is stopped by acidification and the results are read either by eye or in a portable field photometer. The overall test time is under 20 minutes. For carbaryl, the test had a limit of detection of 4.5 ppb (1.1 ppm in grain), while the methoprene test had a limit of detection of 4 ppb (1 ppm in grain) based on the lower datum point, which is 15% inhibition, in the standard curves. Both assays can be used as a screening test for carbaryl and methoprene in animal feed grains. PMID:12403263

Wang, Shuo; Allan, Robin D; Hill, Amanda S; Kennedy, Ivan R

2002-11-01

212

Magnetic particle-based enzyme assays and immunoassays for microcystins: from colorimetric to electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

In this work, magnetic particles (MPs) are used as supports for the immobilization of biorecognition molecules for the detection of microcystins (MCs). In one approach, a recombinant protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has been conjugated to MPs via coordination chemistry, and MC-LR detection has been based on the inhibition of the enzyme activity. In the other approach, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against MC-LR has been conjugated to protein G-coated MPs, and a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunoparticle assay (ELIPA) has been then performed. Conjugation of biomolecules to MPs has been first checked, and after optimization, MC detection has been performed. The colorimetric PPIA with PP1-MP and the best ELIPA strategy have provided limits of detection (LOD) of 7.4 and 3.9 ?g/L of MC-LR, respectively. The electrochemical ELIPA has decreased the LOD to 0.4 ?g/L, value below the guideline recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The approaches have been applied to the analysis of a cyanobacterial culture and a natural bloom, and MC equivalent contents have been compared to those obtained by conventional assays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results have demonstrated the viability of the use of MPs as biomolecule immobilization supports in biotechnological tools for MCs monitoring. PMID:23214443

Reverté, Laia; Garibo, Diana; Flores, Cintia; Diogčne, Jorge; Caixach, Josep; Campŕs, Mňnica

2013-01-01

213

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colloidal gold immunoassay for ochratoxin A: investigation of analytical conditions and sample matrix on assay performance.  

PubMed

A polyclonal antibody against ochratoxin A (OTA) was produced from rabbits immunized with the OTA-BSA conjugate. A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) and a membrane-base colloidal gold immunoassay in flow-through format were developed for the rapid detection of OTA in various food matrices. In the cdELISA, the concentration causing 50% inhibition was 0.07 ng mL(-1), and the effects of different chemical conditions (ionic strength, pH value, and organic solvent) were studied. The sensitivity of the assay was higher than those previously reported. A simple, rapid, and efficient extraction method was developed and 74-110% recoveries of spiked samples were obtained. Fifty percent methanol extracts of some food samples such as barley, wheat, oat, corn, rice, and raisins could be analyzed directly by immunoassay after dilution in PBS; grape juice and beer samples could be analyzed directly after dilution with PBS; for coffee samples, a more complex method was used to remove the matrix effect effectively. Membrane-based colloidal gold immunoassays had a visual detection limit of 1.0 ng mL(-1) for OTA with a detection time of less than 10 min. For the validation of the cdELISA and membrane-based colloidal gold immunoassay, samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The correlation between data obtained using the microwell assay and HPLC was good (R2 = 0.984). The developed immunoassay methods are suitable for the rapid quantitative or qualitative determination of OTA in food samples. PMID:17668189

Wang, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Tao; Xu, Na; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

2007-10-01

214

Evaluation of eight enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin G against Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

Eight commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test sera taken from 102 patients in whom Helicobacter pylori infection status had been determined by means of biopsy culture, PCR, histology, and urease production and by 13C urea breath test. By those means, 61 patients had been found to be infected. Assays were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sensitivities ranged from 86 to 98%; specificities ranged from 83 to 98%. In a group consisting of the assays by Bio-Whittaker, Meddens Biotech, Orion (Pyloriset EIA G, new version), and Enteric Products, Inc. (HM Cap), differences in performance were not statistically significant. Sensitivities in this group ranged from 93 to 98%; specificities ranged from 95 to 98%. Assays from this group may be useful in addition to biopsy-based methods in diagnosing H. pylori infection.

Meijer, B C; Thijs, J C; Kleibeuker, J H; van Zwet, A A; Berrelkamp, R J

1997-01-01

215

Development of an indirect enzyme linked immunoassay for abscisic acid. [Pisum sativum  

SciTech Connect

AN INDIRECT METHOD OF ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY (ELISA) IS REPORTED FOR ABSCISIC ACID (ABA), UTILIZING A THYROGLOBULIN-ABA CONJUGATE FOR COATING WELLS. THE ASSAY CAN USE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, IS SENSITIVE TO AS LITTLE AS 20 PICOGRAMS ABA PER WELL, AND IS MUCH MORE CONSERVATIVE OF ANTIBODY THAN DIRECT METHODS. THE MOST DILUTE ABA STANDARDS DID NOT RETAIN THEIR ANTIGENICITY DURING STORAGE, SO ABA STANDARD SETS WERE DILUTED IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO USE. THE INDIRECT ELISA WAS USED SUCCESSFULLY TO ESTIMATE ABA CONCENTRATIONS IN DEVELOPING COTYLEDONS OF PISUM SATIVUM L., AFTER ONLY LITTLE PRELIMINARY PURIFICATION. IT WAS VALIDATED FOR THIS TISSUE THROUGH THE USE OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTION (GC-EC), AND CAPILLARY GC-SELECTED ION MONITORING (GC-MS-SIM) USING LABELLED ABA AS AN INTERNAL STANDARD. FULL SPECTRUM GC-MASS SPECTROMETRY WAS ALSO USED TO VERIFY THAT ABA WAS PRESENT IN A SAMPLE ASSAYED QUANTITATIVELY BY BOTH ELISA AND GC-MS-SIM.

Ross, G.S.; Elder, P.A.; McWha, J.A.; Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.

1987-09-01

216

Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.  

PubMed

A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was developed. To improve the sensitivity of the assay, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORPH) was used to enhance peroxidase-induced CL. The concentrations of the coating anti-AFM1 antibody and the conjugate of AFB1 with horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were varied to optimise the condition of the chemiluminescent assay. The lower detection limit values and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFM1 were 0.001 ng mL(-1) and 0.002-0.0075 ng mL(-1), respectively. A 20-fold dilution of milk samples prevented a matrix effect of the milk and allowed measurement of AFM1 at concentrations below than the maximum acceptable limit. Values of recovery within and between assays were 81.5-117.6% and 86-110.6%, respectively. The results of using the developed CL-ELISA to analyse samples of six brands of milk that were purchased in Taiwan revealed that AFM1 was absent from all studied samples. PMID:24731347

Vdovenko, Marina M; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Yu, Feng-Yih; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

2014-09-01

217

Development and application of an immunoaffinity column enzyme immunoassay for mycotoxin zearalenone in complicated samples.  

PubMed

The zearalenone (ZEA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D3, one of the highest sensitivity antibodies, was developed. Based on this mAb, it was established of an immunoaffinity column (IAC) coupled with an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA). After optimization, the icELISA allowed an IC50 against ZEA of 0.02 µg L(-1). The mAb 2D3 exhibited a high recognition of ZEA (100%) and ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL, 88.2%). Its cross-reactivity with ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL) and ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL) were found to be 4.4% and 4.6%, respectively. The IAC-icELISA method was employed to analyze ZEA contamination in food samples, compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The spiked assay for ZEA demonstrated the considerable recoveries for IAC-icELISA (83-93%) and HPLC (94-108%) methods. Results showed that the mAb 2D3 and IAC-icELISA method posed potential applications in sensitively determination of ZEA in maize. PMID:24465616

Tang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ran; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Lei, Jiawen; Zhang, Zhaowei

2014-01-01

218

Development of an enzyme immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against the psychoactive diterpenoid salvinorin A.  

PubMed

Salvinorin A (1), the main active constituent in Salvia divinorum, is a highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist with hallucinogenic effects, which is regulated in several countries. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against 1 was prepared, and an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) system was developed for the detection of salvinorins. To raise mAbs against 1, salvinorin B (2) hemisuccinate was synthesized and used to prepare the immunogen 2-bovine serum albumin conjugate. This technique was used to prepare a hybridoma cell line, 3D5, which secreted a mAb that recognized 1. The mAb was shown to have specificity for 1 and other salvinorins in cross-reactivity tests. The intra-assay calibration range by icELISA using the mAb against 1 was 0.0195-0.625 ?g/mL. After validating the icELISA using intra- and interassays, a recovery experiment and analysis of several plants in the family Lamiaceae, including S. divinorum, confirmed that the analytical method based on ELISA is not only simple but also precise, accurate, sensitive, and sufficiently reliable. The results indicate that icELISA is a useful tool in the identification of S. divinorum. PMID:23987562

Paudel, Madan Kumar; Shirota, Osamu; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setsuko; Morimoto, Satoshi

2013-09-27

219

Enzyme-linked Fab' fragment based competitive immunoassay for ovalbumin in hot-processed food.  

PubMed

A hen's egg is one of the most common causes of food allergy. The allergen quantitation in hot-processed food is always a difficult task, because the protein in these samples will be denatured, insoluble, and degraded. This article presents a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of ovalbumin in hot-processed food. Its recovery was improved nearly two times by the assay method as compared with previous sandwich ELISA. The heat and DL-Dithiothreitol treated ovalbumin was used as antigen for monoclonal antibody preparation. A smaller labeled antibody molecule, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled Fab' fragment, was used to replace IgG in ELISA for improving sensitivity and analytical speed of the method. A binding site protection procedure was developed for Fab' fragment labeling with HRP, which prevented damage to the Fab' binding site. The combination and separation steps were efficiently completed in an affinity spin column. Based on the optimized ELISA condition, the IC50 was 1.2 µg/mL and the coefficients of variation were less than 10%. PMID:23859790

Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Yang, Guowu

2013-01-01

220

Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products.  

PubMed

A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed. To improve the assay sensitivity, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate and 4-morpholinopyridine previously optimized by a factorial design was used as enhancer of horseradish peroxidase-induced chemiluminescence. Varying the concentrations of the coating anti-AFB1 antibody and conjugate of AFB1 and horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were optimized. The values of the detection limit value and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFB1 were 0.0015 ng mL(-1) and 0.003-0.03 ng mL(-1), respectively. It was shown that a dilution of rice and mung beans extracts in 5 and 10 times, respectively, prevented a matrix effect of the food products in CL-ELISA. The recovery values from the spiked samples of rice and mung beans were in the range of 90-104% and 102-117%, respectively. Studying 8 rice and 8 mung beans samples purchased in commercial stores the developed CL-ELISA allowed to find 3 samples (1 rice and 2 mung beans) containing AFB1, the content of AFB1 in one sample being higher than the maximum acceptable level established in the European Community. PMID:23598187

Yu, Feng-Yih; Gribas, Anastasia V; Vdovenko, Marina M; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

2013-03-30

221

Diagnosis of Norwalk Virus Infection by Indirect Enzyme Immunoassay Detection of Salivary Antibodies to Recombinant Norwalk Virus Antigen  

PubMed Central

Simple diagnostic tests are needed for the detection of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. Salivary antibody assays provide an attractive alternative to collecting and testing serum or stool samples. Antibodies to Norwalk virus (NV) in oral fluid samples were compared with NV antibodies in serum collected from 38 volunteers challenged with NV inoculum. Pre- and postchallenge (day 4, 8, 14, and 21) saliva and serum samples were examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using recombinant NV antigen. Of 18 infected subjects (those who shed NV in stool or who demonstrated immunoglobulin G [IgG] seroconversion), 15 (83%) had ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgA and 15 (83%) had ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG when prechallenge and postchallenge saliva samples were compared. When the results of the IgA and IgG assays were combined, all 18 infected subjects showed ?4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG or IgA postchallenge titers compared to their prechallenge titers. One of 19 uninfected subjects had a ?4-fold increase in NV-specific salivary IgG. The sensitivity of the combined assay results was 100%, and the specificity was 95%. NV-specific salivary IgA titers peaked around 14 days postchallenge. NV-specific salivary IgG and serum IgG titers continued to rise through 21 days postchallenge. The application of this EIA to an elementary school outbreak indicated that 67% of the subjects with confirmed infections had >4-fold rises in anti-NoV IgA when an antigen in the same genetic cluster as the outbreak virus was used. This is the first documented mucosal antibody response to NoV in children. This EIA provides a useful approach for diagnosing NoV outbreaks.

Moe, Christine L.; Sair, Arnie; Lindesmith, Lisa; Estes, Mary K.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

2004-01-01

222

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Compared to Real-Time PCR and Enzyme Immunoassay for Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Detection  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection is the primary cause of health care-associated diarrhea. While most laboratories have been using rapid antigen tests for detecting C. difficile toxins, they have poor sensitivity; newer molecular methods offer rapid results with high test sensitivity and specificity. This study was designed to compare the performances of two molecular assays (Meridian illumigene and BD GeneOhm) and two antigen assays (Wampole Quik Chek Complete and TechLab Tox A/B II) to detect toxigenic C. difficile. Fecal specimens from hospitalized patients (n = 139) suspected of having C. difficile infection were tested by the four assays. Nine specimens were positive and 109 were negative by all four methods. After discrepant analysis by toxigenic culture (n = 21), the total numbers of stool specimens classified as positive and negative for toxigenic C. difficile were 21 (15%) and 118 (85%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were as follows: GeneOhm (95.2%, 100%, 100%, and 99.2%), illumigene (95.2%, 96.6%, 83.3%, and 99.2%), Tox A/B II (52.4%, 97.5%, 78.6%, and 92.4%), and Quik Chek Complete (47.6%, 100%, 100%, and 91.9%). The illumigene assay performed comparably to the GeneOhm assay with a slight decrease in test specificity; the sensitivities of both far exceeded those of the antigen assays. The clinical characteristics of the concordant and discrepant study patients were similar, including stool consistency and frequency. In the era of rapid molecular-based tests for toxigenic C. difficile, toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) should no longer be considered the standard of care.

Sural, Preethi; Loomis, Caroline R.; Pesta, Christine; Gonzalez-Krellwitz, Laura; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Riska, Paul

2012-01-01

223

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification compared to real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay for toxigenic Clostridium difficile detection.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection is the primary cause of health care-associated diarrhea. While most laboratories have been using rapid antigen tests for detecting C. difficile toxins, they have poor sensitivity; newer molecular methods offer rapid results with high test sensitivity and specificity. This study was designed to compare the performances of two molecular assays (Meridian illumigene and BD GeneOhm) and two antigen assays (Wampole Quik Chek Complete and TechLab Tox A/B II) to detect toxigenic C. difficile. Fecal specimens from hospitalized patients (n = 139) suspected of having C. difficile infection were tested by the four assays. Nine specimens were positive and 109 were negative by all four methods. After discrepant analysis by toxigenic culture (n = 21), the total numbers of stool specimens classified as positive and negative for toxigenic C. difficile were 21 (15%) and 118 (85%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were as follows: GeneOhm (95.2%, 100%, 100%, and 99.2%), illumigene (95.2%, 96.6%, 83.3%, and 99.2%), Tox A/B II (52.4%, 97.5%, 78.6%, and 92.4%), and Quik Chek Complete (47.6%, 100%, 100%, and 91.9%). The illumigene assay performed comparably to the GeneOhm assay with a slight decrease in test specificity; the sensitivities of both far exceeded those of the antigen assays. The clinical characteristics of the concordant and discrepant study patients were similar, including stool consistency and frequency. In the era of rapid molecular-based tests for toxigenic C. difficile, toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) should no longer be considered the standard of care. PMID:22189114

Boyanton, Bobby L; Sural, Preethi; Loomis, Caroline R; Pesta, Christine; Gonzalez-Krellwitz, Laura; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Riska, Paul

2012-03-01

224

Highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen by use of a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The performance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening assays is continuously improved to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B. In this study, a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (ICT-CLEIA) for the detection of HBsAg, which is as sensitive as hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA PCR, was developed; the ICT-CLEIA assay performance was compared with the performance of the Architect HBsAg QT assay and HBV DNA PCR. The specificities in the initial assay and after retesting were 99.50% (1,988/1,998 samples) and 99.95% (1,997/1,998 samples), respectively. The analytical detection limit was determined to be 0.2 mIU/ml using the 2nd International WHO HBsAg standard, and the cutoff value (0.5 mIU/ml) of the ICT-CLEIA assay was 8.0 standard deviations (SD) above the mean of the HBsAg-negative specimens. The ICT-CLEIA assay could detect HBsAg even in the presence of anti-HBs antibodies and demonstrated a 23.6-day-shorter window period using commercially available HBsAg seroconversion panels than the Architect HBsAg QT assay. Furthermore, the monitoring of the viral kinetics by the ICT-CLEIA assay and the HBV DNA PCR produced very similarly shaped curves during both the HBsAg seroconversion and reverse seroconversion periods. Therefore, the ICT-CLEIA assay may be useful not only for an earlier detection of HBV reactivation but also for the monitoring of hepatitis B patients. PMID:23658266

Takeda, Kazuhiko; Maruki, Mari; Yamagaito, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Machiko; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Tobimatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Mizuno, Yoshiteru; Hamaguchi, Yukio

2013-07-01

225

Rapid detection of parainfluenza virus type 3 RNA in respiratory specimens: use of reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), an important lower respiratory tract pathogen in young children and immunocompromised individuals, may be underdiagnosed because of the insensitivity of available culturing systems and delay in identification of virus in cell culture. We developed a reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme immunoassay (RT-PCR-EIA) for PIV-3, using primers specific for a highly conserved region of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene. Testing of nasal washes spiked with PIV-3 or other respiratory viruses showed that this assay detected seven strains of PIV-3 but not other respiratory viruses. Of 103 respiratory tract samples obtained from children experimentally infected with a liver PIV-3 vaccine or naturally infected with wild-type PIV-3, 51 were positive by culture and 48 were positive by RT-PCR-EIA. Eleven of the culture-positive samples were negative by RT-PCR-EIA; however, none of these grew virus upon reinoculation into cell culture, indicating that virus was lost or was present at a very low titer. Eight of the culture-negative samples were positive by RT-PCR-EIA: two were obtained from a subject who was culture negative but had a serologic response to PIV-3, four were obtained 7 to 9 days after the first positive culture, and two were obtained 1 day prior to the first positive culture. Thus, this RT-PCR-EIA for PIV-3 is sensitive and specific and can detect viral RNA in samples from which virus cannot be cultivated. This assay could be used for diagnosis late in the course of PIV-3 infection and for accurate detection of disease outbreaks. Images

Karron, R A; Froehlich, J L; Bobo, L; Belshe, R B; Yolken, R H

1994-01-01

226

Comparison of Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay and Enzyme Immunoassay for Determination of Mumps and Rubella Immune Status in Health Care Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Screening tests are available to determine immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, such as mumps and rubella. We aimed to define better assay for detecting immune status of health care personnel to vaccine-preventable diseases. Methods Mumps and rubella antibodies of health care personnel at Shimane University Hospital were examined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI), comparing with those by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results A total of 910 sera from health care personnel were tested. There was poor correlation between HI and EIA in detecting mumps antibodies with correlation coefficient values (r) = 0.190 (P < 0.001), but in rubella antibodies HI and EIA were relatively well correlated (r = 0.930, P < 0.001). Seropositivity rate of HI versus EIA was found to be 65.7 versus 93.2, and 89.5 versus 86.5% for mumps and rubella, respectively. As compared with EIA, HI identified sixfold larger seronegative subjects in mumps. Moreover, in mumps, 88.8% of seronegative subjects detected by HI were seropositive by EIA, while 3.7% of seropositive subjects detected by HI were seronegative by EIA. In rubella, 2.1% of seronegative subjects detected by HI were seropositive by EIA, and 1.7% of seropositive by HI was seronegative by EIA. Conclusion Considerable difference between HI and EIA in determining immune status of health care personnel to mumps and rubella suggests beneficial use of EIA for the identification of accurate susceptible personnel who subsequently undergo an effective vaccination programs. Seroprevalence survey of health care personnel by using appropriate assay is essential for prevention and infection control strategies in health care settings.

Kumakura, Shunichi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Isobe, Takeshi; Hirose, Masahiro; Ohe, Miki; Nishimura, Nobuhiro; Onoda, Keiichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

2013-01-01

227

Impact of Strain Type on Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile: Comparison of Molecular Diagnostic and Enzyme Immunoassay Approaches ?  

PubMed Central

A multicenter clinical trial assessed the performance of the Cepheid Xpert C. difficile assay on stool specimens collected from patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 2,296 unformed stool specimens, collected from seven study sites, were tested by Xpert C. difficile enrichment culture followed by cell culture cytotoxicity testing of the isolates (i.e., toxigenic culture with enrichment) and the study sites' standard C. difficile test methods. The methods included enzyme immunoassay (EIA), direct cytotoxin testing, and two- and three-step algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) screening followed by either EIA or EIA and an in-house PCR assay. All C. difficile strains were typed by PCR-ribotyping. Compared to results for toxigenic culture with enrichment, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert assay were 93.5, 94.0, 73.0, and 98.8%, respectively. The overall sensitivity of the EIAs compared to that of enrichment culture was 60.0%, and the sensitivity of combined GDH algorithms was 72.9%; both were significantly lower than that of Xpert C. difficile (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). The sensitivity of the EIA was significantly lower than that of the Xpert C. difficile assay for detection of ribotypes 002, 027, and 106 (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.004, respectively, Fisher's exact test), and the sensitivity of GDH algorithms for ribotypes other than 027 was lower than that for Xpert C. difficile (P < 0.001). The Xpert C. difficile assay is a simple, rapid, and accurate method for detection of toxigenic C. difficile in unformed stool specimens and is minimally affected by strain type compared to EIA and GDH-based methods.

Tenover, Fred C.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Woods, Christopher W.; Peterson, Lance R.; Davis, Thomas; Schreckenberger, Paul; Fang, Ferric C.; Dascal, Andre; Gerding, Dale N.; Nomura, Jim H.; Goering, Richard V.; Akerlund, Thomas; Weissfeld, Alice S.; Baron, Ellen Jo; Wong, Edith; Marlowe, Elizabeth M.; Whitmore, Joseph; Persing, David H.

2010-01-01

228

Clinical evaluation of a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detecting norovirus in fecal specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Thus, rapid and highly sensitive assays for detecting NoVs are required. Recently, a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for detecting NoVs in fecal specimens was developed. This new assay was evaluated using fecal specimens obtained from acute gastroenteritis patients. Of the 107 specimens that were found to be NoV-positive by RT-PCR or RT-LAMP, 104 specimens produced positive results in the BLEIA (sensitivity: 96.3%). On the other hand, no false-positive results were observed during the testing of 176 NoV-negative specimens containing group A or C rotaviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, adenovirus type 41, bocaviruses, or parechoviruses. Furthermore, the BLEIA was able to detect many NoV genotypes in the tested specimens, including three genotypes from genogroup I (genotypes 1, 4, and 8) and ten genotypes belonging to genogroup II (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 16, and 19). By quantifying the number of NoV genome copies in the clinical specimens tested with the BLEIA, its detection limit was estimated to be 10(6) genome copies per gram of stool and below. Furthermore, as the BLEIA can be performed with an automated device and does not involve complicated procedures it can be used to rapidly test many samples. Therefore, the BLEIA is a rapid and highly sensitive method and could be used as a diagnostic tool at hospitals and clinical laboratories that deal with large numbers of clinical specimens from acute gastroenteritis patients or food handlers. J. Med. Virol. 86:1219-1225, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24114991

Shigemoto, Naoki; Tanizawa, Yukie; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sakamaki, Nozomi; Ohiro, Yoshiyuki; Takayasu, Susumu; Fukuda, Shinji

2014-07-01

229

Comparison of commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with plaque reduction neutralization test for detection of measles virus antibody.  

PubMed Central

Four commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits were evaluated in comparison with the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) test for detection of measles virus antibody. The EIA kits, Enzygnost (Behring), Diamedix, Vidas (bioMerieux Vitek), and Measlestat (Biowhittaker), were assessed with two PRN cutoff titers: a PRN titer of 8, the lowest detectable antibody level by the PRN test under the test conditions, and a titer of 120, which has been shown to be the minimum protective antibody titer. At a PRN cutoff titer of 8, the sensitivity was 88.2, 91.1, 74.6, and 69.8% for Behring, Diamedix, Vidas, and Biowhittaker EIA tests, respectively, with negative predictive values ranging from 22.7 to 45.5%. The specificity was 93.8% for Diamedix and 100% for the rest. At a PRN cutoff titer of 120, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 100 and 90.7% (Behring), 98.2 and 58.8% (Diamedix), 90.6 and 94.5% (Vidas), and 85.7 and 96.4% (Biowhittaker). At this PRN cutoff titer, the negative predictive values of all EIA tests improved considerably, ranging from 70.7 to 100%. The EIA results showed an excellent association with PRN results when the PRN titers of the test samples were either < 8 or > 1,052. Discrepancies occurred especially when testing samples having PRN titers in the range of 8 to 120, indicating lack of sensitivity of the EIA tests in detecting measles virus antibody at low levels. Maternally derived measles virus antibody at this level has been shown to interfere with measles vaccine response in children and hence has implications from the standpoint of measles immunization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ratnam, S; Gadag, V; West, R; Burris, J; Oates, E; Stead, F; Bouilianne, N

1995-01-01

230

Disease-associated anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are detected by particle concentration fluoroimmunoassay, and not by enzyme linked immunoassay.  

PubMed

We recently developed a particle concentration fluoroimmunoassay for the measurement of serum antibodies to bovine serum albumin in patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We observed elevated IgG-anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies in 100% of newly-diagnosed diabetic children and in 2.5% of matched control children. Here we compare the fluoroimmunoassay and the more commonly available enzyme linked immunoassay technique, exchanging coded serum samples from 40 newly-diagnosed diabetic children and 179 control children between two laboratories. Particle concentration fluoroimmunoassay detected elevated IgG-anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies in all diabetic children, enzyme immunoassay in 25% (p less than 0.0001). Fluoroimmunoassay detected elevated levels in 2.2% and enzyme immunoassay in 10% of control children (p less than 0.002). Elevated IgA-anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies in patients were slightly more often detected by fluoroimmunoassay than by enzyme immunoassay, while in control children enzyme immunoassays detected elevated levels three times more often (p less than 0.01). Values measured in either assay showed overall no correlation in either patient (IgG:rs = 0.28; IgA:rs = 0.11) or control sera (IgG:rs = 0.02; IgA:rs = -0.05). Fluoroimmunoassay for IgG was 100% disease-sensitive (enzyme immunoassay: 25%, p less than 0.0001) and more disease-specific (IgG; p less than 0.02). Our findings demonstrate that these assay techniques detected distinct subsets of anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies with little (IgG) or some (IgA) overlap. In fluoroimmunoassay procedures, antigen:antibody binding occurs within 1-2 min while hours are allowed in an enzyme immunoassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1451958

Karjalainen, J; Saukkonen, T; Savilahti, E; Dosch, H M

1992-10-01

231

Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n 5 300), pregnant

G. T. MAINE; R. STRICKER; M. SCHULER; J. SPESARD; S. BROJANAC; B. IRIARTE; K. HERWIG; T. GRAMINS; B. COMBS; J. WISE; H. SIMMONS; T. GRAM; J. LONZE; D. RUZICKI; B. BYRNE; J. D. CLIFTON; L. E. CHOVAN; D. WACHTA; C. HOLAS; D. WANG; T. WILSON; S. TOMAZIC-ALLEN; M. A. CLEMENTS; G. L. WRIGHT; T. LAZZAROTTO; A. RIPALTI; M. P. LANDINI

2000-01-01

232

Evaluation of Performance Parameters of a Membrane-Based Dot Immunoassay for Meningococcal Polysaccharide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasingly, membrane-based enzyme immunoassays are being developed as the preferred solid-phase enzyme immunoassay format. We describe the rate kinetics of a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane-based dot immunoassay for meningococcal group A polysacchari...

J. D. Oprandy J. E. Sippel

1989-01-01

233

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies after infection with mumps virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under routine laboratory conditions ELISA was tested for suitability for serological demonstration of specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes G and M against mumps virus. Sera from patients with known clinical and virological data were used. The results of ELISA were compared with those of CFT. 45 paired sera were tested in ELISA IgG, 87 first sera in ELISA IgM.

M. E. Nicolai-Scholten; R. Ziegelmaier; F. Behrens; W. Höpken

1980-01-01

234

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colloidal gold immunoassay for sulphamethazine residues in edible animal foods: investigation of the effects of the analytical conditions and the sample matrix on assay performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine sulphamethazine (SMZ) residues in edible animal foods (pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and liver),\\u000a a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a colloidal gold immunoassay were established. The limits\\u000a of detection of the ELISA and the colloidal gold immunoassay were 0.02 and 0.5 ?g kg?1, respectively. The specificity of the ELISA developed to the SMZ was

Lei Wang; Shuo Wang; Jiayi Zhang; Junwei Liu; Yan Zhang

2008-01-01

235

Comparison among the BED capture enzyme immunoassay test and AxSYM avidity index assay for determining recent HIV infection and incidence in two Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres in Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to compare the automated AxSYM avidity assay index with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay test and to calculate the HIV-1 incidence using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index algorithms within a population seeking the Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres in two municipalities in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Northeast of Brazil. An analysis was conducted in 365 samples that tested positive for HIV infection from frozen serum collected during the period 2006-2009. There was a similar proportion of males and females; most patients were heterosexual (86%) with a median age of 29 years. Of the 365 samples, 102 (28%) and 66 (18.1%) were identified as recent infections by BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index, respectively. The HIV-1 total incidence in the BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index algorithms were: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60-0.98) and 0.34 (95% CI: -0.04 to 0.72), respectively. Incidence was higher among men. There was good agreement between the tests, with a kappa of 0.654 and a specificity of 95.8%. AxSYM avidity assay index may be helpful in improving the quality of the estimates of recent HIV infection and incidence, particularly when used in a combined algorithm with BED capture enzyme immunoassay. PMID:24780363

Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; de Lima, Kledoaldo Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos

2014-01-01

236

Filter Paper Blood Spot Enzyme Linked Immunoassay for Insulin and Application in the Evaluation of Determinants of Child Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background In large-scale epidemiology, bloodspot sampling by fingerstick onto filter paper has many advantages, including ease and low costs of collection, processing and transport. We describe the development of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for quantifying insulin from dried blood spots and demonstrate its application in a large trial. Methods We adapted an existing commercial kit (Mercodia Human Insulin ELISA, 10-1113-01) to quantify insulin from two 3-mm diameter discs (?6 µL of blood) punched from whole blood standards and from trial samples. Paediatricians collected dried blood spots in a follow-up of 13,879 fasted children aged 11.5 years (interquartile range 11.3–11.8 years) from 31 trial sites across Belarus. We quantified bloodspot insulin levels and examined their distribution by demography and anthropometry. Results Mean intra-assay (n?=?157) coefficients of variation were 15% and 6% for ‘low’ (6.7 mU/L) and ‘high’ (23.1 mU/L) values, respectively; the respective inter-assay values (n?=?33) were 23% and 11%. The intraclass correlation coefficient between 50 paired whole bloodspot versus serum samples, collected simultaneously, was 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.95). Bloodspot insulin was stable for at least 31 months at ?80°C, for one week at +30°C and following four freeze-thaw cycles. Paediatricians collected a median of 8 blood spots from 13,487 (97%) children. The geometric mean insulin (log standard deviation) concentrations amongst 12,812 children were 3.0 mU/L (1.1) in boys and 4.0 mU/L (1.0) in girls and were positively associated with pubertal stage, measures of central and peripheral adiposity, height and fasting glucose. Conclusions Our simple and convenient bloodspot assay is suitable for the measurement of insulin in very small volumes of blood collected on filter paper cards and can be applied to large-scale epidemiology studies of the early-life determinants of circulating insulin.

Martin, Richard M.; Patel, Rita; Zinovik, Alexander; Kramer, Michael S.; Oken, Emily; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gunnarsson, Robert; Grufman, Lisa; Foo, Ying; Gusina, Nina

2012-01-01

237

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, BoneĂ­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

238

Evaluation of a rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

We evaluated the new C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (CD COMPLETE; TechLab, USA), which is a rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay that uses a combination of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A and B detection. A total of 608 consecutive loose stool specimens collected from the patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from August to December 2012 were subjected to the CD COMPLETE and VIDAS Clostridium difficile A & B (VIDAS CDAB; bioMérieux, France). Their performances were compared with a toxigenic culture as a reference. Stool specimens that were culture-negative and CD COMPLETE- or VIDAS CDAB-positive were analyzed by using an enrichment procedure. In comparison to the toxigenic cultures, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) were 63.6%, 98.0%, 76.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, for the CD COMPLETE-toxin and 75.5%, 97.4%, 72.5%, and 97.8%, respectively, for the VIDAS CDAB. In comparison to the enriched C. difficile cultures, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the CD COMPLETE-GDH were 91.0%, 92.4%, 70.5%, and 98.1%, respectively. The CD COMPLETE is a reliable method for the diagnosis of CDI and provides greater sensitivity than toxin enzyme immunoassay alone. Furthermore, the CD COMPLETE-GDH has advantages over direct culture in detecting C. difficile. PMID:24790912

Kim, Heejung; Kim, Wan Hee; Kim, Myungsook; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

2014-05-01

239

PCR and direct fluorescent-antibody staining confirm Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in swabs and urine below the detection threshold of Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

In order to test the hypothesis that specimens blocking with a neutralizing reagent below the cutoff of the Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay represent infected patients, we used direct fluorescent-antibody staining for elementary bodies (EBs) and PCR to confirm results for cervical swabs collected from 55,963 women and urethral swabs or first-void urine (FVU) samples collected from 5,781 men attending physicians' offices in the Toronto, Canada, area. Within a grey zone arbitrarily selected to represent values up to 40% below the positive threshold of the test run, 134 cervical swabs, 44 urethral swabs, and 39 FVU specimens exhibited a blocking response ( > 50% reduction in signal). Three or more EBs were observed in each of 98 cervical swabs (73.1%), 38 urethral swabs (86.4%), and 21 FVU specimens (53.8%). Of the 36 cervical swabs with fewer than three EBs, 33 were PCR positive; the positive PCR results for male specimens were 6 of 6 urethral swabs and 17 of 18 FVU samples. Application of the blocking test to specimens negative in the Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay but having optical densities within 40% of the cutoff added 14.2% (217 of 1,531 specimens) more positive results to the survey. A total of 213 of 217 samples (98.2%) were reconfirmed as having EBs or DNA.

Krepel, J; Laur, I; Sproston, A; Luinstra, K; Jang, D; Mahony, J; Chernesky, M

1995-01-01

240

PCR and direct fluorescent-antibody staining confirm Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in swabs and urine below the detection threshold of Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

In order to test the hypothesis that specimens blocking with a neutralizing reagent below the cutoff of the Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay represent infected patients, we used direct fluorescent-antibody staining for elementary bodies (EBs) and PCR to confirm results for cervical swabs collected from 55,963 women and urethral swabs or first-void urine (FVU) samples collected from 5,781 men attending physicians' offices in the Toronto, Canada, area. Within a grey zone arbitrarily selected to represent values up to 40% below the positive threshold of the test run, 134 cervical swabs, 44 urethral swabs, and 39 FVU specimens exhibited a blocking response ( > 50% reduction in signal). Three or more EBs were observed in each of 98 cervical swabs (73.1%), 38 urethral swabs (86.4%), and 21 FVU specimens (53.8%). Of the 36 cervical swabs with fewer than three EBs, 33 were PCR positive; the positive PCR results for male specimens were 6 of 6 urethral swabs and 17 of 18 FVU samples. Application of the blocking test to specimens negative in the Chlamydiazyme enzyme immunoassay but having optical densities within 40% of the cutoff added 14.2% (217 of 1,531 specimens) more positive results to the survey. A total of 213 of 217 samples (98.2%) were reconfirmed as having EBs or DNA. PMID:8576331

Krepel, J; Laur, I; Sproston, A; Luinstra, K; Jang, D; Mahony, J; Chernesky, M

1995-11-01

241

Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western immunoblot and radioimmunoprecipitation assay with Food and Drug Administration seropositivity criteria. The best results were obtained with the two enzyme immunoassays, which were more sensitive (100 and 98.6% [Abbott and Cambridge, respectively]) and more specific (98.7 and 96.5%). Indirect immunofluorescence exhibited difficulties for reading and interpretation. With particle agglutination, prozone was observed for 9 of 78 HTLV-I-positive serum specimens. False-positives in any of the tests were not linked to cross-reactions with human immunodeficiency viruses. However, confirmation tests remain necessary for HTLV-I screening.

Verdier, M; Denis, F; Leonard, G; Sangare, A; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M; Essex, M

1990-01-01

242

Evaluation of a Rapid Membrane Enzyme Immunoassay for the Simultaneous Detection of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Toxin for the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the new C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (CD COMPLETE; TechLab, USA), which is a rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay that uses a combination of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A and B detection. A total of 608 consecutive loose stool specimens collected from the patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from August to December 2012 were subjected to the CD COMPLETE and VIDAS Clostridium difficile A & B (VIDAS CDAB; bioMérieux, France). Their performances were compared with a toxigenic culture as a reference. Stool specimens that were culture-negative and CD COMPLETE- or VIDAS CDAB-positive were analyzed by using an enrichment procedure. In comparison to the toxigenic cultures, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) were 63.6%, 98.0%, 76.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, for the CD COMPLETE-toxin and 75.5%, 97.4%, 72.5%, and 97.8%, respectively, for the VIDAS CDAB. In comparison to the enriched C. difficile cultures, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the CD COMPLETE-GDH were 91.0%, 92.4%, 70.5%, and 98.1%, respectively. The CD COMPLETE is a reliable method for the diagnosis of CDI and provides greater sensitivity than toxin enzyme immunoassay alone. Furthermore, the CD COMPLETE-GDH has advantages over direct culture in detecting C. difficile.

Kim, Heejung; Kim, Wan Hee; Kim, Myungsook; Lee, Kyungwon

2014-01-01

243

Detection of rotavirus by hybridization with a nonradioactive synthetic DNA probe and comparison with commercial enzyme immunoassays and silver-stained polyacrylamide gels.  

PubMed Central

Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (rotavirus enzyme immunoassay [EIA; International Diagnostic Laboratories], Pathfinder [Kallestad Laboratories], and Rotaclone [Cambridge Bioscience, Inc.]) and hybridization of viral RNA with a nonradioactive, synthetic oligonucleotide DNA probe (SNAP; Molecular Biosystems, Inc.) were compared with silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of viral RNA for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. Hybridization was performed following column purification of the viral RNA. Of 286 specimens analyzed by PAGE, SNAP, rotavirus EIA, Pathfinder, and Rotaclone, 88 were positive by PAGE. All 88 specimens were also positive by the other four assays. Nine specimens that were positive by one or more of the assays were positive by blocking ELISAs but were negative by PAGE. If these nine specimens were considered to be true positives, the final sensitivities and specificities were as follows: PAGE, 91 and 100%; SNAP, 94 and 97%; rotavirus EIA, 96 and 97%; Pathfinder, 100 and 94%; and Rotaclone, 96 and 97%, respectively.

Arens, M; Swierkosz, E M

1989-01-01

244

Development of a highly sensitive chemiluminescent assay for hydrogen peroxide under neutral conditions using acridinium ester and its application to an enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

We developed a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) assay for hydrogen peroxide using 10-methyl-9-(phenoxycarbonyl) acridinium fluorosulfonate (PMAC) that produced chemiluminescence under neutral conditions and applied it to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). One picomole of hydrogen peroxide could be detected using the optimized PMAC-CL method and 6.2 × 10(-20) mol ?-d-galactosidase (?-gal) could be detected by combining an indoxyl derivative substrate and the proposed PMAC-CL method. This highly sensitive CL ?-gal assay was applied to an EIA for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using ?-gal as a label enzyme; 0.02-100.0 ?U/mL TSH in human serum could be assayed directly and with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23832789

Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Tsuruoka, Keiko; Ohno, Ken-Ichi; Tajima, Noriko; Nagano, Hiromi

2014-06-01

245

Anti-?-glucose-based glycan IgM antibodies predict relapse activity in multiple sclerosis after the first neurological event  

PubMed Central

Background There is no specific serum-based biomarker for the diagnosis or prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Objective We investigated whether levels of IgM antibodies to Glc(?1,4)Glc(?) (GAGA4) or to a panel of four glucose-based glycans could differentiate MS from other neurological diseases (OND) or predict risk of early relapse following first presentation (FP) of RRMS. Methods Retrospective analysis of 440 sera samples of three cohorts: A) FP-RRMS (n = 44), OND (n = 44); B) FP-RRMS (n = 167), OND (n = 85); and C) FP (n = 100). Anti-GAGA4 IgM levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay in cohort-A and cohort-B. Cohort-C IgM antibodies to glucosebased glycan panel were measured by immunofluorescence. Results FP-RRMS had higher levels of anti-GAGA4 IgM than OND patients (cohort-A, P = 0.01; cohort-B, P = 0.0001). Sensitivity and specificity were 27% and 97% for cohort-A; and 26% and 90% for cohort-B, respectively. In cohort-C, 58 patients experienced early relapse (<24 months), 31 had late relapse (?24 months), and 11 did not experience second attack during follow-up. Kaplan– Meier curves demonstrated decrease in time to next relapse for patients positive for the antibody panel (P = 0.02, log rank). Conclusions Serum anti-GAGA4 IgM discerns FP-RRMS patients from OND patients. Higher levels of serum anti-?-glucose IgM in FP patients predict imminent early relapse.

Freedman, MS; Laks, J; Dotan, N; Altstock, RT; Dukler, A; Sindic, CJM

2009-01-01

246

Pregnancy Does Not Affect HIV Incidence Test Results Obtained Using the BED Capture Enzyme Immunoassay or an Antibody Avidity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAccurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.MethodsWe used the BED capture immunoassay (BED) and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who

Oliver Laeyendecker; Jessica D. Church; Amy E. Oliver; Anthony Mwatha; S. Michele Owen; Deborah Donnell; Ron Brookmeyer; Philippa Musoke; J. Brooks Jackson; Laura Guay; Clemesia Nakabiito; Thomas C. Quinn; Susan H. Eshleman

2010-01-01

247

Determination of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase in genetically transformed canola seed by a two-antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a quantitative, two-antibody sandwich immunoassay for phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), the selectable marker\\u000a protein. The method yielded a standard curve with a working range of 0 to 5 ng PAT per mL extract. Replicate absorbance values\\u000a for standards within a single assay showed a coefficient of variation typically less than 5 percent. Over three separate assays,\\u000a the coefficient of

Brigitte Bauer-Weston; Arno Schulz; Michael M. Oelck; Raymond J. A. Deschamps

1996-01-01

248

Magnetic bead-based enzyme-chromogenic substrate system for ultrasensitive colorimetric immunoassay accompanying cascade reaction for enzymatic formation of squaric acid-iron(III) chelate.  

PubMed

This work reports on a simple and feasible colorimetric immunoassay with signal amplification for sensitive determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, used as a model) at an ultralow concentration by using a new enzyme-chromogenic substrate system. We discovered that glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme broadly used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the ability to stimulate in situ formation of squaric acid (SQA)-iron(III) chelate. GOx-catalyzed oxidization of glucose leads to the formation of gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The latter can catalytically oxidize iron(II) to iron(III), which can rapidly (<1 min) coordinate with the SQA. Formation of the iron-squarate complex causes the color of the solution to change from bluish purple to bluish red accompanying the increasing absorbance with the increment of iron(III) concentration. On the basis of the SQA-iron(III) system, a new immunoassay protocol with GOx-labeled anti-PSA detection antibody can be designed for the detection of target PSA on capture antibody-functionalized magnetic immunosensing probe, monitored by recording the color or absorbance (? = 468 nm) of the generated SQA-iron(III) chelate. The absorbance intensity shows to be dependent on the concentration of target PSA. A linear dependence between the absorbance and target PSA concentration is obtained under optimal conditions in the range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 30 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.5 pg mL(-1) (0.5 ppt) estimated at the 3Sblank level. The sensitivity displays to be 3-5 orders of magnitude better than those of most commercialized human PSA ELISA kits. In addition, the developed colorimetric immunoassay was validated by assaying 12 human serum samples, receiving in good accordance with those obtained by the commercialized PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the SQA-based immunosensing system can be further extended for the detection of other low-abundance proteins or biomarkers by controlling the target antibody. PMID:24785462

Lai, Wenqiang; Tang, Dianping; Zhuang, Junyang; Chen, Guonan; Yang, Huanghao

2014-05-20

249

[Sero-diagnosis for human parvovirus B19 infection by IgM and IgG antibody capture method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--study on an epidemic case of erythema infectiosum].  

PubMed

The IgM and IgG antibody capture methods of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human parvovirus B19 were performed using Horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-labeled anti B19 monoclonal antibody. Serially obtained serum samples from one erythema infectiosum (E.I.) patient were examined at once by this methods. The dOD values of the IgM and IgG antibodies decreased on the typical curves according to the course of recovery. In the epidemic case of E.I. among students of one nurse school, 1) The first patients was estimated by comparing the change of dOD values of sera obtained at end of the epidemic and 1.5 months later. 2) In the pre-existing antibody positive persons, the dOD values of IgG antibody did not changed during the epidemic. 3) After the E.I. epidemic, and approximately 30% of the students were remained uninfected. PMID:1624835

Matsunaga, Y; Yamazaki, S; Moritsugu, Y; Kuwabara, Y; Nishigaki, M

1992-04-01

250

Measurement of IgG antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by commercial enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence in sera from pregnant women and patients with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and laboratory diagnosed Chlamydia psittaci\\/Chlamydia pneumoniae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis specific antibodies is valuable in diagnosing asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal damage following repeated episodes of PID. The assays in current use are unsuitable for screening large numbers of samples so there is a need to develop more suitable assays.Aims: To compare the performance of several commercial C trachomatis enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (SeroCT,

C S Jones; P A C Maple; N J Andrews; I D Paul; E O Caul

2003-01-01

251

Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies  

SciTech Connect

With the use of high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), two separate immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or the rapid detection of BoNT/A. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT in buffer and clinical fluids. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in diverse samples down to 14 fM (1.4 pg/mL). Using the recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. While the ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers an alternative to the mouse bioassay, the renewable surface assay has potential as a rapid screening assay for the analysis of complex environmental samples.

Varnum, Susan M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Smith, Leonard A.; Feldhaus, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

2006-06-16

252

Phenols as enhancers of the chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction: application in luminescence-monitored enzyme immunoassays.  

PubMed

Certain phenol derivatives, including p-iodophenol and p-phenylphenol, enhance light emission from the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of cyclic diacyl hydrazides such as luminol. The light emission decays slowly (glowing for several minutes) and its intensity may be greater than 1000-fold that of the unenhanced reaction. The enhanced system enables rapid, sensitive assay of peroxidase conjugates. We describe its application in immunoassays for human choriogonadotropin, digoxin, and factor VIII-related antigen. Luminescent quantification of peroxidase labels has been directly incorporated into immunoassays based on beads, tubes, or microtiter plates, used in conjunction with photodetectors such as photomultiplier tubes or instant photographic film. Enhancement with phenol derivatives exceeds that achieved with 6-hydroxybenzothiazole derivatives and depends on pH and enhancer concentration. Emission spectra of phenol-enhanced and unenhanced reactions are remarkably similar, suggesting that the enhancers do not act as more efficient emitters but exert their action earlier in the complex reaction between peroxidase, oxidant, and luminol. PMID:3926345

Thorpe, G H; Kricka, L J; Moseley, S B; Whitehead, T P

1985-08-01

253

Development of a flow-through enzyme immunoassay and application in screening green coffee samples for ochratoxin A with confirmation by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A flow-through enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the screening of green coffee bean samples for ochratoxin A (OA) and was later used in a survey on OA in green coffee from different countries. The test has a sensitivity of 8 ng/g, and calculated recoveries ranged from 70 to 89% and from 86 to 95% for spiked and naturally contaminated samples, respectively. There were no significant differences in within-day and between-day assay performance (P > 0.05). Green coffee samples (15 Arabica and 7 Robusta) received from an international coffee trader were analyzed for intrinsic fungal contamination, screened for OA, and subsequently confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All 22 samples were contaminated by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus, while Penicillium species were isolated from a mere 13.6% of the total number of samples. Isolates were tested for their ability to produce OA, and only 3.9% were positive. There was no correlation between occurrence of OA-producing isolates and levels of OA in contaminated samples. Results of the screening procedure showed that 4 of the 22 samples were contaminated with 8 ng/g or higher. The HPLC method confirmed that the OA levels ranged from 27 to 168 ng/g. A fifth sample, which was shown to be negative during screening, had an OA concentration of 4 ng/g. There were no false negatives or positives recorded, and the flow-through enzyme immunoassay results correlated with those obtained by HPLC. PMID:11601711

Sibanda, L; De Saeger, S; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; Van Peteghem, C

2001-10-01

254

Evaluation of a new amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male urine, female endocervical swab, and patient obtained vaginal swab specimens  

PubMed Central

Aims—To compare the performance of a new generation dual amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a molecular method for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, using a range of urogenital samples, and to assess the reliability of testing self collected vaginal specimens compared with clinician collected vaginal specimens. Methods—Two population groups were tested. For the first population group, first void urine samples were collected from 193 male patients with urethritis, and endocervical swabs were collected from 187 high risk commercial sex workers. All urine and endocervical specimens were tested by a conventional assay (IDEIA chlamydia), a new generation amplified immunoassay (IDEIA PCE chlamydia), and the Amplicor polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Discrepant results obtained among the three sample types were confirmed using a nested PCR test with a different plasmid target region. For the second population group, four swab specimens, including one patient obtained vaginal swab, two clinician obtained endocervical swabs, and one clinician obtained vaginal swab, were collected from 91 high risk sex workers. Self collected and clinician collected vaginal swabs were tested by IDEIA PCE chlamydia. Clinician obtained endocervical swabs were assayed by IDEIA PCE chlamydia and Amplicor PCR. Results—The performance of the IDEIA PCE chlamydia test was comparable to that of the Amplicor PCR test when male urine and female endocervical swab specimens were analysed. The relative sensitivities of IDEIA, IDEIA PCE, and Amplicor PCR on male first void urine specimens were 79.3%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively. The relative sensitivities of the three tests on female endocervical specimens were 85.0%, 95.0%, and 100%, respectively. The positivity rates for patient collected vaginal specimens and clinician collected vaginal specimens by IDEIA PCE were 25.2% and 23.1%, respectively, whereas those for clinician collected endocervical swabs by PCR and IDEIA PCE were both 27.5%. Conclusions—IDEIA PCE chlamydia is a lower cost but sensitive alternative test to PCR for testing male urine samples and female endocervical swabs. In addition, self collected or clinician collected vaginal specimens tested by IDEIA PCE chlamydia are a reliable alternative to analysing endocervical specimens. Key Words: Chlamydia trachomatis • enzyme immunoassay • clinical specimens

Tanaka, M.; Nakayama, H.; Sagiyama, K.; Haraoka, M.; Yoshida, H.; Hagiwara, T.; Akazawa, K.; Naito, S.

2000-01-01

255

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

256

Measurement of murine IgG and IgM concentrations in the SCLC MAb panel; effects of concentration on sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

Sensitive, solid-phase enzyme immunoassays for detecting murine IgM and IgG were developed and used to quantitate immunoglobulin concentrations in the SCLC MAb panel. Among the IgM MAbs, most contained between 10-75 micrograms ml-1. At least three IgM MAbs, however, contained less than 2 micrograms ml-1 and six contained greater than 75 micrograms ml-1. Two of the three IgM's containing less than 2 micrograms ml-1 immunoglobulin were found to cluster with the negative controls. Among the IgG MAbs, the majority contained between 10-100 micrograms ml-1 Ig. At least five of the IgG MAbs contained greater than 100 micrograms ml-1; and six were less than 2 micrograms ml-1. Three of the MAbs containing less than 2 micrograms ml-1 IgG clustered with the negative controls. Many of the panel members containing greater than 50 micrograms ml-1 antibody were found to give nonspecific immunostaining on tissues and cell lines. Often this nonspecific immunostaining was eliminated when these MAbs were diluted. Although only a minority of the panel members contained very high or very low concentrations of antibody, the data highlight the inherent difficulties that may result, in part from this variable and suggest that efforts be made to normalise the Ig concentrations of panel members in future workshop panels. PMID:1645575

Manderino, G L

1991-06-01

257

Development of bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for s-equol using firefly luciferase and its application to the assessment of equol-producer status.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a specific bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for S-equol, employing firefly luciferase as a labeling enzyme, as an alternative to HPLC methods. Satisfactory correlation (r=0.992) was shown when this S-equol BLEIA was compared with HPLC. The cross-reactivity with R-equol as its diastereoisomer is <5%, and that with daidzein, which is the substrate of equol, is 0.02%. Frequencies of Japanese equol producers determined using two distinct approaches were compared: a threshold value for urinary S-equol concentration of 232 ng/ml gave frequencies of 32% of men and 19% of women. These values correspond to the results for log(10)-transformed urinary S-equol to daidzein ratio threshold of -1.75, namely, 34% of men and 19% of women. When the changes in concentration of urinary equol and daidzein were measured after ingestion of isoflavone, the maximum concentration (C(max)) of urinary equol appeared after 9.6 h of isoflavone consumption; this C(max) was 2 h later than that for daidzein. The S-equol BLEIA documented in this study is expected to be an important tool for the assessment of equol producer status and demonstration of the bioavailability of isoflavone. PMID:21212552

Minekawa, Takayuki; Kambegawa, Akira; Shindome, Kumiko; Ohkuma, Hiroshi; Abe, Katsushi; Maekawa, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

2011-01-01

258

The Occurrence of Abscisic Acid and Abscisyl-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Developing and Mature Citrus Fruit as Determined by Enzyme Immunoassay 1  

PubMed Central

The contents of (+)-cis-abscisic acid (ABA) and alkaline-hydrolyzable ABA-conjugate(s) were analyzed by means of enzyme immunoassay in partially purified extracts of developing and mature sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv Washington navel). A relatively small increase in ABA was observed in the fruit exocarp during the natural color transition from green to orange. At the same time, the ABA-conjugate level increased approximately 12-fold in this tissue. The contents of ABA and ABA-conjugate equaled 15.0 ± 0.7 and 107.8 ± 2.1 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, respectively, in the exocarp at harvest. Other tissues also contained considerable quantities of these compounds. Whereas the highest ABA content was observed in the exocarp, the highest ABA-conjugate content was observed in the central vascular axis of the fruit and equaled 187.0 ± 10.3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight. The only immunoreactive conjugate found in significant quantity in mature fruit was identified as abscisyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (ABA-GE) based on (a) immunological cross-reactivity, (b) thin layer chromatography co-chromatography with authentic standards in two solvent systems, (c) susceptibility to both chemical and enzymic degradation, and (d) mass spectroscopy.

Harris, Michael J.; Dugger, William M.

1986-01-01

259

Immunoassays for diagnosis of coagulation disorders.  

PubMed

Immunoassays play a pivotal role in the clinical laboratory. In the coagulation section of the laboratory, they are used as an aid for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, thrombophilia screening, or detection of coagulation factor deficiencies, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination immunoassay technologies are currently most widely used, while Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI®) and other chemiluminescence-based immunoassays are emerging technologies for the coagulation laboratory. However, not all immunoassay technologies employed are compatible with the workflow requirements of the coagulation laboratory, and, not all technologies are suitable for detection or quantification of every marker. This review focuses on technical and performance aspects of those immunoassay technologies that are most widely used in the coagulation laboratory, and provides a description of markers that are typically tested by immunoassays. PMID:21057714

Kappel, A; Ehm, M

2010-11-01

260

Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of "Norwalk-like" viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of food- and waterborne gastroenteritis are being increasingly reported throughout the world. The analysis of environmental samples by newer diagnostic techniques such as reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of nucleic acid has begun to identify human enteric viruses (predominantly "Norwalk-like" viruses [NLVs]) as the cause of many of these outbreaks. To streamline NLV detection from environmental samples such as shellfish, we have developed an RT-PCR-oligoprobe amplification and detection method using several new procedures that enable confirmed RT-PCR amplification and product detection in 1 day. The new steps include replacing reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase with rTth polymerase, a heat-stable enzyme that functions as both a reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase, in a single-tube, single-buffer, elevated temperature reaction. An internal standard Norwalk virus (NV) RNA control is added to each RT-PCR to identify sample inhibition, and thermolabile uracil N-glycosylase is incorporated into the reaction to prevent PCR product carryover contamination. Finally, RT-PCR-generated amplicons are detected in microtiter wells using virus-specific biotinylated oligoprobes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based format. The DNA enzyme immunoassay is based on the capture of PCR product by biotinylated probes fixed onto individual streptavidin-coated wells. Using this method, low levels of NV were detected in stool and both NLV and hepatitis A virus were detected in bivalve mollusks following bioaccumulation. The method also successfully detected NLV in oysters implicated in an outbreak of NLV gastroenteritis. This method dramatically decreases the time needed for analysis and is amenable to automation. PMID:11157239

Schwab, K J; Neill, F H; Le Guyader, F; Estes, M K; Atmar, R L

2001-02-01

261

An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for demonstration of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum and milk of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum from cattle is described. Extracted tachyzoite proteins incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms) were used as coating antigen and a mouse monoclonal antibody to bovine immunoglobulin G1 as conjugate. Western blot analysis of the iscom preparation revealed a restricted number of antigens compared with whole parasite

Camilla Björkman; O. Joakim M. Holmdahl; Arvid Uggla

1997-01-01

262

A novel enzyme immunoassay for plasma thrombospondin. Comparison with beta-thromboglobulin as platelet activation marker in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

A novel enzyme immunoassay for plasma thrombospondin (TSP) based on commercially available monoclonal antibodies was established. The following conditions for correct collection and preservation of blood samples were required: venipuncture directly into a vacutainer containing citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole, storage on ice, and separation of plasma within 30 minutes. Thereafter, the plasma TSP concentration remained constant at room temperature and after five times of freezing and thawing. Both inter- and intraassay variation coefficients were 5%. The lower detection limit was 20 microg/L. Median TSP concentration among 40 healthy blood donors was 43 microg/L, slightly lower than previously published. The assay is valid, reliable, and has certain advantages compared with previously published methods. TSP and beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) were then compared as platelet activation and biocompatibility markers in vivo: 23 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); and in vitro: effect of coating polyvinyl chloride with heparin. The kinetic patterns of TSP and BTG were markedly different in vivo but virtually identical in vitro, explained by different in vivo clearance mechanisms during CPB. We conclude that BTG is superior to TSP for evaluation of platelet activation during in vivo CPB, whereas TSP and BTG are virtually identical as markers in vitro. PMID:10904102

Bergseth, G; Lappegĺrd, K T; Videm, V; Mollnes, T E

2000-07-01

263

Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunoassay and reference methods for the detection of shellfish hydrophilic toxins in several presentations of seafood.  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in nine naturally contaminated species in fresh, frozen, boiled and canned fish and shellfish. PSP and ASP were analyzed in 138 shellfish samples (mussels, clams, barnacles, razor shells, scallops and cockles) and anchovies by mouse bioassay (MBA) and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), respectively. Results were compared with toxin concentrations obtained using two commercial competitive ELISAs, saxitoxin and ASP kits. Immunoassays were able to quantify toxins in different matrices showing excellent Pearson's correlation coefficients (r = 0.974 for saxitoxin ELISA and r = 0.973 for ASP ELISA) and to detect PSP and ASP with a lower limit of detection (LOD), namely, 50 microg saxitoxin equivalent/kg shellfish meat for PSP and 60 microg/kg domoic acid in shellfish flesh for ASP, than the reference methods (350 microg saxitoxin equivalent/kg shellfish meat and 1.6 mg/kg domoic acid in shellfish flesh, respectively). These results suggest that the ELISA method could be used as screening systems in a variety of species without matrix interference. PMID:20088511

Garet, Elina; González-Fernández, Africa; Lago, Jorge; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

2010-02-10

264

Characterization of the third generation enzyme immunoassay IEA-HIV1/2-III for the detection of anti-HIV specific antibodies in human sera.  

PubMed

The sensitivity and specificity of the developed anti-HIV1/2 third generation enzyme immunoassay, the IEA-HIV1/2-III, was examined. The test system for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies included peroxidase-conjugated HIV-specific recombinant Gag protein fragments (epitopes of p24 and p17 proteins), Env-1 (epitopes of p41 and p120 proteins), and Env-2 (p36 epitopes). Sensitivity was evaluated with 346 sera from HIV1-seropositive subjects, Anti-HIV1 Low Titer panels no. 10 and PRB-106 and seropositive panel PRB-931 in comparison with other third- and second-generation assays. The IEA-HIV1/2-III assays are characterized with high sensitivity comparable to the other third generation assays and the better sensitivity with respect to the second generation test-kit to determine HIV-specific antibodies in human sera. The specificity was determined using three hundred sixty-seven potentially cross-reactive samples (but negative for anti-HIV1/2). Only one specimen among them was reactive by IEA-HIV1/2-III. PMID:11501427

Rayevskaya, G; Pilipenko, V G; Tkáciková, L; Spivak, N Y; Mikula, I; Chumak, R M

2000-01-01

265

Determination of zeranol and its metabolites in bovine muscle and liver by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay: compared to an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy method.  

PubMed

A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was compared to an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) procedure for the analysis of zeranol and its metabolites in bovine tissue samples. Apparent recoveries from fortified samples by both methods were comparable at 0.5-4.0?µg/kg and a significant correlation was obtained. For CLEIA analysis, hapten mimicking the analyte was first synthesized and conjugated with the carrier protein bovine serum albumin as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibody. The obtained antibody showed extensive cross-reactivity toward zeranol metabolites (zearalanone). The limit of detection of CLEIA and UPLC-MS/MS was 0.05?µg/kg and 0.5?µg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of both methods for fortified samples were higher than 75.0% with the coefficient of variation less than 15%. These results indicated that the combination of screening with CLEIA and confirmation with UPLC-MS/MS for zeranol and its metabolites would be a reliable method for a large number of bovine samples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23934682

Haiyang, Jiang; Wenjun, Wang; Jinghui, Zhu; Xiaoqi, Tao; Jiancheng, Li; Xi, Xia; Kai, Wen; Fei, Xu; Zhaopeng, Wang; Min, Chen; Xiangmei, Li; Xiaoping, Wu; Shien, Wang; Shuangyang, Ding

2014-06-01

266

Enzyme-amplified protein microarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies.  

PubMed

Two immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), using high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the heavy chain of BoNT/A. These antibodies also bind the same epitopes of the receptor binding domain present on a nontoxic recombinant heavy chain fragment used for assay development and testing in the current study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray using tyramide amplification for localized labeling was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in buffer and blood plasma samples down to 14fM (1.4 pg mL(-1)). Three capture antibodies and one antibody combination were compared in the development of this assay. Using a selected pair from the same set of recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. The ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers a screening test with detection limits comparable to the mouse bioassay, with results available in hours instead of days. The renewable surface assay is less sensitive but much faster, providing results in less than 10 min. PMID:17723391

Varnum, Susan M; Warner, Marvin G; Dockendorff, Brian; Anheier, Norman C; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D; Smith, Leonard A; Feldhaus, Michael J; Grate, Jay W; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J

2006-06-16

267

Evaluation of tricyclic antidepressant plasma levels by an automated enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) in comparison to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method.  

PubMed

A new homogeneous enzyme immunoassay technique (EMIT) for the measurement of plasma levels of amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine was used with an automated procedure and the results were compared to those of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Precision of the EMIT test was similar to that of the HPLC method with within-day coefficients of variation in the range of 3.9-10.9% (EMIT) and 3.9-9.6% (HPLC). The day-to-day coefficients of variation ranged from 4.4 to 11.7% for EMIT and from 6.1 to 8.4% for HPLC. Samples from 124 patients were analyzed by both methods and a good correlation was observed for all the four drugs. A paired t test indicated no significant difference for the EMIT and HPLC values. No significant interferences were observed between the tricyclics tested and other commonly associated drugs, such as benzodiazepines and neuroleptics. The new EMIT assay proved to be rapid and easy to perform and showed sufficient reliability and reproducibility to be used for either emergency or routine analysis. PMID:3051537

Fazio, A; Artesi, C; Lorefice, C; Oteri, G; Romano, F; Russo, M; Spina, E; Trio, R; Pisani, F

1988-01-01

268

Glutathione S-transferases as biomarkers of organ damage: applications of rodent and canine GST enzyme immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes serve as ideal biomarkers of organ damage as they exhibit many of the required characteristics, i.e. specific localisation, high cytosolic concentration and relatively short half-life. The role of GSTs as early indicators of organ damage is applicable to both human and animal models. Because of the regio-specific localisation of the different isoforms of GST

Cormac Kilty; Sean Doyle; Brian Hassett; Fiona Manning

1998-01-01

269

Developing an Automated Enzyme Immunoassay for High-Throughput Screening of Bovine Serum Antibodies to Neospora Caninum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Neospora caninum antibodies was automated with a robotic workstation, the Beckman Coulter Biomek 2000, to screen 200 bovine sera. Comparing these results with manually run ELISA data, a 95.92% agreement (K = 0.9592) between the two assays was obtained. The automated assay was specific and sensitive with excellent positive and negative predictive values. The

John T. Y. Wu; Sally Dreger; Eva Y. W. Chow; Evelyn E. Bowlby; Lester S. Y. Wong

2003-01-01

270

Enzyme Immunoassay Detection of Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Longitudinal Serum Samples from Patients with Cryptosporidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrheal illness in a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Characteristic serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses to antigens in the 27- and 17-kDa size ranges have been shown to develop after infection, and several enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) and Western blot assay formats have been used to measure these

JEFFREY W. PRIEST; ANNA LI; MOHAMAD KHAN; MICHAEL J. ARROWOOD; PATRICK J. LAMMIE; CORINNE S. ONG; JACQUELIN M. ROBERTS; JUDITH ISAAC-RENTON

2001-01-01

271

Ultrasensitive immunoassay techniques.  

PubMed

Ultrasensitive detection of clinically important substances using assays based on ligand:binder interactions has revolutionized laboratory medicine. Various strategies have been perfected to push the analytical sensitivity of ligand:binder assays (e.g., immunoassay, blotting, nucleic acid hybridization assay) into the attomole and zeptomole region (10(-18)-10(-21) mol). These include the use of labels with amplifying properties (e.g., enzymes), multiple labeling, and cascade reactions. In addition a wide range of ultrasensitive luminescent detection reactions have been developed for conventional enzyme labels based on chemiluminescent, bioluminescent, and time-resolved fluorescent reactions. PMID:8299202

Kricka, L J

1993-10-01

272

Magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay based on recombinant 26 kDa glutathione-S-transferase for serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. Improving the diagnostic assay for surveillance and monitoring will contribute to hastening the possible elimination of the disease in endemic regions. Therefore, this study aims to develop magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay (MEIA) for serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on recombinant 26kDa glutathione-S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum (rSj26GST). BALB/c mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae (40 per mouse) were used. After infecting for 6 weeks, the antibody was detected by MEIA. All of the infected mouse sera were effectively determined by MEIA. Compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), MEIA has a higher ratio of the mean positive value to the mean negative value (P/N) at the same dilution ratio (3.92 versus 2.66). MEIA was further applied for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis. Sera from 28 schistosomiasis-confirmed patients with low-intensity infection, 15 treated patients, and 20 non-endemic negative controls, were used to assess the assay. The results showed that MEIA and ELISA had similarity in positive detection rates. However, the higher P/N of MEIA was observed at the same dilution ratio. MEIA had high negative rate in detection of specific IgG in the treated patients. Moreover, there was no cross reaction with the sera of paragonimiasis patients. These results suggested that MEIA based on rSj26GST is a simple, rapid, convenient assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. PMID:22940100

Yu, Qin; Yang, Hai; Feng, Youmei; Yang, Xiangliang; Zhu, Yanhong

2012-12-01

273

Bisphenol A determination in baby bottles by chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lateral flow immunoassay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two immunoassays, a Lateral Flow ImmunoAssay (LFIA) based on colloidal gold nanoparticle labels and an indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA), were developed and a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimized to assess the possible release of bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) from different plastic baby bottles treated with simulating solutions. Coating conjugate concentration, anti-BPA antibody dilution, incubation time of the primary and secondary antibodies, and tolerance to different organic solvents were optimized to obtain the best performance of the ELISA with chemiluminescent end-point detection. The influence of different buffers on LFIA performance was also evaluated. Both methods showed good repeatability (mean CV value around 13%) and sensitivity. Reproducibility tests for CL-ELISA gave a mean CV value of about 25%. The IC50 and Limit of Detection (LOD) values of CL-ELISA were 0.2 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively. The LOD of LFIA was 0.1 ?g mL(-1). A LC-MS/MS method was also optimized. The separation was performed in a C18 column with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionisation interface. The method showed a good linearity in the range 2 to 500 ng mL(-1), with a regression coefficient of 0.998. In the simulating solutions the detection and quantification limits, calculated by the signal to noise level of 3 (S/N = 3), were 5.8 ng mL(-1) and 17.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. This limit of quantification was about 3 and 35 times lower than the permitted limits set by the official method CEN/TS 13130-13 (0.05 ?g mL(-1)) and by the Directive 2004/19/EC (0.6 ?g mL(-1)), respectively. The methods were applied to determine BPA release from baby bottles, performing repeated procedures according to EU and national regulations. The results demonstrated that no BPA migration from the tested plastic materials occurred with only one exception. The migrated amount, above the regulatory limits, was detected by all the mentioned assays. PMID:24223419

Maiolini, Elisabetta; Ferri, Elida; Pitasi, Agata Laura; Montoya, Angel; Di Giovanni, Manuela; Errani, Ermanno; Girotti, Stefano

2014-01-01

274

Balamuthia mandrillaris, agent of amebic encephalitis: detection of serum antibodies and antigenic similarity of isolates by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

We report the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living ameba that is an etiologic agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). As part of the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), we have tested serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a subgroup of 130 hospitalized encephalitis patients (out of approximately 430 samples) over a 16-month period. Case criteria were based on clinical, laboratory, and occupational/recreational histories. All serum samples initially underwent screening by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining with results ranging from no detectable ameba antibodies to titers of 1:256. In addition to the 130 samples tested prospectively, sera and/or CSF from 11 previously confirmed cases of balamuthiasis, six healthy individuals, and earlier CEP submissions with high IFA antibody titers were also tested retrospectively. Among the 130 samples, two cases of balamuthiasis were identified by ELISA and confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The availability of sera from human and animal cases and from varied geographic areas allowed comparisons of serologic similarities of the different Balamuthia strains and human sera. All sera, whether from human or other mammals, reacted with all strains of Balamuthia, as they did with Balamuthia amebae from different geographic areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results were consistent with the IFA results. Differences between readings were likely due to cross-reactivity between Balamuthia antigens and unidentified antibodies in serum. PMID:18681845

Schuster, Frederick L; Yagi, Shigeo; Wilkins, Patricia P; Gavali, Shilpa; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Glaser, Carol A

2008-01-01

275

Rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in foods by direct demonstration of enterotoxigenic colonies on membrane filters by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

Based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a convenient method has been devised for the direct demonstration of enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus colonies grown for 24 h on membrane filters. The problem of false-positive reactions due to binding of immunoglobulin G to protein A was turned to advantage by conjugating horseradish peroxidase directly to protein A, which then mediated the labeling of the antitoxin. The test requires 3 h to complete and yields a purple stain at the site of enterotoxin B-producing colonies, thus allowing direct enumeration of confirmed S. aureus in foods within 27 h. The method should be applicable to other enterotoxins of S. aureus. Images

Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

1984-01-01

276

[Responsiveness of a new parvovirus B19 antigen produced in baculovirus expression system to B19-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in every epidemic, 1968, 1980, 1987 and 1992 in Japan].  

PubMed

A new recombinant parvovirus B19 antigen was tested whether it was responsive to human serum antibodies in every epidemic year of erythema infectiosum for 25 years, because wild strains of B19 parvovirus were changeable genetically. The antigen was empty particles of both B19-VP1 and VP2 produced in baculovirus expression system. Specimens were 21 sera in 1968, 19 in 1980, 44 in 1987 and 33 in 1992, derived from 67 patients with erythema infectiosum, fever and/or non-specific exanthem and aplastic crisis in persons with hereditary spherocytosis. Each patient had been confirmed of B19 parvovirus infection by other methods as radio immunoassay and/or enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay for B19-IgG and IgM using other antigens and by detection of B19-genome DNA using the polymerase chain reaction. Days of the illness of every serum were confirmed including before infection to 216 days after onset. Sera from 23 patients with measles, Kawasaki disease and rubella were selected for controls, and those patients who had not been infected with B19 parvovirus. Tests were carried out by enzyme immunoassay, indirect method for IgG and IgM capture method. In a total of 103 specimens after onset of symptoms B19-IgG was positive in yearly specimens, and B19-IgM was also positive in all acute phase sera. B19-IgG in most of all sera was kept in peak level up to 216 days after onset. B19-IgM increased rapidly in acute phase and seemed to disappear within one to 5 months after onset. Thirty-seven specimens including 14 obtained at state before infection and 23 controls were completely negative for both B19-IgG and IgM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7602188

Nunoue, T

1995-05-01

277

Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Burtis, C.A.

1986-10-01

278

Serological Cross-Reactivities between Antibodies to Simian Virus 40, BK Virus, and JC Virus Assessed by Virus-Like-Particle-Based Enzyme Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of serum antibodies to simian virus 40 (SV40), BK virus (BKV), and JC virus (JCV) were developed by using virus-like-particles (VLPs) produced in insect cells from recombinant baculoviruses expressing the VP1 protein of the respective virus. Rhesus macaque sera with neutralizing antibodies to SV40 showed a high level of reactivity in the SV40 VLP-based EIA, and these sera also showed lower levels of reactivity in the BKV and JCV VLP-based EIAs. Rhesus macaque sera negative for neutralizing antibodies to SV40 were negative in all three EIAs. Competitive binding assays showed that SV40 VLPs inhibited BKV reactivity. In rhesus macaque sera, high optical density (OD) values for antibodies to SV40 VLPs were correlated with high OD values for antibodies to BKV but not with high OD values for antibodies to JCV VLPs. Human sera with neutralizing antibodies to SV40 were more reactive to SV40 VLPs than human sera without neutralizing antibodies to SV40. The greater SV40 reactivities of human sera were correlated with greater reactivities to BKV VLPs but not JCV VLPs. These data suggest that cross-reactivity with BKV antibodies may account for part of the low-level SV40 reactivity seen in human sera. With their greater versatility and their suitability for large-scale testing, the VLP-based EIAs for SV40, BKV, and JCV are likely to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of these viruses.

Viscidi, Raphael P.; Rollison, Dana E. M.; Viscidi, Emma; Clayman, Barbara; Rubalcaba, Elizabeth; Daniel, Richard; Major, Eugene O.; Shah, Keerti V.

2003-01-01

279

Assessment of Pregnancy Status of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) by Measurement of Progestagen and Glucocorticoid and Their Metabolite Concentrations in Serum and Feces, Using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.

KAJAYSRI, Jatuporn; NOKKAEW, Weerapun

2013-01-01

280

Identification of Performance Problems in a Commercial Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Enzyme Immunoassay by Multiuser External Quality Control Monitoring and Real-Time Data Analysis? †  

PubMed Central

In June 2005, a pilot program was implemented in Canadian laboratories to monitor the performance of the Abbott human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1/2) gO enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Two different external quality control (QC) reagents and a “real-time” software analysis program were evaluated. In November 2005, higher-than-expected calibrator rate values in these kits were first reported at the Ontario Ministry of Health (Etobicoke), followed by the Alberta Provincial Public Health Laboratory (Edmonton and Calgary) and others. These aberrations were easily and readily tracked in “real time” using the external QC reagents and the software program. These high calibrator values were confirmed in Delkenheim, Germany, by Abbott, and a manufacturing change was initiated beginning with lot 38299LU00, which was distributed to laboratories in Canada in April 2006. However, widespread reports of calibrator failure by laboratories outside Canada were made in March 2006. In April 2006, Abbott Diagnostics initiated a level III investigation to identify the root cause, which was prolonged storage, under uncontrolled storage conditions, of the raw material used in the manufacture of the matrix cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a program in Canada for serological testing that combines a common external QC reagent and a “real-time” software program to allow laboratories to monitor kit performance. In this case, external QC monitoring helped identify and confirm performance problems in the Abbott HIV-1/2 gO EIA kit, further highlighting the benefit of implementing such a program in a national or multilaboratory setting for laboratories performing diagnostic and clinical monitoring testing.

Kim, J.; Swantee, C.; Lee, B.; Gunning, H.; Chow, A.; Sidaway, F.; Sherlock, C.; Garceau, R.; Dimech, W.; Malloch, L.

2009-01-01

281

Prospective comparison of a commercial multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme immunoassay with toxigenic culture in the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated infections.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The changes in the epidemiology of CDI during the past years, including the appearance of new epidemic strains of C. difficile that cause CDI episodes with increased severity, have led to the development of molecular methods with improved sensitivity and specificity. This study was designed to compare the performances of one antigen assay (Vidas, bioMérieux) and one molecular assay (GeneXpert, Cepheid). Fecal specimens from hospitalized patients (n = 230) suspected of having CDI were tested by both assays. Eleven specimens were positive and 202 were negative for both methods. After discrepant analysis by C. difficile toxigenic culture with broth enrichment and neutralization assay, the total numbers of stool specimens classified as positive and negative for toxigenic C. difficile were 23 (10%) and 206 (89.6%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value for GeneXpert were 91.7%, 99%, 91.7%, and 99%, and for Vidas were 48%, 99%, 84.6%, and 94.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of polymerase chain reactoin GeneXpert assay far exceeded those of the EIA Vidas assay. The clinical characteristics of concordant and discrepant study patients were similar with the exception of the number of previous CDI episodes, which were higher in the concordant study patients; the clinical characteristics of both groups were similar. In conclusion, due to the appearance of more virulent strains of C. difficile during the last years that have produced dramatic changes in the epidemiology of C. difficile, we recommend that toxin enzyme immunoassays be replaced with rapid molecular-based tests for toxigenic C. difficile. PMID:23415540

Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Barra-Carrasco, Jonathan; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Guzmán-Durán, Ana María

2013-04-01

282

An efficient sample preparation method for high-throughput analysis of 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2? in plasma and urine by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Although several methods have been reported on the analysis of the oxidative stress marker 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2?) in biological fluids, they either involve extensive sample preparation and costly technology or require high sample volume. This study presents a sample preparation method that utilizes low sample volume for 8-iso-PGF2? analysis in plasma and urine by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In brief, 8-iso-PGF2? in deproteinized plasma or native urine sample is complexed with an antibody and then captured by molecular weight cut-off filtration. This method was compared with two other sample preparation methods that are typically used in the analysis of 8-iso-PGF2? by EIA: Cayman's affinity column purification method and solid-phase extraction on C-18. The immunoaffinity purification method described here was superior to the other two sample preparation methods and yielded recovery values of 99.8 and 54.1% for 8-iso-PGF2? in plasma and urine, respectively. Analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was ±5% for plasma and ±15% for urine. The analysis of healthy human plasma and urine resulted in basal 8-iso-PGF2? levels of 31.8 ± 5.5 pg/mL and 2.9 ± 2.0 ng/mg creatinine, respectively. The robustness and analytical performance of this method makes it a promising tool for high-throughput screening of biological samples for 8-iso-PGF2?. PMID:22989424

Bielecki, A; Saravanabhavan, G; Blais, E; Vincent, R; Kumarathasan, P

2012-01-01

283

Multicenter Evaluation of a New, Automated Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigen  

PubMed Central

A collaborative multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a three-step, fully automated, qualitative microparticle-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo; Abbott Laboratories), designed to simultaneously detect (i) antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or type 2 (HIV-2) and (ii) HIV p24 antigen. A significant reduction in the HIV seroconversion window was achieved by combining detection of HIV antibodies and antigen into a single assay format. For 22 selected, commercial HIV seroconversion panels, the mean time of detection with the combined-format HIV antigen-antibody assay was reduced by 6.15 days compared to that with a similar third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay. The quantitative sensitivity of the combination assay for the p24 antigen (17.5 pg/ml by use of the p24 quantitative panel VIH SFTS96?) was nearly equivalent to that of single-format antigen tests. The combination assay demonstrated sensitive (100%) detection of anti-HIV immunoglobulin in specimens from individuals in CDC stages A, B, and C and from individuals infected with different HIV-1 group M subtypes, group O, or HIV-2. The apparent specificity for hospitalized patients (n = 1,938) was 99.90%. In a random population of 7,900 volunteer blood donors, the specificity (99.87%) was comparable to that of a third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay (99.92%) on the same donor specimens. In addition, the combination assay was robust to potential interfering specimens. The precision of the combination was high, with intra- and interrun variances of ?9.3% for each precision panel specimen or assay control and ?5.3% for the negative assay control.

Sickinger, Eva; Stieler, Myriam; Kaufman, Boris; Kapprell, Hans-Peter; West, Daniel; Sandridge, Arnold; Devare, Sushil; Schochetman, Gerald; Hunt, J. C.; Daghfal, David

2004-01-01

284

Multicenter evaluation of a new, automated enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus-specific antibodies and antigen.  

PubMed

A collaborative multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a three-step, fully automated, qualitative microparticle-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo; Abbott Laboratories), designed to simultaneously detect (i). antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or type 2 (HIV-2) and (ii). HIV p24 antigen. A significant reduction in the HIV seroconversion window was achieved by combining detection of HIV antibodies and antigen into a single assay format. For 22 selected, commercial HIV seroconversion panels, the mean time of detection with the combined-format HIV antigen-antibody assay was reduced by 6.15 days compared to that with a similar third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay. The quantitative sensitivity of the combination assay for the p24 antigen (17.5 pg/ml by use of the p24 quantitative panel VIH SFTS96') was nearly equivalent to that of single-format antigen tests. The combination assay demonstrated sensitive (100%) detection of anti-HIV immunoglobulin in specimens from individuals in CDC stages A, B, and C and from individuals infected with different HIV-1 group M subtypes, group O, or HIV-2. The apparent specificity for hospitalized patients (n = 1938) was 99.90%. In a random population of 7900 volunteer blood donors, the specificity (99.87%) was comparable to that of a third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay (99.92%) on the same donor specimens. In addition, the combination assay was robust to potential interfering specimens. The precision of the combination was high, with intra- and interrun variances of

Sickinger, Eva; Stieler, Myriam; Kaufman, Boris; Kapprell, Hans-Peter; West, Daniel; Sandridge, Arnold; Devare, Sushil; Schochetman, Gerald; Hunt, J C; Daghfal, David

2004-01-01

285

Improvements in detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen by treating specimens with reducing agent in an automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

A fully automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay (EIA), IMx Core, was developed for the detection of antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). IMx Core sensitivity was less than 0.5 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml and was greater than that of the commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) or EIA, Corab and Corzyme, respectively. Specimens from blood donors and diagnostic and hospital patients, which included individuals with a variety of infectious and immune diseases, were tested in parallel by the IMx Core and EIA. Overall agreement of 99.1% (4,797 of 4,841) was obtained. Prevalence of anti-HBc tested by IMx Core ranged from 1.2% in volunteer blood donors to 9.1% in hospital laboratories. Discordant specimens reactive by IMx Core but negative by Corzyme or Corab resulted from the increased sensitivity of the IMx Core assay, since other hepatitis B markers were usually present. However, most discordant specimens were positive by the EIA or RIA but negative by IMx Core. No other hepatitis B markers could be detected in these discordants, and after addition of reducing agent, these specimens also became negative by EIA or RIA. In clinical trials, 30% (14 of 47) of volunteer blood donors and 8% (9 of 119) of hospital patients testing repeatedly reactive by the EIA had reduction-sensitive (unspecific) anti-HBc reactivity. The reducing agent, dithiothreitol, was added to each specimen automatically in the IMx assay to eliminate these unspecific reactions without significantly affecting anti-HBc reactivity resulting from hepatitis B virus infection as judged by the correlation with other hepatitis B markers.

Spronk, A M; Schmidt, L; Krenc, C; Pavlis-Jenkins, L; Brady, J; Taskar, S; Angus-Finn, L; Mimms, L

1991-01-01

286

Assessment of Pregnancy Status of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) by Measurement of Progestagen and Glucocorticoid and Their Metabolite Concentrations in Serum and Feces, Using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA).  

PubMed

The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days. PMID:24257195

Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

2014-04-01

287

Correlation between Clostridium difficile Bacterial Load, Commercial Real-Time PCR Cycle Thresholds, and Results of Diagnostic Tests Based on Enzyme Immunoassay and Cell Culture Cytotoxicity Assay  

PubMed Central

The impact of Clostridium difficile fecal loads on diagnostic test results is poorly understood, but it may have clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between C. difficile fecal load and the results of four assays: a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), a toxin A/B antigen EIA (ToxAB), a cell culture cytotoxicity assay (CCA), and PCR targeting the tcdB gene. We also compared the PCR cycle threshold (CT) with the results of quantitative culture using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Finally, we sequenced the genomes of 24 strains with different detection profiles. A total of 203 clinical samples harboring toxigenic C. difficile were analyzed and sorted into one of four groups: 17 PCR+ (group 1), 37 PCR+ GDH+ (group 2), 24 PCR+ GDH+ CCA+ (group 3), and 125 PCR+ GDH+ ToxAB+ (group 4). The overall median fecal load in log10 CFU/g was 6.67 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.57 to 7.54). The median fecal bacterial load of groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 4.15 (IQR, 3.00 to 4.98), 5.74 (IQR, 4.75 to 6.16), 6.20 (IQR, 5.23 to 6.80), and 7.08 (IQR, 6.35 to 7.83), respectively. Group 1 samples had lower fecal loads than those from each of the other groups (P < 0.001). Group 2 samples had lower fecal loads than those from groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between PCR CT and fecal loads (? = ?0.697; P < 0.001). NAP1 strains were associated with the detection of toxins by EIA or CCA (P = 0.041). This study demonstrates an association between C. difficile fecal load and the results of routinely used diagnostic tests.

Dionne, Lea-Laurence; Raymond, Frederic; Corbeil, Jacques; Longtin, Jean; Gervais, Philippe

2013-01-01

288

Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb in environmental and biological samples.  

PubMed

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for fenoxycarb was adapted for quantitative detection of this insect growth regulator in various environmental, agricultural, food and biological matrices. Environmental samples were taken from soil and surface waters in Hungary. The ELISA enabled fenoxycarb detection in surface waters in the 1.1-125 ng ml(-1) concentration range without sample cleanup. In contrast, soil produced a strong matrix effect due to humic acids and other soil components. Several fruit homogenates and commercial fruit juices (eg apple, pear, grape) were analyzed by the ELISA. The assay was found to be suitable for analysis of fenoxycarb in fruit juices diluted 1:40. Biological samples included insect, fish and bovine tissues. The ELISA was applied to detect fenoxycarb in various biological matrices from larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The assay proved useful for the analysis of haemolymph diluted 1:10 or at higher dilutions. Fat body and whole body homogenates, however, caused severe matrix effects. Fenoxycarb was detected in liver homogenates (diluted 1:40) from fish treated with various doses of fenoxycarb, and the concentrations determined correlated with the applied doses. The method was used to analyze spiked bovine urine samples diluted 1:10 or at greater dilutions. Fenoxycarb content determined by the ELISA in water and fruit juice samples was validated using GC-MS with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sample preparation. The results of these studies demonstrated both the value and limitations of the assay when used for monitoring fenoxycarb in environmental, food and biological samples. PMID:12701701

Le, Hong T M; Szurdoki, Ferenc; Székács, András

2003-04-01

289

Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis by detection of mannan antigen by using the avidin-biotin enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis was attempted by detection of circulating mannan antigen by using an avidin-biotin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AB-ELISA), and this method was compared with the conventional culture method. Mannan antigen was detected by AB-ELISA in the sera of 16 (84.2%) of the 19 patients with invasive candidiasis. On the other hand, for 34 immunocompromised candidiasis-free patients, including 8 with aspergillosis or cryptococcosis, mannan antigen was positive during only 1 of the 67 febrile episodes and in the serum of none of the 50 outpatients without infections. The results were also negative for all patients with deep-seated mycoses other than candidiasis. However, the mannan level was low (less than 2.0 ng/ml) in the serum of 63.2% of the patients with invasive candidiasis. The positivity rate of blood cultures was 31.6%, and that of blood cultures and/or cultures of samples from sterile sites combined was 47.4%. The advantages of the diagnosis based on antigen detection by AB-ELISA are considered to be a higher sensitivity and elimination of nonspecific reactions by the introduction of the avidin-biotin system and pretreatment of sera by heating. In addition, it is considered essential for high sensitivity that transient mannan antigenemia be determined frequently so that it is not overlooked. In light of its sensitivity and specificity, this method is considered to be clinically useful in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

Nakamura, A; Ishikawa, N; Suzuki, H

1991-01-01

290

Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance  

PubMed Central

We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring.

Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

2013-01-01

291

Evaluation of Two Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays, Testing Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA Responses, for Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

Serological testing to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection in children is still controversial, although commonly used in clinical practice. We compared the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA results of two commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Pyloriset IgG and IgA and Enzygnost II IgG and IgA) for 175 children with abdominal symptoms divided into three age groups (0 to ?6 years, n = 47; >6 to ?12 years, n = 77; >12 years, n = 51). A child was considered H. pylori infected if at least two of three tests (histology, rapid urease test, 13C-urea breath test) or culture were positive and noninfected if all results were concordantly negative. Of 175 children, 93 (53%) were H. pylori negative and 82 were H. pylori positive. With the recommended cutoff values, the overall specificity was excellent for all four EIAs (95.7 to 97.8%) regardless of age. Sensitivity varied markedly between tests and was 92.7, 70.7, 47.5, and 24.4% for Enzygnost II IgG, Pyloriset IgG, Enzygnost II IgA, and Pyloriset IgA, respectively. Sensitivity was low in the youngest age group (25 to 33.3%), except for Enzygnost II IgG (91.6%). Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed that lower cutoff values would improve the accuracy of all of the tests except Enzygnost II IgG. Measurement of specific IgA, in addition to IgG, antibodies hardly improved the sensitivity. The specificity of commercial serological tests is high in children when the cutoff values obtained from adults are used. In contrast, sensitivity is variable, with a strong age dependence in some, but not all, tests. We speculate that young children may have a different immune response to H. pylori, with preferable responses to certain antigens, as well as lower titers than adults. The Pyloriset test may fail to recognize these specific antibodies.

Kindermann, Angelika; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Lehn, Norbert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Sibylle

2001-01-01

292

Evaluation of commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunofluorescent antibody (FA) test kits for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts of species other than Cryptosporidium parvum.  

PubMed

A commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ProSpect Rapid Assay), a direct immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) test for stool testing (MERIFLUOR Cryptosporidium/Giardia), and an indirect IFA test for environmental testing (Hydrofluor-Combo Cryptosporidium/Giardia) were evaluated for detection of low public health risk Cryptosporidium oocyst isolates, and for C. parvum oocyst isolates from human and bovine feces that represent a high public health risk. There was no cross-reactivity of EIA with ova of eight medically important helminths, three Eimeria species oocysts, Sarcocystis cruzi sporocysts, and two Candida sp. isolates. All nine snake oocyst isolates (C. serpentis), two of seven lizard oocyst isolates, one turtle oocyst isolate, two avian oocyst isolates (turkey, C. meleagridis), one C. wrairi oocyst isolate from guinea pigs, one C. muris oocyst isolate from hyrax, one heifer C. muris isolate, and two C. muris-like oocyst isolates from a camel were positive by both IFA tests; six of these 19 oocyst isolates were EIA-positive. There was no difference in the sensitivity and specificity between direct and indirect IFA tests. The sensitivity of the EIA and both IFA tests to the C. parvum oocysts was 100%. The EIA showed less cross-reactivity with the non-C. parvum oocysts (24%) than direct or indirect IFA (76%), and was less sensitive to those isolates (20%) than both IFA tests (63%). A simulated sampling model for high and low public health risk Cryptosporidium oocysts showed that the low risk oocyst isolates may constitute up to 35% of all positive environmental samples by direct or indirect IFA determination, and up to 12% of all EIA positive samples. This study indicates a superiority of direct and indirect IFA and EIA for screening of human-or-bovine-origin fecal specimens, whereas testing of environmental samples may lead to misidentification of medically important isolates. The results demonstrated that the EIA kit can more accurately identify environmental samples containing oocytes pathogenic for humans than both IFA tests. The specificity of commercially available diagnostic kits to C. parvum should be critically examined for cross-species identification before they are recommended or adopted for use in testing environmental samples. PMID:8600765

Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Fayer, R

1996-03-01

293

[The importance and validity of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM, IgA antibodies and IgG avidity tests in the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy.].  

PubMed

Detection of specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests are not always sufficient in the diagnosis of early and late Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. For this reason, the specific IgG avidity test should be used to detect primary toxoplasmosis infection. In this study, an investigation was made of the serological status of pregnant women who were suspected of having primary or late toxoplasmosis as well as the importance and relationship of specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies and specific IgG avidity in their sera. TORCH panels were also used for these patients. A total of 52 pregnant women who were admitted in the Dokuz Eylül University Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic were included in this study. The sera were sent to the serology and immunology laboratory for investigation of the anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies by the EIA (Cobas Core, Roche, Germany and ETI-TOXOK-A, DiaSorin, Germany) technique. The anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test was performed on IgG as well as IgM and/or IgA in positive sera with the EIA (Toxoplasma IgG Avidity EIA Well- RADIM, Italia) technique. The anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test was not performed on sera from 21 pregnant women negative for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Borderline and high IgM levels showed a good correlation with the IgG avidity results. The ratio for the IgM and IgA positivity was 32.3% and both the IgM positivity and IgA negativity were 29%. In conclusion, anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibody tests should be used together. However, positivity or high avidity of IgA was limited in the diagnosis of active toxoplasmosis infection of pregnant women. PMID:17160829

Bahar, I Hakk?; Karaman, Meral; Kirdar, Sevin; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Cel?lo?lu, Murat; Mutlu, Derya

2005-01-01

294

Immunoassays of soy proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins of soybeans (Glycine max) are widely used in animal and human nutrition. In addition to the bulk of the seed storage proteins, which are classified as albumins and globulins, approximately 6% of soybean proteins are classified as inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin and approximately 0.5% are sugar-binding lectins. The two major classes of inhibitors are the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, which inhibits trypsin, and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which inhibits both trypsin and chymotrypsin. Unless removed or inactivated, these inhibitors and lectins can impair the nutritional quality and safety of soy-based diets. On the other hand, several studies suggest that BBI can also function as an anticarcinogen, possibly through interaction with a cellular serine protease. Good-quality soybean proteins contribute to the nutritional value of many specialty foods including infant soy formulas and milk replacers for calves, and provide texture to many processed foods. However, they may also induce occasional allergic responses in humans. This paper outlines immunoassays developed to analyze for soy proteins in different soybean lines, in processed foods, and in nonsoy foods fortified with soy proteins. An assessment of the current status of immunoassays, especially of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for soybean inhibitors of digestive enzymes, soy globulins, and soy lectins, demonstrates the usefulness of these methods in plant and food sciences and in medicine. PMID:12381163

Brandon, David L; Friedman, Mendel

2002-10-23

295

Immunoassays for pesticide monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares two formats of rapid assays for the detection of pesticides (bromacil and pyrethroid based metabolites): enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoassay with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence detection. NIR dye immunoassay (NIRDIA) measurements were carried out by using two different instruments, both having a silicon photodiode as the detector and a laser diode for excitation. ELISA and NIRDIA were performed in a tracer format, where the specific antibody is bound to the surface of a microtiter plate well and the tracer with enzyme or fluorescent dye label competes with the analyte for the antibody binding site. It was demonstrated that the NIRDIA is at least as sensitive as the ELISA. Both assays detect pesticides in the (mu) g/L (ppb) range. Hapten- macromolecule-NIR dye-conjugates have been synthesized with various biopolymers (e.g., proteins) as carriers. The use of carrier macromolecules enables convenient purification of the cyanine dye derivatives. The mild conjugation method of the dye is based on isothiocyanate chemistry.

Wengatz, Ingrid; Szurdoki, Ferenc; Swamy, Anand R.; Evans, Lawrence, III; Patonay, Gabor; Stimmann, Eric; Delwiche, Michael; Stoutamire, Donald; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

1995-05-01

296

Performance of the TechLab C. DIFF CHEK-60 Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) in Combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II EIA Kit, the Triage C. difficile Panel Immunoassay, and a Cytotoxin Assay for Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

We compared a recently marketed enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), TechLab's C. DIFF CHEK-60 (TL-GDH), in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II enzyme immunoassay (Tox-A/B) with (i) the Triage C. difficile test, which detects both GDH (TR-GDH) and toxin A (TR-Tox-A); (ii) an in-house cytotoxin assay (C-Tox); and (iii) stool cultures for C. difficile. All C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of the toxin genes by PCR. If a toxin gene-positive strain of Clostridium difficile was recovered and a toxin was detected by any method, the result was considered to be truly positive. Eighty-seven of 93 and 79 of 93 C. difficile culture-positive samples were also TL-GDH and TR-GDH positive, respectively. No test was able to detect toxin in all samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A in combination with the GDH detection tests and C-Tox were able to identify 52 and 50 samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A would have missed 15 and 31% of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhea, respectively, if used alone.

Snell, Heather; Ramos, Meredith; Longo, Sue; John, Michael; Hussain, Zafar

2004-01-01

297

Performance of the TechLab C. DIFF CHEK-60 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II EIA kit, the Triage C. difficile panel immunoassay, and a cytotoxin assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.  

PubMed

We compared a recently marketed enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), TechLab's C. DIFF CHEK-60 (TL-GDH), in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II enzyme immunoassay (Tox-A/B) with (i) the Triage C. difficile test, which detects both GDH (TR-GDH) and toxin A (TR-Tox-A); (ii) an in-house cytotoxin assay (C-Tox); and (iii) stool cultures for C. difficile. All C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of the toxin genes by PCR. If a toxin gene-positive strain of Clostridium difficile was recovered and a toxin was detected by any method, the result was considered to be truly positive. Eighty-seven of 93 and 79 of 93 C. difficile culture-positive samples were also TL-GDH and TR-GDH positive, respectively. No test was able to detect toxin in all samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A in combination with the GDH detection tests and C-Tox were able to identify 52 and 50 samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A would have missed 15 and 31% of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhea, respectively, if used alone. PMID:15472364

Snell, Heather; Ramos, Meredith; Longo, Sue; John, Michael; Hussain, Zafar

2004-10-01

298

Immunoassays for the quantitative determination of colchicine.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay as well as an enzyme immunoassay for the quantitation of fmol amounts of the alkaloid colchicine have been developed. The antiserum used for both assays was raised against a conjugate of colchicoside-bovine serum albumin. The crude serum was satisfactory for the performance of the radioimmunoassay. For the enzyme immunoassay, the antibodies had to be isolated and purified by Rivanol treatment with subsequent (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The measuring range extends from 0.1 to 100 ng colchicine for the radioimmunoassay and from 0.05 to 350 ng for the enzyme immunoassay with detection limits of 125 fmol and 25 fmol, respectively. Both immunoassays cross reacted with colchicoside and 3-demethyl-colchicine up to 80%. The colchicine content in the newly established suspension culture of Colchicum variegatum as well as the influence of various culture media on the colchicine production of this cell culture were investigated with the radioimmunoassay. The enzyme immunoassay was well suited for the quantitation of colchicine in HPLC fractions of Gloriosa and Colchicum seed extracts allowing the rapid, sensitive, and precise determination of the substance under investigation. The preliminary experiments indicate that both colchicine immunoassays can be a useful tool for the analysis of colchicine in tissue and cell culture studies, for analysis of plant extracts as well as for biosynthetic investigations. PMID:8134420

Poulev, A; Deus-Neumann, B; Bombardelli, E; Zenk, M H

1994-02-01

299

Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

2008-04-01

300

A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of a newly developed point-of-care test (POCT) for the detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens and to assess if measles virus nucleic acid could be recovered from used POCT strips. Methods The POCT was used to test 170 serum specimens collected through measles surveillance or vaccination programmes in Ethiopia, Malaysia and the Russian Federation: 69 were positive for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 74 were positive for rubella IgM antibodies and 7 were positive for both. Also tested were 282 oral fluid specimens from the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) surveillance programme of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Microimmune measles IgM capture enzyme immunoassay was the gold standard for comparison. A panel of 24 oral fluids was used to investigate if measles virus haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) genes could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction directly from used POCT strips. Findings With serum POCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% (69/76) and 93.6% (88/94), respectively; with oral fluids, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (63/70) and 96.2% (200/208), respectively. Both H and N genes were reliably detected in POCT strips and the N genes could be sequenced for genotyping. Measles virus genes could be recovered from POCT strips after storage for 5 weeks at 20–25 °C. Conclusion The POCT has the sensitivity and specificity required of a field-based test for measles diagnosis. However, its role in global measles control programmes requires further evaluation.

Slibinskas, Rimantas; Chua, Kaw Bing; Nigatu, Wondatir; Brown, Kevin E; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Samuel, Dhanraj; Brown, David

2011-01-01

301

Enzyme-amplified protein microarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT\\/A), using high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the heavy chain of BoNT\\/A. These antibodies also bind the same epitopes of the receptor binding domain present on a nontoxic recombinant heavy chain fragment used for assay development and testing in

Susan M. Varnum; Marvin G. Warner; Brian P. Dockendorff; Norman C. Anheier; Jianlong Lou; James D. Marks; Leonard A. Smith; Michael J. Feldhaus; Jay W. Grate; Cynthia J. Bruckner-Lea

2006-01-01

302

Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 ?g/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; González, Susana; López de Alda, Maria J.; Petrovi?, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barceló, Damiŕ

2008-10-01

303

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

304

Colorimetric Immunoassay for Detection of Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, produced by the body in response to cancer growth, or by the cancer tissue itself. They can be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples, and the discovery and detection of tumor markers may provide earlier diagnosis of cancer and improved therapeutic intervention. Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention, due to their simplicity and high efficiency. The traditionally used colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of tumor markers are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the great achievement of nanotechnology has further opened opportunities for the development of such kind of immunoassays. This paper will summarize recent advances in the field of colorimetric immunoassays for detecting tumor markers, which is aimed to provide an overview in this field, as well as experimental guidance for the learner.

Yin, Yongmei; Cao, Ya; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi

2010-01-01

305

Cost-effectiveness of a modified two-step algorithm using a combined glutamate dehydrogenase/toxin enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

The analytical performance and cost-effectiveness of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, the C. Diff. Quik Chek Complete (CdQCC) (a combined glutamate dehydrogenase antigen/toxin enzyme immunoassay), two RT-PCR assays (Progastro Cd and BD GeneOhm) and a modified two-step algorithm using the CdQCC reflexed to RT-PCR for indeterminate results were compared. The sensitivity of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, CdQCC (GDH antigen), BD GeneOhm and Progastro Cd RT-PCR were 85.4%, 95.8%, 100% and 93.8%, respectively. The algorithm provided rapid results for 86% of specimens and the remaining indeterminate results were resolved by RT-PCR, offering the best balance of sensitivity and cost savings per test (algorithm ?US$13.50/test versus upfront RT-PCR ?US$26.00/test). PMID:22921803

Vasoo, Shawn; Stevens, Jane; Portillo, Lena; Barza, Ruby; Schejbal, Debra; Wu, May May; Chancey, Christina; Singh, Kamaljit

2014-02-01

306

Immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay that is more sensitive and specific than western blotting for detection of antibody immunoglobulin G to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in serum with recombinant pol and gag proteins as antigens.  

PubMed Central

Antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serum was detected by ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassays (immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassays) with recombinant reverse transcriptase (rRT), p17 (rp17) and p24 (rp24) of HIV-1 as antigens and beta-D-galactosidase from Escherichia coli as the label. The immune complex, comprising 2,4-dinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin-recombinant protein conjugate, antibody IgG to HIV-1, and recombinant protein-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate, was trapped on polystyrene beads coated with affinity-purified (anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl group) IgG, eluted with epsilon N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine, and transferred to polystyrene beads coated with affinity-purified (anti-human IgG gamma-chain) IgG. Bound beta-D-galactosidase activity was assayed by fluorometry. The assays were highly reproducible with no serious serum interference, and they were much more sensitive than Western immunoblotting for the corresponding antigens. Signals with rRT, rp17, and rp24 for asymptomatic carriers were at least 56,000-, 680-, and 22-fold higher, respectively, than those for seronegative individuals, and neither indeterminate nor false-positive results were observed, whereas some serum samples were false negative or false positive by Western blotting for p17 and/or p24 antigen. In some cases, seroconversion was detected earlier than by conventional methods. Therefore, these assays are suggested to be more useful than conventional methods not only for the confirmation of antibody IgGs to RT, p17, and p24 of HIV-1 in serum but also for the detection of seroconversion.

Hashida, S; Hashinaka, K; Nishikata, I; Oka, S; Shimada, K; Saito, A; Takamizawa, A; Shinagawa, H; Yano, S; Kojima, H

1995-01-01

307

Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

Pierce, T.

1986-08-01

308

New Developments and Applications of Immunoassay Technology (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In addition to radio labelling, four types of labels are used in immunoassay technology: particles, enzymes, fluorophores and chemiluminophores. Of these labels, the lanthanide chelates, e.g., europium, can yield higher specific activities than commonly u...

F. Kohen G. Barnard

1989-01-01

309

SITE EVALUATION OF FIELD PORTABLE PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Four pentachlorophenol (PCP) enzyme immunoassays for environmental analysis have been evaluated through the U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Three assays were formatted for on-site field use and one assay could be used in a field laboratory sett...

310

Development of a Rapid Immunoassay for Syphilis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple, easy and quick EIA for antibody to Treponema pallidum (Tp) was developed. It is tentatively called DD-EIA (dot diffusion enzyme immunoassay). The center of glass fiber (Quartz preferred) filter paper is marked as a tiny dot with a pencil. 25 to ...

T. M. Lin J. F. Geigel

1987-01-01

311

On-chip enzyme immunoassay of a cardiac marker using a microfluidic device combined with a portable surface plasmon resonance system.  

PubMed

This paper reports a miniaturized immunosensor designed to determine a trace level cardiac marker, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), using a microfluidic device combined with a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system. Sample BNP solution was introduced into the microchannel after an immunoreaction with acetylcholine esterase-labeled antibody (conjugate), and only unbound conjugate was trapped on the BNP-immobilized surface in the flow channel. Then, the thiol compound generated by the enzymatic reaction with the trapped conjugate was accumulated on a gold thin film located downstream in the microchannel to monitor the real-time SPR angle shift. We achieved a detectable concentration range of 5 pg/mL-100 ng/mL by monitoring the SPR angle shift, which covers the required detection range for the BNP concentrations found in blood. This success resulted from the use of a T-shaped microfluidic device structure, which prevents the sample solution from flowing over the gold film used for SPR detection. We were able to measure trace levels of BNP peptide (15 fg) within 30 min since the procedure with our immunosensor is simpler than a multistep immunoassay through the simultaneous use of a labeled enzymatic reaction and the real-time monitoring of enzymatic product accumulation in the microfluidic device. We employed the procedure to detect serum BNP by using spiked samples in human serum and achieved satisfactory recovery for heat-treated samples to denature the esterase in the serum before the immunoreaction. PMID:16878891

Kurita, Ryoji; Yokota, Yoshimi; Sato, Yukari; Mizutani, Fumio; Niwa, Osamu

2006-08-01

312

Colloidal nanomaterial-based immunoassay.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed. PMID:22734642

Teste, Bruno; Descroix, Stephanie

2012-06-01

313

Immunoassays for aflatoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays for aflatoxin analysis have been regarded as valuable supplements to existing and rapidly developing chromatographic techniques. We describe six types of aflatoxin immunogens and their characteristics, reported antibodies against aflatoxins, traditional and novel labeled materials for assay signaling, three immunoassay formats, assay devices (e.g., microtiter plate and reader, lateral flow strip, electronic and optical immunosensors, and a rapid tester

Peiwu Li; Qi Zhang; Wen Zhang

2009-01-01

314

Direct detection of Helicobacter pylori resistance to macrolides by a polymerase chain reaction/DNA enzyme immunoassay in gastric biopsy specimens  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The increasing use of macrolides especially in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection has led to an increase in resistant strains. The resistance of H pylori to macrolides, especially clarithromycin, is one of the major causes of eradication failure. In H pylori, clarithromycin resistance is due to point mutations localised in domain V of 23S rRNA. ?AIM—To develop a molecular technique based on amplification of a relevant fragment of the 23S rRNA and colorimetric hybridisation in liquid phase to detect directly in biopsy specimens the type of mutation associated with resistance of H pylori to clarithromycin. ?METHODS—Gastric biopsy samples from 61 patients were submitted to this test. The results were compared with standard methods (determination of minimal inhibition concentration, polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism, and/or DNA sequencing) in order to evaluate the test and to define the cut off values, specificity, and sensitivity. ?RESULTS—The 14 biopsy samples in which H pylori was not detected did not give a positive result in any assay, and the 14 samples harbouring strains susceptible to clarithromycin gave a positive result with the wild type probe as expected. The 33 biopsy specimens containing resistant strains always gave a positive signal with one of the probes detecting resistant organisms, but in eight cases they also reacted with the wild type probe, indicating that a mixture of resistant and susceptible organisms was present. ?CONCLUSION—The importance of this new assay is that it allows the detection of multiple genotypes corresponding to either heterogeneous genotypes or mixed infections. Moreover, it allows in a single step not only the detection of H pylori but also the determination of its susceptibility to clarithromycin directly in biopsy specimens without the need for culture. ?? Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; resistance; clarithromycin; macrolide; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); immunoassay

Marais, A; Monteiro, L; Occhialini, A; Pina, M; Lamouliatte, H; Megraud, F

1999-01-01

315

Increased concentration of two different advanced glycation end-products detected by enzyme immunoassays with new monoclonal antibodies in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of pentosidine (representative of advanced glycation end-products) in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are increased when compared with sera of other diagnoses or healthy controls. These levels have been reported to correlate with clinical indices of rheumatoid arthritis activity and with laboratory markers of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to find out if these findings pertain to other advanced glycation end-products. Methods We have developed two immunoassays based on new monoclonal antibodies to advanced glycation end-products. Antibody 103-E3 reacts with an unidentified antigen, formed in the reaction of proteins with ribose, while antibody 8-C1 responds to N?-(carboxyethyl)lysine. We have used these monoclonal antibodies to measure levels of advanced glycation end-products in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and healthy controls. We calculated the correlations between advanced glycation end-product levels in rheumatoid arthritis sera and the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), age, disease duration, CRP, anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor and treatment with corticosteroids, respectively. Results Levels of both glycation products were significantly higher in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis when compared with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, or the healthy controls. Neither the level of N?-(carboxyethyl)lysine nor the level of the 103-E3 antigen in rheumatoid arthritis sera correlated with the DAS28-scored rheumatoid arthritis activity. The levels of both antigens in rheumatoid arthritis sera did not correlate with age, gender, corticosteroid treatment, or levels of CRP, anti-CCP antibodies, and rheumatoid factor in sera. Conclusions We report highly specific increases in the levels of two advanced glycation end-products in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This increase could be explained neither by rheumatoid arthritis activity nor by inflammation. We propose a working hypothesis that presumes the existence of a link between advanced glycation end-product formation and induction of autoimmunity.

2010-01-01

316

Quantitative PCR-Enhanced Immunoassay for Measurement of Enteroviral Immunoglobulin M Antibody and Diagnosis of Aseptic Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-enhanced immunoassay (PIA) to detect enterovirus (EV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) for diagnosis of recent EV infection was recently developed. This test was compared with another EV IgM capture technique, the solid-phase reverse immunosorbent test (SPRIST). Fourteen of 43 serum samples from aseptic meningitis patients were positive by PIA, whereas 10 were positive by SPRIST. One of 39 control serum

Amal Elfaitouri; Nahla Mohamed; Jan Fohlman; Robert Aspholm; Gun Frisk; Goran Friman; Lars Magnius; Jonas Blomberg

2005-01-01

317

Performance of Two Commercially Available Automated Immunoassays for the Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus Serological Status  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the performance of two automated Vidas (V) and Liaison (L) immunoassays for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. The detection of the viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM, the VCA/early antigen (VCA/EA) IgG, and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG was assessed on 526 sera collected for routine EBV testing in immunocompetent subjects. The determination of expected EBV status (186 EBV primary infections, 183 past EBV infections, and 157 EBV-seronegative individuals) was based on results of routine laboratory enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) together with clinical data. The sensitivity and specificity of each individual marker were determined in comparison to the expected EBV status. The agreement between the V and L profiles and the expected EBV status was established through the interpretation of combinations of the different EBV markers. Statistically significant differences between the two tests were found for the specificity of the VCA IgM marker (96.2% for V versus 93.2% for L), the sensitivity of the VCA/EA IgG marker (89% for V versus 94% for L), and the specificity of the EBNA IgG marker (96.5% for V versus 74.2% for L). The results determined for the two assays with respect to overall agreement with the established expected EBV status were not significantly different (89.7% for V versus 88.2% for L), with discrepancies mainly observed in sera referenced as primary infections. These findings demonstrated the similar performances of the Vidas and the Liaison assays for the establishment of an EBV serological status using the VCA, EA, and EBNA markers.

Lupo, J.; Germi, R.; Semenova, T.; Buisson, M.; Seigneurin, J. M.

2012-01-01

318

Serum Free Light Chain Only Myeloma with Cytoplasmic IgM  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, the serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassays have become widely available enabling greater sensitivity in the diagnosis and management of monoclonal light chain diseases. Here, we describe a rare case of serum free light chain only myeloma with cytoplasmic IgM. A 75-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening lumbosacral pain. FDG PET/CT images showed increased FDG uptake in the sacral mass, vertebral bodies, and ribs. Laboratory data found hypogammaglobulinemia and the bone marrow aspirate revealed only 2.2% of plasma cells. The serum and urine protein electrophoresis did not detect a monoclonal band. However, the serum FLC immunoassays reported an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio (0.001) indicating the presence of monoclonal lambda FLC. The sacral tumor biopsy revealed proliferation of plasma cells and immunohistochemical staining showed that the plasma cells were positive for CD138, IgM, and lambda light chain but negative for CD20. This case may have previously been described as a nonsecretory IgM myeloma but recently would be identified as free light chain only myeloma. The immunohistochemical and genetic features of the clonal plasma cells in free light chain only myeloma need to be further investigated to better understand the relevance and incidence of this myeloma type.

Ebana, Hideaki; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Yoshihiro; Seki, Ritsuko

2014-01-01

319

Comparison of an enzyme immunoassay and a latex agglutination system for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in bone marrow transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two Aspergillus antigenemia systems, the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Platelia Aspergillus test, and the latex agglutination (LA), Pastorex Aspergillus test, in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis were compared by testing 364 serum samples from 22 bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Sensitivity and specificity for the ELISA test were 60% and 82% respectively, vs 40% and 94%

M Machetti; M Feasi; N Mordini; MT Van Lint; A Bacigalupo; JP Latgé; J Sarfati; C Viscoli

1998-01-01

320

Clostridium difficile Testing Algorithms Using Glutamate Dehydrogenase Antigen and C. difficile Toxin Enzyme Immunoassays with C. difficile Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Increase Diagnostic Yield in a Tertiary Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined as positivity by CCNA or positivity by LAMP plus another test (GDH, CDT, or the Premier C. difficile toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay [P-EIA]). A total of 141 specimens from 141 patients yielded 27 TPs and 19% prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 56%, 100%, 100%, and 90% for P-EIA and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 96% for both algorithm 1 and algorithm 2. In summary, GDH-based algorithms detected C. difficile infections with superior sensitivity compared to P-EIA. The algorithms allowed immediate reporting of half of all TPs, but LAMP or CCNA was required to confirm the presence or absence of toxigenic C. difficile in GDH-positive/CDT-negative specimens.

McGowan, Karin L.

2012-01-01

321

A general primer GP5+/GP6(+)-mediated PCR-enzyme immunoassay method for rapid detection of 14 high-risk and 6 low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapings.  

PubMed Central

Two cocktails of digoxigenin-labeled human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific oligonucleotide probes and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were used as a basis to developed a group-specific detection method for 14 high-risk (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) and 6 low-risk (types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, and 44) HPVs, following a general primer GP5+/bioGP6(+)-mediated PCR. The sensitivity of this high-risk/low-risk (HR/LR) HPV PCR-EIA ranged from 10 to 200 HPV copies, depending on the HPV type. Comparison of HR/LR HPV PCR-EIA with radioactive Southern blot hybridization using a general probe on the same PCR products derived from 417 cytomorphologically abnormal cervical scrapings resulted in an overall agreement of 96% between the two methods. Complete concordance between group-specific HR/LR detection and individual typing results for both single and multiple infections indicate the strong specificity of this HR/LR HPV PCR-EIA. Multiple infections could be predicted by comparing PCR-EIA optical density values of the cocktail probes with one of the individual oligonucleotide probes. This novel HR/LR PCR-EIA allows accurate and rapid identification of high-risk and low-risk HPV types in cervical scrapings and will facilitate HPV detection in HPV mass-screening programs.

Jacobs, M V; Snijders, P J; van den Brule, A J; Helmerhorst, T J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

1997-01-01

322

High-voltage isoelectric focusing in ultrathin gels and enzyme-amplified immunoassay: A new method for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A procedure using high-voltage isoelectric focusing (IF) in ultrathin (0.2 mm) gels and enzyme-amplified immuno-sandwich assay\\u000a was elaborated to get optimal IF separation conditions, to avoid CSF concentration, e.g. by ultrafiltration preceding IF with\\u000a the risk of unequal protein losses, to minimize the amounts of CSF and expensive reagents needed, especially antibodies and\\u000a to shorten the analysis time, including the

K. G. Kjellin; L. B. Hallander

1982-01-01

323

An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin M 1 in milk and infant milk products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) against aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), named as 2C9, was selected by semi-solid HAT medium. It exhibited high affinity for AFM1 of 1.74×109L\\/mol and no cross-reactivity to aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Based on the antibody, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for AFM1 in milk and infant milk products. Assays

Di Guan; Peiwu Li; Qi Zhang; Wen Zhang; Daohong Zhang; Jun Jiang

2011-01-01

324

BrucELISA: an enzyme-antibody immunoassay for detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in milk: correlation with the Brucella ring test and with shedding of viable organisms.  

PubMed Central

An indirect enzyme-antibody immunosorbent assay (BrucELISA) is described for the detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cow's milk. Three series of milk samples were obtained from an adult-vaccinated dairy herd infected with B. abortus. The BrucELISA system was used as a screening test for individual milks diluted 1:200 (BE 200 test), for undiluted bulk milks, and to determine antibody titer (BrucELISA titration assay). The BrucELISA results correlated highly with positive Brucella ring test reactions and culture positivity, eliminated false-positive Brucella ring test reactions, detected antibody in some samples which were Brucella ring test negative, and distinguished between vaccinated and infected animals. BrucELISA titration assay titers of greater than 1:800 were correlated with shedding, or were prognostic for animals which eventually became shedders. Binding of the enzyme-antibody conjugate to bovine immunoglobulin in the absence of rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin occurred with culture-positive or -negative milks showing titers of greater than 1:1,600 (the beta effect); the effect was also of predictive value in identifying eventual shedders. The BrucELISA system is a sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for screening large numbers of individual or bulk milk samples for the presence of antibody to B. abortus.

Boraker, D K; Stinebring, W R; Kunkel, J R

1981-01-01

325

Early Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Value of Comparative Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay Immunological Profiles and Anti-Toxoplasma gondiiImmunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA Immunocapture and Implications for Postnatal Therapeutic Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic strategies for congenital toxoplasmosis have changed profoundly in recent years. Immunological diagnosticmethods,longconsidereddisappointing,cannowbeusedataveryearlystage.Overa3-yearperiod, 1,050 infants at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (born to 1,048 mothers infected during pregnancy) were monitored for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 7 years. More than 6,000 serum specimens were analyzed by comparative mother-infant immunological profiles (CIPs) based on an enzyme-linked immuno- filtrationassay(ELIFA)andanimmunocapturemethodforthedetectionofspecificimmunoglobulinM(IgM)

J. M. PINON; C. CHEMLA; I. VILLENA; F. FOUDRINIER; D. AUBERT; D. PUYGAUTHIER-TOUBAS; B. LEROUX; D. DUPOUY; C. QUEREUX; M. TALMUD; T. TRENQUE; G. POTRON; M. PLUOT; G. REMY; Robert Debre ´

326

Lanthanide-based time-resolved luminescence immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive and specific detection of analytes such as proteins in biological samples is critical for a variety of applications,\\u000a for example disease diagnosis. In immunoassays a signal in response to the concentration of analyte present is generated by\\u000a use of antibodies labeled with radioisotopes, luminophores, or enzymes. All immunoassays suffer to some extent from the problem\\u000a of the background

A. K. Hagan; T. Zuchner

2011-01-01

327

Baculovirus Expression of the Fusion Protein Gene of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Utility of the Recombinant Protein in a Diagnostic Enzyme Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

The fusion (F) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was expressed by using a baculovirus vector. Antigenicity was tested by immunofluorescence analysis with F-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to recombinant F protein raised in a rabbit neutralized BRSV and human respiratory syncytial virus infectivity when tested in a plaque reduction assay. The recombinant F protein was evaluated as a source of antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and this ELISA was compared with the virus neutralization (VN) test for detecting BRSV antibodies in 10 consecutive serum samples from four calves vaccinated with a live modified BRSV vaccine and from two nonvaccinated control calves. The ELISA with the baculovirus-expressed F protein as an antigen compared favorably with the VN test and is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detecting serum antibodies to BRSV.

Pastey, Manoj K.; Samal, Siba K.

1998-01-01

328

Ultrasensitive enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay for free thyroxine based on three dimensionally ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid film.  

PubMed

The measurement of free thyroxine concentration in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of thyroid function. Here, a novel enzyme-free sandwich electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of FT4 antigen based on the immobilization of primary antibody (Ab1) on three dimensional ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid (3DOM CS-AuNPs) film electrode, and magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) were used as label of secondary antibody (Ab2). The 3DOM CS-AuNPs film electrode was constructed by one-step electrodeposition of CS-AuNPs composite onto Au electrode with silica opal template. MMWCNTs were prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts on carboxylated MWCNTs. Ru(bpy)3(2+) labeled anti-FT4 (Ru(bpy)3(2+)-Ab2) was covalently attached to MMWCNTs through the formation of amide bond between the carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and the amine groups of antibody. Under the optimal conditions, FT4 was detected in a concentration range from 0.71 fg mL(-1) to 1.15 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 0.20 fg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. Importantly, the developed method was used to assay clinical serum specimens, achieving a good relation with those obtained from the commercialized electrochemiluminescent method. PMID:24752149

Zhang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojun; Tu, Fulai; Yao, Cheng

2014-09-15

329

Novel approach to activity evaluation for release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies based on enzyme-linked immunoassay.  

PubMed

Selection of a suitable assay to measure the activity of drug agents based on release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies (RA forms of Abs) is an important step forward in the investigation of such agents. In this study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was utilized to examine the effect of RA forms of Abs specific for human interferon gamma on the interaction between monoclonal anti-interferon gamma antibodies and recombinant human interferon gamma. The experimental data and the results obtained by using relevant mathematical analysis showed that such RA forms of Abs are able to modulate the monoclonal antibody interaction with both soluble and immobilized (to the assay plate well) interferon gamma. These data demonstrated the importance of using relatively low concentrations of both soluble and plate-immobilized interferon gamma to detect the effects of RA forms of Abs to interferon gamma on the binding of monoclonal antibodies to interferon gamma. It has been suggested that the observed influence of RA forms of Abs on 'antibody-antigen' interaction could be used to detect and analyze the activity of drugs containing RA forms of Abs. PMID:24816648

Gavrilova, Elena S; Bobrovnik, Sergey A; Sherriff, Gordon; Myslivets, Andrey A; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

2014-01-01

330

Novel Approach to Activity Evaluation for Release-Active Forms of Anti-Interferon-Gamma Antibodies Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Selection of a suitable assay to measure the activity of drug agents based on release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies (RA forms of Abs) is an important step forward in the investigation of such agents. In this study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was utilized to examine the effect of RA forms of Abs specific for human interferon gamma on the interaction between monoclonal anti-interferon gamma antibodies and recombinant human interferon gamma. The experimental data and the results obtained by using relevant mathematical analysis showed that such RA forms of Abs are able to modulate the monoclonal antibody interaction with both soluble and immobilized (to the assay plate well) interferon gamma. These data demonstrated the importance of using relatively low concentrations of both soluble and plate-immobilized interferon gamma to detect the effects of RA forms of Abs to interferon gamma on the binding of monoclonal antibodies to interferon gamma. It has been suggested that the observed influence of RA forms of Abs on ‘antibody-antigen’ interaction could be used to detect and analyze the activity of drugs containing RA forms of Abs.

Gavrilova, Elena S.; Bobrovnik, Sergey A.; Sherriff, Gordon; Myslivets, Andrey A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Epstein, Oleg I.

2014-01-01

331

A quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of 2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), a degradation product of the herbicide dichlobenil.  

PubMed

2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) is the dominant degradation product in soil of the widely used herbicide dichlobenil. To detect BAM in water, a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. As an alternative to conventional coating of ELISA plates, the assay is based on direct covalent immobilisation. We achieved a surface which requires a short time for the immobilisation of ligand, is stable under dry storage, and which permits assays with a low CV. The performance of the assay was demonstrated by an inter-well CV that was generally less than 6%, a detection limit (DL(15)) of 0.02 microg/l and an IC(50) of 0.19 microg/l. Cross-reactivity was measured against nine analytes with structural homology to BAM. The highest degree of cross-reactivity (10.8%) was seen with 2,6-dichlorothiobenzamide (Chlorthiamid). Considering an EU-limit of 0.1 microg/l as the permissible maximum for the presence of pesticides in drinking water, this ELISA-procedure is suitable for large-scale screening of water samples suspected of being contaminated with BAM. PMID:10854608

Bruun, L; Koch, C; Pedersen, B; Jakobsen, M H; Aamand, J

2000-06-23

332

Detection of hepatitis C virus by PCR in second-generation enzyme immunoassay-seropositive blood donors by using matched pairs of fresh frozen plasma and pilot tube sera.  

PubMed Central

Between April 1993 and March 1995, 429 of 334,454 (0.13%) blood donations at the Toronto Centre of the Canadian Red Cross were reactive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) by second-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-2). Of the 429 EIA-2-positive donations, 189 (44%), 138 (32%), and 102 (24%) were positive, indeterminate, and negative by Second-Generation Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA-2). To assess HCV viremia and minimize the risk that specimen handling affected PCR-based detection, the qualitative AMPLICOR HCV test was performed on both pilot tube sera (PTS) and the corresponding fresh frozen plasma (FFP) from 294 EIA-2-reactive donations. AMPLICOR PCR results for PTS and FFP were 100% concordant and were confirmed by nested HCV PCR for 27 of 294 donations. The AMPLICOR HCV test was positive for 127 of 140 (91%) of RIBA-2-positive donations (81, 91, and 96% of donations with two, three, and four reactive bands, respectively), 5 of 88 (5.7%) indeterminate donations, and 0 of 66 (0%) RIBA-2-negative donations. The Third-Generation Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA-3) was performed on RIBA-2-negative, -indeterminate, and -positive, PCR-negative donations. RIBA-3 demonstrated enhanced specificity and resolved 18 of 88 (20%) of RIBA-2-indeterminate samples as HCV antibody positive. The study demonstrates that PTS are as suitable as FFP for PCR-based detection of HCV and can be used to determine if EIA-2-reactive blood donors are viremic at the time of donation.

Krajden, M; Zhao, J; Bourke, C; Scalia, V; Gill, P; Lau, W

1996-01-01

333

Reliable confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with an enzyme-linked immunoassay using recombinant antigens derived from the HIV-1 gag, pol, and env genes.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using six recombinant proteins corresponding to large segments of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag, pol, and env gene products (HIVAGEN; SmithKline Bio-Science Laboratories, Van Nuys, Calif.) was developed to confirm the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 in sera reactive in the whole-cell-derived virion screening ELISAs. Serum samples for testing were obtained from healthy seronegative blood donors and from the different categories of HIV-infected individuals (asymptomatic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related complex, and AIDS). A positive reaction was defined as reactivity against an env and at least one other (either gag or pol) HIV-1 gene product; negative was defined as no reaction with any antigen; and indeterminate was defined as reactivity with gag or pol (or both) or with env alone. None of the 1,180 serum samples from healthy seronegative blood donors gave a positive result, and only 49 of these samples (4%) gave indeterminate results. The recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel identified seropositive individuals with a high degree of accuracy, as a positive reaction was seen with 99.3% of asymptomatic healthy seropositive individuals, 98.1% of patients with AIDS-related complex, and 90.4% of patients with AIDS. None of the 725 HIV-1-seropositive subjects had a negative test result. Reactivity with the Kp41 antigen, corresponding to an amino-terminal portion of the gp41 envelope glycoprotein, by itself demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing seronegative from seropositive sera. A subset of seronegative and seropositive samples were tested both with the recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel and by Western blot (Du Pont Co.). The recombinant HIV-1 antigen ELISA panel accurately identified more seropositive and seronegative samples and had fewer indeterminate results than did Western blot (interpreted by Du Pont criteria).

Ng, V L; Chiang, C S; Debouck, C; McGrath, M S; Grove, T H; Mills, J

1989-01-01

334

Blinded laboratory comparison of the in situ enzyme immunoassay, the VecTest wicking assay, and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect mosquitoes infected with West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.  

PubMed

A blinded laboratory evaluation compared the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of an in situ enzyme immunoassay (EIA), VecTest wicking assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect and distinguish West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses in pools of 50 mosquitoes. Adult female Culex tarsalis Coquillett were inoculated with either WN or SLE viruses, held for 0-11 d at 28 degrees C, killed by freezing, and then were added to 49 or 48 uninfected mosquitoes to make up 14 pools positive for WN virus, 14 positive for SLE virus, 14 positive for both WN and SLE viruses, and 14 negative for virus. Pools were number coded and tested blindly. Virus was not detected in known negative pools. VecTest and RT-PCR assays were comparably sensitive and accurate, detecting virus in pools containing females held for 3 d postinoculation; only RT-PCR detected SLE virus in pools on days 0-1. The VecTest and RT-PCR produced a single false-positive result for WN and SLE, respectively. RT-PCR detected RNA in samples positive by the VecTest, indicating that the detergent in the wicking buffer did not prevent RT-PCR from confirming VecTest results. Detector antibodies used in the in situ EIA cross-reacted between SLE and WN viruses, reducing accuracy. Both the VecTest and RT-PCR provided rapid and specific results, but they detected only those viruses known to be present. Plaque assay on Vero cells was comparably sensitive and had the added benefit of detecting newly emerging viruses, but this method required virus culture followed by identification, thereby delaying reporting. PMID:15311443

Chiles, Robert E; Green, Emily N; Fang, Ying; Goddard, Laura; Roth, Amy; Reisen, William K; Scott, Thomas W

2004-07-01

335

Evaluation of a Multiplex Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Antibodies?  

PubMed Central

Conventional methods for the detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies include the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). While sensitive and specific, these methods are labor-intensive and require separate assays for each analyte. This study evaluated the performance of a multiplex bead assay (BioPlex 2200; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) for the simultaneous detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM class antibodies to the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) and IgG class antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1). Serum specimens (n = 1,315) submitted for routine EBV-specific antibody testing by EIA (Grifols-Quest, Inc., Miami, FL) were also tested by the multiplex bead assay using the BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer. Specimens showing discordant results were tested by IFA. Following IFA resolution, the BioPlex VCA IgM, VCA IgG, and EBNA-1 IgG assays demonstrated 97.9%, 91.4%, and 96.9% agreement, respectively, with the results obtained by EIA. Furthermore, the BioPlex assays showed an overall agreement of 94.1% with the EIA when the specimens were categorized by disease state (susceptible, acute, or past infection) based on the EBV-specific antibody profiles. These findings indicate that the BioPlex EBV assays demonstrate a performance comparable to that of the conventional EIA, while allowing for a more rapid (2.3 h for 100 samples versus 4.5 h by the EIA) and higher-throughput (?400 samples per 9 h versus 200 samples by the EIA) analysis of the EBV-specific antibody response.

Binnicker, M. J.; Jespersen, D. J.; Harring, J. A.; Rollins, L. O.; Beito, E. M.

2008-01-01

336

Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of Citrus leprosis virus C in enzyme-linked immuno-assays and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing. PMID:24956418

Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

2014-09-01

337

System for Gel Electrophoretic Immunoassay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic s...

A. E. Herr A. K. Singh D. J. Throckmorton

2005-01-01

338

The right environment for the immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

For the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the first in-house research effort began in 1987, when results of an early immunoassay field study verified the technology`s potential for environmental applications. Looking at the fundamental features of immunochemical reactions from the clinical laboratories, analytical chemists realized the potential value of these methods for hazardous waste site characterization and pesticide monitoring. Immunoassays rely on the interaction between an antibody and a target analyte. For environmental purposes, enzyme immunoassays are generally used. After the target analyte binds to the antibody, an enzymatic reaction yields a colorimetric change. This change, read visually or by a spectrophotometer, indicates the concentration of the target analyte. Promising results with assays for compounds (such as paraquat and pentachlorophenol) and compound groups (such as total petroleum hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls) spurred interest among various entrepreneurs. The first target market for immunoassays was environmental engineers and field crews who needed quick answers on-site to determine the direction of further remediation efforts.

Emon, J.M. Van; Gerlach, C.L.

1995-11-01

339

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste  

PubMed Central

The practice of immunoassay has experienced a widespread transition from radioisotopic labeling to nonisotopic labeling over the last two decades. Radioisotope labels have drawbacks that hamper their applications: (i) perceived radiation hazards of reagents, (ii) regulatory requirements and disposal problems of working with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled reagents. The advantage of isotopic labeling is the incorporation into analytes without altering structure or reactivity, as is often the case with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay with the long-life isotope 14C as the label and accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) as the detection system. AMS quantifies attomole levels of several isotopes, including 14C. With this exquisite sensitivity, the sensitivity of an immunoassay is limited by the Kd of the antibody and not the detection system. The detection limit of the assays for atrazine and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was 2.0 × 10?10 M and 2.0 × 10?11 M, respectively, approximately an order of magnitude below the standard enzyme immunoassay. Notably, <1 dpm (0.45 pCi) of 14C-labeled compound was used in each assay, which is well below the limit of disposal (50 nCi per g) as nonradioactive waste. Thus, endogenous reporter ligands quantified by AMS provide the advantages of an RIA without the associated problems of radioactive waste.

Shan, Guomin; Huang, Wei; Gee, Shirley J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Vogel, John S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2000-01-01

340

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

2007-12-04

341

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

2013-07-16

342

Development and evaluation of a DNA enzyme immunoassay method for env genotyping of subtypes A through G of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M, with discrimination of the circulating recombinant forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG.  

PubMed

The tools currently available for genetic subtyping of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are laborious or can be used only for the analysis of a limited number of samples and/or subtypes. We developed and evaluated a molecular biology-based method using subtype-specific oligonucleotide probes for env genotyping of subtypes A through G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG. DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) genotyping is based on nested PCR amplification of the 5' end of the env gene (proviral DNA), followed by subtype-specific hybridization and immunoenzymatic detection on microplates. DEIA genotyping was validated with a large number of samples (n = 128) collected in Europe (France; n = 47), West-Central Africa (Cameroon; n = 36), and West Africa (Senegal; n = 45). Three different formats, depending on the distribution of subtypes in the three countries, were developed. The results were compared with those obtained by sequencing of the V3-V5 region and phylogenetic analysis or an env heteroduplex mobility assay. Additional sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the DEIA region (the first codon of the env coding sequence to the middle of conserved region C1 of gp120) were performed to investigate the reasons for discrepancies. Intense and highly specific reactions between the oligonucleotide probes and the corresponding samples were observed. Overall, correct identification was achieved for 107 of 128 samples (83.6%). One sample was not amplified, 10 (8%) were nontypeable (NT), and 10 (8%) were misidentified. Six of the 10 discordant samples were further investigated by phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that these samples corresponded to recombinants involving the env 5' end and the V3 and V5 regions of the two parental clades. Sequencing of NT samples showed numerous differences between sample and probe sequences, resulting in a lack of hybridization, and revealed the limitations of the selected probes in terms of specificity and sensitivity. We demonstrated the feasibility of DEIA genotyping: six subtypes plus the two most prevalent circulating recombinant forms were discriminated by using the 5' end of the env gene. This method can be adapted to the local situation by including only probes that correspond to the prevalent strains. PMID:11880431

Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Vergne, Laurence; Damond, Florence; MBoup, Souleymane; MPoudi-NGole, Eitel; Buzelay, Laurence; Farfara, Isabelle; Brand, Denys; Peeters, Martine; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Delaporte, Eric; Barin, Francis

2002-03-01

343

Development and Evaluation of a DNA Enzyme Immunoassay Method for env Genotyping of Subtypes A through G of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group M, with Discrimination of the Circulating Recombinant Forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG  

PubMed Central

The tools currently available for genetic subtyping of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are laborious or can be used only for the analysis of a limited number of samples and/or subtypes. We developed and evaluated a molecular biology-based method using subtype-specific oligonucleotide probes for env genotyping of subtypes A through G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG. DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) genotyping is based on nested PCR amplification of the 5? end of the env gene (proviral DNA), followed by subtype-specific hybridization and immunoenzymatic detection on microplates. DEIA genotyping was validated with a large number of samples (n = 128) collected in Europe (France; n = 47), West-Central Africa (Cameroon; n = 36), and West Africa (Senegal; n = 45). Three different formats, depending on the distribution of subtypes in the three countries, were developed. The results were compared with those obtained by sequencing of the V3-V5 region and phylogenetic analysis or an env heteroduplex mobility assay. Additional sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the DEIA region (the first codon of the env coding sequence to the middle of conserved region C1 of gp120) were performed to investigate the reasons for discrepancies. Intense and highly specific reactions between the oligonucleotide probes and the corresponding samples were observed. Overall, correct identification was achieved for 107 of 128 samples (83.6%). One sample was not amplified, 10 (8%) were nontypeable (NT), and 10 (8%) were misidentified. Six of the 10 discordant samples were further investigated by phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that these samples corresponded to recombinants involving the env 5? end and the V3 and V5 regions of the two parental clades. Sequencing of NT samples showed numerous differences between sample and probe sequences, resulting in a lack of hybridization, and revealed the limitations of the selected probes in terms of specificity and sensitivity. We demonstrated the feasibility of DEIA genotyping: six subtypes plus the two most prevalent circulating recombinant forms were discriminated by using the 5? end of the env gene. This method can be adapted to the local situation by including only probes that correspond to the prevalent strains.

Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Vergne, Laurence; Damond, Florence; MBoup, Souleymane; MPoudi-NGole, Eitel; Buzelay, Laurence; Farfara, Isabelle; Brand, Denys; Peeters, Martine; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Delaporte, Eric; Barin, Francis

2002-01-01

344

Improved Buprenorphine Immunoassay Performance After Urine Treatment with ?-Glucuronidase.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine (BUP), a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid dependence. Urine immunoassay screening methods are available for monitoring BUP compliance and misuse; however, these screens may have poor sensitivity or specificity. We evaluated whether the pretreatment of urine with ?-glucuronidase (BG) improves the sensitivity and overall accuracy of three BUP enzyme immunoassays when compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Urine samples sent to our laboratories for BUP testing (n = 114) were analyzed before and after BG pretreatment by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and homogenous EIA (HEIA) immunoassays using a common 5 ng/mL cutoff. Total BUP and norbuprenorphine (NBUP) concentrations were measured by LC-MS-MS as the reference method. Urine BG pretreatment improved EIA, HEIA and CEDIA sensitivities from 70, 82 and 94%, respectively, to 97% for each of the three methods, when compared with LC-MS-MS. While the specificity of the EIA and HEIA remained 100% after BG pretreatment, the specificity of the CEDIA decreased from 74 to 67%. Urine pretreatment with BG is recommended to improve sensitivity of the EIA and HEIA BUP screening methods. PMID:24802159

Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Flood, James G; Jones, Jenny; Ropar, Kaitlin; Jarolim, Petr; Melanson, Stacy E F

2014-07-01

345

[Enzyme immunoassay of (24R)-brassinosteroids].  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids are a new group of phytohormones that are widely distributed in plants and play an important role in the processes of plant growth and development. Physiological concentrations of brassinosteroids in plants are extremely low, and their analysis in organs and tissues is very difficult. This study is devoted to the chemical aspects of elaboration and to bioanalytical parameters of an immunoenzymatic system for quantitative determination of the phytohormones 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide. PMID:17682395

Khripach, V A; Sviridov, O V; Priadko, A G; Litvinovskaia, R P; Drach, S V; Matveentsev, V D; Novik, T V; Mikha?lopulo, K I; Zhabinski?, V N; Zavadskaia, M I; Aver'kova, M A; Drachenova, O A; Chashchina, N M

2007-01-01

346

An enzyme immunoassay for buffalo serum ferritin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffalo ferritin has been isolated and purified from liver using conventional biochemical techniques such as thermal denaturation, ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephacryl S?300 gel filtration and DEAE?blue gel affinity chromatography. Native gel?electrophoresis of affinity?purified ferritin followed by iron staining showed a single band corresponding to rat liver ferritin. The yield and the iron content of purified ferritin were 10.7 mg per

S. S. Shavali; S. Suryakala; R. B. Sashidhar; V. Deshpande

1998-01-01

347

[Serum antibody profiles against gangliosides and sulfatide in peripheral neuropathies: evaluation of a new immunoassay].  

PubMed

We evaluated the analytical performances of a new line immunoassay (LIA) for the simultaneous detection of twelve anti-ganglioside and anti-sulfatide autoantibodies from Generic Assays, in comparison with our dot immunoassay. The LIA detected IgG and/or IgM autoantibodies against human GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1a, GD1b, GD2, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b and sulfatide. Forty sera of patients with IgG autoantibody profiles in acute autoimmune neuropathies and 39 sera of patients with IgM autoantibody profiles in chronic autoimmune neuropathies were tested. To have a better sensitivity, 20 ?L of sera instead of 10 ?L were used. In these conditions, we observed a good concordance of IgG and IgM autoantibody profiles by both immunoassays. The test including novel gangliosides was easy to perform and superior for identifying autoimmune neuropathies. The data indicate that the test provides reliable simultaneous detection of autoantibodies against a large panel of human gangliosides and sulfatide with a good diagnostic usefulness in combination with clinical and electrophysiological data. PMID:21159581

Caudie, Christiane; Vial, Christophe; Petiot, Philippe; Bouhour, Françoise

2010-01-01

348

Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays: Principles & Quantitative Applications  

PubMed Central

The use of capillary electrophoresis as a tool to conduct immunoassays has been an area of increasing interest over the last decade. This approach combines the efficiency, small sample requirements, and relatively high speed of CE with the selectivity of antibodies as binding agents. This review examines the various assay formats and detection modes that have been reported for these assays, along with some representative applications. Most CE immunoassays in the past have employed homogeneous methods in which the sample and reagents are allowed to react in solution. These homogeneous methods have been conducted as both competitive binding immunoassays and as non-competitive binding immunoassays. Fluorescent labels are most commonly used for detection in these assays, but enzyme labels have also been utilized for such work. Some additional work has been performed in CE immunoassays with heterogeneous methods in which either antibodies or an analog of the analyte is immobilized to a solid support. These heterogeneous methods can be used for the selective isolation of analytes prior to their separation by CE or to remove a given species from a sample/reagent mixture prior to analysis by CE. These CE immunoassays can be used with a variety of detection modes, such as fluorescence, UV/visible absorbance, chemiluminescence, electrochemical measurements, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance.

Moser, Annette C.; Hage, David S.

2013-01-01

349

Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive understanding and improvement of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), realized over the years through the considerable efforts of Dr. Marvin Vestal, have made possible numerous comparable efforts involving its application in the biological sciences. Here we revisit the concepts behind one such analytical approach, Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay, which is designed to selectively detect and quantify proteins present in biological milieu.

Nelson, Randall W.; Borges, Chad R.

2011-06-01

350

PAPAIN DIGESTION FRAGMENTS OF HUMAN IGM GLOBULINS  

PubMed Central

Papain digestion of two Waldenström IgM globulins produced a high amount of small peptides and resulted in the formation of two end products, the Fabµ and Fcµ fragments. The Fcµ fragment is characterized by a fast electrophoretic mobility, a high content in carbohydrate, and a high molecular weight. It was demonstrated that this fragment is made of heavy chain pieces belonging to several disulfide-linked monomeric subunits, presumably representing the carboxy-terminal end of the µ-chains. Fc fragments from the two macroglobulins could not be distinguished immunologically. An appreciable proportion of IgM molecules apparently underwent degradation without the formation of a stable Fc fragment. An Fc-like fragment, analogous to the reduced Fc fragment, was obtained at early stages of papain digestion of the IgM subunits. The Fabµ fragment, with slow and individually distinct electrophoretic mobility, bears many physicochemical and immunological similarities to the Fab? fragment. It consists of one light chain and one Fd piece, both of which were isolated. The interaction of these two constituents was demonstrated by gel diffusion studies. Fab fragments of both IgM globulins were resolved into two subpopulations with different electric charges. In addition to these fragments, intermediary split products were observed at early stages of the degradation process, together with a high yield of small peptides mainly derived from the papain-sensitive region of the heavy chains. Immunologic data strongly suggested that this segment of µ-chains is situated between the Fd piece and the portion included in the Fc fragment. Several experiments indicated the importance of conformational antigenic specificity in both Fab and Fc regions of the IgM globulins.

Mihaesco, Constantin; Seligmann, Maxime

1968-01-01

351

Protein Microchips: Use for Immunoassay and Enzymatic Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 × 100 × 20-?m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen–antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection

Pavel Arenkov; Alexander Kukhtin; Anne Gemmell; Sergey Voloshchuk; Valentina Chupeeva; Andrei Mirzabekov

2000-01-01

352

Cloning, expression and evaluation of diagnostic potential of recombinant capsid protein based IgM ELISA for chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

The resurgence of chikungunya virus in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic with unusual clinical severity after a gap of 32 years is a point of major public health concern. Definitive diagnosis is critical in differentiating the disease, especially in dengue endemic areas. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for diagnosis of chikungunya infection. However IgM ELISA based on whole virus antigen is associated with biohazard risk. The present study describes the development and evaluation of recombinant capsid protein based indirect IgM antibody capture micro plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid and accurate diagnosis of chikungunya infection. The gene coding for capsid protein was cloned in frame with GST tag in pET41a+ vector and expressed in E. coli followed by purification with affinity chromatography. The comparative evaluation of in-house chikungunya IgM ELISA vis-a-vis commercially available SD ELISA kit with 90 chikungunya suspected acute phase human patient serum samples revealed 97% accordance. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the reported capsid protein based IgM ELISA was 100% and 95% respectively with 96% PPV and 100% NPV. These findings clearly demonstrated the usefulness of the recombinant capsid protein based CHIKV IgM ELISA for reliable clinical diagnosis of CHIKV infection in human patient. PMID:24681089

Priya, Raj; Khan, Mohsin; Rao, M Kameswara; Parida, Manmohan

2014-07-01

353

The IGM Project: Searching For IGM Emission Over 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission

Christopher D. Martin; M. Matuszewski; S. Rahman; P. Morrissey; A. Moore; D. Schiminovich; B. Milliard; S. Frank; J. Deharveng; C. Peroux

2011-01-01

354

Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

Ullman, Edwin F.

1999-06-01

355

A duplexed microsphere-based fluorescent immunoassay.  

PubMed

Microsphere-based immunoassays are described for the simultaneous measurement of the clinically important drugs digoxin and theophylline. Competitive immunoassays were performed using haptenized microspheres and antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Enzyme-catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) resulted in immunofluorescence signal amplification. Two encoding dyes were used to differentiate analytical signals from microspheres containing assays for the two analytes. An epifluorescence microscope and a CCD camera interfaced with a computer were utilized to measure fluorescence signals of individual microspheres. The microspheres from a duplexed assay were mounted on microscope slides as well as inserted into wells etched into the distal ends of optical imaging fibers. Fluorescence images from both formats were captured. In the experiments using microscope slides, the immunoassays were successfully duplexed and only marginal interferences at high analyte concentrations were observed. Preliminary results suggest that simultaneous determination of the two analytes using a fiber-based sensor-array format is feasible, but requires further development before precise quantitative analyses are possible. PMID:11401295

Szurdoki, F; Michael, K L; Walt, D R

2001-04-15

356

Multiplex Electrochemical Immunoassay Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes and Immunochromatographic Strips  

SciTech Connect

We describe a multiplex electrochemical immunoassay based on the use of gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) probes and immunochromatographic strips (ISs). The approach takes advantage of the speed and low cost of the conventional IS tests and the high sensitivities of the nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays. Rabbit IgG(R-IgG) and human IgM (H-IgM) were used as model targets for the demonstration of the proof of concept. The Au-NPs based sandwich immunoreactions were performed on the IS, and the captured gold nanoparticle labels on the test zones were determined by highly-sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved gold ions (III) with a carbon paste electrode. The detection limits are 1.0 and 1.5 ng/mL with the linear ranges of 2.5-250 ng/mL for quantitative detection of R-IgG and H-IgM, respectively. The total assay time is around 25 minutes. Such multiplex electrochemical immunoassay could be readily highly multiplexed to allow simultaneous parallel detection of numerous proteins and is expected to open new opportunities for protein diagnostics and biosecurity.

Mao, Xun; Baloda, Meenu; Gurung, Anant; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong

2008-10-20

357

Clinical and Immunological Features in IgM Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: IgM deficiency is a dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by isolated low levels of serum IgM. Patients with IgM deficiency may exhibit various clinical manifestations. However, IgM deficiency still remains to be explored with regard to diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Through a retrospective chart review, we investigated the clinical and immunological features of 15 symptomatic adult IgM-deficient patients who were referred to

Leman Yel; Srinivasan Ramanuja; Sudhir Gupta

2009-01-01

358

Preparation of Horseradish Peroxidase Hydrazide and Its Use in Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) hydrazide that is HRP linked to adipic acid dihydrazide (HRP-ADH) and its use in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is described. In this new strategy, horseradish peroxidase was conjugated to adipic acid dihydrazide using a carbodiimide coupling method. The resulting HRP-ADH was then coupled to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (Cortisol-21-HS) to prepare enzyme conjugate. The prepared cortisol-21-HS coupled ADH-HRP (Cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP)

Tulsidas G. Shrivastav

2003-01-01

359

Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.  

SciTech Connect

Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

2000-02-15

360

Interferon-alpha for IgM nephropathy?  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) nephropathy is an idiopathic glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial deposits of IgM. IgM nephropathy presenting with proteinuria, especially nephrotic syndrome, frequently is steroid-dependent or steroidresistant and associated with reaching endstage renal disease after a 15-year follow-up. Because no long-term effective treatment is known for patients with IgM nephropathy, there is a clear need for therapeutic alternatives. We describe a patient with IgM nephropathy represented by recurrence of nephrotic syndrome who achieved longterm remission with interferon-alpha sustained treatment. PMID:23380390

Liu, Sha; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qidong; Liu, Wenhu

2014-08-01

361

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipolytic Enzymes as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB) burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452) as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. Methods Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. Results A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. Conclusion These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent biomarkers providing high sensitivity and specificity levels for the immunodiagnosis of active TB.

Brust, Belinda; Lecoufle, Melanie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Dedieu, Luc; Canaan, Stephane; Valverde, Viviane; Kremer, Laurent

2011-01-01

362

Effects of some hematological parameters on whole blood tacrolimus concentration measured by two immunoassay-based analytical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Tacrolimus (FK506) is a potent immunosuppressive drug used for prevention of rejection following transplantation. Several methods including immunoassays have been used for monitoring tacrolimus levels. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of various hematological parameters on whole blood tacrolimus concentrations which were measured with two different analytical methods, namely the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA II)

S. Halide Akbas; Sebahat Ozdem; Serkan Caglar; Murat Tuncer; Alihan Gurkan; Levent Yucetin; Yesim Senol; Alper Demirbas; Meral Gultekin; F. Fevzi Ersoy; Mustafa Akaydin

2005-01-01

363

Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

2007-07-01

364

Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

1995-06-01

365

Analytical Performance and Clinical Utility of a Sensitive Immunoassay for Determination of Human Cardiac Troponin I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the serum and plasma level of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) resulting from myocardial damage, we have developed a sensitive and specific one-step enzyme immunoassay to measure cardiac troponin I.Design and Methods: The COBAS® cTnI assay is a semi-automated one-step solid phase immunoassay compatible with the COBAS® Core. The assay is performed in a sandwich type format

Eric Davies; Yehia Gawad; Miyoko Takahashi; Quinwei Shi; Philip Lam; Garth Styba; Arthur Lau; Christopher Heeschen; Magdalena Usategui; George Jackowski

1997-01-01

366

Pediatric Selective IgM Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. Limited information exists on features of pediatric Selective IgM immunodeficiency (SIgMID). Previously published pediatric cases and 2 new cases are reviewed. Methods. English literature from PubMed and references from relevant articles were reviewed. Previously reported cases and 2 new cases from an allergy/immunology practice were analyzed. Results. Forty-nine reported cases of SIgMID presented with respiratory infections (77.6%), gastrointestinal disease (16.3%), skin disease (12.2%), and meningitis (8.2%). Mean serum IgM level was 16.5 ± 13.8 mg/dL. Two patients were identified with SIgMID among 6300 active pediatric patients (0.03%) presenting with asthma, vasomotor rhinitis, and recurrent respiratory infections. In the 51 cases reported, none developed lymphoproliferative disease nor evolved into panhypogammaglobulinemia; four fatalities were reported. Conclusions. The prevalence of SIgMID in our pediatric population was 0.03%. In general, respiratory infections are the common comorbid conditions. Death and autoimmune disease are uncommon complications of pediatric SIgMID.

Goldstein, Marc F.; Goldstein, Alex L.; Dunsky, Eliot H.; Dvorin, Donald J.; Belecanech, George A.; Shamir, Kfir

2008-01-01

367

EVALUATION OF A NEW IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The minor ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used as a sensitive and specific test for recent alcohol consumption with clinical and forensic applications. This study evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay (DRI-EtG EIA, Microgenics Corp.) for determination of the EtG concentration in urine samples. Methods: Evaluation was done using the kit calibrators (range 0-5.0 mg\\/L) and controls, an external

OLOF BECK; ANDERS HELANDER

2007-01-01

368

Method and Apparatus for Gel Electrophoretic Immunoassay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic s...

A. E. Herr A. K. Singh D. J. Throckmorton

2005-01-01

369

Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV?

Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

2011-07-01

370

Field Analytic Technologies: Immunoassay and Enzymatic Assays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a discussion of immunoassays in the context of testing for environmental contaminants, including a fairly detailed explanation of how immunoassays are conducted and advantages and limitations in the analysis of environmental problems. There is also a discussion of analytical concerns - interferences, limits of detection, accuracy and precision, calibrating immunoassays, etc.

2011-06-01

371

ELEGANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Immunochemical methods are based on selective antibodies directed to a particular target analyte. The specific binding between antibody and analyte can be used for detection and quantitation. Methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can provide a sensitiv...

372

Two distinct monoclonal antibodies raised against mouse beta nerve growth factor. Generation of bi-specific anti-nerve growth factor anti-horseradish peroxidase antibodies for use in a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Two hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against mouse beta nerve growth factor (NGF) were obtained from the fusion of hyperimmune splenocytes from rats immunized with polymerized beta-NGF and Sp2/0.Ag mouse myeloma cells. The monoclonal antibodies coded IgG 24 and 30 produced and secreted by the hybrid cells are both of the IgG2a subclass. Both monoclonal antibodies are capable of recognizing native NGF coated on microassay plates as well as the denatured factor on Western blots. However, only IgG 30 has been found to block NGF-induced process outgrowth from the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) as well as NGF-induced increase in choline acetyltransferase activity in rat primary septal cell cultures. In addition, only IgG 30 was able to detect immunocytochemically NGF-immunoreactive sites in fixed tissue. And, finally, IgG 24 could not compete for IgG 30 binding to immobilized native NGF. Consequently, it appears that these antibodies are recognizing different epitopes on the NGF molecule. Neither monoclonal antibody displayed any crossreactivity with serum albumin, aprotinin, epidermal growth factor or insulin. A hybrid-hybridoma producing bi-specific anti-NGF anti-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) monoclonal antibodies was generated from the fusion of an azaguanine resistant anti-HRP hybridoma, coded RAP2.Ag and the anti-NGF IgG 30 hybridoma treated with emetine. The potential merits of using these bi-specific antibodies in combination with their mono-specific anti-NGF parent in a homogeneous sandwich immunoassay for the quantitation of NGF are discussed. PMID:1999653

Kenigsberg, R L; Elliott, P J; Cuello, A C

1991-02-15

373

Europium Nanoparticle-Based High Performing Immunoassay for the Screening of Treponemal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p?=?0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies.

Talha, Sheikh M.; Hytonen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

2013-01-01

374

Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.  

PubMed

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p=0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies. PMID:24386329

Talha, Sheikh M; Hytönen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

2013-01-01

375

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LENGTH LINKER CONTAINING DHEA-7-CMO-ENZYME CONJUGATES ON SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF DHEA-3-HS-ANTIBOY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced different homobifunctional spacers having varying atomic length (3 to 10) between enzyme and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) moiety and studied their effects on functional parameters like sensitivity and specificity of DHEA enzyme immunoassays. DHEA-3-hemisuccinate–bovine

Tulsidas G. Shrivastav; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran P. Kariya; Rita Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Parul Jain; Suryakant Karwar; Jyoti Uyake; Bhavana Deshmukh

2011-01-01

376

Generation of a novel high-affinity monoclonal antibody with conformational recognition epitope on human IgM.  

PubMed

As IgM is the first isotype of antibody which appears in blood after initial exposure to a foreign antigen in the pattern of primary response, detection, and quantification of this molecule in blood seems invaluable. To approach these goals, generation, and characterization of a highly specific mAb (monoclonal antibody) against human IgM were investigated. Human IgM immunoglobulins were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using PEG (polyethylene glycol, MW 1450) as fusogen. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT containing medium and supernatants from the growing hybrids were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using plates coated with pure human IgM and the positive wells were then cloned at limiting dilutions. The best clone designated as MAN-1, was injected intraperitoneally to some Pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgM mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by protein-G sepharose followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. MAN-1 interacted with human IgM with a very high specificity and affinity. The purity of the sample was tested by SDS-PAGE and the affinity constant was measured (K(a) = 3.5 x 10(9)M(-1). Immunoblotting and competitive ELISA were done and the results showed that the harvested antibody recognizes a conformational epitope on the mu chain of human IgM and there was no cross-reactivity with other subclasses of immunoglobulins. Furthermore, isotyping test was done and the results showed the subclass of the obtained mAb which was IgG(1)kappa. PMID:20162378

Sarikhani, Sina; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Mirshahi, Tooran

2010-11-01

377

Methods for Purifying and Detecting IgM Antibodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods and kits for purifying and detecting IgM antibodies employ binding substances which are Borellia burgdorferi cells, or cellular or extracellular components obtained or derived therefrom and which bind to this class of antibodies. The binding subst...

D. W. Dorward E. D. Huguenel G. Davis C. F. Garon

1992-01-01

378

A subtype-specific peptide-based enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to the G protein of human respiratory syncytial virus is more sensitive than routine serological tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides deduced from the central conserved region (residues 158 to 189) of protein G of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) subtypes A and B were used as antigens in subtype-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (G-peptide ELISAs). These G-peptide ELISAs were compared with seven other serological assays to detect HRSV infection: ELISAs based on complete protein G, on fusion protein F, and

J. P. M. Langedijk; A. H. Brandenburg; W. G. J. Middel; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. H. Meloen; Oirschot van J. T

1997-01-01

379

Multiplex immunoassay platforms based on shape-coded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel microparticles incorporating acrylic acid.  

PubMed

A suspension protein microarray was developed using shape-coded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microparticles for potential applications in multiplex and high-throughput immunoassays. A simple photopatterning process produced various shapes of hydrogel micropatterns that were weakly bound to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated substrates. These micropatterns were easily detached from substrates during the washing process and were collected as non-spherical microparticles. Acrylic acids were incorporated into hydrogels, which could covalently immobilize proteins onto their surfaces due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The amount of immobilized protein increased with the amount of acrylic acid due to more available carboxyl groups. Saturation was reached at 25% v/v of acrylic acid. Immunoassays with IgG and IgM immobilized onto hydrogel microparticles were successfully performed with a linear concentration range from 0 to 500 ng/mL of anti-IgG and anti-IgM, respectively. Finally, a mixture of two different shapes of hydrogel microparticles immobilizing IgG (circle) and IgM (square) was prepared and it was demonstrated that simultaneous detection of two different target proteins was possible without cross-talk using same fluorescence indicator because each immunoassay was easily identified by the shapes of hydrogel microparticles. PMID:22969408

Park, Saemi; Lee, Hyun Jong; Koh, Won-Gun

2012-01-01

380

Evaluation of immunoassays for the measurement of erythropoietin (EPO) as an indirect biomarker of recombinant human EPO misuse in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of serum erythropoietin (EPO) has been proposed as one of the indirect biomarkers for the detection of recombinant human EPO misuse in sport. An extended inter-laboratory validation of two commercial immunoassays for EPO measurement is described. A chemiluminescent immunoassay kit (CHEM) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA) were evaluated.The CHEM assay showed intra-laboratory precision better than 6%

Rosario Abellan; Rosa Ventura; Simona Pichini; Angel Francisco Remacha; Jose Antonio Pascual; Roberta Pacifici; Rita Di Giovannandrea; Piergiorgio Zuccaro; Jordi Segura

2004-01-01

381

Protective Roles of Natural IgM Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Antibodies are a vital part of the armamentarium of the adaptive immune system for the fine-tuning of the recognition and response to foreign threats. However, in health there are some types of antibodies that instead recognize self-antigens and these contribute to the enhancement of primitive innate functions. This repertoire of natural IgM antibodies is postulated to have been selected during immune evolution for their contributions to critical immunoregulatory and housekeeping properties. The clearance of dying cells is one of the most essential responsibilities of the immune system, which is required to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. In the murine immune system, natural IgM antibodies that recognize apoptotic cells have been shown to enhance the phagocytic clearance of dead and dying cells and to suppress innate immune signaling pathways. In the mouse, natural IgM are often the products of B-1 cell clones that arise during immune development without an absolute requirement for exogenous antigenic stimulation. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, IgM autoantibodies, which bind to neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells, have been demonstrated to be present at significantly higher levels in patients with lower disease activity and with less severe organ damage. While certain specificities of IgM autoantibodies correlate with protection from lupus renal disease, others may convey protective properties from lupus-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New and unexpected insights into the functional roles of IgM antibodies are still emerging, especially regarding the functions of natural antibodies. Herein, we review recent progress in our understanding of the potential roles of natural IgM autoantibodies in the regulation of immune homeostasis and for protection from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Gronwall, Caroline; Vas, Jaya; Silverman, Gregg J.

2012-01-01

382

Immunoassay standards for polyaromatic hydrocarbon detection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An immunoassay directed at certain analytes that are polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such that the immunoreactive standard used for assay calibration allows the creation of calibration solutions of superior stability.

1998-07-14

383

Graphene-based immunoassay for human lipocalin-2.  

PubMed

We have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay using graphene nano platelets (GNPs) for the rapid detection of human lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in plasma, serum, and whole blood. It has the dynamic range, linear range, limit of detection, and analytical sensitivity of 0.6 to 5120, 80 to 2560, 0.7, and 1pg/ml, respectively. It is the most sensitive assay for the detection of LCN2, which has 80-fold higher analytical sensitivity and 3-fold lesser immunoassay duration than the commercially available sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The functionalization of microtiter plate (MTP) with GNPs, dispersed in 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), provided the increased surface area that leads to higher immobilization density of capture antibodies. Moreover, the generation of free amino groups on MTP and GNPs by APTES enables the leach-proof covalent crosslinking of anti-human LCN2 capture antibody by its carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as the heterobifunctional crosslinker. The anti-LCN2 antibody-bound MTPs were highly stable given that they did not show any significant decrease in their functional activity when stored at 4°C in 0.1M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 8weeks. The developed immunoassay correlated well with the conventional ELISA, thereby demonstrating its high precision and potential utility for highly sensitive analyte detection in industrial and clinical settings. PMID:24161611

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar

2014-02-01

384

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae specific immunoglobulin M  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ELISA was developed for the detection of IgM antibodies toMycoplasma pneumoniae in human sera, using microtiter plates coated with rabbit antiserum to human IgM selecting for IgM antibodies in the first reaction step. The specific antibodies were detected using enzyme-labelled, detergent-solubilized antigen. The complement fixation test was used as reference method. In a prospective study of 59 patients with

L. Hirschberg I; A. Krook; C.-A. Pettersson; T. Vikerfors

1988-01-01

385

Invalidation of a commercially available human 5?-dihydrotestosterone immunoassay.  

PubMed

Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are commonly utilized for the evaluation of androgens in biological fluids; however, careful consideration must be given to cross-reactivity with other endogenous sex-steroid hormones. Our purpose was to determine the validity of a commonly-utilized commercially-available dihydrotestosterone (DHT) EIA. Serum samples obtained from older hypogonadal men who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) or vehicle in combination with finasteride (5mg/day) or placebo were assayed for DHT via EIA and using a validated gold-standard LC-MS/MS approach. Additionally, commercially-available (DHT-free) buffer containing graded testosterone doses was evaluated by DHT immunoassay. DHT concentrations measured via EIA were 79% to >1000% higher than values obtained by LC-MS/MS (p<0.05), with the largest differences (415-1128%) occuring in groups receiving finasteride. Both LC-MS/MS and EIA indicated that testosterone-enanthate increased serum DHT to a similar magnitude. In contrast, finasteride-induced reductions in DHT were detected by LC-MS/MS, but not EIA (p<0.05). No significant associations were present for DHT concentrations between measurement techniques. Cross-reactivity of testosterone with the immunoassay ranged from 18% to 99% and DHT concentrations measured by EIA were highly associated with the spiked testosterone concentrations in DHT-free buffer (r=0.885, p<0.001). In conclusion, we provide evidence invalidating a commonly-utilized commercially-available DHT immunoassay because significant cross-reactivity exists between testosterone and the EIA and because the changes in DHT observed via EIA were not associated with a validated gold-standard measurement technique. The cross-reactivity of testosterone is particularly concerning because testsoterone is present in 100-fold greater concentrations than is DHT within the circulation. PMID:24012740

Yarrow, Joshua F; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Beggs, Luke A; Goldberger, Bruce A; Borst, Stephen E

2013-12-11

386

ENA screen chemiluminescence immunoassay: a random access method in autoimmunology.  

PubMed

Recently, autoimmunity, due to an increase in examination requests, has become an independent area of laboratory research, which needs management optimization in terms of quality, time, and flexibility. Therefore, we have evaluated the screening of extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies both with a chemiluminescence immunoassay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which was used in our laboratory, as a reference kit. The most important difference between these two methods is the possibility of processing serum samples with a random access system, which is different from batch methods. PMID:17785312

Signorini, S; Kutschera, I; Capuano, F; Lattuada, L

2007-08-01

387

Comparison of chemiluminescent and chromogenic substrates of alkaline phosphatase in a direct immunoassay for plasma estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colorimetric and chemiluminescent determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in a direct enzyme immunoassay of the competitive type for determination of estradiol-17? (E2) in human plasma or serum were compared. In this assay biotin-labeled E2 and E2 from standard or patient samples compete for free antibody-binding sites. Antibody-bound E2-biotin is then reacted with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase. Enzyme activity in the bound

J. De boever; A. Mares; G. Stans; E. Bosmans; F. Kohen

1995-01-01

388

?-D-glucosidase assisted gold dissolution as non-optical and quantifiable detection technique for immunoassays.  

PubMed

Immunoassays are used for detecting protein targets for various applications. Here, a modification of immunoassays to allow a purely electrical detection of the target protein concentration is shown. The modification comprises a ?-D-glucosidase as reporter enzyme and a cyanogenic glycoside as substrate. The enzymatic reaction produces cyanide in small quantities. For electrical detection of the cyanide, a novel sensor is developed, based on a gold micro wire. The cyanide dissolves the gold wire and changes the electrical resistance of the wire. Monitoring the resistance change allows a quantitative measurement of the target human C-reactive protein (an inflammatory marker) in blood plasma in the physiological relevant concentration range. PMID:23670861

Koehler, F M; Raso, R A; Grass, R N; Stark, W J

2013-12-01

389

Amperometric homogeneous competitive immunoassay in a perfluorocarbon emulsion oxygen therapeutic (PEOT).  

PubMed

The effect of a perfluorocarbon emulsion oxygen therapeutic (PEOT) on the detection of the drugs theophylline and phenytoin was explored using a commercial enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT®). The EMIT technique is based on the enzymatic production of NADH, which is typically detected in serum samples spectrophotometrically. Here, amperometry using the rotating disk electrode on a single drop of solution is demonstrated to detect theophylline and phenytoin in the presence of PEOT. In the study, 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) added to the immunoassay mixture is reduced by the NADH to DCIPH2. Oxidation of DCIPH2 is monitored electrochemically at +200 mV using a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode. Slopes of amperograms are proportional to the concentration of drug in the immunoassay sample. This technique yields excellent quantitative data in the therapeutic range for both drugs in 2-20% PEOT. PMID:23104312

Barlag, Rebecca E; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

2013-04-01

390

Preprogrammed, parallel on-chip immunoassay using system-level capillarity control.  

PubMed

Fully manual use of conventional multiwell plates makes enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunoassays highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we present a capillarity-driven on-chip immunoassay that greatly saves time and labor with an inexpensive setup. Our immunoassay process starts with pipetting multiple solutions into multiwells constructed on a microfluidic device chip. Subsequently, capillarity spontaneously transports multiple sample solutions and common reagent solutions into assigned detection channels on the chip in a purely passive and preprogrammed manner. Our device implements capillarity-driven immunoassays involving four sample and six reagent solutions within 30 min by orchestrating the functions of on-chip passive components. Notably, our immunoassay technique reduces the total number of pipetting processes by ~5 times, as compared to assays on multiwell plates (48 vs 10). This assay technique allows us to quantify the concentrations of C-reactive protein and suppressor of tumorigenicity 2 with a detection limit of 8 and 90 pM, respectively. This device should be useful for sophisticated, parallel biochemical microfluidic processing in point-of-care settings under limited resources. PMID:23789820

Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

2013-07-16

391

Factors predicting transformation of asymptomatic IgM monoclonal gammopathy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the risk of transformation of asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy (aIgM MG) into symptomatic lymphoproliferative disease in 287 patients all analyzed for bone marrow histopathology and immunophenotyping. This series included 201 patients with IgM MG of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) and 86 with smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (sWM). After a median of 50 months (range, 12-322 months), 32 cases of aIgM-MG (11.1%) evolved into symptomatic malignant lymphoproliferative disease, as follows: symptomatic WM (n=26), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=6). The cumulative transformation percentage at 5 and 10 years was 8% and 19.5%, respectively. The parameters significantly correlated with evolution were, at univariate analysis, BM lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum MC, serum IgM size, and serum IgA size. Among patients with aIgM-MG, those at high risk of evolution were patients with sWM, a distinct entity with serum IgM monoclonal protein?3 g/dL and/or ?10% bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. PMID:21454196

Greco, Antonino; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Varettoni, Marzia; Nichelatti, Michele; Paris, Laura; Ricci, Francesca; Vismara, Eleonora; Morra, Enrica

2011-02-01

392

Preparation of horseradish peroxidase hydrazide and its use in immunoassay.  

PubMed

Preparation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) hydrazide that is HRP linked to adipic acid dihydrazide (HRP-ADH) and its use in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is described. In this new strategy, horseradish peroxidase was conjugated to adipic acid dihydrazide using a carbodiimide coupling method. The resulting HRP-ADH was then coupled to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (Cortisol-21-HS) to prepare enzyme conjugate. The prepared cortisol-21-HS coupled ADH-HRP (Cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP) enzyme conjugate was used for the development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct estimation of cortisol. To the cortisol antibody coated microtiter wells, standard or serum samples (50 microL), along with cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP enzyme conjugate (100 microL) were incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Bound enzyme activity was measured by using tetramethyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H2O2) as substrate. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.05 microg/dL and the analytical recovery ranged from 92.9 to 101.7%. PMID:12953974

Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

2003-01-01

393

Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

2000-03-01

394

Microtransferrinuria and microalbuminuria: enhanced immunoassay.  

PubMed

An enhanced-sensitivity immunoassay for urinary microtransferrin and microalbumin was devised based on protein precipitation with cold trichloroacetic acid followed by dissolution of the precipitate in a small volume of phosphate buffer. Samples can be concentrated 10-fold by this method while at the same time removing many of the chromogens present in urine. Concentrated samples were assayed by immunoturbidity and radial immunodiffusion. The average recovery for urinary microtransferrin was 82 percent and for microalbumin 91 percent. The reference range for 80 normal adults for microtransferrinuria and microalbuminuria is 0 to 0.9 and 5 to 32 mg per g creatinine, respectively. The same method can be used for the assay of other proteins such as B2-microglobulin in the urine or the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:2513769

McCormick, C P; Shihabi, Z K; Konen, J C

1989-01-01

395

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked hyper IgM syndrome On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2013 What is X-linked hyper IgM syndrome? X-linked hyper IgM ...

396

Monoclonal Antibody Based Enzyme Immunoassay for Marihuana (Cannabinoid) Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAb against ?-THCA was produced by fusing hybridoma with splenocytes immunized with ?-THCA-BSA conjugate and hypoxanthine, aminopterine, thymidine-sensitive mouse myeloma cell line, P3-X63-Ag8-653. The cross-reaction of anti-?-THCA antibody against other cannabinoids was very wide, thus many cannabinoids and a spiro-compound were reactive suggesting that 2?-hydroxyl, 6?-hydroxyl or 6?-O-alkyl, 4?-alkylbenzene ring moiety is necessary for its reactivity. It became evident that

Hiroyuki Tanaka; Yuri Goto; Yukihiro Shoyama

1996-01-01

397

Performance of the BioPlex 2200 flow immunoassay in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a recently developed multiplex analyzer that enables the detection of anti-Toxoplasma, -rubella, and -cytomegalovirus antibodies in the same assay. The aim of this study was to compare this new technology (using the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG/IgM kit) in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis (acute, chronic, or congenital infections and cases with discrepant results) to the technologies used in our routine practice, i.e., the Platelia IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the Toxo-Screen direct agglutination assay (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Overall, most cases of false-positive/negative results obtained with the Platelia IgG or Toxo-Screen assay were corrected by the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG (87.5%). Furthermore, the analysis of 35 sequences of sera showed a trend toward a more rapid decrease of IgM titers by BioPlex 2200 than by Platelia. These results for IgM detection can be explained by a weaker detection of residual IgM. Indeed, among 23 serum samples from patients with probable past infection with long-lasting IgM (Platelia M positive and IgG avidity index, ?0.5), the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma IgM assay was positive for only 11 serum samples. In our panel of critical cases comprising 156 serum and 6 cord blood samples from 103 patients with acute, chronic, or congenital infection, the BioPlex 2200 IgG assay was a sensitive (97.8%) and specific (91.3%) method for IgG detection. The high specificity (97.4%) of IgM detection combined with the shorter kinetics of IgM titers may considerably reduce the number of residual IgM detections, thus yielding more precise diagnoses of acute infections. PMID:24477853

Guigue, Nicolas; Menotti, Jean; Hamane, Samia; Derouin, Francis; Garin, Yves Jean-François

2014-04-01

398

The Legacy HST Data Set of IGM Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to analyze the E230M STIS spectra of 9 quasars to derive physical properties of the Lyman alpha forest lines in the redshift range z=0.9 to 1.6. These quasars were originally observed to measure deuterium in metal line systems or to study the detailed kinematics of metal absorption lines systems to compare to ground based studies. To date, no analysis of the Lyman alpha forest has been published for these spectra. We will combine the archive data with data of 7 other quasars we have observed ourselves with the E230M, and two quasars with published line lists, to derive the properties of the IGM. The spectra will be reduced, coadded, continua fit, lines identified and Voigt profiles fit to Lyman alpha forest lines using techniques and code developed for our previous work. The physical characteristics of the final sample will be compared to the expected properties derived from analysis of simulations of the IGM. Comparison between the properties at z~1 and those at higher redshifts accessible from the ground can test whether structure in the Lyman alpha forest is evolving in the manner predicted by gravitational instability theories. We will combine the HST absorption data with deep multiband imaging and galaxy redshifts from ground-based programs underway to study the evolution of the IGM and its relationship to the evolution of star-formation in galaxies.

Bechtold, Jill

2004-07-01

399

Anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance proteins using quantum dot aggregated hollow microspheres.  

PubMed

A new anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol for detection of IgG1, as a model protein, was designed by using CdS quantum dot (QD) layer-by-layer assembled hollow microspheres (QDHMS) as molecular tags. Initially, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 specific antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic beads preferably selective to capture F(ab) of IgG1 analyte from the sample. For detection, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 (F(c)-specific) antibodies were covalently coupled to the synthesized QDHMS. In a sandwich-type immunoassay format, subsequent anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of cadmium released under acidic conditions from the coupled QDs was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode. The immunoassay combines highly efficient magnetic separation with signal amplification by the multilayered QD labels. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 1.0?fg?mL(-1) to 1.0??g?mL(-1) of IgG1 with a detection limit of 0.1?fg?mL(-1). The electrochemical immunoassay showed good reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. The analysis of clinical serum specimens revealed good accordance with the results obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The new immunoassay is promising for enzyme-free, and cost-effective analysis of low-abundance biomarkers. PMID:23292875

Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

2013-02-11

400

Serological Responses to Experimental Norwalk Virus Infection Measured Using a Quantitative Duplex Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay ?  

PubMed Central

A quantitative duplex time-resolved fluorescence assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA), was developed to measure Norwalk virus (NV)-specific IgA and IgG antibodies simultaneously. The duplex assay showed superior performance by detecting seroconversion following experimental NV infection at an earlier time point than a reference total immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Kavanagh, Owen; Estes, Mary K.; Reeck, Amanda; Raju, Ravikiran M.; Opekun, Antone R.; Gilger, Mark A.; Graham, David Y.; Atmar, Robert L.

2011-01-01

401

EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

402

A monoclonal immunoassay for the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants with diverse toxic, teratogenic, reproductive, immunotoxic, and tumorigenic effects. Three of the least abundant of the 209 PCB isomers (congeners) are the most toxic and most difficult to quantify. These are 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,4,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl, and 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IU-PAC No. 77, 126, and 169, respectively). An immunizing hapten was designed to retain the 3,4,3',4' chlorine-substitution pattern and coplanarity characteristic of these toxic congeners. The optimal competitors for immunoassay were weaker binding distinctive single-ring fragments of the PCBs. A monoclonal antibody designated S2B1 was derived and used in direct (antibody-capture) competitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The EIAs are highly specific for non-ortho-substituted congeners and do not recognize the more prevalent but much less toxic noncoplanar PCB congeners or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, or dichlorobenzenes. Hapten and competitor design for this assay suggests a basis for development of sensitive EIAs for other classes of PCB congeners. PMID:8633754

Chiu, Y W; Carlson, R E; Marcus, K L; Karu, A E

1995-11-01

403

Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

2013-01-01

404

Fluorescence polarization immunoassay for zidovudine.  

PubMed

We report a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for zidovudine (azidothymidine; Retrovir). This assay is accurate and specific over the clinically relevant range of zidovudine concentrations in serum (from 1 to 1,250 ng/ml; from 0.004 to 4.8 microM) and is unaffected by potentially interfering compounds in the sera of patients with renal or hepatic failure. Cross-reactivity with structural analogs of zidovudine (including zidovudine glucuronide) is less than 0.05%, except for cross-reactivities of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% with 3-methylthymidine, 3',5'-dideoxythymidine, and A22U (the optical isomer of zidovudine), respectively. The FPIA for zidovudine is more sensitive and more specific than high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); it requires 50 to 60 or 200 versus 500 microliters of serum and is faster to perform (45 specimens per h with the FPIA versus 3 specimens per h with HPLC). The zidovudine FPIA compares well with the radioimmunoassay. A correlation coefficient of 0.992 was observed with 31 serum specimens examined by both methods. All three assays (FPIA, radioimmunoassay, and HPLC) are unaffected by the heat treatment used to inactivate human immunodeficiency virus. The zidovudine FPIA should be particularly useful for analyzing specimens from large numbers of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving zidovudine in current clinical trials. PMID:2679372

Granich, G G; Eveland, M R; Krogstad, D J

1989-08-01

405

Evaluation of a New Commercially Available Immunoglobulin M Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the FDA-cleared InBios dengue virus (DENV) IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for qualitative detection of anti-DENV IgM antibodies from 79 serum samples obtained from dengue virus-infected patients or suspected dengue cases. The agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the InBios assay compared to the gold standard in-house DENV IgM capture ELISA were 94, 92, and 94%, respectively. We conclude that the InBios DENV IgM capture ELISA can be effectively used for rapid diagnosis of acute or recent DENV infection.

Namekar, Madhuri; Ellis, Esther M.; O'Connell, Maile; Elm, Joe; Gurary, Alexandra; Park, Sarah Y.; Imrie, Allison

2013-01-01

406

Two-site immunoassay for acetylcholinesterase in brain, nerve, and muscle.  

PubMed

Two-site methods were developed for immunoassay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) in crude extracts of rat and human tissues. A radiometric assay for human AChE utilized a specific monoclonal AChE antibody adsorbed to polystyrene microtiter wells at alkaline pH. AChE bound strongly to this antibody after 24 h at 4 degrees C. Bound enzyme was detected with an 125I-labeled antibody against a different AChE epitope. The assay signal was quasi-linearly related to AChE concentration in purified and crude samples, with a detection threshold near 100 pg. Tetrameric and dimeric AChE behaved equivalently in the assay. Two-site methods with a different pair of species-selective antibodies worked equally well for immunoassay of rat AChE. Assays of the rat enzyme showed that immunoreactivity was lost as rapidly as enzyme activity during heating to 54 degrees C. On the other hand, immunoreactivity was preserved despite loss of enzyme activity after exposure to anticholinesterases or trypsin. A biotinylated second antibody detected by alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated avidin was used to develop an AChE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a sensitivity similar to that of the radiometric assay. Either the ELISA or the radiometric immunoassay may be useful whenever proteolysis or other mechanisms are suspected of dissociating enzyme activity and immunoreactivity. In denervated muscle and ligated peripheral nerve, application of the two-site method showed closely parallel variations in immunoreactivity and enzyme activity. PMID:3298548

Brimijoin, S; Hammond, P; Rakonczay, Z

1987-08-01

407

Avian glycan-specific IgM monoclonal antibodies for the detection and quantitation of type A and B haemagglutinins in egg-derived influenza vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), Y6F5 and Y13F9, were selected during a screening of clones obtained immunising BALB\\/c mice with purified envelop proteins of the A\\/Sydney\\/5\\/97 (H3N2) IVR108 influenza strain. These MAbs recognised avian glycans on the haemagglutinin (HA) of the virus. This broad recognition allowed these MAbs to be used as enzyme-labelled secondary antibody reagents in a strain specific

Isabelle Legastelois; Michel Chevalier; Marie-Clotilde Bernard; Aymeric de Montfort; Martine Fouque; Alexandra Pilloud; Christelle Serraille; Nicolas Devard; Olivier Engel; Régis Sodoyer; Catherine Moste

2011-01-01

408

Evaluation of capture ELISA and rapid immunochromatographic test for the determination of IgM and IgG antibodies produced during dengue infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rapid diagnosis of dengue infection is essential to patient management and disease control. The development of a rapid (5 min) immunochromatographic test and a 2 h commercial capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies may lead to more rapid and accurate testing in peripheral health settings and diagnostic laboratories.Objectives: Evaluate two new commercial tests

S. K Lam; P. L Devine

1998-01-01

409

Standardization of the Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA) for Human Visceral Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dot-ELISA, a rapid, visually read micro enzyme immunoassay for visceral leishmaniasis utilizing minute volumes of antigen dotted on nitrocellulose filter discs and precipitable chromogenic substrate, was analyzed under a variety of experimental parame...

M. G. Pappas R. Hajkowski W. T. Hockmeyer

1984-01-01

410