Sample records for igm enzyme immunoassay

  1. IgG and IgM Antibodies to Rubella Quantitated by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy B. Johnson Jr; Fred C. Jensen; Christopher R. Peter; Robert M. Nakamura

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for rubella antibodies (of IgG, H & L type, IgM-type) is described that requires assay at usually one dilution of serum. Results are reportable in milligrams IgG (or IgM) - equivalents per liter serum and in approximate hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. The method uses purified rubella virus immobilized by a special process in excess, a 16

  2. Selection and performance of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an IgM antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for rubella.

    PubMed

    Chantler, S; Evans, C J

    1986-02-27

    Monoclonal anti-human IgM and anti-rubella antibodies were prepared and tested in an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) for rubella-specific IgM and compared with polyclonal reagents. Assay sensitivity was increased with monoclonal antibodies resulting in the improved discrimination of adult sera with low levels of specific IgM. Despite high IgM binding, interference by IgM anti-Ig was not a major problem. The use of monoclonal antibodies allowed assay simplification by the simultaneous rather than sequential addition of antigen and conjugate. Although comparable results were obtained with 33 test samples in the sequential and simultaneous MACEIA, the specificity and sensitivity of this modification requires further evaluation. PMID:3512718

  3. An enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Kominami, G.; Yamauchi, A.; Ishihara, S.; Kono, M.

    1981-03-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone was developed using betamethasone-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate as a labelled antigen and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as a fluorescence substrate. The performances of the enzyme immunoassay were compared with that of a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-betamethasone and the same antiserum. The minimal detectable level for the enzyme immunoassay was 0.15 pg/tube or 0.15 ng/ml of plasma, which was remarkably more sensitive than the radioimmunoassay level of 10 pg/tube or 2 ng/ml of plasma. The specificity was sufficient, in particular, the cross reactivity of cortisol as 0.008%. However, the precision of the enzyme immunoassay was inferior to that of the radioimmunoassay.

  4. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  5. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  6. Enzyme Immunoassay Detection of Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, N.; Alleman, J. E.; Smith, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    An exploratory effort to selectively detect the presence of a nitrifying bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, successfully demonstrated the fundamental utility of an enzyme-based immunoassay protocol. The applied polyclonal antibody test seemingly offered a marked improvement over the available analytical options, including plating, activity, and fluorescence immunoassay techniques. Following an initial purification step to enhance overall specificity, this procedure had an apparent lower limit of detection of ?5 × 106 cells per ml. Tests conducted with activated sludge samples exhibited a distinct difference between nitrifying and nonnitrifying mixed liquors, although the highest Nitrosomonas levels observed (i.e., at 1 to 2% of the overall viable cell density) were relatively close to the latter detection boundary. PMID:16349287

  7. Multiplex detection of IgM and IgG class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus using a novel multiplex flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma, rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (ToRC) IgG and IgM multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compare the results to those of conventional testing by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). Serum specimens (n = 600) submitted for routine ToRC IgG and IgM testing by EIA (SeraQuest, Doral, FL; Diamedix, Miami, FL) or ELFA (Vidas; bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were also tested by the BioPlex ToRC multiplex immunoassays. Samples showing discordant results were retested by both methods, with further discrepancies being arbitrated by a third assay. Following repeat testing, the BioPlex Toxoplasma, rubella, and CMV IgG assays demonstrated agreements of 98.7 (592/600 specimens), 93.3 (560/600 specimens), and 98.3% (590/600 specimens), respectively, while the ToRC IgM assays yielded agreements of 91.2 (547/600 specimens), 87.3 (524/600 specimens), and 95.2% (571/600 specimens), respectively. The BioPlex ToRC IgG assays provided results comparable to EIA/ELFA results, with kappa coefficients showing near-perfect agreement for the Toxoplasma (? = 0.94) and CMV (? = 0.97) IgG assays and substantial agreement for the rubella IgG assay (? = 0.66). The BioPlex ToRC IgM assays showed lower specificity with only slight agreement for Toxoplasma IgM (? = 0.07), poor agreement for rubella IgM (? = -0.03), and moderate agreement for CMV IgM (? = 0.55). Both the BioPlex IgG and IgM assays reduced turnaround time (1.7 h versus 5.5 h by EIA/ELFA for 100 specimens) and eliminated the necessity to manually pipette or aliquot specimens prior to testing. PMID:20861325

  8. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for measuring leptin.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kohno, Hideki; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is one of the representative adipocyte-derived protein hormones. Measuring the serum leptin concentration gives an important index for preventing and treating diabetes mellitus and other diseases. We constructed in this study a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for measuring leptin by using the anti-leptin polyclonal antibody and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The method applies the IgG-conjugated ferrite particle to capture leptin in a sample and the ALP-conjugated Fab fragment to detect the captured leptin. We tested Block ace, CE510, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for their abilities to block non-specific binding of ALP-conjugated anti-leptin Fab to the ferrite particle and found BSA to be the most effective. The measurable range with this ELISA for leptin was 0.1-1.0 pg/mL of leptin and the detection limit (blank+2SD) was 0.1 pg/mL of leptin. These results demonstrate sufficient sensitivity with our system to measure the serum leptin concentration and its clinical usefulness. The results also suggest that a sensitive enzyme immunoassay can be constructed by using only one polyclonal antibody. PMID:21512229

  9. Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Voller; A Bartlett; D E Bidwell

    1978-01-01

    In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests.

  10. Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

  11. [Present status and future of enzyme immunoassay--hormone].

    PubMed

    Uchimura, H

    1995-09-01

    Recently various non-radioisotopic immunoassays have been developed instead of radioisotopic assay and widely used in the laboratory. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is most popular in use including chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). At present few hormones (thyroid related and gonadotropic hormones) are measured by EIA with semi or full automatic analysers and satisfactory specificity and sensitivity were already obtained. However, most hormones are still measured by RIA or IRMA. EIA for these hormones should be developed. Standardization of reference interval and calibrators would also be needed for the compatibility between different assays. PMID:7474388

  12. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  13. DETECTION OF NORWALK VIRUS IN STOOLS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a solid-phase microtiter enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stool samples is described. The EIA was compared with a previously developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stools obtained from 30 vol...

  14. Enzyme immunoassays as screening tools for catalysts and reaction discovery.

    PubMed

    Créminon, Christophe; Taran, Frédéric

    2015-05-11

    Enzyme immunoassays are incredibly powerful analytical tools for the quantifiable detection of target molecules in complex media. These techniques, which exploit the fantastic specific binding properties of antibodies, are fast, precise, selective and highly sensitive and thus perfectly adapted to high-throughput detection of important analytes. Although immunoassays have been used routinely by biologists for more than 50 years, especially for diagnostic purposes, it is only recently that chemists have used them to address pure chemical problems. In this feature article, we provide an overview of progress in the development of immunoassays and their use in two main fields of organic chemistry: the identification of efficient catalysts in libraries and the discovery of new chemical reactions. PMID:25765583

  15. Comparative evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for the detection of human antibody to Rickettsia typhi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, D J; Chan, C T; Paxton, H; Thompson, K; Howard, R; Dasch, G A

    1995-01-01

    A commercial enzyme immunoassay kit called the Dip-S-Ticks (DS) for the detection of total immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM human antibodies to Rickettsia typhi was evaluated. In tests with 340 serum samples from patients with diagnosed cases of rickettsial diseases, patients suffering from other febrile illnesses, and normal subjects, the DS compared favorably with the standard indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test. At IFA cutoff titers of > or = 1.64 and > or = 1:128, the DS showed sensitivities of 88.2 and 91.4% and specificities of 91.8 and 87.7%, respectively. The DS test correlated significantly with both the IFA IgG (r = 0.84, P < 0.0005) and IgM (r = 0.63, P < 0.0005) titers. Only 80% of IgG and 82% of IgM IFA readings determined by two technicians were within one dilution, while the DS was more reliable, with 100% within one dot. The rapidity, reliability, and simplicity of the DS suggest that it is a suitable test for use in clinical laboratories unable to perform the IFA test. PMID:7664182

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ...

  17. Evaluation of a cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B recombinant enzyme immunoassay to discriminate between a recent and a past infection.

    PubMed

    Sipewa, M J; Goubau, P; Bodéus, M

    2002-10-01

    Fetal damage following cytomegalovirus (CMV) intrauterine infection is mostly linked to primary infection. To differentiate primary infection from nonprimary infection, immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests are not reliable enough, and measurement of the IgG avidity appears to be the method that is the most widely used at present. In the present study the performance of the Vidas (bioMérieux) avidity assay was compared with that of a new enzyme immunoassay based on the use of a recombinant CMV glycoprotein B protein (Biotest). PMID:12354867

  18. Evaluation of third generation anti-HCV enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, A K; Nayak, B; Dixit, R; Acharya, S K; Panda, S K

    1998-01-01

    The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a major cause of post transfusion hepatitis. The introduction of HCV antibody screening has reduced the risk of post transfusion hepatitis significantly. However, the test is yet to be used routinely in blood banks of several developing countries with limited resources. We have developed an Enzyme immunoassay using synthetic peptides. The test was compared to seven commercial tests available in the Indian market. The test was evaluated using a panel of 90 sera which were chosen from an earlier panel based on detection of HCV RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction RT-PCR. In case of any discrepancy the sera were further analysed by Line immunoassay (LIA). The sensitivity of the in house EIA was 90%. The specificity of the commercial EIAs varied. PMID:9828708

  19. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for detecting immunoglobulin M antibodies to Sindbis virus and further evidence that Pogosta disease is caused by a western equine encephalitis complex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H; Meurman, O; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Halonen, P E; Muth, D J

    1985-01-01

    An antibody capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was adapted for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Sindbis (SIN) virus. Sera from humans with a febrile illness characterized by rash and arthralgia in eastern Finland (Pogosta [POG] disease) and Sweden (Ockelbo disease) and from humans with western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus infection in the United States were tested for IgM antibodies by EIA. Seroconversions were documented in patients with POG disease and with WEE virus infections by using SIN virus as antigen and rabbit anti-SIN virus immunoglobulin; this confirms previous observations that POG disease is caused by a virus closely related to SIN virus and that IgM antibodies to WEE complex alphaviruses are not type specific. This IgM EIA provided a sensitive diagnostic and research tool applicable to epidemiologic problems posed by POG disease. PMID:3908469

  20. Novel and sensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune-complex-transfer enzyme immunoassay) for alpha-fetoprotein from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kohno, T; Kitamura, T; Tsuda, K; Ishikawa, E

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein in sera from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was fractionated into three peaks by affinity chromatography on a column of Lens culinaris agglutinin-Sepharose 4B. One peak (the first peak), which passed through the column without adsorption, was found in both healthy subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The second and third peaks were reactive with L. culinaris agglutinin and found only in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. For alpha-fetoprotein in the second and third peaks, a novel and sensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune-complex-transfer enzyme immunoassay) was developed. Alpha-fetoprotein in test serum was reacted with dinitrophenyl affinity-purified anti-alpha-fetoprotein IgG, and the complex formed was trapped onto affinity-purified (antidinitrophenyl bovine serum albumin) IgG-coated polystyrene balls. The polystyrene balls were washed to eliminate substance(s) other than alpha-fetoprotein in the test serum, and the complex was eluted from the polystyrene balls with dinitrophenyl-L-lysine. The eluted complex containing alpha-fetoprotein in the second and third peaks was trapped onto L. culinaris agglutinin-coated polystyrene balls and reacted with affinity-purified anti-alpha-fetoprotein Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate. Beta-D-galactosidase activity bound to the polystyrene balls was assayed by fluorimetry. The maximal volume of serum that could be used without interference was 20 microliters, which was 100-fold larger than that in the previous enzyme immunoassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1693671

  1. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-10-01

    Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

  2. An enzyme immunoassay for determining plasma concentrations of didemnin B.

    PubMed

    Raybould, T J; Grothaus, P G; Simpson, S B; Bignami, G S; Lazo, C B; Newman, R A

    1992-01-01

    Didemnin A was conjugated at the amino terminus of the N-methylleucine residue, via the linkers N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate and trans-1,4-maleimidomethyl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid, to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The didemnin-KLH conjugates were used to hyperimmunize rabbits. The resulting high titer antisera were employed with didemnin-BSA conjugate-coated microtiter plate wells to develop an indirect competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA) that was fully cross reactive with didemnin B. A CIEIA is described that is capable of detecting the drug in plasma from didemnin B-treated patients at concentrations down to 1-3 ng/ml. This simple, sensitive CIEIA has been employed to demonstrate plasma drug clearance profiles with samples from didemnin B-treated patients. PMID:1506980

  3. Quality assurance in immunoassay performance--comparison of different enzyme immunoassays for the determination of caffeine in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Grandke, Julia; Oberleitner, Lidia; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2013-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays with optical detection are amongst the most widely used bioanalytical tools. We defined seven parameters for the quality assessment of immunoassays that were addressed in a systematic study of direct and indirect immunoassays, using the enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), the chromogenic substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and para-nitrophenyl phosphate, and the fluorescent substrates 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The same monoclonal antibody against caffeine was used throughout the study. The four quality parameters regarding the standard curve were the test midpoint (sensitivity), the measurement range, the relative dynamic range of the signal, and the goodness of fit of the adjusted four-parameter logistic function. All HRP immunoassays showed a higher sensitivity compared to the AP assays. On the basis of all four criteria, it was established that the direct assay format is superior to the indirect format, the immunoassay using HRP TMB fulfilling all requirements best. In a second step, caffeine concentrations in 24 beverage and cosmetics samples were determined and three more quality parameters were assessed with this application. The direct HRP TMB assay showed one of the best intra- and inter-plate precisions and the best accuracy, defined by the correlation of results with those from the chosen reference method liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering all criteria, HRP TMB seems to be the enzyme substrate system of choice preferably used in the direct assay format. PMID:23224576

  4. Clinical Specificity of the Enzyme Immunoassay Test for Coccidioidomycosis Varies According to the Reason for Its Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Neil; Force, Shannon; Chang, Yu-Hui H.; Grys, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis relies heavily on serologic test results in addition to clinical history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. Use of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has increased because it is rapidly performed and does not require referral to a reference laboratory, as do complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests. However, interpretation of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity by EIA in the absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity has been problematic. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients with such IgM reactivity at our institution to identify situations where the finding was more likely to be clinically specific for coccidioidal infection. From 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2008, a total of 1,117 patients had positive EIA coccidioidal serology or EIA IgM-only reactivity; of these, 102 patients (9%) had EIA IgM-only reactivity. Among the 102 patients with EIA IgM-only reactivity, 60 were tested to evaluate symptomatic illness, 13 for follow-up of previously abnormal serology, and 29 for screening purposes. Of the 102 patients, 80 (78%) had positive serologic findings by other methods or had positive culture or histology. Fifty-four (90%) of the 60 patients whose serology was performed to evaluate symptomatic illness had coccidioidal infection, whereas 13 (45%) of 29 patients whose serology was performed for screening purposes had coccidioidal infection. Of the 102 patients with isolated IgM reactivity by EIA, 12 later seroconverted to IgG and IgM reactivity. The use of EIA for screening in 29 asymptomatic persons was associated with unconfirmable results in 13 (45%). Although the majority of patients in our study with isolated IgM reactivity by EIA had probable or confirmed coccidioidomycosis, this result must be interpreted with caution for asymptomatic patients. PMID:23155124

  5. Clinical specificity of the enzyme immunoassay test for coccidioidomycosis varies according to the reason for its performance.

    PubMed

    Blair, Janis E; Mendoza, Neil; Force, Shannon; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Grys, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis relies heavily on serologic test results in addition to clinical history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. Use of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has increased because it is rapidly performed and does not require referral to a reference laboratory, as do complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests. However, interpretation of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity by EIA in the absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity has been problematic. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients with such IgM reactivity at our institution to identify situations where the finding was more likely to be clinically specific for coccidioidal infection. From 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2008, a total of 1,117 patients had positive EIA coccidioidal serology or EIA IgM-only reactivity; of these, 102 patients (9%) had EIA IgM-only reactivity. Among the 102 patients with EIA IgM-only reactivity, 60 were tested to evaluate symptomatic illness, 13 for follow-up of previously abnormal serology, and 29 for screening purposes. Of the 102 patients, 80 (78%) had positive serologic findings by other methods or had positive culture or histology. Fifty-four (90%) of the 60 patients whose serology was performed to evaluate symptomatic illness had coccidioidal infection, whereas 13 (45%) of 29 patients whose serology was performed for screening purposes had coccidioidal infection. Of the 102 patients with isolated IgM reactivity by EIA, 12 later seroconverted to IgG and IgM reactivity. The use of EIA for screening in 29 asymptomatic persons was associated with unconfirmable results in 13 (45%). Although the majority of patients in our study with isolated IgM reactivity by EIA had probable or confirmed coccidioidomycosis, this result must be interpreted with caution for asymptomatic patients. PMID:23155124

  6. Evaluation of four commercial IgG- and IgM-specific enzyme immunoassays for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with particle agglutination assay.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon; Shin, Bo-Moon

    2007-10-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with indirect particle agglutination assay (PA), Serodia-MycoII (Fujirebio). We tested 91 specimens from 73 pediatric patients (2-17 yr) hospitalized at a tertiary-care hospital between December 2005 and January 2006. The measurements of IgM EIAs were correlated with PA titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient, from 0.89 to 0.92) with high concordance rates, ranging from 82.4% to 92.3%. However, some negative IgM-EIA results in PA-positive specimens indicated that serial samplings with convalescent sera would be necessary to confirm M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:17982225

  7. Immunoassay using /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled protein A and antigen-coated tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, A.P.; Langone, J.J.

    1981-09-15

    Antigen-coated plastic tubes were used with /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled stapylococcal protein A in a general immunoassay method for antigens and haptens. Protein A reacts with immunoglobulin G(IgG) regardless of antibody specificity at sites distal to the antigen combining site and does not inhibit the immune reaction. It therefore serves as a general tracer and its use eliminates the need to purify and to label individual components for each assay. Macromolecular antigens were bound to polystyrene or polypropylene tubes by direct passive absorption. Haptens with free carboxyl groups were bound covalently to poly-L-lysine and these conjugates passively absorbed to the tube surface. Optimal assay conditions were established for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulins and the folate derivatives, methotrexate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, using /sup 125/I-labeled protein A or protein A labeled with alkaline phosphatase. The method has been used to estimate levels of IgG, IgA, Igm, and IgE in serum in volumes up to 1 ml.

  8. [Enzyme immunoassay system for the detection of low-avid lgG antibodies to human cytomegalovirus ("CMV-diagnost")].

    PubMed

    Ebralidze, L K; Vedunova, S L; Mal'tseva, N N; Lavrov, V F; Gol'tsov, V A; Zverev, V V

    2005-01-01

    The new Russian enzyme immunoassay system "CMV-Diagnost" based on the detection of low-avid IgG antibodies has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. The system was found not only to determine the strained immunity in response to cytomegalovirus, but also to judge the current infection from the avidity index of detectable IgG antibodies with a high degree of validity. The antibody avidity index of less than 30% suggests an acute stage of primary cytomegalovirus infection. The minimum antibody threshold bodies (deltaOD has been established for the correct interpretation of data on low-avid antibodies. deltaOD of > or =0.6 optic units was for the developed test system "CMV-Diagnost. A correlation was found between the serum levels of low-avid antibodies and IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus at the acute stage of the disease. PMID:16408631

  9. Enzyme immunoassay for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Gross, Madeleine; Curtui, Valeriu; Ackermann, Yvonne; Latif, Hadri; Usleber, Ewald

    2011-12-14

    The Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid was derivatized with succinic anhydride and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. The KLH conjugate was used to produce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. A competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for tenuazonic acid was established, which was moderately sensitive for tenuazonic acid [50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)): 320 ± 130 ng/mL] but strongly reacted with tenuazonic acid acetate (IC(50): 23.3 ± 7.5 ng/mL). Therefore, an optimized EIA protocol was established, which employed acetylation of standard and sample extract solutions. The mean standard curve detection limit (IC(30)) for tenuazonic acid acetate was 5.4 ± 2.0 ng/mL, enabling detection limits for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products of 25-50 ng/g (150 ng/g in tomato paste). Recoveries in a concentration range of 50-2000 ng/g were 60-130% in apple juice and tomato juice and 40-150% in other tomato products. Tenuazonic acid was detected in apple juice and tomato products from German retail shops at levels of 50-200 ng/g. In conclusion, this novel EIA for tenuazonic acid could be useful within a screening program for Alternaria mycotoxins in food. PMID:22054343

  10. Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.O. [ImmunoSystems Inc., Scarborough, ME (United States); Carlson, R.E. [Ecochem Research, Inc., Chaska, MN (United States); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

  11. Optimization of condition for conjugation of enrofloxacin to enzymes in chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

    2014-06-01

    In this study, in order to find out a proper method for conjugation of enrofloxacin to label enzymes, two methods were compared and carbodiimide condensation was proved to be better. The results showed that the binding ratio of enrofloxacin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 8:1 and that of enrofloxacin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was 5:1. This indicated that conjugate synthesized by carbodiimide condensation was fit for chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Furthermore, data revealed that dialysis time was an important parameter for conjugation and 6days was best. Buffer to dilute conjugate had little effect on CLEIA. The storage condition for conjugates was also studied and it was shown that the conjugate was stable at 4°C with no additive up to 30days. These data were valuable for establishing CLEIA to quantify enrofloxacin. PMID:24632155

  12. Autoantibody testing for connective tissue diseases. Comparison of immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J; Lorden, T E; Havighurst, T C

    1997-10-01

    We evaluated 500 consecutive patient serum samples for the presence of six autoantibodies by three antibody detection methods: immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay. Clinical data were reviewed for each patient with positive antibody test results. Serum samples from 60 patients revealed antibodies to Sm, ribonucleoprotein (RNP), SSA/Ro, SSB/La, Scl-70, or Jo-1. There were 7 false-positive test results (1%). All three methods detected autoantibodies in 36 (68%) of 53 patients with connective tissue disease. Immunoblot was the most sensitive method to detect autoantibodies (92%). Enzyme immunoassay and immunodiffusion were less sensitive (81% and 74%, respectively). Antiribonucleoprotein and anti-SSB/La antibodies were more often detected by immunoblotting, whereas anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were more often detected by enzyme immunoassay. Newer antibody detection methods (immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay) are less time consuming than immunodiffusion and show good interassay sensitivity without loss of specificity. A combination of immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay yielded excellent assay sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99%) for detection of autoantibodies. PMID:9322593

  13. Determination of 4- n -nonylphenol in water by enzyme immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne V. Samsonova; Maya Yu. Rubtsova; Milan Franek

    2003-01-01

    A range of monoclonal antibody-based competitive immunoassays in the format of microtitre plate ELISA and dipstick tests for quantitative and semi-quantitative detection of 4- n -nonylphenol in water was developed. A simple visual dipstick test was based on changing of spot colour from green to brown in the presence of 4- n -nonylphenol at concentrations within the range 10-100 ng

  14. Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMAD F. SAEED; MARCIO NUNES; PEDRO F. VASCONCELOS; ROBERT E. SHOPE; ROBERT B. TESH; ALAN D. T. BARRETT

    2001-01-01

    Oropouche (ORO) virus is an emerging infectious agent that has caused numerous outbreaks of an acute febrile (dengue-like) illness among humans in Brazil, Peru, and Panama. Diagnosis of ORO virus infection is based mainly on serology. Two different antigens, hamster serum antigen (HSA) and Vero cell lysate antigen (VCLA), are currently used in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in Brazil and Peru,

  15. An enzyme immunoassay for serum and urinary levonorgestrel in human and non-human primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Munro; L. S. Laughlin; T. VonSchalscha; D. M. Baldwin; B. L. Lasley

    1996-01-01

    A microtiter plate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is reported for the measurement of levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum and urine samples of human and non-human primates, and the results are compared to data obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the bovine serum albumin conjugate of the 3-O-carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) derivative of LNG. The enzyme label was produced by

  16. [Determination of thyroxine in serum by a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay: results of a joint trial].

    PubMed

    Borner, K; Colombo, J P; Bachmann, C; Haeckel, R; Oellerich, M; Westerink, D; Fischer, M; Wimmer, P; Vogt, W; Tausch, A; Knedel, M; Minder, W; Blum, J; Portenhauser, R

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a heterologous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of total thyroxine in serum by a group of seven clinical chemical laboratories. The test follows the principles of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and uses peroxidase as a marker. The evaluation of analytical reliability yielded the following results within the analytical range from 39 unto 322 nmol/l: 1. Within-batch precision ranged from 3.1 unto 10.4% (coefficient of variation) with single analyses. 2. Between-batch precision ranged from 3.7 unto 20.4% with single analyses. 3. Between-laboratories precision ranged from 5.4 unto 6.8%. 4. Pure thyroxine, added to serum or thyroxine-free serum, gave recoveries between 93 and 120%. 5. Analysis of control sera gave results essentially comparable to the assigned values based upon radioimmunoassays. 6. Analysis of 288 clinical sera gave slightly higher results by the enzyme immunoassay than by the analogous radioimmunoassay from the same manufacturer. 7. Comparison with other methods of analysis (radioimmunoassays, competitive protein ligand assays, hormonal iodine assay) yielded partly comparable, partly higher results. 8. Comparison with the homogenous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) led to comparable results. 9. Interference due to hyperlipemia or hemolysis was not observed. 10. There might be an interference in hyperbilirubinaemic sera, due to an as yet unknown factor. With respect to practicability the ELISA-test compares favourably with the analogous solid phase radioimmunoassay. The main differences are the absence of radioactive material and a longer shelf-live of reagents. Following the manual procedure the time taken to perform the enzyme immunoassay is slightly longer than for the analogous radioimmunoassay. PMID:383882

  17. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  18. USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY TO QUANTIFY TESTOSTERONE IN AVIAN PLASMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN E. WASHBURN; JOSHUA J. MILLSPAUGH; DANA L. MORRIS; JOHN H. SCHULZ; JOHN FAABORG

    2007-01-01

    Using a commercially available testos- terone enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we developed and validated an assay procedure for determining testosterone levels in small-volume (20 mL) avian plasma samples. We evaluated this EIA's utility by measuring plasma testosterone levels in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). Standard bio- chemical validations (e.g.,

  19. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  20. The Application of Enzyme Immunoassay to the Study of Salivary IGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy B. Johnson Jr; Junda Liu

    1982-01-01

    In the study of salivary IgA, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay has been able to show that 1) the assay is reliable, 2) minimal loss of IgA occurs from centrifuging or by elimination of insoluble mucins, 3) IgA can be easily measured in fractions from sucrose gradient sedimentation, 4) freezing alone is sufficient to preserve salivary IgA, 5) the concentration in normal

  1. Identification of Past and Recent Parvovirus B19 Infection in Immunocompetent Individuals by Quantitative PCR and Enzyme Immunoassays: a Dual-Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Lea; Dhanilall, Pravesh; Kantola, Kalle; Nurmi, Visa; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Brown, Kevin E.; Hedman, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a member of the family Parvoviridae, genus Erythrovirus. B19V-specific IgG and IgM react differently against conformational and linear epitopes of VP1 and VP2 antigens, leading to the development of IgG avidity and epitope type specificity (ETS) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for distinguishing past from recent infection. Additionally, B19V viral load determination (by quantitative PCR [qPCR]) is increasingly used in the staging of B19V infection. In this study, the utility of these methods is compared. A panel of 78 sera was jointly tested by the Virus Reference Department (VRD), London, United Kingdom, and the Haartman Institute (HI), Helsinki, Finland, using a number of EIAs, e.g., B19V-specific IgG and IgM, IgG avidity, and ETS EIAs. At VRD, the sera were also tested by a B19V viral load PCR (qPCR). By consensus analysis, 43 (55.1%) sera represented past infection, 28 (35.9%) sera represented recent infection, and 7 (9.0%) sera were indeterminate. Both VRD B19V qPCR and HI B19V VP2 IgM EIA gave the highest agreement with consensus interpretation for past or recent infection, with an overall agreement of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92 to 100) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% (95% CI, 87 to 100). Nine sera designated as representing past infection by consensus analysis were B19V IgM positive by a commercial VRD B19V IgM EIA and B19V IgM negative by a new HI in-house B19V VP2 IgM EIA. A new VRD B19V IgG avidity EIA showed good (>95%) agreement (excluding equivocal results) with consensus interpretations for past or recent infection. Correct discrimination of past from recent B19V infection was achieved through application of qPCR or by appropriate selection of EIAs. PMID:24403307

  2. Comparative Analysis of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Virus-Like Particles or Virus-Infected Mouse Brain Antigens To Detect IgM Antibody in Sera from Patients with Evident Flaviviral Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek A. Holmes; David E. Purdy; Day-Yu Chao; Amanda J. Noga; Gwong-Jen J. Chang

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source

  3. Comparative Analysis of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Virus-Like Particles or Virus-Infected Mouse Brain Antigens To Detect IgM Antibody in Sera from Patients with Evident Flaviviral Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek A. Holmes; David E. Purdy; Day-Yu Chao; Amanda J. Noga; Gwong-Jen J. Chang

    2005-01-01

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source

  4. Detection of Clostridium difficile toxins by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, C.

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the rapid diagnosis of antibiotic-associated colitis (AAC) is presented. Commercially available antisera to Clostridium difficile toxins contain antibodies to other antigens found in non-toxigenic C. difficile and other bacteria. Removal of these unwanted antibodies by absorption increased the specificity of ELISA for detection of C. difficile toxins. Specimens tested included 40 faecal extracts positive for cytotoxicity from cases of AAC, 30 diarrhoeic and 30 well-formed stools negative for cytotoxicity and 50 culture filtrates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and other clostridial species. Use of absorbed sera reduced false-positive reactions observed with faecal specimens from 23 to 8%. About 90% of specimens that were positive by the tissue culture cytotoxicity test were positive by ELISA using the absorbed sera. The relative merits of ELISA and other methods for the rapid diagnosis of AAC are discussed. PMID:3950397

  5. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  6. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of peanut proteins in food products.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J M; Collins, P G

    1996-01-01

    Food allergy presents a problem for many parts of society, including sensitive subjects, schools, health authorities, and the food industry. Once food allergy is diagnosed, dietary avoidance is the principle method of management. Because trace levels of peanuts can elicit an adverse to fatal reaction, unintentional exposure to the offending allergens may have devastating consequences to sensitive individuals. However, determination of trace amounts of unintentional peanut contamination in our food supply is very difficult. Recently, we developed polyclonal antibodies specific to peanut proteins that do not cross-react with 22 legumes, tree nuts, or other common snack ingredients. An antiserum containing the polyclonal antibodies was used to develop a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of peanut proteins in snack foods. This study reports the first successful ELISA test to detect trace amounts of peanut allergens in a variety of foods. The concentration of peanut protein that inhibited 50% of antibody-antigen binding (IC50) was 12 ng/mL, the linear range was 1-63 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 400 ng/g (ppb) for the various foods tested. Recoveries ranged from 68 to 90%, with coefficients of variation of 2-22%, depending on the commodity. Using this new procedure, allergy-related complaint samples from various food groups were analyzed, and undeclared peanut proteins were identified in some products. PMID:8946719

  7. An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

  8. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in full-automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaomao; Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Yuki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Therma-Max™ were used as a carrier to develop an automated sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) to detect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a sensitive and specific way. The Therma-Max™ particles allow for automation because, unlike magnetic microspheres, they are completely dispersed in aqueous solution and allow for accurate automatic handling. Signal intensities detected with MNPs were 8-fold higher than those found with conventional micron-sized magnetic particles. A reproducibility study suggests that these particles allow for a stable detection method, as the coefficient of variation (CV) is less than 6% ( n=10).

  9. Characterization of Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay-negative sera following screening by treponemal total antibody enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Maple, P A C; Ratcliffe, D; Smit, E

    2010-11-01

    Following a laboratory audit, a significant number of Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were identified when TPPA was used as a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). Sera giving such discrepant results were further characterized to assess their significance. A panel of 226 sera was tested by the Abbott Murex ICE Syphilis EIA and then by the Newmarket Syphilis EIA II. TPPA testing was performed on 223 sera. Further testing by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, the Mercia Syphilis IgM EIA, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) assay, and INNO-LIA immunoblotting was undertaken in discrepant cases. One hundred eighty-seven of 223 (83.8%) SSRS were TPPA reactive, while 26 (11.6%) sera which were reactive in both the ICE and Newmarket EIAs were nonreactive by TPPA. The majority (68%) of the TPPA-discrepant sera were from HIV-positive patients and did not represent early acute cases, based on previous or follow-up samples, which were available for 22/26 samples. FTA-ABS testing was performed on 24 of these sera; 14 (58.3%) were FTA-ABS positive, and 10 (41.7%) were FTA-ABS negative. Twenty-one of these 26 sera were tested by INNO-LIA, and an additional 4 FTA-ABS-negative samples were positive. In this study, significant numbers (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera were shown by further FTA-ABS and LIA (line immunoblot assay) testing to be positive. The reason why certain sera are negative by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and other syphilis confirmatory assays is not clear, and these initial findings should be further explored. PMID:20844087

  10. Enhanced competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the trace detection of insecticide triazophos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Gui, Wenjun; Shi, Xiaomei; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Guonian

    2012-05-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for triazophos was developed, which was based on the anti-THHe IgG monoclonal antibody and a heterogeneous enzyme tracer (THHu-HRP). Several components of chemiluminescent enhanced solution (CES) were optimized. The results showed that 1 mM of p-iodo-phenol, 0.625 mM of luminol, and 4 mM of H(2)O(2) had the best performance. Based on the study of CES, the influence of several factors (assay buffer, blocking substance, and solvent) on the immunoassay was investigated. The sensitivity for detection, IC(50) value was 0.87 ng/mL at a practical working concentration range between 0.04 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL and the limit of detection for triazophos was 0.063 ng/mL. The average recovery of triazophos added to lettuce, carrot, apple, water, and soil were 78.71%, 67.52%, 118.3%, 117.2%, and 122.0%, respectively. Finally, comparison between the methods of CLEIA and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed. The results obtained from CLEIA were in agreement with those of HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22490114

  11. Evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 50 in human serum using magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Lin, Jin-Ming; Ying, Xitang

    2007-08-29

    A magnetic particles (MPs)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) with high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, and reproducibility was proposed for the evaluation of tumor marker, carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) in human serum. The immunomagnetic particles coated with anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody was used as dispersed solid phase for the immunoassay, which was based on a sandwich immunoreaction of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, CA50 antigen, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, and was based on a subsequent chemiluminescence reaction of ALP with 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphate-phenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane) (AMPPD) solution. The CL emission intensity was directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in a sample solution. The effects of several physicochemical parameters, including the concentration of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the dilution ratio of ALP-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the volume of MPs and substrate, the immunoreaction time and other relevant variables upon the immunoassay were studied and optimized. The proposed method exhibited advantages in a lower minimum detectable concentration of 1.0 U mL(-1) with comparison to the commercially available immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and showed a larger linear range of 0 to 300 U mL(-1), as well as less total assay time of only 50 min with comparison to both IRMA and microplate CLEIA. The coefficient of variation was less than 7 and 11% for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of CA50 in human serum with recoveries from 82 to 112%, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available CA50 IRMA. PMID:17719901

  12. The application of immunoassay techniques, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to snake venom research.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D

    1983-01-01

    The development and application of immunoassay techniques in relation to snake venom research is reviewed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is compared with radioimmunoassay, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, haemagglutination and immunoelectrophoresis. It is concluded that ELISA is the most versatile immunoassay technique so far applied to the field of venom research, its main advantages over other methods including relatively high levels of sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, simplicity and ease of sample collection. It can also be readily modified into kit form and is easily adapted for use in large scale epidemiological studies and for accurate retrospective diagnosis of snake bite. None of the other assay systems considered fulfil these criteria to the same extent. ELISA is helping to advance epidemiological knowledge of snake bite, in exploring the role of active immunisation and in the compilation of accurate clinical patterns of envenoming. Other applications of the test include its use for potency screening of both new and developed commercially available antivenoms and for the detection of monoclonal antibodies which should eventually result in increased specificity of the assay system by eliminating cross reactions between venoms and antibodies of closely related species. PMID:6414106

  13. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2012-07-01

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases. PMID:22472132

  14. Improvement of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of mercury (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, A.; Kroetz, E.; Hock, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Dept. of Botany

    1998-07-01

    Three systems were tested for the optimization of a heterogeneous noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the determination of Hg (II). The sensitivity of the nonoptimized Hg-EIA with a detection limit of 2.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II) was improved by an avidin-biotin-complex (ABC) amplification system to a 2-fold lower detection limit (1.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II)). A conventional competitive EIA with the competition reaction between bound and free Hg (II) for antibody (ab) binding sites yielded a detection limit of 1.0 {micro}g/L Hg (II). Further improvement of sensitivity could be achieved by a competitive displacement EIA. In this case ab molecules bound to immobilized haptens are displaced in the next step by free Hg (II). The detection limit of the displacement approach is 0.4 {micro}g/L Hg (II).

  15. Detection of Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites Using the Cross Reactivity of Enzyme Immunoassays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay is an important environmental analysis method that may be used to identify many pesticide analytes in water samples. Because of similarities in chemical structure between various members of a pesticide class, there often may be an unwanted response that is characterized by a percentage of cross reactivity. Also, there may be cross reactivity caused by degradation products of the target analyte that may be present in the sample. In this paper, the concept of cross reactivity caused by degradation products or by nontarget analytes is explored as a tool for identification of metabolites or structurally similar compounds not previously known to be present in water samples. Two examples are examined in this paper from various water quality studies. They are alachlor and its metabolite, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, and atrazine and its class members, prometryn and propazine. A method for using cross reactivity for the detection of these compounds is explained in this paper.

  16. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the determination of chloramphenicol residues in aquatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Chuanlai, Xu; Cifang, Peng; Kai, Hao; Zhengyu, Jin; Wukang, Wang

    2006-01-01

    A competitive indirect chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (ic-CLEIA) for chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in shrimp has been developed. After optimization (incubation time, concentration of Tween-20, concentration of PBS and pH), the method gave a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mL and a detection range of 0.03-23.7 ng/mL, with an ED(50) of 0.47 ng/mL. The method has been validated on spiked shrimp samples in terms of precision (intra- and interassay coefficient variations of less than 10% and 15%, respectively) and accuracy (mean recovery 95-123%). The assay performance is better than the ELISA method which is widely used to detect chloramphenicol and indicates that the CLEIA method can be used to test aquatic samples instead of ELISA. PMID:16421961

  17. Direct colorimetric monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for estradiol-17 beta in saliva.

    PubMed

    Tamate, K; Charleton, M; Gosling, J P; Egan, D; Ishikawa, M; Fottrell, P F; Kane, M M

    1997-07-01

    We developed a direct microtiter plate enzyme immunoassay to measure estradiol-17 beta in saliva. The assay has a commercially available monoclonal antibody, raised against estradiol-17 beta-6-carboxymethyloximebovine serum albumin, and a homologous horseradish peroxidase conjugate measured colorimetrically. The detection limit (equivalent to B0-3 SD) is 365 amol/well or 7.3 pmol/L when 50-microL samples are assayed. Cross-reactivity with estrone and estriol, testosterone, or progesterone is < 0.2%. Estradiol-17 beta was measured in daily samples over five natural menstrual cycles and eight cycles stimulated as a preliminary to in vitro fertilization, and the concentrations and fluctuations found agreed with previously published data. This method gives results in approximately 3 h and may be useful for fertility monitoring and management. PMID:9216451

  18. The European Sero-Epidemiology Network: standardizing the enzyme immunoassay results for measles, mumps and rubella.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, N.; Pebody, R. G.; Berbers, G.; Blondeau, C.; Crovari, P.; Davidkin, I.; Farrington, P.; Fievet-Groyne, F.; Gabutti, G.; Gerike, E.; Giordano, C.; Hesketh, L.; Marzec, T.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Osborne, K.; Pleisner, A. M.; Raux, M.; Tischer, A.; Ruden, U.; Valle, M.; Miller, E.

    2000-01-01

    The ESEN (European Sero-Epidemiology Network) project was established to harmonize the seroepidemiology of five vaccine preventable infections including measles, mumps and rubella in eight European countries. This involved achieving comparability both in the assay results from testing in different centres and also sampling methodology. Standardization of enzyme immunoassay results was achieved through the development of common panels of sera by designated reference centres. The panels were tested at the reference laboratory and then distributed to each participating laboratory for testing using their routine methods. Standardization equations were calculated by regressing the quantitative results against those of the reference laboratory. Our study found large differences in unitage between participants, despite all using an EIA method standardized against an international or local standard. Moreover, our methodology adjusted for this difference. These standardization equations will be used to convert the results of main serosurvey testing into the reference country unitage to ensure inter-country comparability. PMID:11057968

  19. Development of a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for atrazine Performance evaluation by flow injection immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Gascón; Anna Oubiña; Berta Ballesteros; Damià Barceló; Francisco Camps; María-Pilar Marco; Miguel Angel González-Martínez; Sergi Morais; Rosa Puchades; Angel Maquieira

    1997-01-01

    Specific polyclonal antibodies to the herbicide atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N?-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) have been raised by immunizing three New Zealand rabbits. With the antisera (As) a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been developed to determine atrazine in water samples. Several usable competitive immunoassays have been obtained by screening a battery of nine enzyme tracers (ETs) and three antisera. The optimized ELISA presents

  20. Micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Fang, Luqiu; Chen, Hui; Ying, Xitang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-03-15

    In this work, a micro-plate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay by antibody-coated for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in agricultural products has been established. Aflatoxin B1 antibody (AFB1-Ab) was adsorbed physically on polystyrene micro-plate hole as solid phase antibody, which took place immunity-reaction between antigen and antibody with AFB1 standard solution or samples by direct competition. Luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence system catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with p-iodophenol enhancement was used as signal detecting system. The effects of several factors, including composition and pH of coating solution, dilution ratio and amount of antibody and enzyme labeled antigen, time of antibody-coating, incubation and chemiluminescence reaction, and other relevant variables upon the immunoassay were studied and optimized. The linear range of proposed method for AFB1 was 0.05-10.0 ng g(-1) with a correlative coefficient of -0.9997. The sensitivity of the proposed method was 0.01 ng g(-1). The RSDs of intra- and inter-assay were less than 12.2% and 10.0%, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of AFB1 in agricultural products with recoveries of 79.8%, 101.9% and 115.4% for low, middle and high concentration samples, respectively. It shows a good correlation with the commercial available ELISA kit for AFB1 with correlative coefficient of 0.9098 indicating that the established CLEIA method can be used to determine AFB1 in real samples. PMID:21315923

  1. Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans H. Maurer; Christian F. Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Summary Pholcodine (3-O-(2'-morpholinoethyl)-morphine) is used in many countries as an antitussive without analgesic or addictive properties. It is of forensic relevance that pholcodine interferes with opiate immunoassays. In this paper a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) procedure for the precise and sensitive detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair, after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation, is presented. Furthermore,

  2. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay–based assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternata–derived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)–based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  3. Comparison of a chemiluminescent immunoassay with two microparticle enzyme immunoassays for detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Diepersloot, R J; van Zantvliet-van Oostrom, Y; Gleaves, C A

    2000-11-01

    A comparative evaluation of the following commercial immunoassays for the detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed: the Abbott AxSYM, Abbott IMx, and DPC IMMULITE assays. The specificity was 100% for all assays. Twelve samples were identified and were confirmed to be positive for HBsAg by all three methods. One additional sample was identified as reactive and was confirmed to be positive by the Abbott AxSYM assay only. Prior to confirmation testing the DPC IMMULITE assay produced significantly fewer false-positive results than the Abbott AxSYM assay (P < 0.05). PMID:11063488

  4. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Regnath, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9-100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4-98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4-99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result. PMID:25215191

  5. High-throughput polymerase chain reaction chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for typing and quantifying human papillomavirus DNAs.

    PubMed

    Ambretti, Simone; Mirasoli, Mara; Venturoli, Simona; Zerbini, Marialuisa; Baraldini, Mario; Musiani, Monica; Roda, Aldo

    2004-09-15

    A miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) based on a 384-well microtiter plate for detection and typing of oncogenic high- and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in genital lesions is described. The assay relies on PCR consensus amplification, hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled product by means of type-specific biotin-labeled oligoprobes immobilized on the streptavidin-coated wells of a 384-well microtiter plate, and quantification by means of a horseradish peroxidase-labeled antidigoxigenin antibody and chemiluminescence detection. The method provides semiquantitative information on the viral load, with a limit of detection of 10-50 DNA copies for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, and 59 and high reproducibility (intraassay CV 7.5%, interassay CV 9.5%). Results obtained on 60 clinical samples were concordant with those obtained with a conventional PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay colorimetric assay. The 384 PCR-CLEIA method, which is amenable to automation, represents a fast and high-throughput method for detecting and typing HPV DNAs in screening programs and evaluating the viral load. PMID:15325304

  6. Role of Triton X-100 in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays capable of diagnosing genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Chong, Richard; Rho, Jee-Eun R; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Park, Paul S; Rho, Tae-Ho D; Park, Jee Y; Park, Lucienne; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2013-11-15

    The use of Triton X surfactants in developing 1,1'-oxalylimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (ODI CEIs) with extended linear response range for the quantification of unconjugated estriol (uE3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is reported for the first time. The wider linear dynamic range in ODI CLEIA results from Triton X series (e.g., Triton X-100, -114, -405, -705) acting as an inhibitor in the interaction between Amplex Red (hydrophobic substrate) and horseradish peroxidase (hydrophilic enzyme) to produce resorufin (hydrophobic fluorescent dye). Triton X-100 acts as the appropriate inhibitor in ODI CLEIA. The maximum concentrations of AFP and hCG quantified with sandwich ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 were 8 times higher than when analyzed with the same system in the absence of Triton X-100. In addition, the lowest concentration of uE3 determined using competitive ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 was 20 times lower than that measured with competitive ODI CLEIA in the absence of Triton X-100. These results indicate that rapid quantification of AFP, uE3, and hCG using cost effective and highly sensitive ODI CLEIAs in the presence of Triton X-100 can be applied as an accurate, precise, and reproducible method to diagnose genetic disorders (e.g., trisomy 18 and trisomy 21) in fetuses. PMID:24148422

  7. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9–100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4–98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4–99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result. PMID:25215191

  8. Detection of a tumor-associated glycoprotein antigen in serum and urine of melanoma patients by murine monoclonal antibody (AD1-40F4) in enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Euhus, D M; Gupta, R K; Morton, D L

    1989-01-01

    The urine of 68% of melanoma patients contains a high molecular weight glycoprotein which is expressed by melanoma cells and reacts with autologous antibody. Since high levels of this antigen in urine correlate with disease recurrence in surgically treated melanoma patients, it has been termed urinary tumor-associated antigen (U-TAA). We report the development of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody (AD1-40F4), which is specific for U-TAA. AD1-40F4 showed the same pattern of reactivity as the allo-antibodies previously used for the detection of U-TAA. The antigen recognized by AD1-40F4 has a high molecular weight (590-620 kilodaltons [kd]) and is heat stable. The AD1-40F4-reactive epitope is a protein. When AD1-40F4 was applied in an enzyme immunoassay, it allowed for the detection of U-TAA in the serum of 64% (33/52) of melanoma patients as opposed to only 5% (1/20) of normal controls. Thus, the murine monoclonal antibody AD1-40F4, which has been specifically developed against an allogeneic antibody defined antigen, U-TAA, appears to be important for immuno-prognosis of human melanoma. PMID:2754533

  9. On-chip enzyme quantification of single Escherichia coli bacteria by immunoassay-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Stratz, Simone; Eyer, Klaus; Kurth, Felix; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-12-16

    Individual bacteria of an isogenic population can differ significantly in their phenotypic characteristics. This cellular heterogeneity is thought to increase the adaptivity to environmental changes on a population level. Analytical methods for single-bacteria analyses are essential to reveal the different factors that may contribute to this cellular heterogeneity, among them the stochastic gene expression, cell cycle stages and cell aging. Although promising concepts for the analysis of single mammalian cells based on microsystems technology were recently developed, platforms suitable for proteomic analyses of microbial cells are by far more challenging. Here, we present a microfluidic device optimized for the analysis of single Escherichia coli bacteria. Individual bacteria are captured in a trap and isolated in a volume of only 155 pL. In combination with an immunoassay-based analysis of the cell lysate, the platform allowed the selective and sensitive analysis of intracellular enzymes. The limit of detection of the developed protocol was found to be 200 enzymes. Using this platform, we could investigate the levels of ?-galactosidase in cells grown under different nutrient conditions. We successfully determined the enzyme copy numbers in cells cultured in defined medium (3517 ± 1578) and in complex medium (4710 ± 2643), and verified the down-regulation of expression in medium that contained only glucose as carbon source. The strong variations we found for individual bacteria confirm the phenotype heterogeneity. The capability to quantify proteins and other molecules in single bacterial lysates is encouraging to use the new analysis platform in future proteomics studies of isogenic bacteria populations. PMID:25409480

  10. Comparison of new immunohistochemical assay for oestrogen receptor in paraffin wax embedded breast carcinoma tissue with quantitative enzyme immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Saccani Jotti; S R Johnston; J Salter; S Detre; M Dowsett

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To validate the use of a new mouse monoclonal antibody (1D5) directed against the N-terminal domain (A\\/B region) of the oestrogen receptor in an immunohistochemical assay (ER-IHA) for paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS--Breast cancer specimens were surgically obtained from 119 previously untreated patients. For comparison, oestrogen receptor was measured from cytosol fractions using an established oestrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay (ER-EIA)

  11. Anti-bovine IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by hybrid cells after in vitro immunization as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 

    E-print Network

    Hunter, Doris Marie

    1983-01-01

    IgM which had been isolated and pur1f1ed by euglobul1n precipitation and column chromatography was used as the ant1 gen in an in vitro immun1zation to elic1t the product1on of ant1bodies by BALB/c mouse spleen cells. The spleen cells were fused... in polyethylene glycol with BALB/c mouse SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells to produce hybri domas secret1ng monoclonal anti bod1es to bov1ne IgM. This same IgM was used as the antigen in the development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect...

  12. Potentiometric enzyme immunoassay using miniaturized anion-selective electrodes for detection

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, Júlia; Pretsch, Ernö; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E.

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection in human serum was developed based on the potentiometric detection of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferone (DiFMU). The assays were carried out in anti-human PSA capture-antibody modified microtiter plates (150 µl volume). After incubation in the PSA containing serum samples, ?-galactosidase-labeled PSA tracer antibody was added. The ?-galactosidase label catalyzed the hydrolysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (DiFMUG) and the resulting DiFMU? anion was detected by potentiometric microelectrodes with anion-exchanger membrane. The selectivity of the anion-exchanger electrode is governed by the lipophilicity of the anions in the sample. Since DiFMU? is much more lipophilic (log P = 1.83) than any of the inorganic anions normally present in the working buffers and occurs in its anionic form at the physiological pH (pKa = 4.19), it was chosen as the species to be detected. The potentiometric ELISA-based method detects PSA in serum with a linear concentration range of 0.1–50 ng/mL. These results confirm the applicability of potentiometric detection in diagnostic PSA assays. Owing to simple methodology and low cost, potentiometric immunoassays seem to offer a feasible alternative to the development of in vitro diagnostic platforms. PMID:20448926

  13. Potentiometric enzyme immunoassay using miniaturized anion-selective electrodes for detection.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Júlia; Pretsch, Ernö; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E

    2009-08-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection in human serum was developed based on the potentiometric detection of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferone (DiFMU). The assays were carried out in anti-human PSA capture antibody modified microtiter plates (150 microL volume). After incubation in the PSA-containing serum samples, beta-galactosidase-labeled PSA tracer antibody was added. The beta-galactosidase label catalyzed the hydrolysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (DiFMUG) and the resulting DiFMU(-) anion was detected by potentiometric microelectrodes with anion-exchanger membrane. The selectivity of the anion-exchanger electrode is governed by the lipophilicity of the anions in the sample. Since DiFMU(-) is much more lipophilic (log P = 1.83) than any of the inorganic anions normally present in the working buffers and occurs in its anionic form at the physiological pH (pK(a) = 4.19), it was chosen as the species to be detected. The potentiometric ELISA-based method detects PSA in serum with a linear concentration range of 0.1-50 ng/mL. These results confirm the applicability of potentiometric detection in diagnostic PSA assays. Owing to simple methodology and low cost, potentiometric immunoassays seem to offer a feasible alternative to the development of in vitro diagnostic platforms. PMID:20448926

  14. High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2013-09-24

    In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future. PMID:24016577

  15. Sensitive and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for microcystin-LR in water samples.

    PubMed

    Long, F; Shi, H C; He, M; Sheng, J W; Wang, J F

    2009-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the determination of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Several physicochemical parameters such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution ratio of MC-LR-OVA conjugate, monoclonal antibody concentration, and peroxidase labeled antibody concentration were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, calibration curve obtained for MC-LR had detection limits of 0.032+/-0.003 microg L(-1), the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.20+/-0.02 microg L(-1) and the quantitative detection range was 0.062-0.65 microg L(-1). The proposed methods was successfully applied to the monitoring of MC-LR in spiked water samples without significant effect of the matrix, and the recovery of MC-LR added to water samples at different concentrations ranged from 80% to 115% with the coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 9%. The LOD attained from the calibration curves and the results obtained for the real samples demonstrate the potential use of CLEIA as a screening tool for the analysis of MC-LR in environmental samples. PMID:19664472

  16. Determination of residual enrofloxacin in food samples by a sensitive method of chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Lanlan; Li, Yanqiang; Wu, Yongjun; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2014-04-15

    A chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) based on the HRP-luminol-H?O? chemiluminescence system for highly sensitive detection of enrofloxacin (ENR) was proposed in this study. Key factors that affect the precision and accuracy for the determination of ENR residues were optimised. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed an excellent performance. The linearity range for method developed for determination of ENR was 0.35-1.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.994. The limit of detection was 0.03 ng/mL and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 9.4% and 13.0% for intra-day and inter-day assays. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to determine ENR in milk, eggs, and honey samples at three spiked levels (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 ng/mL) and the recoveries ranged from 92.4% to 104.2% for milk, 93.8% to 103.2% for eggs and 94.1% to 105.0% for honey, respectively. Compared the results of CLEIA with those of ELISA and HPLC, the advantages of the CLEIA were further confirmed. Moreover, one 96-well microtiter plate coated with anti-ENR can be used to detect multiple samples at the same time, which indicated that the CLEIA using HRP-luminol-H?O? system was a sensitive, high throughput and real-time method for ENR residues analysis. PMID:24295678

  17. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method for ?-defensin-2 detection in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhou, Tao; Yu, Lei; Tan, Wenwen; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2015-03-01

    A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method for porcine ?-defensin-2 (pBD-2) detection in transgenic mice was established. Several factors that affect detection, including luminol, p-iodophenol and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, as well as pH, were studied and optimized. The linear range of the proposed method for pBD-2 detection under optimal conditions was 0.05-80?ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9960. Eleven detections of a 30?ng/mL pBD-2 standard sample were performed. Reproducible results were obtained with a relative standard deviation of 3.94%. The limit of detection of the method for pBD-2 was 3.5?pg/mL (3?). The proposed method was applied to determine pBD-2 expression levels in the tissues of pBD-2 transgenic mice, and compared with LC-MS/MS and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. This suggests that the CLEIA can be used as a valuable method to detect and quantify pBD-2. PMID:24942821

  18. Calcitonin levels in normal individuals with new highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H

    1998-01-01

    Human serum calcitonin concentration in normal individuals was measured with a new assay based on the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method. The CLEIA assay was highly sensitive and was able to determine a calcitonin concentration of 0.04 pg/ml as sensitivity limit at a condition of 0+3SD. With this CLEIA assay, the mean value of calcitonin in males and females was 2.26 and 1.33 pg/ml, respectively, highlighting a significant difference between genders. The mean value and range of human serum calcitonin in this assay were approximately 1/10 those reported previously in competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods. Since RIAs for calcitonin showed much variability at a low concentration range due to the competitive format, they seemed to lack the necessary sensitivity to cover the normal range and appeared only useful for hyper-calcitonin phenomenon in diseases such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. The CLEIA for calcitonin provided a lower detection limit than normal range, and it can therefore be assumed that it could be applied for the measurement of hypo-calcitonin phenomena typically found in some disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:9671173

  19. A magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Li; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Yan, Dong-Ming; Hui, Qi; Liu, Dong; Lin, Chao; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2014-08-15

    Egg allergy is an important public health and safety concern, so quantification and administration of food or vaccines containing ovalbumin (OVA) are urgently needed. This study aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive magnetic particles-chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of OVA. The proposed method was developed on the basis of a double antibodies sandwich immunoreaction and luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system. The MPs served as both the solid phase and separator, the anti-OVA MPs-coated polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were used as capturing antibody, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) was taken as detecting antibody. The parameters of the method were evaluated and optimized. The established MPs-CLEIA method had a linear range from 0.31 to 100ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.24ng/ml. The assays showed low reactivities and less than 5% of intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs), and the average recoveries were between 92 and 97%. Furthermore, the developed method was applied in real samples analysis successfully, and the correlation coefficient with the commercially available OVA kit was 0.9976. Moreover, it was more rapid and sensitive compared with the other methods for testing OVA. PMID:24769049

  20. European Multicenter Evaluation of Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays for Detecting Norovirus Antigen in Fecal Samples?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jim J.; Kohli, Evelyne; Ruggeri, Franco M.; Vennema, Harry; Sánchez-Fauquier, Alicia; Schreier, Eckart; Gallimore, Chris I.; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Giraudon, Helene; Pothier, Pierre; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Inglese, Nadia; de Bruin, Erwin; van der Veer, Bas; Moreno, Silvia; Montero, Vanessa; de Llano, Marí C.; Höhne, Marina; Diedrich, Sabine M.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 2,254 fecal samples were tested in a European multicenter evaluation of commercially available norovirus antigen detection assays. Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, IDEIA Norovirus (Oxoid; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ely, United Kingdom) and RIDASCREEN Norovirus (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany), were included in the evaluation, and their performance was compared with the results of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Included in the evaluation were samples collected in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis, samples from outbreaks in which two or more samples were collected, well-characterized samples representing genotypes currently cocirculating within Europe, and samples collected from patients with gastroenteritis caused by a pathogen other than norovirus. The sensitivities and specificities of the IDEIA Norovirus and RIDASCREEN Norovirus assays were 58.93 and 43.81% and 93.91 and 96.37%, respectively, compared with RT-PCR. The sensitivities of both assays for outbreak investigations improved when six or more samples from an outbreak were examined. The IDEIA Norovirus assay exhibited reactivity to a broader range of norovirus genotypes than the RIDASCREEN Norovirus assay, which showed genotype-dependent sensitivities. The results indicate that, if used, these assays should serve as screening assays and the results should be confirmed by RT-PCR. PMID:17715333

  1. An ultrasensitive and universal photoelectrochemical immunoassay based on enzyme mimetics enhanced signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun

    2015-04-15

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on signal amplification by enzyme mimetics was fabricated for the detection of mouse IgG (as a model protein). The PEC immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), CdS quantum dots (QDs), primary antibody (Ab1, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG), and the antigen (Ag, mouse IgG) on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Then, the secondary antibody (Ab2, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG) combined to a bio-bar-coded Pt nanoparticle(NP)-G-quadruplex/hemin probe was used for signal amplification. The bio-bar-coded Pt NP-G-quadruplex/hemin probe could catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as an oxidant, demonstrating its intrinsic enzyme-like activity. High sensitivity for the target Ag was achieved by using the bio-bar-coded probe as signal amplifier due to its high catalytic activity, a competitive nonproductive absorption of hemin and the steric hindrance caused by the polymeric oxidation products of HQ. For most important, the oxidation product of HQ acted as an efficient electron acceptor of the illuminated CdS QDs. The target Ag could be detected from 0.01pg/mL to 1.0ng/mL with a low detection limit of 6.0fg/mL. The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and acceptable reproducibility. This method might be attractive for clinical and biomedical applications. PMID:25437365

  2. Rapid quantification of melamine in milk using competitive 1,1'-oxalyldiimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Choi, JooHee; Kim, Young-Teck; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2010-09-01

    A novel competitive 1,1'-oxalyldiimidazole (ODI) chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed as a method for rapid and simple screening of melamine in milk. Fat existing in milk acts as an inhibitor in the competitive binding interaction of melamine and anti-melamine in the presence of melamine-conjugated horseradish peroxidase. Thus, the calibration curve and sensitivity of competitive ODI CLEIA for the quantification of melamine in fat free milk were wider and better than those in milk containing fat. However, a centrifuge is not a good method for removing the inhibitor because a portion of the melamine is also removed with the fat. The incubation time (20 min) for the competitive binding interaction of anti-melamine and melamine in 20% milk diluted with PBS buffer of pH 7.4 was longer than that (10 min) in 100% milk even though the sensitivity of the former was better than latter. The limit of detection (1.12 ppb) determined in rapid ODI CLEIA (dynamic range: 3.8-125 ppb) for the quantification of melamine in 20% milk not containing fat was lower than those (6.3 and 9.0 ppb) calculated in relatively time-consuming luminol CLEIA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, we expect that ODI-CLEIA (dynamic range: 62.5-2000 ppb) capable of directly quantifying melamine in 100% milk without any pretreatment can be applied as a new and simple method for rapid screening of melamine in milk. PMID:20683522

  3. Validation of an automated enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of serum total thyroxine in cats

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tim L.; Archer, Joy

    2015-05-18

    immunoassay (EIA) for use with feline serum and derivation of a TT4 reference interval (RI) for cats aged 9 years and older). Methods: Assay precision, reproducibility, and linearity were evaluated. Interference by hemolysis was also assessed. Method...

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for testosterone and androstenedione in culture medium from rabbit oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Illera, J C; Lorenzo, P L; Silván, G; Munro, C J; Illera, M J; Illera, M

    1997-05-01

    Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were validated to determine testosterone and androstenedione levels in culture medium (Brackett's medium with or without the addition of IGF-I, hormone and serum-free), without previous extraction, from rabbit oocytes matured in vitro. Polyclonal testosterone (C917), and androstenedione (C9111) antibodies were raised in rabbits using testosterone 3-carboxymethyloxime:BSA, and androstenedione 3-carboxymethyloxime:BSA. Horseradish peroxidase was used as label, conjugated to testosterone 3-carboxymethyloxime, and to androstenedione 6-hemisuccinate. Standard dose response curves covered a range between 0 and 1 ng/well. The low detection limits of the technique were 11.43 pg/ml for testosterone, and 2.32 pg/ml for androstenedione. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were < 6.4 and < 7.1 for testosterone, and < 5.1 and < 6.3 for androstenedione, respectively (n= 10). The recovery rate of known testosterone or androstenedione concentrations added to pools of culture maturation medium samples averaged 97.58 +/- 2.11%, and 95.73 +/- 1.59%, respectively. Compared with RIA, EIA values were in close agreement for testosterone (n= 15, r= 0.96, P< 0.001), and androstenedione (n= 15, r= 0.94, P< 0.001). Culture medium samples were obtained at the end of oocyte in vitro maturation (14-16 h). Mean +/- SE culture maturation medium concentrations (ng/ml) were 1.80 +/- 0.09 and 0.52 +/- 0.01 for testosterone, and 1.70 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.01 for androstenedione in both the oocytes with and without cumulus cells, respectively. We concluded that our EIA is a highly sensitive and specific assay that provides a rapid, simple, inexpensive and nonradiometric alternative to RIA for determining testosterone and androstenedione concentrations in oocyte maturation culture medium. PMID:16728084

  5. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2013-11-01

    We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1). The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the "diagnostic gray zone" of serum f-PSA levels (4-10 ng mL(-1)). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL(-1)). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum. PMID:24139579

  6. An enzyme immunoassay for serum and urinary levonorgestrel in human and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Munro, C J; Laughlin, L S; VonSchalscha, T; Baldwin, D M; Lasley, B L

    1996-07-01

    A microtiter plate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is reported for the measurement of levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum and urine samples of human and non-human primates, and the results are compared to data obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the bovine serum albumin conjugate of the 3-O-carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) derivative of LNG. The enzyme label was produced by the conjugation of horseradish peroxidase to LNG at the 3-position by the same CMO bridge used for the immunogen. The assay requires 2.5 hours to perform using 2.2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) diammonium salt as the chromogenic substrate. Serum (100 microliters) is extracted with petroleum ether prior to assay, whereas urine samples (25 microliters) are diluted and measured directly. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.25 pg/well with a 50% displacement of label at 7.5-9.5 pg and a linear response through 250 pg/well. Minimum levels of 8.7 and 10.0 pg/ml can be detected in serum and urine samples, respectively. Changes in serum LNG concentrations were measured in women and non-human primates following LNG implantation or injection. In the non-human primate study, serum LNG concentrations began to rise rapidly following i.m. injection of LNG, with peak levels occurring on days 3 to 5, then decreasing to approximately 25-35% of peak levels for the duration of the study. Circulating concentrations of 1.86 +/- 0.18 ng/ml LNG were reached in women the first week post-insertion of Norplant implants and decreased by 50% at 7-10 days, 75% after 14-21 days, followed by a steady decrease during the next 60-70 days to constant low levels that exhibited a high individual variation. Correlation coefficients of EIA and RIA results were 0.988 for human serum, 0.926 for human urine, and 0.972 for non-human primate serum. PMID:8804808

  7. Comparison of fluorescence polarization immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and thin-layer chromatography for urine cannabinoid screening. Effects of analyte adsorption and vigorous mixing of specimen on detectability.

    PubMed

    Dextraze, P; Griffiths, W C; Camara, P; Audette, L; Rosner, M

    1989-01-01

    Four commercial assays for the screening of cannabinoids in urine were compared. Urine specimens from 93 selected subjects were run by fluorescence polarization immunoassay on the Abbott TDx; by enzyme multiplied immunoassay with two Syva EMIT assays; and by thin-layer chromatography with the TOXI-LAB system (Marion Laboratories). The TDx cannabinoid threshold can be set anywhere from 25 to 150 micrograms per L. Twenty-five micrograms per L was chosen for this study. The thresholds for EMIT are fixed at 20 micrograms per L for one assay and 100 micrograms per L for the other. The detection limit for TOXI-LAB, according to the manufacturer, can be anywhere from 5 to 50 micrograms/L, depending on the specimen. Urines, positive by at least one method, were further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), The detection limit for the GC/MS method was 10 micrograms per L. The results showed a few false negatives and unconfirmable positives; in general, correlation was considered acceptable. Dose-response curves comparing TDx and EMIT gave paralell results, with comparable cross-reactivity for the major metabolite, 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (delta-9-THC-COOH). A dose-response study of TOXI-LAB using delta-9-THC-COOH also gave acceptable results. Adsorption to glass was investigated using spiked urine; a 27 percent reduction in concentration was caused by this phenomenon. Foaming of spiked urine caused by vigorous mixing resulted in a reversible 89 percent apparent reduction in concentration. PMID:2546480

  8. Rapid detection and identification of biological and chemical agents by immunoassay, gene probe assay and enzyme inhibition using a silicon-based biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E Lee; H. Gail Thompson; John G Hall; Douglas E Bader

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biosensor assay procedure that utilizes biotin–streptavidin mediated filtration capture onto nitrocellulose membrane, in conjunction with a silicon-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was developed for detection and identification of biological and chemical threat agents. Sandwich immunoassays, nucleic acid hybridization assays and enzyme inhibition assays are described. For immunoassays, the lower limits of detection (LOD) per 100-?l sample were approximately

  9. Recombinant Antigens To Detect Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M in Human Sera by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. AUBERT; G. T. MAINE; I. VILLENA; J. C. HUNT; L. HOWARD; M. SHEU; S. BROJANAC; L. E. CHOVAN; S. F. NOWLAN; J. M. PINON

    We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of eleven Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (P22 (SAG2), P24 (GRA1), P25, P28 (GRA2), P29 (GRA7), P30 (SAG1), P35, P41 (GRA4), P54 (ROP2), P66 (ROP1), and P68) in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Rec-ELISAs). Following an initial evaluation, six recombinant antigens (P29, P30, P35, P54, P66, and P68) were tested in

  10. The measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in drinking water and wastewater was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocya...

  11. Performance of commercially available enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 in African populations.

    PubMed

    van Dyck, Eddy; Buvé, Anne; Weiss, Helen A; Glynn, Judith R; Brown, David W G; De Deken, Bénédicte; Parry, John; Hayes, Richard J

    2004-07-01

    Data are accumulating on the performance of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in North America and Europe, but little is known about their performance in other populations. Nine test kits were evaluated with 330 serum samples from sub-Saharan Africa. The tests were first compared to the monoclonal antibody (MAb) EIA (Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom). Samples that gave discordant results in the MAb EIA and in the three tests that performed best compared to the MAb EIA were tested by Western blotting (University of Washington, Seattle). A random sample of concordant samples was also tested, and the sensitivities and specificities of the different tests were calculated, taking into account this sampling strategy. The sensitivities of the tests ranged from 86 to 100%; the specificities ranged from 47 to 99%. The tests that performed best were the Gull Premier EIA (sensitivity, 86.3%; specificity, 97.6%) and the Kalon Biological (sensitivity, 92.3%; specificity, 97.7%) and Biokit (sensitivity, 86.7%; specificity, 92.6%) tests. It cannot be assumed that enzyme immunoassays for the detection of HSV-2 infection that perform well in industrialized countries will perform equally well in other populations. PMID:15243045

  12. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 ?g mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor. PMID:25599100

  13. Development of a Highly Sensitive Bioluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Capable of Detecting Divergent Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Shizuka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are sometimes overlooked when using commercial kits to measure hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) due to their low sensitivities and reactivities to mutant strains of various genotypes. We developed an ultrasensitive bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) for HBsAg using firefly luciferase, which is adaptable to a variety of HBsAg mutants, by combining four monoclonal antibodies with a polyclonal antibody against HBsAg. The measurement of seroconversion panels showed trace amounts of HBsAg during the early infection phase by the BLEIA because of its high sensitivity of 5 mIU/ml. The BLEIA detected HBsAg as early as did PCR in five of seven series and from 2.1 to 9.4 days earlier than commercial immunoassay methods. During the late infection phase, the BLEIA successfully detected HBsAg even 40 days after the disappearance of HBV DNA and the emergence of antibodies against HBsAg. The HBsAg BLEIA successfully detected all 13 recombinant HBsAg and 45 types of HBsAg mutants with various mutations within amino acids 90 to 164 in the S gene product. Some specimens had higher values determined by the BLEIA than those by a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay; this suggests that such discrepancies were caused by the dissociation of preS1/preS2 peptides from the particle surface. With its highly sensitive detection of low-titer HBsAg, including various mutants, the HBsAg BLEIA is considered to be useful for the early diagnosis and prevention of HBV infection because of the shorter window of infection prior to detection, which facilitates early prediction of recurrence in HBV-infected individuals. PMID:23761660

  14. Evaluation of performances of three DNA enzyme immunoassays for detection of Helicobacter pylori PCR products from biopsy specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, L; Cabrita, J; Mégraud, F

    1997-01-01

    PCR is recognized as a promising method for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens. However, detection of PCR products by gel electrophoresis is difficult to implement in routine clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to compare three new DNA enzyme immunoassays with the standard method in their ability to detect PCR products. The three assays were based on the amplification of a fragment of the ureC gene of H. pylori and a colorimetric hybridization assay. The first assay (GEN-ETI-K DNA enzyme immunoassay; Sorin, Sallugia, Italy) was based on the hybridization of amplified DNA with a probe bound in microtiter wells and detected with labelled anti-DNA antibody. The second assay (Pylori-prob; Biocode, Sclessin, Belgium) comprised a solid-phase sandwich hybridization system with a specific biotinylated probe being used for detection. Finally, the third assay (PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) was based on the hybridization of amplified DNA labelled with digoxigenin as a probe (used as a coating in microtiter wells) and detected with antidigoxigenin-peroxidase as conjugate. The sensitivity of the colorimetric assay was evaluated by using amplification products from PCR assays performed on several 10-fold dilutions of DNA from H. pylori CIP 101260, and the specificity was assessed with different urease-positive bacteria. Biopsy specimens from 199 patients were tested; 106 were classified as H. pylori positive, and 93 were classified as H. pylori negative by culture and/or histological examination as the "gold standard." The receiving operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best cutoff point for each assay. The detection of PCR products by colorimetric hybridization increases the sensitivity up to 100-fold compared to that with gel electrophoresis. The results are rapid (4 h) and easy to interpret and can be automated. PMID:9350762

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in a Pediatric Population: Comparison of Three Commercially Available Serological Tests and One In-House Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BENGT SUNNERSTAM; TORBJORN KJERSTADIUS; LILLEMOR JANSSON; JOHAN GIESECKE; MATS BERGSTROM; JAN EJDERHAMN

    1999-01-01

    A serum immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for Helicobacter pylori antibodies already in use in adults was evaluated with 99 pediatric serum samples to determine its usefulness for the study of H. pylori disease in children. The reference method used was either the 13 C-urea breath test or a biopsy culture of gastric mucosa. In children, an EIA cutoff of

  16. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Capsid Antigens Derived from Viruses of Human and Swine Origin Are Equally Efficient for Detecting Anti-HEV by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Engle; C. Yu; S. U. Emerson; X.-J. Meng; R. H. Purcell

    2002-01-01

    The recombinant truncated ORF2 (capsid) antigen derived from the Meng strain of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) differs from that of the Sar-55 strain of human HEV by approximately 5% at the amino acid level. Serial serum samples from two chimpanzees and six rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with HEV were tested with one enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on the Sar-55

  17. TRICLOSAN AND METHYL-TRICLOSAN MONITORING STUDY IN THE NORTHEAST OF SPAIN USING A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND CONFIRMATORY ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of triclosan in the water environment around a Mediterranean region was investigated. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan content of ninety five environmental samples were screened using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples were confirmed by solid phase extraction (SPE...

  18. A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

  19. Determination of opiates and cocaine in hair using automated enzyme immunoassay screening methodologies followed by gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) confirmation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Lachenmeier; Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a two-step strategy for analysis of opiates and cocaine in hair samples involving an immunological screening procedure followed by confirmation of results using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A semi-quantitative automated competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methodology using Oral Fluid Micro-Plate Enzyme Immunoassays (Orasure Technologies, Inc.) was developed and validated. Applicability was proven

  20. Enzyme-triggered tyramine-enzyme repeats on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures for highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of tissue polypeptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tisen; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Xuegui; Xie, Zhaohui; Li, Xiangyong

    2015-11-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay with sensitivity enhancement was developed for quantitative detection of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) by coupling with target-induced tyramine signal amplification on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures. The immunosensor was prepared through immobilizing anti-TPA capture antibody on a cleaned screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures (PBGNS) labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody were utilized as the signal-transduction tags. Upon target TPA introduction, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed between capture antibody and detection antibody on the electrode. The carried HRP could trigger the formation of tyramine-HRP repeats on the PBGNS in the presence of H2O2. Using the doped prussian blue as the electron mediator, the conjugated HRP could catalyze the reduction of H2O2. Under the optimal conditions, the catalytic currents increased with the increasing target TPA in the dynamic range from 1.0pgmL(-1) to 100ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.3pgmL(-1). The reproducibility and specificity of the electrochemical immunoassay were acceptable. In addition, the contents of target TPA in nine human serum specimens were evaluated by using the developed electrochemical immunosensor, and the obtained results correlated well with those from commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. PMID:26067328

  1. Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using virus-like particles or virus-infected mouse brain antigens to detect IgM antibody in sera from patients with evident flaviviral infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Derek A; Purdy, David E; Chao, Day-Yu; Noga, Amanda J; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2005-07-01

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source of viral antigens used in the assay. In an effort to provide a reliable source of standardized viral antigens for serodiagnosis of the medically important flaviviruses, we have developed a eukaryotic plasmid vector to express the premembrane/membrane and envelope proteins which self-assemble into noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs). In addition to the plasmids for Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) reported earlier, we recently constructed the DENV-1, -3, and -4 VLP expression plasmids. Three blind-coded human serum panels were assembled from patients having recent DENV, SLEV, and WNV infections to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the MAC-ELISA using VLPs or SMB antigens. In addition, serum specimens from patients infected with either Powassan virus or La Crosse encephalitis virus were used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of seven mosquito-borne viral antigens. The results of the present studies showed higher sensitivity when using SLEV and WNV VLPs and higher specificity when using SLEV, WNV, and the mixture of DENV-1 to -4 VLPs in the MAC-ELISA than when using corresponding SMB antigens. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a plot of the sensitivity versus false positive rate (100 - specificity), was applied to discriminate the accuracy of tests comparing the use of VLPs and SMB antigen. The measurement of assay performance by the ROC analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in assay performance between DENV and WNV VLPs and the respective SMB antigens. Additionally, VLPs had a lower cutoff positive/negative ratio than corresponding SMB antigens when employed for the confirmation of current infections. The VLPs also performed better than SMB antigens in the MAC-ELISA, as indicated by a higher positive prediction value and positive likelihood ratio test. Cell lines continuously secreting these VLPs are therefore a significantly improved source of serodiagnostic antigens compared to the traditional sources of virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain. PMID:16000440

  2. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus core-related antigens and their correlation to virus load.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Sakamoto, Yoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specific for hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was developed. We designated the precore/core gene products as hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg). In order to detect HBcrAg even in anti-HBc/e antibody-positive specimens, the specimens were pretreated in detergents. The antibodies are inactivated by this pretreatment and, simultaneously, the antigens are released and the epitopes are exposed. The assay demonstrated 71 to 112% recovery using HBcrAg-positive sera. We observed no interference from the tested anticoagulants or blood components. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 10(3) U/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg/HBV-DNA negative; n = 108) and anti-HCV antibody-positive (n = 59) sera were identified as negative. The assay showed a detection limit of 4 x 10(2) U/ml using recombinant antigen. Detection limits were compared in four serially diluted HBV high-titer sera. The HBcrAg assay demonstrated higher sensitivity than HBV-DNA transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) or HBeAg radio immunoassay (RIA) in the dilution test. HBcrAg concentrations correlated well with HBV-DNA TMA (r = 0.91, n = 29) and in-house real-time detection-PCR (r = 0.93, n = 47) in hepatitis B patients. On HBeAg/anti-HBe antibody seroconversion panels, the HBcrAg concentration changed in accordance with HBV-DNA levels. HBcrAg concentration provides a reflection of HBV virus load equivalent to HBV-DNA level, and the assay therefore offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients. PMID:11825954

  3. Validation of a shed skin corticosterone enzyme immunoassay in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and its evaluation in the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Hyatt, Crystal; Gilman, Christine; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the use of an enzyme immunoassay to measure keratin glucocorticoid concentrations in reptilian shed skins. Keratin glucocorticoid concentrations were compared to fecal glucocorticoid concentrations during the period of keratin growth in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Biochemical validation was performed for the shed skin and fecal corticosterone enzyme immunoassays in the African House Snake. Biological and physiological validations were attempted in the African House Snake. A statistically significant positive association was detected between shed skin corticosterone and the mean fecal corticosterone metabolites from 3 weeks before to 1 week after the previous ecdysis in the African House Snake. A statistically significant difference was not detected between the shed skin corticosterone concentrations of the minimally handled control and the weekly handled (or experimentally stressed) African House Snakes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation did not result in the physiological validation anticipated for shed skin corticosterone concentrations in the African House Snake. PMID:23994033

  4. Rapid confirmation of polymyxin-cloth enzyme immunoassay for group D salmonellae including Salmonella enteritidis in eggs by polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyan Wang; Burton W. Blais; Hiroshi Yamazaki

    1995-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive combined screening test and confirmation procedure was developed for group D Salmonellae (e.g. Salmonella enteritidis) in eggs. S. enteritidis inoculated into egg samples was pre-enriched in a minimal volume of enrichment broth, which was then assayed by the polymyxin-cloth enzyme immunoassay (polymyxin-CEIA): cholate-extracted lipopolysaccharide antigens were captured on polymyxin-coated polyester cloth and detected by sequential

  5. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen D. Quint; Leen-Jan van Doorn; Bernhard Kleter; Maurits N. C. de Koning; Henk A. M. van den Munckhof; Servaas A. Morre; B. ter Harmsel; E. Weiderpass; G. Harbers; W. J. G. Melchers; W. G. V. Quint

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT detection step involves a DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) using probes for serogroups (group B, C, and intermediate) and

  6. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence assay, dot-blot enzyme immunoassay, and shell vial culture in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections caused by influenza a virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Reina; Maria Munar; Isabel Blanco

    1996-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of two commercial rapid methods for antigenic detection, a dot-blot enzyme immunoassay (EIA-DB) (Directigen FluA, Becton-Dickinson, USA) and a direct immunofluorescence assay (DIF) (Monofluokit Influenza A, Diagnostics Pasteur, France), compared with the shell-vial culture in the MDCK line, incubated 2 to 3 days and stained with the monoclonal antibody clone IA-52, the diagnosis of lower

  7. Evaluation of three different antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus SRB51 in vaccinated heifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Robles; K. Nielsen; D. Gall; P. Willems

    2009-01-01

    The live attenuated Brucella abortus SRB51 (SRB51) is a partial O-chain-deprived mutant. The relative lack of the polysaccharide prevents it from inducing antibodies detectable by most of the serological tests used for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The performance of three antigens used in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay test for detecting SRB51 antibodies were evaluated. A homogeneous group of twenty-five

  8. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for the antibiotic cefquinome and its application for residue determination in cow's milk after therapeutical mastitis treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Thal; Monika Steffen; Bianca Meier; Elisabeth Schneider; Ansgar Adriany; Ewald Usleber

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the cephalosporin antibiotic in milk, in\\u000a combination with a new microbiological test system (brilliant black reduction test, BRT-P). Polyclonal antibodies against\\u000a cefquinome were produced in rabbits, using cefquinome-keyhole limpet hemocyanine as the immunogen. These antibodies and a\\u000a cefquinome-glucose oxidase conjugate were used in a competitive

  9. HLA-B27 determination using serological methods. A comparison of enzyme immunoassay and a microlymphocytotoxic test with flow cytometry and a molecular biological assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dunky; J. Neumüller; C. Hübner; G. F. Fischer; P. M. Bayer; E. Wagner; D. W. M. Schwartz; W. R. Mayr

    1996-01-01

    Typing for HLA-B27 is routinely performed in patients with seronegative spondarthritides. Besides the microlymphocytotoxic test (MLCT), other serological techniques have been developed such as enzyme immunoassays (EIA) using serum or plasma as a source for the determination of soluble HLA-B27 (sHLA-B27) and flow cytometric (FC) methods. The aim of the present study was to check the accuracy and reliability of

  10. Comparison of a Polymer Conjugate-Enhanced Enzyme Immunoassay to Ligase Chain Reaction for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in Endocervical Swabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX CHERNESKY; DAN JANG; DEBBY COPES; JAY PATEL; ASTRID PETRICH; KATHLEEN BIERS; ARLENE SPROSTON; JULIUS KAPALA

    Two endocervical swabs from each of 1,123 women were collected into manufacturer-supplied transport tubes and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by a polymer conjugate-enhanced (PCE) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (IDEIA PCE Chlamydia; DAKO) and a ligase chain reaction assay (LCx Chlamydia; Abbott). After confirmation by the EIA blocking test, the sensitivity of the IDEIA PCE remained at 91.8% and the specificity increased

  11. Reduction in False-Positive Aspergillus Serum Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay Results Associated with Use of Piperacillin-Tazobactam in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Paschalis; Razonable, Raymund R.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Estes, Lynn; Caliendo, Angela M.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Wingard, John R.; Baddley, John; Assi, Maha; Norris, Steven; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Shields, Ryan; Nguyen, Hong; Freifeld, Alison; Kohler, Richard; Kleiman, Martin; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) is known to cause false-positive results in the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), due to contamination with galactomannan (GM). We tested 32 lots of PTZ and 27 serum specimens from patients receiving PTZ. GM was not detected in the lots of PTZ; one serum specimen (3.7%) was positive. PTZ formulations commonly used in the United States today appear to be a rare cause for false-positive GM results. PMID:24719434

  12. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  13. New enzyme immunoassay for detecting total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H M Waters; C Smith; J E Howarth; D W Dawson; I W Delamore

    1989-01-01

    A method for the detection of total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies was devised. The technique comprises a two-site solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with human intrinsic factor conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as label and attached to polystyrene tubes as solid phase. One conjugation provides sufficient material to assay more than 10,000 patient samples. The

  14. Development of miniaturized immunoassay: influence of surface chemistry and comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Graziella; Laurenceau, Emmanuelle; Chevolot, Yann; Mérieux, Yves; Desbos, Agnès; Fabien, Nicole; Rigal, Dominique; Souteyrand, Eliane; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Protein microarray technology provides a useful approach for the simultaneous serodetection of various antibodies in low sample volumes. To implement functional protein microarrays, appropriate surface chemistry must be designed so that both the protein structure and the biological activity can be retained. In the current study, two surface chemistries for protein microarrays and immunofluorescent assays were developed. Glass slides were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester via a monofunctional silane or maleic anhydride-alt-methyl vinyl ether (MAMVE) copolymer to allow covalent grafting of histone proteins. Analytical performance of these microarrays was then evaluated for the detection of anti-histone autoantibodies present in the sera of patients suffering from a systemic autoimmune disease, namely systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the results were compared with those of the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The detection limit of our MAMVE copolymer microarrays was 50-fold lower than that of the classical ELISA. Furthermore, 100-fold less volume of biological samples was required with these miniaturized immunoassays. PMID:20079705

  15. Assessment of Aspergillus fumigatus Burden in Pulmonary Tissue of Guinea Pigs by Quantitative PCR, Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay, and Quantitative Culture?

    PubMed Central

    Vallor, Ana C.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Kinney, Marsha C.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Herrera, Monica L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Graybill, John R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is problematic in some patient groups due to the lack of rapid, sensitive, specific, and reliable diagnostic tests. Fungal burden and therapeutic efficacy were assessed by survival, quantitative culture (CFU counts), galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in a new guinea pig model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis using an aerosol challenge. At 1 day postinfection, qPCR determined that the pulmonary fungal burden was 2 log10 higher than that determined by CFU counting and increased significantly (P < 0.03) over time. In contrast, the tissue burden assessed by CFU counting did not rise over the course of the study. Therapy with the antifungal drug voriconazole produced statistically significant decreases in pulmonary fungal burden, as detected by CFU counting (P < 0.02), qPCR, and GM-EIA (both P < 0.0002). Daily assessment of the progression of fungal infection in serum was performed by qPCR and GM-EIA. GM-EIA demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the fungal load on days 6 and 7 in voriconazole-treated animals compared to time-matched controls (P < 0.02). Confirmation of fungal tissue burden by two or more methods should provide a more precise account of the burden, allowing improved assessment of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:18474582

  16. Development of enzyme immunoassays to detect salivary sIgA to Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tuuminen, T; Vainionpää, R

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the detection of secretory IgA antibody (sIgA) to Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae from saliva are described. The presence of salivary sIgA in healthy laboratory personnel (mean age 40, range 25-62 years) was detected using conjugates of antibodies directed against secretory and alpha-chain domains. The EIA results for the detection of C pneumoniae sIgA antibodies were confirmed by a sensitive microimmunofluorescence method used as a reference. Circulating IgA antibody levels in sera were also determined using commercial EIAs. Secretory IgA antibodies to both C pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae were detectable only from persons with positive or borderline circulating IgA antibodies. Moreover, C. pneumoniae sIgA was found in the saliva of a clinically healthy person whose serum IgA antibody levels had been constantly elevated during the past 7 years. In conclusion, because of their specificity the described methods could be used in further delineation of the role of anti-C pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae sIgA antibodies. However, owing to the unexpected high frequency of these antibodies in saliva of clinically healthy persons, it seems unlikely that a single sIgA measurement from saliva is diagnostically more powerful than a single IgA measurement from serum to study and interpret the involvement of these pathogens in chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:11569482

  17. Development of a highly sensitive and selective microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of free thyroxine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Hui; Lin, Jin-Ming; Ying, Xitang

    2007-01-01

    A microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) with high sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility was developed for the determination of free thyroxine (FT4) in human serum. A competitive assay has been utilized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled thyroxine analog in the chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The CL signal produced by the emission of photons from luminol was directly proportional to the amount of analyte. The linear range was 0.45-7.5 ng dL(-1 )and the detection limit was 0.09 ng dL(-1). Experimental conditions, such as temperature, pH, incubation time, titration level and other relevant variables upon the CL signal have been examined and optimized. A coefficient of variance of less than 16% was obtained for intra- and inter-assay precision. The present method has been successfully applied to the analysis of FT4 in human serum. The positive and negative coincidence ratios are satisfactory. Good correlations were obtained between the results by the proposed method and radioimmunoassay (RIA), as well as a Bayer ACS-180SE detection system. PMID:17505537

  18. Capsaicin-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat stomach measured with a new chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Inaba, N; Shibata, M; Onodera, S; Tanaka, M; Suzuki, T; Kase, N; Yamaura, T

    1996-11-01

    The peripheral capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve has been reported to play an important role in gastroprotection and to release a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). We developed a new chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for CGRP and measured capsaicin-induced CGRP release from the isolated and inverted rat stomach. The basal CGRP release from the stomach was 0.40 +/- 0.02 pg/mg wet weight in a 30-min incubation. Capsaicin (1 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5) M) stimulated CGRP release in a concentration-dependent manner. In the stomach from rats with defunctionalization of afferent neurons, the levels of the basal and capsaicin-induced CGRP release were below the limit of detection. On the other hand, the capsaicin-induced CGRP release was not blocked by tetrodotoxin treatment. The gangliosym-pathectomy abolished the increase in the CGRP levels. However, the capsaicin-induced CGRP release was not affected by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin that causes a complete degeneration of adrenergic nerve terminals. In conclusion, the CLEIA system may be useful for detecting the released CGRP and studying the activity of capsaicin-sensitive nerves, particularly the CGRP-containing nerves. Our results also confirmed that although the CGRP-containing nerve runs in the sympathetic nerve trunk, the activity of the nerve is not affected by adrenergic nerves, and the capsaicin-induced CGRP release may be attributable to the tetrodotoxin-resistant component. PMID:8957683

  19. Performance of Clostridium difficile Toxin Enzyme Immunoassay and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests Stratified by Patient Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Uslan, Daniel Z.; Rubin, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Many clinical laboratories in the United States are transitioning from toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as the primary diagnostic test for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). While it is known that the analytical sensitivity of the toxin EIA is poor, there are limited clinical data on the performance of these assays for patients with mild or severe CDI. Two hundred ninety-six hospital inpatients with diarrhea and clinical suspicion for CDI were tested prospectively by toxin EIA, by C. difficile NAAT, and with a reference standard toxigenic culture. Following completion of laboratory testing, retrospective chart reviews were performed to stratify patients into mild and severe disease groups based on clinical criteria using a standard point-based system. One hundred forty-three patients with CDI confirmed by toxigenic culture were evaluated in this study. Among the patients with mild CDI, 49% tested positive by toxin EIA and 98% tested positive by NAAT. Among patients with severe CDI, 58% tested positive by toxin EIA and 98% tested positive by NAAT. Increased CDI disease severity was not associated with an increased sensitivity of EIA (P = 0.31). These data demonstrate that toxin EIA performs poorly both for patients with severe CDI and for those with mild CDI and support the routine use of NAAT for the diagnosis of CDI. The presence of stool toxin measured by EIA does not correlate with disease severity. PMID:23269736

  20. Diagnostic usefulness of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody serology. Comparative evaluation of commercial indirect fluorescent antibody kits and enzyme immunoassay kits.

    PubMed

    Lim, L C; Taylor, J G; Schmitz, J L; Folds, J D; Wilkman, A S; Falk, R J; Jennette, J C

    1999-03-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) are increasingly used as serologic markers for pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis and small vessel vasculitis. Many hospital laboratories and referral laboratories use commercial assay kits to detect ANCAs, despite inadequate documentation in the medical literature of kit performance. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 3 commercial indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kits and 7 commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for several ANCA subtypes. Serum samples from 396 patients with a variety of renal diseases were analyzed, including 146 patients with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulo-nephritis with or without systemic vasculitis. With 1 exception, the kits had more than 90% agreement with the reference standard and gave results similar to those of research laboratories. IFA diagnostic sensitivity ranged from 81% to 91% and EIA sensitivity from 75% to 84%. Maximum specificity was obtained with combined IFA and EIA. Diagnostic specificity was more than 70% for 2 of 3 IFA kits and at least 90% for 5 of 7 EIA kits. Predictive values varied with clinical manifestations. Most commercial IFA and EIA kits that were evaluated provide acceptably accurate analytic results. PMID:10078112

  1. Enzyme immunoassay for anatoxin-A. Phase 1. Final report, 15 August 1988-15 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, R.A.; Behrens, C.; Swan, G.; Chappa, A.

    1989-02-14

    The ability to detect the presence of naturally occurring toxins in the environment is important for the protection of military and civilian personnel. One such toxin of considerable interest is anatoxin a, a secondary metabolite of the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Anabena flos-aquae, which has been shown to be extraordinarily toxic. Numerous examples of animal deaths have been reported after drinking from lakes and ponds following blooms of this freshwater algae. This phase I report describes the results of an immunoassay development based on an ELISA format. Two different derivatives of anatoxin a were prepared and they were coupled to carrier proteins for use as immunogens, and to active enzymes for use as conjugates in an ELISA. Polyclonal antibodies to the immunogens have been raised in rabbits, and they have been found to be suitable for use in an ELISA. No current test procedure exists for anatoxin a in freshwater supplies despite the very real hazard presented by this naturally occurring toxin. The Army needs to have the capability of testing for the use of this material in biological warfare as well as for evaluating the suitability of drinking water sources in the field. The wide-spread occurrence of blue-green algae blooms in lakes and ponds indicates that a significant commercial market is available, particularly in the agricultural and water-treatment areas.

  2. Novel rapid immunochromatographic test based on an enzyme immunoassay for detecting nucleocapsid antigen in SARS-associated coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Kogaki, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Kurano, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Kazushige; Kido, Yasuji; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo; Tamashiro, Hiko; Ling, Ai-Ee; Okada, Masahisa

    2005-01-01

    A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been discovered. The detection of both antigens and antibodies in SARS-CoV from human specimens with suspected SARS plays an important role in preventing infection. We developed a novel rapid immunochromatographic test (RICT) based on the sandwich format enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with an all-in-one device for detecting the native nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag) of SARS-CoV using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), which we produced by immunizing recombinant N-Ag to mice. RICT is a qualitative assay for respiratory aspirates and serum specimens. With this assay, a positive result can be judged subjectively by the appearance of a blue line on the device 15 min after the sample is applied. RICT with several pairs of MoAbs showed a high sensitivity for the detection of recombinant N-Ag as well as viral N-Ag of SARS-CoV. rSN122 and rSN21-2 were the best MoAbs for immobilized antibody and enzyme labeling, respectively. With regard to analytical sensitivity, RICT detected N-Ag at 31 pg/mL for recombinant N-Ag, and at 1.99 x 10(2) TCID(50)/mL for SARS-CoV. The specificity of RICT was 100% when 150 human sera and 50 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NSPs) were used. RICT based on an EIA using the rSN122/rSN21-2 pair is a sensitive, specific, and reliable rapid assay for detecting N-Ag in SARS-CoV treated with either heat or Triton X-100. PMID:16025480

  3. RAPID ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARBARYL AND METHOPRENE IN GRAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo Wang; Robin D. Allan; Amanda S. Hill; Ivan R. Kennedy

    2002-01-01

    In order for grain handlers and traders to reliably estimate residues of grain protectants in the field, antibody-based rapid tests were developed for carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and methoprene [isopropyl (E,E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate]. To complement the rapid analysis, a simple and rapid extraction technique was developed. In these tests, a pesticide-containing methanol extract of the grain sample and an enzyme-labeled component are added

  4. Rapid enzyme immunoassays for the detection of carbaryl and methoprene in grains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Allan, Robin D; Hill, Amanda S; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2002-11-01

    In order for grain handlers and traders to reliably estimate residues of grain protectants in the field, antibody-based rapid tests were developed for carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and methoprene [isopropyl (E,E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate]. To complement the rapid analysis, a simple and rapid extraction technique was developed. In these tests, a pesticide-containing methanol extract of the grain sample and an enzyme-labeled component are added to precoated strips. After a brief incubation, the strips are washed and a substrate/chromogen for the enzyme is added. The color developed is stopped by acidification and the results are read either by eye or in a portable field photometer. The overall test time is under 20 minutes. For carbaryl, the test had a limit of detection of 4.5 ppb (1.1 ppm in grain), while the methoprene test had a limit of detection of 4 ppb (1 ppm in grain) based on the lower datum point, which is 15% inhibition, in the standard curves. Both assays can be used as a screening test for carbaryl and methoprene in animal feed grains. PMID:12403263

  5. Development of an indirect enzyme linked immunoassay for abscisic acid. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.S.; Elder, P.A.; McWha, J.A.; Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.

    1987-09-01

    AN INDIRECT METHOD OF ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY (ELISA) IS REPORTED FOR ABSCISIC ACID (ABA), UTILIZING A THYROGLOBULIN-ABA CONJUGATE FOR COATING WELLS. THE ASSAY CAN USE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, IS SENSITIVE TO AS LITTLE AS 20 PICOGRAMS ABA PER WELL, AND IS MUCH MORE CONSERVATIVE OF ANTIBODY THAN DIRECT METHODS. THE MOST DILUTE ABA STANDARDS DID NOT RETAIN THEIR ANTIGENICITY DURING STORAGE, SO ABA STANDARD SETS WERE DILUTED IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO USE. THE INDIRECT ELISA WAS USED SUCCESSFULLY TO ESTIMATE ABA CONCENTRATIONS IN DEVELOPING COTYLEDONS OF PISUM SATIVUM L., AFTER ONLY LITTLE PRELIMINARY PURIFICATION. IT WAS VALIDATED FOR THIS TISSUE THROUGH THE USE OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTION (GC-EC), AND CAPILLARY GC-SELECTED ION MONITORING (GC-MS-SIM) USING LABELLED ABA AS AN INTERNAL STANDARD. FULL SPECTRUM GC-MASS SPECTROMETRY WAS ALSO USED TO VERIFY THAT ABA WAS PRESENT IN A SAMPLE ASSAYED QUANTITATIVELY BY BOTH ELISA AND GC-MS-SIM.

  6. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of porcine gelatine in edible bird's nests.

    PubMed

    Tukiran, Nur Azira; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-07-01

    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry. PMID:25861981

  7. Highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen by use of a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhiko; Maruki, Mari; Yamagaito, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Machiko; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Tobimatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Mizuno, Yoshiteru; Hamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-07-01

    The performance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening assays is continuously improved to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B. In this study, a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (ICT-CLEIA) for the detection of HBsAg, which is as sensitive as hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA PCR, was developed; the ICT-CLEIA assay performance was compared with the performance of the Architect HBsAg QT assay and HBV DNA PCR. The specificities in the initial assay and after retesting were 99.50% (1,988/1,998 samples) and 99.95% (1,997/1,998 samples), respectively. The analytical detection limit was determined to be 0.2 mIU/ml using the 2nd International WHO HBsAg standard, and the cutoff value (0.5 mIU/ml) of the ICT-CLEIA assay was 8.0 standard deviations (SD) above the mean of the HBsAg-negative specimens. The ICT-CLEIA assay could detect HBsAg even in the presence of anti-HBs antibodies and demonstrated a 23.6-day-shorter window period using commercially available HBsAg seroconversion panels than the Architect HBsAg QT assay. Furthermore, the monitoring of the viral kinetics by the ICT-CLEIA assay and the HBV DNA PCR produced very similarly shaped curves during both the HBsAg seroconversion and reverse seroconversion periods. Therefore, the ICT-CLEIA assay may be useful not only for an earlier detection of HBV reactivation but also for the monitoring of hepatitis B patients. PMID:23658266

  8. Highly Sensitive Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen by Use of a Semiautomated Immune Complex Transfer Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Maruki, Mari; Yamagaito, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Machiko; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Tobimatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Mizuno, Yoshiteru; Hamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening assays is continuously improved to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B. In this study, a semiautomated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (ICT-CLEIA) for the detection of HBsAg, which is as sensitive as hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA PCR, was developed; the ICT-CLEIA assay performance was compared with the performance of the Architect HBsAg QT assay and HBV DNA PCR. The specificities in the initial assay and after retesting were 99.50% (1,988/1,998 samples) and 99.95% (1,997/1,998 samples), respectively. The analytical detection limit was determined to be 0.2 mIU/ml using the 2nd International WHO HBsAg standard, and the cutoff value (0.5 mIU/ml) of the ICT-CLEIA assay was 8.0 standard deviations (SD) above the mean of the HBsAg-negative specimens. The ICT-CLEIA assay could detect HBsAg even in the presence of anti-HBs antibodies and demonstrated a 23.6-day-shorter window period using commercially available HBsAg seroconversion panels than the Architect HBsAg QT assay. Furthermore, the monitoring of the viral kinetics by the ICT-CLEIA assay and the HBV DNA PCR produced very similarly shaped curves during both the HBsAg seroconversion and reverse seroconversion periods. Therefore, the ICT-CLEIA assay may be useful not only for an earlier detection of HBV reactivation but also for the monitoring of hepatitis B patients. PMID:23658266

  9. [Reduction in the window period of an acute infection by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay of HIV-1 p24 antigen].

    PubMed

    Handa, N; Kato, M; Ishihama, Y; Masuda, G

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the detectability of HIV-1 p24 antigen in the window period of an acute infection, 172 HIV-1-infected and 78 HIV-1-uninfected adult serum (plasma) samples were assayed by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA, 2 step sandwich method) and EIA. All 78 HIV-uninfected samples (100%) were p24 antigen negative by both methods. Thirty five of the 172 HIV-1-infected samples (32.1%) were p24 antigen negative by EIA, and p24 antigen positive by CLEIA. The HIV-1 RNA levels of the 35 discrepant samples were 8.1 x 10(3)-7.9 x 10(5) copies/ml, TH/I lymphocyte levels of them were less than 200 cells/microliter except 9 cases, and phases of them were AIDSs of CDC 1993 classification except 7 cases. The antigen detection limit of CLEIA was 3.1-6.3 pg/ml, and that of EIA was 12.5-25.0 pg/ml. The coefficient of variations of CLEIA were 3.0-6.3% determined after the assay on 5 samples on 5 different days, 6 times per day. On the basis of these results, it was inferred that the reason for the discrepancy between the two methods was due to the fact that the detection limit of CLEIA was lower than that of EIA. On an antibody-negative RNA-positive (5.0 x 10(4) copies/ml) serum sample in the window period of an acute infection, p24 antigen was detected by CLEIA 7 days earlier than by EIA. CLEIA was judged to be a useful assay for reducing the window period, and a cost-effective (effect/cost > 1.0) method. PMID:10518427

  10. Performance of a conventional enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus core antigen in the early phases of hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, K; Iida, K; Ohue, C; Matsunaga, Y; Tanaka, E; Kiyosawa, K; Yagi, S

    2001-01-01

    There are periods within the early phase of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in which the anti-HCV antibody test is unable to confirm HCV viremia. To reduce the risk of transmitting HCV through transfusions, we developed a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which detects the core antigen of HCV (HCVcAg). This assay employed a conventional colorimetric EIA system, and was based on a two-step sandwich assay, using a 96- well microplate. The reproducibility of the results was very high. When the cutoff values were set to 30 fmol of recombinant HCVcAg/L, as determined by the distribution of healthy subject sera (n=223), 99.6% of healthy subject sera and 100% of hepatitis B patient sera (n=50) were negative for HCVcAg. The clinical performance of this EIA was examined using 14 commercially available seroconversion panels. In every panel, HCVcAg could be detected at points preceding the seroconversion of anti-HCV antibodies. The points at which HCVcAg was detected were the same as those at which it was detected by an AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. The EIA's window period for detecting the HCVcAg in all panels was on average 26 days shorter than that of the anti-HCV antibody test. In three panels where the first sample is negative for HCV RNA, the window period was shortened 50 days by this EIA for HCVcAg. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of HCVcAg and HCV RNA in anti-HCV antibody negative specimens. This assay was simpler to perform than assays based on gene amplification technology for the detection of HCV RNA, and the window period was shortened to that of the AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. Thus, the EIA for HCVcAg would be useful in screening seroconverting donors and could reduce the residual risk of secondary HCV infections through transfusions. PMID:11294574

  11. Use of enzyme immunoassay for large water-quality surveys of major herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Goolsby, D.A. [Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of major herbicides in several large water-quality surveys of surface water, rainwater, and ground water throughout the United States. The ELISA results were compared with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for accuracy and cross reactivity. In total, five compounds were analyzed: alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Results indicated that the ELISA and GC/MS results were comparable for cyanazine and metolachlor. The atrazine ELISA correlated well with GC/MS for surface- and ground-water samples from the central United States but did not correlate with samples from Texas where the cotton triazine, prometryn, is used. Results using the alachlor ELISA were poor because of cross reactivity with the metabolite, alachlor ethane-sulfonic acid. The ELISA for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid was insensitive at concentrations that occur in most surface water.

  12. Determination of Aspergillus fumigatus allergen 1 in poultry farms using the enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena; Matkovi?, Kristina; Vucemilo, Marija

    2010-06-01

    Poultry farms contain high levels of allergenic fungi, and Aspergillus spp. is the most common genus of moulds. Aspergillus fumigatus antigens are responsible for the development of several respiratory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Asp f 1, a major allergen of Asperillus fumigatus in 37 indoor dust samples collected from four poultry farms in a rural area of the Zagreb County (Croatia) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than 62 % of dust samples had detectable Asp f 1 levels (limit of detection 3.6 ng g(-1)). The overall mean Asp f 1 level was 17.9 ng g(-1) [range (3.8 to 72.4) ng g(-1)]. Satisfactory results were obtained for analytical within-run imprecision (6.7 %), between-run imprecision (10.5 %), and accuracy (91 % to 115 %). Microclimate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity) were within the recommended ranges in all poultry farms. This study has shown that Asp f 1 settles on dust at poultry farms and that occupational exposure to this allergen deserves monitoring in livestock buildings. PMID:20587390

  13. Preparation of antibodies and development of an enzyme immunoassay for determination of atrazine in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Kawther S; Aly, Nagat M; Mosallam, Eman M; Salama, Ahmed K

    2011-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and optimized for atrazine determination in soil at different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) before and after 48 h of application, corn shoot and cow milk samples collected from Dina farm, Egypt. This assay was based on a specific polyclonal antibodies (PAb) raised by immunizing New Zealand rabbits with an immunogen prepared by coupling 3-{4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl} thiopropanoic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) active ester method. The sensitivity (estimated as IC?? value) was 17.5 ?g mL?¹ with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL?¹. The maximum atrazine concentration was found in soil especially in the deepest layer (325 and 890 ?g kg?¹ before and after application, respectively). Atrazine concentration in corn shoot was 333.28, ?g kg?¹ dry plant, while there was no detectable amount in milk. All samples screened by ELISA were validated by gas chromatography mass spectrometer procedure (GC/MS). Good correlation was achieved between the two methods (r = 0.997 for soil and 0.9814 for plant). This study demonstrates the utility and convenience of the simple, practical and cost-effective ELISA method in the laboratory for analysis of environmental samples. The method is ideal for the rapid screening of large numbers of samples in laboratories where access to GC/MS facilities, is limited or lacking. PMID:21512930

  14. Improved Standardization of the Bio-Rad Platelia Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Using the DS2 (Dynex) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Processing System.

    PubMed

    Gorton, R L; White, P L; Bagkeris, E; Cotterall, D; Desai, R; McHugh, T; Kibbler, C C

    2015-07-01

    The galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) is widely utilized for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). There is inconsistent reproducibility of results between centers when the assay is processed manually. Automation of EIAs can reduce variation. This study investigated the semiautomation of the GM-EIA on the DS2 (Dynex) platform in the following three stages: (i) DS2 GM-EIA method validation with experimental samples, (ii) DS2 retesting of case-defined clinical samples, and (iii) a 12-month audit of DS2 GM-EIA performance. In stage i, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a reduced variance between optical density index (ODI) values for samples processed on two DS2 platforms (mean difference, -0.02; limits of agreement [LOA], -0.19 to 0.14) compared with the variance between samples processed manually and on a DS2 platform (mean difference, 0.02; LOA, -0.25 to 0.3). In stage ii, 100% (14/14 samples) qualitative agreement was observed for serum samples from patients with IA, with no significant change in the ODI values when samples were processed on the DS2 platform. A significant decrease in ODI values was observed for control serum samples on the DS2 platform (difference, 0.01; P = 0.042). In stage iii, a significant reduction in the frequency of equivocal results, from 5.56% (136/2,443 samples) to 1.56% (15/961 samples), was observed after DS2 automation (difference, 4.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 5.2%; P < 0.01), with an equivalent increase in negative results. This study demonstrates that GM-EIA automation may reduce intersite variability. Automation does not have an impact on the repeatability of truly positive results but contributes to a reduction in false-positive (equivocal) GM-EIA results, reducing the need to retest a significant proportion of samples. PMID:25878352

  15. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin. PMID:1737052

  16. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. MAINE; R. STRICKER; M. SCHULER; J. SPESARD; S. BROJANAC; B. IRIARTE; K. HERWIG; T. GRAMINS; B. COMBS; J. WISE; H. SIMMONS; T. GRAM; J. LONZE; D. RUZICKI; B. BYRNE; J. D. CLIFTON; L. E. CHOVAN; D. WACHTA; C. HOLAS; D. WANG; T. WILSON; S. TOMAZIC-ALLEN; M. A. CLEMENTS; G. L. WRIGHT; T. LAZZAROTTO; A. RIPALTI; M. P. LANDINI

    2000-01-01

    A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n 5 300), pregnant

  17. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF TRICLOSAN IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay for triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The triclosan ligand and horse radis...

  19. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay with magnetic particles and coated tubes as solid phases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyun; Wang, Xu; Li, Zhenjia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2009-01-12

    In this work, the monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were immobilized on two different solid phases, i.e., magnetic particles (MP) and coated tubes (CT). Based on this, a MP based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MP-CLEIA) and a CT based CLEIA (CT-CLEIA) were proposed for the evaluation of AFP in human serum and their analytical merits were studied and compared. By detailed discussion of several performance variants, including the concentration of immobilized McAb, dilution ratio of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled McAb (HRP-McAb), total assay time, substrate volume, chemiluminescent kinetics, and hook effect concentration, the advantages of MP-CLEIA became conspicuously apparent. Moreover, in the presence of MP, the catalytic activity of labeled enzyme was kept to high extent and the stability of immunoreagents was satisfied. Finally, 59 human serum samples were detected by the MP-CLEIA and a good correlation was obtained when comparing the results with that from a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit. PMID:19084628

  20. Measurements in international units of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen(anti-HBs) after immunization with a yeast-derived, subtype adr hepatitis B vaccine are considerably different between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-04-01

    The worldwide consensus of the minimum protective anti-HBs level against HBV infection is 10 mIU/mL on assays standardized by the World Health Organization (WHO) reference preparations. To investigate whether this value could be applied to recipients of yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine containing the major surface protein of subtype adr (Bimmugen, Astellas Pharmaceutical, Tokyo), we compared anti-HBs measurements between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect Ausab, Abbott Japan, Tokyo) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse Forte, Fujirebio, Tokyo) in given serum samples obtained from the vaccinees. The vaccine and the two assay methods are currently in a wide use in Japan. The study included 300 medical students who completed a standard vaccination course (0, 1 and 6 months). Serum samples obtained 1 month or 13 months after completing the vaccination were simultaneously tested for anti-HBs by CLIA and CLEIA. In 147 samples with quantifiable values on both CLIA and CLEIA (10 to 1000 mIU/mL) the geometric mean titer on CLEIA (225.0 mIU/mL) was significantly higher than that on CLIA (94.5 mIU/mL) (p < 0.0001). Of 26 subjects with CLIA measurements below 10 mIU/mL, 15 samples (57.7%) showed CLEIA measurements more than 10 mIU/mL. Thus, in the subtype adr-vaccinees CLEIA demonstrated considerably high serum anti-HBs measurements compared to CLIA and discordance in determining critical anti-HBs level of 10 mIU/mL was observed in more than half the samples. This suggests that the minimum HBV-protective anti HBs titer of 10 mIU/mL is difficult to be introduced to Japan where subtype adr-HB vaccines or -HBV infection are prevalent, unless characteristics of assay methods are carefully evaluated. PMID:16722452

  1. A New Enzyme Immunoassay for the Quantitative Determination of Classical Autotaxins (ATX?, ATX?, and ATX?) and Novel Autotaxins (ATX? and ATX?)

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Yasunori; Kurano, Makoto; Shimamoto, Satoshi; Igarashi, Koji; Nojiri, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Masuda, Akiko; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Junken; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid, a potent bioactive lipid mediator, through its lysophospholipase D activity. Although five alternative splicing isoforms of ATX have been identified as ATX?, ATX?, ATX?, ATX?, and ATX? and the expression patterns of each isoform differ among several tissues, the clinical significance of each isoform remains to be elucidated. Methods Anti-ATX? and anti-ATX? monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant human ATX? and ATX? expressed using a baculovirus system, respectively. We then developed enzyme immunoassays to measure the serum concentrations of “classical ATX” (ATX?, ATX?, and ATX?) and “novel ATX” (ATX? and ATX?) antigens and evaluated the usefulness of these assays using human serum samples. Results The with-run and between-run precision, interference, detection limit, and linearity studies for the present assay were well validated. In healthy subjects, the serum concentrations of classical ATX and novel ATX were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in women than in men, while the ratios of classical ATX or novel ATX to total ATX were not different between women and men. The concentrations of both classical ATX and novel ATX in normal pregnant subjects and patients with chronic liver diseases or follicular lymphoma were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, while the ratio of both ATX isoforms to total ATX did not vary among these groups. Conclusions We have developed a new enzyme immunoassay to determine the concentrations of classical ATX and novel ATX in human serum. These assays may be helpful for elucidating the distinct functional roles of each ATX isoform, which are largely unknown at present. PMID:26083365

  2. Detection of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), a tissue-bound metabolite of the nitrofuran furazolidone, in prawn tissue by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K M; Elliott, C T; Kennedy, D G

    2004-09-01

    Furazolidone, a nitrofuran antibiotic, is banned from use in food animal production within the European Union. Increasingly, compliance with this ban is monitored by use of analytical methods to detect a stable tissue-bound metabolite, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ). Widespread use of furazolidone in poultry and prawns imported into Europe highlighted the urgent need for development of nitrofuran immunoassay screening tests. The first enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay for detection of AOZ residues in prawns (shrimps) is now described. Prawn samples were derivatized with o-nitrobenzaldehyde, extracted into ethyl acetate, washed with hexane and applied to a competitive enzyme immunoassay based on a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Assay limit of detection (LOD) (mean + 3 s) calculated from the analysis of 20 known negative cold and warm water prawn samples was 0.1 microg kg(-1). Intra- and interassay relative standard deviations were determined as 18.8 and 38.2%, respectively, using a negative prawn fortified at 0.7 microg kg(-1). The detection capability (CCbeta), defined as the concentration of AOZ at which 20 different fortified samples yielded results above the LOD, was achieved at fortification between 0.4 and 0.7 microg kg(-1). Incurred prawn samples (n = 8) confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection to contain AOZ concentrations between 0.4 and 12.7 microg kg(-1) were all screened positive by this enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. Further data are presented and discussed with regard to calculating assay LOD based on accepting a 5% false-positive rate with representative negative prawn samples. Such an acceptance improves the sensitivity of an ELISA and in this case permitted an LOD of 0.05 microg kg(-1) and a CCbeta of below 0.4 microg kg(-1). PMID:15666977

  3. Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Smith, Leonard A.; Feldhaus, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2006-06-16

    With the use of high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), two separate immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or the rapid detection of BoNT/A. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT in buffer and clinical fluids. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in diverse samples down to 14 fM (1.4 pg/mL). Using the recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. While the ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers an alternative to the mouse bioassay, the renewable surface assay has potential as a rapid screening assay for the analysis of complex environmental samples.

  4. Identification of human skin from a tissue fragment by detection of squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen using an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kitao, T; Miyaishi, S; Yamamoto, Y; Ishizu, H

    1996-12-01

    A new method of identifying human skin from a tissue fragment by detection of squamous cell carcinoma-related (SCC) antigen, using an enzyme immunoassay, was developed. When an extract was prepared from 0.1 g human skin homogenized with 1 ml of phosphate buffered saline, this method was able to detect SCC antigen in extracts diluted 10(2)-fold. There was no difference in the detection limit between individuals. Species specificity was good, and there was no cross reaction observed with skins from animals. Our method could also discriminate between skin and other organs or tissues, except for esophagus and lung. A practical case to which this method was applied is presented. PMID:9022270

  5. Serum G-CSF levels in primary myelofibrosis and chronic neutrophilic leukemia as estimated by the highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA).

    PubMed

    Saitoh, H; Shibata, A

    1996-08-01

    We previously reported that serum granulocyte colony stimulating factor levels of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients in chronic phase (CP) are significantly lower than those of healthy persons or other hematological malignancies as assessed by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). In this study, we clarify the difference in serum G-CSF levels between patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia; MMM) and those with secondary myelofibrosis caused by several hematological disorders, using the same highly sensitive CLEIA method. It is clearly demonstrated that serum G-CSF levels of the patients with PMF and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) are extremely low, similar to those in patients with CML in CP in this study. From these data, it is speculated that the abnormal proliferation of granulocytes in PMF and CNL may not be due to the stimulation by G-CSF, and that a negative feedback mechanism might exist between peripheral granulocytes and serum G-CSF. PMID:8882966

  6. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile????

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Alastair J.; Evans, Natalie E.; Williams, O. Martin; Spencer, Robert C.; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  7. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Alastair J; Evans, Natalie E; Williams, O Martin; Spencer, Robert C; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  8. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against a soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 and development of a sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiro; Ohta, Hideki; Kume, Noriaki; Hayashida, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Masaru; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Kaneshige, Toshihiko; Misaki, Shintaro; Imagawa, Keiichi; Shimosako, Ken'ichi; Ogawa, Naoko; Kita, Toru; Kominami, Goro

    2010-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), expressed prominently in atherosclerotic lesions, is cleaved and released as a soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1), which is a specific biomarker to diagnose acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at an early stage. Although sLOX-1 levels in patient's blood were successfully measured with our previously established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the assay was not sensitive enough to detect normal serum levels of sLOX-1 in healthy human subjects. We therefore developed sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against sLOX-1 in order to establish a more sensitive immunoassay. Mice were immunized with recombinant human LOX-1 extracellular domain. mAbs were subsequently generated by standard myeloma cell fusion techniques with a novel screening method using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. Using two anti-human sLOX-1 mAbs and alkaline phosphatase as a label, a sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed. In total, nine mAbs were obtained. The dissociation constant (K(d)) values of these mAbs for sLOX-1 were 0.12-1.32 nM. Characteristics of these mAbs were estimated and the best combination for CLEIA was selected. The newly established CLEIA could determine sLOX-1 levels as low as 8 pg/mL, and thus, was sensitive enough to measure serum sLOX-1 levels in normal human subjects and to evaluate subtle differences. Values for sLOX-1 measured by monoclonal CLEIA and polyclonal ELISA were highly correlated (r(2)=0.7594, p<0.0001). Area under the curve values of the receiver-operating characteristic curves in detecting ACS were 0.948 and 0.978 for monoclonal CLEIA and polyclonal ELISA, respectively. Thus, a more sensitive sLOX-1 CLEIA was established using newly developed mAbs against sLOX-1. In addition to its advantage in early diagnosis of ACS, this assay may also be useful in predicting cardiovascular disease risk in disease-free subjects. PMID:19632802

  9. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay for the detection of anti-hepatitis A virus IgM

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis, which is transmitted by person-to-person contact and via the faecal-oral route. Acute HAV infection is usually confirmed by anti-HAV IgM detection. In order to detect anti-HAV IgM in the serum of patients infected with HAV, we developed a rapid assay based on immunochromatography (ICA) and evaluated the sensitivity of this assay by comparing it with a commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) that is widely used for serological diagnosis. Results The newly developed ICA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when used to test 150 anti-HAV IgM-positive sera collected from infected patients and 75 negative sera from healthy subjects. Also, the sensitivity of ICA is about 10 times higher than MEIA used in this study by determining end point to detect independent on infected genotype of HAV. In addition, the ICA was able to detect 1 positive sample from among 50 sera from acute hepatitis patients that had tested negative for anti-HAV IgM using the MEIA. Conclusion Conclusively, ICA for the detection of anti-HAV IgM will be very effective for rapid assay to apply clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation on epidemics due to the simplicity, rapidity and specificity. PMID:20637129

  10. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for the antibiotic cefquinome and its application for residue determination in cow's milk after therapeutical mastitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Thal, Johannes; Steffen, Monika; Meier, Bianca; Schneider, Elisabeth; Adriany, Ansgar; Usleber, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the cephalosporin antibiotic in milk, in combination with a new microbiological test system (brilliant black reduction test, BRT-P). Polyclonal antibodies against cefquinome were produced in rabbits, using cefquinome-keyhole limpet hemocyanine as the immunogen. These antibodies and a cefquinome-glucose oxidase conjugate were used in a competitive indirect EIA. The detection limit for cefquinome in milk was 1.5 ng ml(-1), recoveries were 80-128% at 4-40 ng ml(-1). Cross-reactivities with other cephalosporins/penicillins were all <1%. The EIA was used to determine cefquinome in incurred raw milk, the BRT-P (detection limit ? 20 ng ml(-1)) and a receptor assay (ßeta-s.t.a.r., detection limit ? 15 ng ml(-1)) were used in parallel. Five lactating cows, suffering from clinical mastitis, were treated with cefquinome by simultaneous intramammary and intramuscular injection. Cefquinome residues (maximum 10-27 ?g?ml(-1)) were most exclusively found in the udder quarter which was treated intramammary, residue levels in the other three quarters were low (<20 ng ml(-1)). Even in milk from intramammary-dosed quarters, residue levels fell below European Union maximum residue level (MRL, 20 ?g kg(-1)) 2 days before the end of the withdrawal period. EIA, BRT-P, and ßeta-s.t.a.r. results showed acceptable agreement for milk samples, but the newly developed EIA is superior in aspects of sensitivity. In conclusion, this is the first one description of immunoassay and microbiological tests capable to determine cefquinome in milk at the MRL in incurred sample material. PMID:21103866

  11. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Bao; Tang, Ying; Yang, Hong-Ming

    2015-02-15

    Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag-BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA-biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ-AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable for the ZZ protein. PMID:25622607

  12. Nanobody-based enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin in agro-products with high tolerance to cosolvent methanol.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Jiawen; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen

    2014-09-01

    A phage-displayed library of variable domain of heavy chain of the heavy chain antibody (VHH) or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing an alpaca with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) conjugated with bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA). Two AFB1-specific nanobodies were selected. The obtained nanobodies were compared to an aflatoxin-specific monoclonal antibody B5 with respect to stability under organic solvents and high temperature. The two nanobodies could bind antigen specifically after exposure to temperatures as high as 95 °C. Besides, the nanobodies showed better or similar tolerance to organic solvents. A competitive ELISA with nanobody Nb26 was developed for the analysis of AFB1, exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.754 ng/mL (2.4 ?M), linear range from 0.117 to 5.676 ng/mL. Due to the high tolerance to methanol, sample extracts were analyzed by nanobody-based ELISA without dilution. The recovery from spiked peanut, rice, corn and feedstuff ranged from 80 to 115%. In conclusion, the isolated nanobodies are excellent candidates for immunoassay application in aflatoxin determination. PMID:25079057

  13. A water soluble antigen unique to Brucella abortus Strain 19: isolation, immunological characterization and use in an enzyme immunoassay for differential diagnosis of vaccinated and Brucella abortus infected cattle

    E-print Network

    Smithwick, Charles Ripley

    1983-01-01

    A WATER SOLUBLE ANTIGEN UNIQUE TO BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN 19: ISOLATION, IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND USE IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF VACCINATED AND BRUCELLA ABORTUS INFECTED CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES RIPLEY... SMITHWICK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of . 'rIASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Veterinary Medical Science A WAT ER SOLUBLE ANTIGL'N UN I(i) UE TO BHU( I...

  14. An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for demonstration of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum and milk of cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Björkman; O. Joakim M. Holmdahl; Arvid Uggla

    1997-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum from cattle is described. Extracted tachyzoite proteins incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms) were used as coating antigen and a mouse monoclonal antibody to bovine immunoglobulin G1 as conjugate. Western blot analysis of the iscom preparation revealed a restricted number of antigens compared with whole parasite

  15. Use of enzyme immunoassays to compare the effect and assess the dosage regimens of three Brazilian Bothrops antivenoms. The Butantan Institute Antivenom Study Group (BIASG).

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D; Fan, H W; Warrell, D A; Da Silva, W D; Ward, S A; Higashi, H G

    1992-11-01

    The effect of the three main Brazilian polyspecific antivenoms on venom clearance was assessed in 118 moderately envenomed victims of bites by Bothrops species (mainly B. jararaca) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples taken from patients at intervals during their stay in the hospital and at followup approximately four weeks later were tested by enzyme immunoassay for the presence of whole venom and therapeutic antivenom. Results indicated that in patients treated with the standard regimen of either four (40 ml) or eight (80 ml) ampules of each antivenom, venom was cleared from the circulation within four days of antivenom administration. However, high concentrations of antivenom persisted for approximately 10 days and remained detectable until 30-50 days after administration. This suggests that patients may be being treated with excessive amounts of antivenom in Brazil. This practice increases the national cost of antivenom therapy and may contribute to the high frequency of antivenom reactions. Clinically, there was no obvious difference in the efficacy between the three antivenoms. PMID:1449200

  16. Development of a high-throughput, indirect antibody immobilization format chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the determination of progesterone in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shiqi; Wang, Xu; Lin, Zhen; Li, Zhenjia; Ying, Xitang; Chen, Guonan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high-throughput and simple chemiluminescence (CL) enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the determination of progesterone (P) in human serum was developed, with the highly sensitive 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane) (AMPPD)-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) system as the CL detection system. The results showed that the indirect immobilization of rabbit anti-progesterone polyclonal antibody (RAPA) through secondary antibody exhibited apparent advantages over direct coating in terms of antibody saving and improvement of the coating stability and uniformity. The direct analysis of P in human serum without extraction was realized by using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid (ANS) to displace P from its binding proteins. The effect of several relevant parameters of the immunoreaction were examined and optimized. Compared with some commercial progesterone kits, the presented CLEIA has higher sensitivity with detection limitation as low as 0.06 ng/mL. The recoveries were 95.9-101%. The coefficient of variation was <8.4% and 9.9% for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of P in human serum. PMID:18452138

  17. Highly sensitive microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of staphylococcal enterotoxin B based on a pair of specific monoclonal antibodies and its application to various matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Li, Yongming; Song, Chaojun; Dong, Bangquan; Liu, Zhijia; Zhang, Kui; Li, Haitao; Sun, Yuanjie; Wei, Yuying; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2010-09-15

    A highly specific and sensitive microplate chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was established and validated for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognizes different epitopes of SEB was selected from 20 SEB-specific mAbs, and the experimental conditions were examined and optimized for the development of the CLEIA. This method exhibited high performance with a dynamic range of 0.01-5 ng/mL, and the measured limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng/mL. Intra- and interassay coefficient variations were all lower than 13% at three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, and 2 ng/mL). For specificity studies, when this method was applied to test staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C1, and D, no cross-reactivity was observed. It has been successfully applied to the analysis of SEB in a variety of environmental, biological and humoral matrices such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, and human urine and serum. The aim of this article is to show that the highly sensitive, specific, and simple microplate CLEIA, based on a pair of highly specific monoclonal antibodies, has potential applications for quantifying SEB in public health and military reconnaissance. PMID:20799707

  18. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the Triage Parasite Panel Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.; Bernard, Caroline N.

    2000-01-01

    The Triage parasite panel (BIOSITE Diagnostics, San Diego, Calif.) is a new qualitative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) panel for the detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fresh or fresh, frozen, unfixed human fecal specimens. By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are captured and immobilized on a membrane. Panel performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (a total of 444 specimens) that were tested by the standard ova and parasite (O&P) examination as the “gold standard,” including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Specimens with discrepant results between the reference and Triage methods were retested by a different method, either EIA or immunofluorescence. A number of samples with discrepant results with the Triage device were confirmed to be true positives. After resolution of discrepant results, the number of positive specimens and the sensitivity and specificity results were as follows: for G. lamblia, 170, 95.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; for E. histolytica/E. dispar, 99, 96.0%, and 99.1%, respectively; and for C. parvum, 60, 98.3%, and 99.7%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with other parasites found in stool specimens, including eight different protozoa (128 challenges) and three different helminths (83 challenges). The ability to perform the complete O&P examination should remain an option for those patients with negative parasite panel results but who are still symptomatic. PMID:10970380

  19. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Li, Zhen-Feng; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Ducancel, Frédéric; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Boulain, Jean-Claude; Yang, Jin-Yi; Shen, Yu-Dong; Wang, Hong

    2012-07-29

    A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (V(H) and V(L)) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling V(H) and V(L) genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25±0.03 and 0.02±0.004 ng mL(-1), respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL(-1). The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed a good correlation between the data of dc-CLEIA and HPLC-MS (R(2)>0.99), indicating that the assay was an efficient analytical method for monitoring food safety. PMID:22769009

  20. Use of enzyme immunoassay and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and confirm identity of dexamethasone in equine blood.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, A; Schulz, R; Meyer, H H

    1992-12-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for detection of dexamethasone in equine blood. Dexamethasone 21-hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin was used for immunization of rabbits, and prednisolone 21-hemisuccinate-horseradish peroxidase was used as enzyme conjugate. The assay had sensitivity in the low-picogram range (detection limit, 0.3 pg/well, 50% inhibition of binding at 4.5 +/- 0.7 pg/well). Apart from cortisol, which was recognized by the antiserum at concentration > 8.5 ng/ml, the dexamethasone antiserum failed to interfere with endogenous steroids, but cross-reacted with triamcinolone, flumethasone, and betamethasone. Thus, the antiserum was used to perform simultaneous screening for these synthetic glucocorticoids and to confirm their identity by combining reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and EIA. The immunoreactivity obtained by direct serum measurements was characterized by means of 2 independent RP-HPLC systems. Serum extracts were submitted to RP-HPLC systems I and II, and the fractions were tested by EIA. Immunoreactive peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with that of the standard glucocorticoids used for calibration. Coinjection of an internal standard (methylprednisolone) in RP-HPLC system II yielded reproducible relative retention times. The effectiveness of the test system was evaluated, using blood from a horse treated with commonly used veterinary preparations of dexamethasone. Administration of the free alcohol of dexamethasone and of dexamethasone 21-trioxaundecanoate, both given IV, was detected, and the identity of each was confirmed for up to 48 hours. Intramuscular administration of dexamethasone 21-isonicotinate was continued for at least 14 days after injection of a therapeutic dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1476300

  1. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for assessing adrenocortical activity and evaluation of factors that affect levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two New World primates.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Heymann, Eckhard W; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive methods to assess stress hormone output via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs) have become a powerful tool in behavioral studies and conservation biology because they allow exploring the link between behavior, an animal's socio-ecological environment and its adrenocortical activity. However, FGCM levels are influenced by numerous other factors which often confound their interpretation. Thus, before applying these methods, knowledge on the impact of these factors is important. In this study we investigated the effect of (1) time of day, (2) age, (3) sex and (4) female reproductive state on FGCM levels in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Initially, we validated a 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay for monitoring the physiological stress response via fecal analysis in both species. We determined FGCM levels in fecal samples collected from two and six groups of wild spider monkeys (n=461 samples) and howler monkeys (n=166 samples), respectively. Our analyses revealed a strong effect of time of day on FGCM levels in spider monkeys, but no effect in howler monkeys. Adults of both species had significantly higher FGCM levels than subadults. In neither of the two species we found a sex-effect on FGCM output. Reproductive condition strongly affected FGCM levels in female spider monkeys which showed increasing concentrations with progressing gestation. This was not investigated in female howler monkeys due to an insufficient sample size. Our data indicate that the influence of the tested factors on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite output is species-specific, and that these variables need to be considered when interpreting FGCM levels in the species. PMID:23707497

  3. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Nonenriched Stool Specimens by Real-Time PCR in Comparison to Enzyme Immunoassay and Culture?

    PubMed Central

    Grys, Thomas E.; Sloan, Lynne M.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Patel, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are a frequent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because antimicrobial agents are generally contraindicated in patients infected with STEC, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test with rapid turnaround is essential. Current culture methods may fail to detect non-O157 STEC. We evaluated a Stx gene real-time PCR assay using hybridization probes and the LightCycler instrument with 204 prospectively collected stool specimens, which were also tested for Stx by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ProSpecT STEC; Remel, Lenexa, KS) and by culturing on chromogenic agar (Chromagar O157; BD BBL, Sparks, MD). In addition, 85 archived stool specimens previously tested for Stx (by EIA) and/or E. coli O157:H7 (by culture) were tested by PCR. Sample preparation for PCR included mixing the stool in sterile water and extraction of nucleic acid using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics). The PCR assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to EIA and culture for specimens collected prospectively (4 of 204 specimens were positive) and compared to culture and/or EIA for archival specimens (42 of 85 specimens were positive). Both the EIA and PCR produced positive results from a specimen containing an O103 serotype STEC in the prospective specimens, and the PCR test detected three positive specimens that contained nonviable STEC in the archived specimens. The PCR assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to EIA and/or culture and more rapid turnaround than either EIA or culture. PMID:19439539

  4. Rapid and sensitive detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from nonenriched stool specimens by real-time PCR in comparison to enzyme immunoassay and culture.

    PubMed

    Grys, Thomas E; Sloan, Lynne M; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Patel, Robin

    2009-07-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are a frequent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because antimicrobial agents are generally contraindicated in patients infected with STEC, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test with rapid turnaround is essential. Current culture methods may fail to detect non-O157 STEC. We evaluated a Stx gene real-time PCR assay using hybridization probes and the LightCycler instrument with 204 prospectively collected stool specimens, which were also tested for Stx by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ProSpecT STEC; Remel, Lenexa, KS) and by culturing on chromogenic agar (Chromagar O157; BD BBL, Sparks, MD). In addition, 85 archived stool specimens previously tested for Stx (by EIA) and/or E. coli O157:H7 (by culture) were tested by PCR. Sample preparation for PCR included mixing the stool in sterile water and extraction of nucleic acid using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics). The PCR assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to EIA and culture for specimens collected prospectively (4 of 204 specimens were positive) and compared to culture and/or EIA for archival specimens (42 of 85 specimens were positive). Both the EIA and PCR produced positive results from a specimen containing an O103 serotype STEC in the prospective specimens, and the PCR test detected three positive specimens that contained nonviable STEC in the archived specimens. The PCR assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to EIA and/or culture and more rapid turnaround than either EIA or culture. PMID:19439539

  5. Development of highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on the anti-recombinant H(C) subunit of botulinum neurotoxin type A monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Song, Chaojun; Li, Yongming; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Kui; Sun, Yuanjie; Li, Haitao; Wei, Yuying; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Chunmei; Yang, Angang; Xu, Zhikai; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2012-07-20

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances ever known. The early detection of these toxins could bear more time for appropriate medical intervention. The standard method for detecting BoNTs is the mouse bioassay, which is time consuming (up to 4 days) and requires a large number of laboratory animals. The immunologic detection methods could detect the toxins within a day, but most of these methods are less sensitive compared with the mouse bioassay due to the lack of high-affinity antibodies. Recently, the recombinant H(C) subunit of botulinum neurotoxin type A (rAH(C)) was expressed as an effective vaccine against botulism, indicating that the rAH(C) could be an effective immunogen that raises the monoclonal antibody (mAb) for detecting BoNT/A. After immunized BALB/c mice with rAH(C), 56 mAbs were generated. Two of these mAbs were selected to establish a highly sensitive sandwich chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), in which FMMU-BTA-49 and FMMU-BTA-22 were used as capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) based on molecular weight of rAH(C) and BoNT/A reached 0.45 pg mL(-1). This CLEIA can be used in the detection of BoNT/A in matrices such as milk and beef extract. This method has 20-40 fold lower LOD than that of the mouse bioassay and takes only 3 h to complete the detection, indicating that it can be used as a valuable method to detect and quantify BoNT/A. PMID:22713913

  6. Clinical evaluation of a new enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus core-related antigen; a marker distinct from viral DNA for monitoring lamivudine treatment.

    PubMed

    Rokuhara, A; Tanaka, E; Matsumoto, A; Kimura, T; Yamaura, T; Orii, K; Sun, X; Yagi, S; Maki, N; Kiyosawa, K

    2003-07-01

    We aimed to assess the clinical performance of a newly developed chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) in patients with chronic HBV infection. A total of 82 patients with chronic HBV infection and 167 HBV-negative controls were studied. HBcrAg was measured by CLEIA with monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), and HBV DNA was measured by transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) and in-house real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). The HBcrAg assay detected viremia in 189 of 216 samples (88%) collected from 72 patients whilst the TMA assay detected viremia in 178 of the 216 samples (82%) (P = 0.019). The HBcrAg concentration correlated linearly with the HBV DNA concentration (P < 0.001) over a range which varied 100 000-fold. The accuracy in the measurement of the patients' HBV load obtained using the HBcrAg assay was not affected by the absence of hepatitis B e antigen from the serum or the presence of precore mutations in the HBV genome. In patients without anti-viral drugs, changes in their serum HBcrAg concentration over time corresponded to their HBV DNA concentration. In six additional patients who were later treated with lamivudine, HBV DNA concentration declined more rapidly than their HBcrAg concentration. Three months after treatment commenced, the ratio of HBcrAg: HBV DNA had increased in all six patients (P = 0.031). The HBcrAg assay is a sensitive and useful test for the assessment of a patient's HBV load. When monitoring the anti-viral effect of lamivudine, HBcrAg provides a viral marker which is independent of HBV DNA. PMID:12823601

  7. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for monitoring hepatitis C virus core protein during interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin therapy in patients with genotype 1 and high viral loads.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Masaru; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Tamori, Akihiro; Kohmoto, Modoka; Habu, Daiki; Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawada, Norifumi; Seki, Shuichi; Shiomi, Susumu

    2005-09-01

    This study evaluated an updated chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein for monitoring viral kinetics during treatment with interferon (IFN)-alpha and ribavirin. Using the CLEIA, serum levels of HCV core protein were measured in 17 patients with genotype 1 and high baseline viral loads during the first 4 weeks of combination therapy. HCV RNA was measured by the Amplicor Monitor test for comparison. At the start of therapy, the median HCV level (interquartile range) was 700 (540-940) kIU/ml of viral RNA and 11,310 (5,528-14,238) fmol/L of core protein. HCV RNA was above the upper limit of the linear range of the Amplicor Monitor test in 13 of the 17 patients, while the core protein level was within the linear range of the CLEIA in all patients. During therapy, the proportion of patients with HCV levels below the cutoff values at each time point was less with the Amplicor Monitor test than with CLEIA. Serum HCV core protein level decreased rapidly during the first 24 hr of therapy and more slowly thereafter, with median exponential decays of 1.08 and 0.046 log10/day, respectively. In the second phase, between day 1 and 28, the median decrease in HCV core protein level was higher in four patients with sustained virologic response (0.13 log10/day) than in 13 patients with no response (0.028 log10/day, P = 0.042). The wide linear range of the HCV core protein assay is appropriate for measuring viral loads during therapy with IFN-alpha and ribavirin. PMID:16032731

  8. Imaging of Lactobacillus brevis single cells and microcolonies without a microscope by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay with a photon-counting television camera.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Yoda, K

    1997-11-01

    An ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the rapid detection and quantification of Lactobacillus brevis contaminants in beer and pitching yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae slurry collected for reinoculation). L. brevis cells trapped on a 47-mm nucleopore membrane (0.4-micron pore size) were reacted with a peroxidase-labelled Lactobacillus group E antibody and then subjected to an enhanced CLEIA analysis with 4-iodophenol as the enhancer. The combination of a nucleopore membrane with low background characteristics that enables the antigen-antibody reaction to proceed through the pores of the membrane and a labelled antibody prepared by the maleimide hinge method with minimal nonspecific binding characteristics was essential to minimize background in the detection of single cells. An ultrahigh sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fiber optics image intensifier permitted the imaging of single cells. A clear correlation existed between the number of luminescent spots observed and the plate count [y (CLEIA) = 0.990x (plate count) + 15.9, where n = 7, r = 0.993, and P < 0.001]. Microscopic observation confirmed that the luminescent spots were produced by single cells. This assay could be used to detect approximately 20 L. brevis cells in 633 ml of beer within 4 h. Our ultrasensitive CLEIA could also be used to detect microcolonies approximately 20 microns in diameter which had formed on a membrane after 15 to 18 h of incubation. This method, which we called the microcolony immunoluminescence (MIL) method, increased the signal-to-noise ratio dramatically. The MIL method could be used to detect a 10(0) level of L. brevis contamination in 633 ml of beer and a 1/10(8) level of L. brevis contamination in pitching yeast within 1 day (15 to 18 h to form microcolonies and 2 h for CLEIA). PMID:9361439

  9. New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg and HBV DNA.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

    2003-05-01

    A new enzyme immunoassay specific for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) was developed. In order to detect HBcAg, specimens were pretreated with detergents to release HBcAg from the HBV virion and disassemble it to dimers, and simultaneously, the treatment inactivated anti-HBc antibodies. HBcAg detected by the assay peaked with HBV DNA in density gradient fractions of HBV-positive sera. The assay showed a wide detection range from 2 to 100,000 pg/ml. We observed no interference from anti-HBc antibody or blood components, but the assay was inhibited by very high concentrations (>1 microg/ml; corresponding to 80 signal/cutoff) of HBeAg. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 4 pg/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg and HBV DNA negative, n = 160) and anti-hepatitis C virus-positive (n = 55) sera were identified as negative. HBcAg concentrations correlated very closely with HBV DNA (r = 0.946, n = 145) in 216 samples from 72 hepatitis B patients. In seroconversion panels, HBcAg concentrations changed in parallel with HBV DNA levels. The assay, therefore, offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients. With a series of sera during lamivudine therapy, HBV DNA levels fell sharply and the HBcAg concentration also decreased, but the change in HBcAg was smaller and more gradual. The supposed mechanism of these changes and their clinical significance are discussed. PMID:12734224

  10. Comparative activity of peroxidase-antibody conjugates with periodate and glutaraldehyde coupling according to an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tresca, J P; Ricoux, R; Pontet, M; Engler, R

    1995-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase is often used as an antibody-coupled enzyme and several procedures have been developed to obtain IgG-peroxidase conjugates. The most widely used are coupling with periodate or glutaraldehyde. To compare the efficiency of these methods, the authors conducted periodate coupling or glutaraldehyde coupling in one or two steps, using the same batches of peroxidase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-CRP monoclonal antibodies to develop a specially sensitive Elisa for CRP. Comparison of immunoenzymatic activities showed that periodate-mediated conjugation was much more efficient, because the activity of the coupling products was about 100 times greater than that of the products obtained after one or two-step conjugation with glutaraldehyde. The lower coupling efficiency observed with glutaraldehyde was not due to inactivation of the coupling agent or to a possible decrease in the affinity of the conjugates for CRP due to the coupling procedure. The differences in efficiency can be ascribed to the fact that periodate induced more coupling sites than glutaraldehyde. Periodate is therefore a better coupling agent for preparing conjugates to be used in Elisa or related techniques, in which conjugate size does not hinder accessibility to the antigen. PMID:7574110

  11. Viral antibody screening system that uses a standardized single dilution immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay with multiple antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, J; Nilsson, I; Andersson, M

    1983-01-01

    We present an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the simultaneous determination of immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against several viruses. Antibodies to up to eight different viruses could be determined for three different sera on one microtitration plate. After subtraction of the absorbance values obtained with the control antigens, the viral antigen absorbancies were expressed as percentages of the absorbance obtained with a pooled immunoglobulin standard. This value, the relative antibody activity, was rapidly calculated by means of a computer directly connected to the ELISA photometer and was stored on magnetic disks, thereby facilitating seroepidemiological studies. The reproducibility of the relative antibody activity was calculated to at best +/- 3.6% (standard deviation) in an intraassay test and to at worst +/- 20.4% (standard deviation) in an interassay test. Each serum was analyzed only at a dilution of 1/75. The sensitivity of this single-dilution ELISA (SD-ELISA) method for the detection of titer rises was compared with those of conventional methods, mostly complement fixation but also hemagglutination inhibition. A total of 142 of 155 (92%) paired sera showing fourfold complement fixation or hemagglutination inhibition rises also showed significant results in SD-ELISA. A total of 22 of 57 (39%) significant relative antibody activity rises were significant in complement fixation or hemagglutination inhibition. Overall, up to twice as many significant titer rises could be detected with SD-ELISA. Most of these seemed to have a sound correlation with clinical data. The specificity of SD-ELISA was found to be similar to that of complement fixation, with some cross-reactions occurring between herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus antigens and between parainfluenza viruses. We have found SD-ELISA to be a valuable clinical virological tool that supplements conventional serology. PMID:6308038

  12. Paper-based enzyme-free immunoassay for rapid detection and subtyping of influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 viruses.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Huang, Chia-Hao; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Chang, Cheng-Kai; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Development of rapid screening in the ambulatory environment is the most pressing needs for the control of spread of infectious disease. Despite there are many methods to detect the immunoassay results, quantitative measurement in rapid disease screening is still a great challenge for point-of-care applications. In this work, based on the internal structural protein, i.e., nucleoprotein (NP), and outer surface glycoproteins, i.e., H1 and H3, of the influenza viruses, specific and sensitive immunoassay on paper-based platform was evaluated and confirmed. Detection and subtyping of influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 viruses found in people were demonstrated by colorimetric paper-based sandwich immunoassay. Concentration-dependent response to influenza viruses was shown and the detection limits could achieve 2.7×10(3)pfu/assay for H1 detection and 2.7×10(4)pfu/assay for H3 detection, which are within the clinical relevant level. Moreover, detection of influenza virus from infected cell lysate and clinical samples was demonstrated to further confirm the reliability of the paper-based immunoassay. The use of paper for the development of diagnostic devices has the advantages of lightweight, ease-of-use, and low cost and paper-based immunoassay is appropriate to apply for rapid screening in point-of-care applications. PMID:26088774

  13. Application of a newly developed high-sensitivity HBsAg chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  14. Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  15. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  16. Partial characterization and clinical correlation of circulating human immunoglobulins directed against thyrotrophin binding sites in guinea pig fat cell membranes. Development of a direct enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J R; Lukes, Y G; Smallridge, R C; Berger, M; Burman, K D

    1983-01-01

    To obviate several problems inherent in indirect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody assays, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures antibodies binding to guinea pig fat cell membrane, which contain high concentrations of TSH receptors. Solubilized guinea pig fat cell membranes were adsorbed to plastic microtiter plates and served as the solid-phase antigen. Test sera and affinity-purified alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG were co-incubated with membranes, after which p-nitrophenyl phosphate was added. Results were read when a positive control reached a standard color change (OD405nm). Specificity of this assay was demonstrated by the inability of albumin, insulin, TSH subunits, propranolol, or dexamethasone to block binding 30. normal subjects had a mean OD value of 0.080 +/- 0.050 (SD). 23 of 25 untreated Graves' patients had OD values at least 2 SD above the normal mean (Grave's mean +/- SD; 0.46 +/- 0.33, P less than 0.001) and in each case 10(-6) M TSH inhibited the binding by at least 60%, suggesting that the immunoglobulins were directed at the TSH receptor. Seven of 25 serum samples from patients with Hashimoto's disease, seven of 23 serum samples from patients with transient hyperthyroidism (subacute thyroiditis or painless thyrotoxic thyroiditis), and two of 10 samples from patients with thyroid carcinoma had significant elevations in the titers of membrane-directed immunoglobulins. Graves' patients who were treated with ablative therapy at least 6 mo earlier and who were euthyroid when restudied continued to have abnormally elevated membrane-directed immunoglobulins in six of eight samples studied. Further studies involved the substitution of affinity-purified alkaline phosphatase anti-IgM antisera for the anti-IgG antisera routinely used. Seven of 12 serum samples from patients with Graves' disease had significant elevations in binding which in every instance was inhibited by greater than 60% by 10(-6) M TSH. In sum, the present results indicate that (a) we have developed a sensitive, specific, reproducible, convenient ELISA for the measurement both of the total amount of circulating membrane-directed antibodies and of TSH-displaceable membrane-directed immunoglobulins. (b) This ELISA detected significant elevations in TSH-displaceable guinea pig membrane binding in 23 of 25 untreated Graves' patients as well as in approximately 30% of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis. (c) Elevated membrane directed antibodies may continue to be present many months or years after restoration of the euthyroid state. (d) Circulating membrane binding IgM immunoglobulins have been detected in patients with Graves' disease. Further studies using this ELISA should prove useful in a variety of investigative and clinical studies. PMID:6138364

  17. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  18. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; González, Susana; López de Alda, Maria J.; Petrovi?, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barceló, Damià

    2008-10-01

    SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 ?g/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

  19. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and rubella virus: evaluation of two commercial immunoassay systems.

    PubMed

    Diepersloot, R J; Dunnewold-Hoekstra, H; Kruit-Den Hollander, J; Vlaspolder, F

    2001-07-01

    A comparative evaluation of the Abbott AxSYM and DPC Immulite random-access analyzers was performed using 497 prospectively collected serum samples. These samples were sent to the laboratory for routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and rubella virus. The overall agreement between the two assay systems ranged from 97.4 to 100%. After discrepancy analysis, the outcome in terms of sensitivity and specificity varied from 98.2 to 100% for all but one of the assays tested. The AxSYM rubella virus IgG assay tended to report protective or indeterminate antibody levels in 1% of the samples. This shortcoming might be overcome by raising the cutoff of the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system. PMID:11427427

  20. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays Using Recombinant Envelope Protein Expressed in COS-1 and Drosophila S2 Cells for Detection of West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin M in Serum or Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Muerhoff, A. Scott; Dawson, George J.; Dille, Bruce; Gutierrez, Robin; Leary, Thomas P.; Gupta, Malini C.; Kyrk, Charles R.; Kapoor, Hema; Clark, Patricia; Schochetman, Gerald; Desai, Suresh M.

    2004-01-01

    Humans infected with West Nile virus (WNV) develop immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies soon after infection. The microtiter-based assays for WNV IgM antibody detection used by most state public health and reference laboratories utilize WNV antigen isolated from infected Vero cells or recombinant envelope protein produced in COS-1 cells. Recombinant antigen produced in COS-1 cells was used to develop a WNV IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A supplementary EIA using WNV envelope protein expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells was also developed. Both assays detected WNV IgM in the sera of experimentally infected rhesus monkeys within approximately 10 days postinfection. Human sera previously tested for WNV IgM at a state public health laboratory (SPHL) were evaluated using both EIAs. Among the sera from 20 individuals with laboratory-confirmed WNV infection (i.e., IgM-positive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) that were categorized as equivocal for WNV IgM at the SPHL, 19 were IgM positive and one was negative by the new EIAs. Of the 19 IgM-positive patients, 15 were diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis; the IgM-negative patient was not diagnosed with neurological disease. There was 100% agreement between the EIAs for the detection of WNV IgM. CSF samples from 21 individuals tested equivocal for WNV IgM at the SPHL; all 21 were positive in both bead assays, and 16 of these patients were diagnosed with neurological disease. These findings demonstrate that the new EIAs accurately identify WNV infection in individuals with confirmed WNV encephalitis and that they exhibit enhanced sensitivity over that of the microtiter assay format. PMID:15242936

  1. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (RIDASCREEN) for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, D, and E in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Park, C E; Akhtar, M; Rayman, M K

    1994-01-01

    The RIDASCREEN SET kit (R-Biopharm GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), a commercial staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) visual immunoassay kit, was evaluated for its efficacy. The kit utilizes monovalent capture antibodies against SE types A to E (SEA to SEE); therefore, it simultaneously detects and identifies the enterotoxin types. The major advantages of the kit are (i) a high degree of specificity (except for naturally occurring peroxidases, food compositions or ingredients and microbiological products due to growth of nonstaphylococcal microorganisms did not cause false-positive results; additionally, no cross-reactions among reagents of the kits were observed), (ii) excellent sensitivity (minimum detectable limits were 0.20 to 0.30 ng of SEs per ml of extracts of ham, salami, and mushroom and 0.30 to 0.35 ng of SEs per ml of cheese extracts, or 0.50 to 0.75 ng of SEs per g of foods such as noodles, ham, salami, cheese, and turkey), (iii) simplicity (the kit enabled direct assay of SEs in food extracts without the need for lengthy extraction or concentration procedures), (iv) rapidity (it took less than 3 h to complete the analysis of individual enterotoxin types SEA to SEE), and (v) its semiquantitative results (optical density values could be read against a standard curve to estimate the amount of SE in the extract). The RIDASCREEN kit is a convenient, rapid, and reliable tool for the detection and identification of SEs in foods. PMID:8135522

  2. Surface second-harmonic generation (SSHG): a new scheme for immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; McStay, Daniel; Quinn, Peter J.

    1996-04-01

    A new optical immunoassay scheme based on surface second harmonic generation (SHG) is proposed. The utility of the technique has been investigated by deposition of sample antigen and antibody (bovine serum albumin & mouse anti-bovine serum albumin IgG antibody) on glass surfaces. The laser-induced second harmonic signals generated from these sample surfaces were monitored using a photomultiplier tube (Thorn EMI, 9524A). The surface second harmonic generation characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunoassay process were investigated, which is parallely monitored by a conventional ELISA method. The SSHG immunoassay experiment was performed using a conventional sandwich immunoassay scheme on ELISA immunoassay plates. The laser-induced surface-second harmonic signals generated from sample wells of different populations of the antigen-antibody complex were subsequently measured using the photomultiplier tube. To verify the new SSHG immunoassay results, a conventional ELISA sandwich immunoassay was performed, and their results compared. The new SSHG immunoassay results showed a virtually identical conclusion as that of conventional ELISA sandwich immunoassay. The SSHG readings are promotional to that of the ELISA data. However, the readings from the new SSHG immunoassay were found much larger, which is in agreement with the theoretical expectation. In this paper, detailed experimental results of the new SSHG immunoassay are described, and subsequently compared with those of a conventional ELISA immunoassay. The feasibility and advantages of the SSHG as a new immunoassay technique also are discussed.

  3. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient?s serum to develop a...

  4. Clostridium difficile testing algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and C. difficile toxin enzyme immunoassays with C. difficile nucleic acid amplification testing increase diagnostic yield in a tertiary pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kaede V; McGowan, Karin L

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined as positivity by CCNA or positivity by LAMP plus another test (GDH, CDT, or the Premier C. difficile toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay [P-EIA]). A total of 141 specimens from 141 patients yielded 27 TPs and 19% prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 56%, 100%, 100%, and 90% for P-EIA and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 96% for both algorithm 1 and algorithm 2. In summary, GDH-based algorithms detected C. difficile infections with superior sensitivity compared to P-EIA. The algorithms allowed immediate reporting of half of all TPs, but LAMP or CCNA was required to confirm the presence or absence of toxigenic C. difficile in GDH-positive/CDT-negative specimens. PMID:22259201

  5. Identification of a novel host-specific IgM protease in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph G

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated Ide(Ssuis) (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant Ide(Ssuis) was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that Ide(Ssuis) is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, Ide(Ssuis) modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. Ide(Ssuis) is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by Ide(Ssuis) is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

  6. Complement activating properties of monoreactive and polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Y; Sato, R; Watanabe, H; Kogure, A; Watanabe, K; Nishimaki, T; Kasukawa, R; Kuraya, M; Fujita, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the complement activating properties of monoclonal, monoreactive, and polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factors derived from Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells isolated from peripheral blood and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the activation of the classical pathway of complement by monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor. Monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor was bound to IgG Fc adsorbed onto microtitre plates and then reacted with diluted normal human serum as a source of complement. The activation and binding of C4 were measured with F(ab')2 antibody to human C4. The complement activating property of IgM rheumatoid factor bound to IgG Fc was tentatively expressed as the ratio of the amount of bound C4 to the amount of bound IgM rheumatoid factor. RESULTS--The complement activating property of monoreactive IgM rheumatoid factor was shown to be about three times higher than that of polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factor. CONCLUSIONS--Monoreactive IgM rheumatoid factor with the higher complement activating property would result in a greater degree of complement dependent inflammation and might have a more important pathogenic role in RA than polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factor. Images PMID:8250611

  7. Reverse Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Monoclonal Antibodies against SAG1-Related Sequence, SAG2A, and p97 Antigens from Toxoplasma gondii To Detect Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA Antibodies in Human Sera?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernando R.; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Souza, Maria A.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Béla, Samantha R.; Faria, Gabriele G.; Lopes, Carolina S.; Mineo, José R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in 175 serum samples from patients at different stages of T. gondii infection, as defined by both serological and clinical criteria, as follows: recent (n = 45), transient (n = 40), and chronic (n = 55) infection as well as seronegative subjects (n = 35). The results were compared with those obtained by indirect ELISA using soluble Toxoplasma total antigen (STAg). Our data demonstrated that MAb A3A4 recognizes a conformational epitope in SAG1-related-sequence (SRS) antigens, while A4D12 and 1B8 recognize linear epitopes defined as SAG2A surface antigen and p97 cytoplasmatic antigen, respectively. Reverse ELISA for IgG with A3A4 or A4D12 MAbs was highly correlated with indirect ELISA for anti-STAg IgG, whereas only A4D12 reverse ELISA showed high correlation with indirect ELISA for IgM and IgA isotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the performance of a reverse ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes active toward native SAG2A, SRS, and p97 molecules from STAg, using a panel of human sera from patients with recent and chronic toxoplasmosis. Thus, reverse ELISA based on the capture of native SAG2A and SRS antigens of STAg by MAbs could be an additional approach for strengthening the helpfulness of serological tests assessing the stage of infection, particularly in combination with highly sensitive and specific assays that are frequently used nowadays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or congenital infection in newborns. PMID:18562566

  8. Determination of immunity to measles virus in young adults: comparative evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay and the hemagglutination inhibition techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Duvdevani; N. Varsano; R. Slepon; Y. Lerman; T. Shohat; E. Mendelson

    1996-01-01

    Background: Determination of the immune status against measles in young adults requires careful evaluation of the laboratory methods because of waning immunity. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may lack the sensitivity required to detect very low levels of antibodies. In addition, the correlation between ELISA-IgG assays and the degree of protection from measles is not

  9. Lanthanide-based time-resolved luminescence immunoassays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Hagan; T. Zuchner

    2011-01-01

    The sensitive and specific detection of analytes such as proteins in biological samples is critical for a variety of applications,\\u000a for example disease diagnosis. In immunoassays a signal in response to the concentration of analyte present is generated by\\u000a use of antibodies labeled with radioisotopes, luminophores, or enzymes. All immunoassays suffer to some extent from the problem\\u000a of the background

  10. Enzyme immunoassay and proteomic characterization of troponin I as a marker of mammalian muscle compounds in raw meat and some meat products.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Elena A; Kovalev, Leonid I; Ivanov, Alexei V; Kovaleva, Marina A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Shishkin, Sergey S; Lisitsyn, Andrey B; Chernukha, Irina M; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-07-01

    The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.403±0.058mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products. PMID:25777979

  11. Ultrasensitive enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay for free thyroxine based on three dimensionally ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojun; Tu, Fulai; Yao, Cheng

    2014-09-15

    The measurement of free thyroxine concentration in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of thyroid function. Here, a novel enzyme-free sandwich electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of FT4 antigen based on the immobilization of primary antibody (Ab1) on three dimensional ordered macroporous chitosan-Au nanoparticles hybrid (3DOM CS-AuNPs) film electrode, and magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) were used as label of secondary antibody (Ab2). The 3DOM CS-AuNPs film electrode was constructed by one-step electrodeposition of CS-AuNPs composite onto Au electrode with silica opal template. MMWCNTs were prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts on carboxylated MWCNTs. Ru(bpy)3(2+) labeled anti-FT4 (Ru(bpy)3(2+)-Ab2) was covalently attached to MMWCNTs through the formation of amide bond between the carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and the amine groups of antibody. Under the optimal conditions, FT4 was detected in a concentration range from 0.71 fg mL(-1) to 1.15 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 0.20 fg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. Importantly, the developed method was used to assay clinical serum specimens, achieving a good relation with those obtained from the commercialized electrochemiluminescent method. PMID:24752149

  12. A capillary-based amperometric flow immunoassay for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalin Nistor; Jenny Emnéus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two different capillary-based heterogeneous competitive flow immunoassay formats (capillary flow injection immunoassay (CFIIA) and capillary sequential injection immunoassay (CSIIA)) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The assays are based on the competition between the analyte and an analyte derivative labelled with the enzyme #-galactosidase, for an anti-TCP antibody, followed by the injection of the

  13. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  14. Comparison of a Multiplexed Fluorescent Covalent Microsphere Immunoassay and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Measurement of Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Raymond E.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Smith, Jerome P.; MacKenzie, Barbara A.; Striley, Cynthia A. F.; Semenova, Vera; Steward-Clark, Evelen; Stamey, Karen; Freeman, Alison E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Snawder, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1103-1110, 2002). The ELISA had a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 0.06 ?g/ml, which, when dilution adjusted, yielded a whole-serum MDC of 3.0 ?g of anti-PA IgG per ml. The reliable detection limit (RDL) was 0.09 ?g/ml, while the dynamic range was 0.06 to 1.7 ?g/ml. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 97.6% and the diagnostic specificity was 94.2% for clinically verified cases of anthrax. A competitive inhibition anti-PA IgG ELISA was also developed to enhance the diagnostic specificity to 100%. We report a newly developed fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for B. anthracis PA which was Luminex xMap technology. The FCMIA MDC was 0.006 ?g of anti-PA IgG per ml, the RDL was 0.016 ?g/ml, and the whole-serum equivalent MDC was 1.5 ?g/ml. The dynamic range was 0.006 to 6.8 ?g/ml. Using this system, we analyzed 20 serum samples for anti-PA IgG and compared our results to those measured by ELISA in a double-masked analysis. The two methods had a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.852; P < 0.001). The FCMIA appears to have benefits over the ELISA for the measurement of anti-PA IgG, including greater sensitivity and speed, enhanced dynamic range and reagent stability, the use of smaller sample volumes, and the ability to be multiplexed (measurement of more than one analyte simultaneously), as evidenced by the multiplexed measurement in the present report of anti-PA and anti-lethal factor IgG in serum from a confirmed clinical anthrax infection. PMID:14715544

  15. Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies to Six Nonhuman-Primate Viruses by Multiplex Microbead Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran H. Khan; Sara Mendoza; JoAnn Yee; Matthew Deane; Kodumudi Venkateswaran; Shan S. Zhou; Peter A. Barry; Nicholas W. Lerche; Paul A. Luciw

    2006-01-01

    To maintain healthy nonhuman primates for use in biomedical research, animals are routinely screened for several infectious agents at most facilities. Commonly, monkey serum samples are tested by conventional immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Western blotting, for antibodies to specific infectious agents. For testing for antibodies against multiple agents in each sample, conventional immunoassays are laborious and

  16. Clinical evaluation of new automated cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG assays for the Elecsys(®) analyser platform.

    PubMed

    Revello, M G; Vauloup-Fellous, C; Grangeot-Keros, L; van Helden, J; Dickstein, Y; Lipkin, I; Mühlbacher, A; Lazzarotto, T

    2012-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of physical and neurological abnormalities in newborns. Hence, the diagnosis of CMV infection in pregnant women is necessary in order to allow appropriate management of their pregnancy. New assays have been developed for the Roche Elecsys® immunoassay platform that detect CMV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG, with the IgM assay designed to target IgM produced at the start of infection rather than IgM persisting later in infection. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the new assays compared with other commercial kits widely distributed in laboratories. The performance of the Elecsys and comparator CMV IgM and IgG assays was assessed using 967 preselected patient samples characterised by CMV infection status, as well as being compared using 1,668 unselected clinical samples. The Elecsys CMV IgM and IgG assays performed consistently with comparator assays using the preselected samples. The Elecsys CMV IgM assay showed improved sensitivity compared with the Enzygnost® assay in primary infection (91.2 % vs. 79.4 %) and improved specificity over the Architect® assay in potentially cross-reacting samples (94.1 % vs. 82.4 %). The Elecsys IgM assay reported fewer positive results in the later stages of CMV infection compared with ETI-CYTOK-M ELISA, while the Elecsys IgG assay reported slightly fewer negative results in the early stages of infection compared with ETI-CYTOK-G ELISA. There was good agreement between Elecsys and comparator assays using unselected clinical samples (range 90.4-99.4 %). The Elecsys CMV IgM and IgG assays compare well with routinely used assays and are suitable for clinical use. PMID:22850741

  17. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  18. Detection of bound residues in soils by sandwich-immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.; Weller, M.G.; Niessner, R. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassays are useful analytical instruments for the detection of many environmental compounds. This method was not introduced for the detection of non-extractable compounds in soil. So-called ``bound residues`` consist of a soil component, e.g. humic acids and an irreversibly bound pollutant. Because of the complexity of those macromolecules conventional analytical methods in general do not work. Enzyme immunoassays, in contrast, seem to have a large potential for applications and further developments in this field. The use of antibodies with high affinity to the analytes makes a selective detection of environmental pollutants possible. With the development of an enzyme-labeled sandwich-immunoassay polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) irreversibly bound to humic acids were determined for the first time.

  19. Combined Determination of Coxiella burnetii-Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Improves Specificity in the Diagnosis of Acute Q Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER DEVINE; CATHERINE DOYLE; GEOFF LAMBKIN

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA responses in patients with acute Q fever were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase in both IgM and IgA was observed in paired sera from all 19 patients with acute Q fever, and both IgM and IgA levels showed good correlation with complement fixation test titers. Paired sera from 23 patients with infections other

  20. Reusable solid phase immunoassay for the detection of citrate lyase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Joyeux; E. Chrzavzez; C. Y. Boquien; D. Picque; G. Corrieu

    1996-01-01

    An enzymatic immunoassay on a solid phase was developed to detect citrate lyase, an intracellular enzyme of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis. A monoclonal antibody to citrate lyase was immobilized on a nylon membrane. The capture of the antigen was proved by measurement of citrate lyase activity. The immunologie support could capture citrate lyase either in a purified solution

  1. Validation of a Microsphere-Based Immunoassay for Detection of Anti-West Nile Virus and Anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alison J.; Cheshier, Ronald C.; Cosentino, Giorgio; Masri, Heather P.; Mock, Valerie; Oesterle, Rebecca; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Martin, Denise A.; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2007-01-01

    A microsphere-based immunoassay (MIA) was previously developed that is capable of determining the presence of anti-West Nile (WN) virus or anti-St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in human serum or cerebrospinal fluid. The original data set on which the classification rules were based comprised 491 serum specimens obtained from the serum bank at the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DVBID). The classification rules were used to provide a result and to determine whether confirmatory testing was necessary for a given sample. A validation study was coordinated between the DVBID and five state health laboratories to determine (i) the reproducibility of the test between different laboratories, (ii) the correlation between the IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and the MIA, and (iii) whether the initial nonspecific parameters could be refined to reduce the volume of confirmatory testing. Laboratorians were trained in the method, and reagents and data analysis software developed at the DVBID were shipped to each validating laboratory. Validating laboratories performed tests on approximately 200 samples obtained from their individual states, the collections of which comprised approximately equal numbers of WN virus-positive and -negative samples, as determined by MAC-ELISA. In addition, 377 samples submitted to the DVBID for arbovirus testing were analyzed using the MIA and MAC-ELISA at the DVBID only. For the specimens tested at both the state and the DVBID laboratories, a correlation of results indicated that the technology is readily transferable between laboratories. The detection of IgM antibodies to WN virus was more consistent than detection of IgM antibodies to SLE virus. Some changes were made to the analysis software that resulted in an improved accuracy of diagnosis. PMID:17609393

  2. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  3. Detection of Human Anti-Flavivirus Antibodies with a West Nile Virus Recombinant Antigen Microsphere Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Susan J.; Demarest, Valerie L.; Boyle, Rebekah H.; Wang, Tian; Ledizet, Michel; Kar, Kalipada; Kramer, Laura D.; Fikrig, Erol; Koski, Raymond A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new, suspended-microsphere diagnostic test to detect antibodies to West Nile (WN) virus in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The microsphere immunofluorescence assay can be performed in less than 3 h on specimens of ?30 ?l. A recombinant WN virus envelope (E) protein antigen is covalently coupled to fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. After incubation with diluted serum or CSF, antibodies bound to the E protein antigen are detected with fluorescently labeled anti-human immunoglobulin antibody and flow analysis in a dual-laser Luminex 100 instrument. Retrospective testing of 833 sera from New York patients with suspected viral encephalitis demonstrated concordance with results obtained with the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to WN virus (kappa = 0.85). One hundred eighty-eight (22.4%) of the samples, which were collected from June to November 2002, tested positive for antibodies to WN virus in the microsphere assay. Specimens depleted of IgG with anti-IgG antibody were reassayed to measure anti-E protein IgM antibodies and to provide an indication of current or recent WN virus infection. The assay also detects antibodies to E proteins from related flaviviruses, including St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, and dengue viruses. The new microsphere immunoassay provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that detect antibodies to flavivirus E proteins. This assay can aid physicians and public health workers in the management of outbreaks of WN virus and related flaviviruses. PMID:14715733

  4. Detection of human anti-flavivirus antibodies with a west nile virus recombinant antigen microsphere immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wong, Susan J; Demarest, Valerie L; Boyle, Rebekah H; Wang, Tian; Ledizet, Michel; Kar, Kalipada; Kramer, Laura D; Fikrig, Erol; Koski, Raymond A

    2004-01-01

    We report a new, suspended-microsphere diagnostic test to detect antibodies to West Nile (WN) virus in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The microsphere immunofluorescence assay can be performed in less than 3 h on specimens of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to WN virus (kappa = 0.85). One hundred eighty-eight (22.4%) of the samples, which were collected from June to November 2002, tested positive for antibodies to WN virus in the microsphere assay. Specimens depleted of IgG with anti-IgG antibody were reassayed to measure anti-E protein IgM antibodies and to provide an indication of current or recent WN virus infection. The assay also detects antibodies to E proteins from related flaviviruses, including St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, and dengue viruses. The new microsphere immunoassay provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that detect antibodies to flavivirus E proteins. This assay can aid physicians and public health workers in the management of outbreaks of WN virus and related flaviviruses. PMID:14715733

  5. Serodiagnosis of Varicella-Zoster virus infection in pregnancy and standardization of the ELISA IgG and IgM antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Enders, G

    1982-01-01

    It is recognized that varicella virus infection in early pregnancy may cause severe congenital malformation and that varicella virus infection during the last 4 days of gestation until 48 h. after delivery can be dangerous for the child. Maternal Zoster has also been suggested as a cause of some congenital defect, but this association is poorly documented. Sensitive, specific and rapid indirect (ELISA) and direct (ELA) enzyme-linked-immunoassays for detecting Varicella and Herpes simplex virus, IgM-, IgA and IgG antibodies are employed for serodiagnosis of infection in the mother and the newborn and for determining the immunity status in high risk individuals who are exposed to V-Z infection. In the latter situation serological findings may serve as a guide for passive immunisation with Zoster-hyperimmunoglobulin (ZIG). The antibody concentration of the latter can now easily be standardized by the indirect ELISA-IgG-test. For determining the antibody concentration in the patient's sera in the indirect and direct ELISA with the method of Mona (Multiples of normal activity) a standardized test procedure using 2 optimal working dilutions has been established. PMID:6762304

  6. CHAPTER 35. DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC AND SULFONAMIDE RESIDUES IN MEAT TISSUE BY COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IMMUNOASSAY KITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Dulin; Clarence A. White; Nitin H. Thaker

    In recent years, the application of immunochemical methods for detecting veterinary drug residues in animal tissue has increased. These methods are based on highly specific antigen-antibody reactions on a solid phase matrix involving conjugation of an enzyme to the drug analyte and specific antibody directed against the analyte. Advantages of enzyme immunoassays include sensitivity (usually in the ng\\/ml range), simplicity

  7. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  8. An exploratory study on the characterization of A1 and A2 bloodstains using a fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Klink, F E; Nicol, J D

    1980-07-01

    A fluorescence immunoassay method is used in the differentiation of A1 and A2 bloodstains. Anti-A antiserum is first absorbed onto the stain. The IgM content in the eluate is then quantified by commerical Immuno-Fluor kits. The binding difference of A1 and A2 cells is retained in stains. This difference and the quantitative evaluation method provide a potential basis for blood typing or subtyping application. PMID:7400773

  9. EVALUATION OF A NEW IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLOF BECK; ANDERS HELANDER

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The minor ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used as a sensitive and specific test for recent alcohol consumption with clinical and forensic applications. This study evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay (DRI-EtG EIA, Microgenics Corp.) for determination of the EtG concentration in urine samples. Methods: Evaluation was done using the kit calibrators (range 0-5.0 mg\\/L) and controls, an external

  10. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LENGTH LINKER CONTAINING DHEA-7-CMO-ENZYME CONJUGATES ON SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF DHEA-3-HS-ANTIBOY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tulsidas G. Shrivastav; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran P. Kariya; Rita Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Parul Jain; Suryakant Karwar; Jyoti Uyake; Bhavana Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced different homobifunctional spacers having varying atomic length (3 to 10) between enzyme and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) moiety and studied their effects on functional parameters like sensitivity and specificity of DHEA enzyme immunoassays. DHEA-3-hemisuccinate–bovine

  11. Serum IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Rombos, A; Evangelopoulou-Katsiri, E; Leventakou, A; Voumvourakis, K; Triantafyllou, N; Papageorgiou, C

    1990-03-01

    To determine whether anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) or myasthenia gravis (MG), sera from 42 patients suffering from MS and from 21 patients with myasthenia were studied, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant difference in IgG or IgM immunoglobulin isotypes between the MS myasthenic patients and controls was found. PMID:2112819

  12. Field Analytic Technologies: Immunoassay and Enzymatic Assays

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features a discussion of immunoassays in the context of testing for environmental contaminants, including a fairly detailed explanation of how immunoassays are conducted and advantages and limitations in the analysis of environmental problems. There is also a discussion of analytical concerns - interferences, limits of detection, accuracy and precision, calibrating immunoassays, etc.

  13. Allotypes of mouse IgM immunoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel L. Warner; James W. Goding; George A. Gutman; Gregory W. Warr

    1977-01-01

    GENETIC polymorphism of the structural genes encoding the class-specific (heavy) polypeptide chains of the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules provides a useful set of markers for elucidating the arrangement and expression of these genes. On the basis of various antigenic, physiochemical and biological properties, the immunoglobulins of the mouse have been divided into eight distinct classes, IgM, IgD, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b,

  14. PCB detection by immunoassay -- A wipe test for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dautlick, J.X.; Teaney, G.B.; Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M. [Strategic Diagnostics Industries Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassay based field screening methods are gaining acceptance by the environmental diagnostics industry for on-site characterization and remediation monitoring. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of molecules classified as potential carcinogens, can be easily detected on-site by immunoassay screening methods. This results in reduced project cost and improved onsite efficiency, since field screening immunoassays short cut the long turn around time of laboratory analysis while providing reliable results. On site wipe test technology for assessing PCB contamination on surfaces such as walls and floors of PCB storage facilities has been developed to supplement the D TECH{trademark} PCB soil assay. This sampling technique can also be used to monitor for transformer leaks, spills and to evaluate equipment decontamination processes. The D TECH PCB wipe test is quick, cost effective, highly specific and user friendly. The surface is sampled by wiping a 100 cm{sup 2} area with a 1 cm{sup 2} pad saturated with an extractant. The PCB is extracted from the sampling pad during a short extraction step. The sample is filtered, diluted, and run in the D TECH PCB field screening system. The components of the immunoassay include PCB specific antibodies (Ab) covalently linked to small latex particles, a PCB analog which is covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase, and the free PCB from the sample. The free PCB competes with the enzyme linked analog for the Ab binding sites. The latex particles are then collected on a filter device, washed, and an enzyme substrate is added. The amount of color produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of free PCB on the sample, and can be determined using a hand held reflectometer, or a color card.

  15. Gaseous Haloes: Linking Galaxies to the IGM

    E-print Network

    Filippo Fraternali; James Binney; Tom Oosterloo; Renzo Sancisi

    2007-01-15

    In recent years evidence has accumulated that nearby spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive haloes of neutral and ionised gas. These gaseous haloes rotate more slowly than the disks and show inflow motions. They are clearly analogous to the High Velocity Clouds of the Milky Way. We show that these haloes cannot be produced by a galactic fountain process (supernova outflows from the disk) where the fountain gas conserves its angular momentum. Making this gas interact with a pre-existing hot corona does not solve the problem. These results point at the need for a substantial accretion of low angular momentum material from the IGM.

  16. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  17. Synthesis of Haptens and Derivation of Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunoassay of the Phenylurea Herbicide Diuron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander E. Karu; Marvin H. Goodrow; Douglas J. Schmidt; Bruce D. Hammock; Michael W. Bigelow

    1994-01-01

    Diuron and related phenylurea herbicides and their metabolites are important candidates for sensitive and specific immunodetection. This paper describes a scheme for the synthesis of two different types of phenylurea haptens for immunization and use as detecting conjugates in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The haptens were used to develop indirect and direct EIAs and to derive a panel of monoclonal antibodies

  18. Application and validation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers immunoassay for environmental and food matrices.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, chicken and soil samples. The assay is rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit ...

  19. Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua

    2013-04-17

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC??) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC??) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products. PMID:23527939

  20. Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

  1. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 Kdal), immunoassays for their d...

  2. The importance of IgM positivity in laboratory diagnosis of gestational and congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, E; Vörös, E; Pónyai, K; Párducz, L; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F; Ostorházi, E

    2012-06-01

    From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant's response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis. PMID:24672684

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipolytic Enzymes as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Belinda; Lecoufle, Mélanie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Dedieu, Luc; Canaan, Stéphane; Valverde, Viviane; Kremer, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB) burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452) as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. Methods Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. Results A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. Conclusion These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent biomarkers providing high sensitivity and specificity levels for the immunodiagnosis of active TB. PMID:21966416

  4. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-12-01

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

  5. Electrokinetic Microstrirring to Enhance Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Hope; Sigurdson, Marin; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    Electrokinetic microstirring is used to improve the sensitivity of microfluidic heterogeneous immuno-sensors by enhancing the transport in diffusion-limited reactions. The AC electrokinetic force, Electrothermal Flow, is exploited to create a circular stirring fluid motion, thereby providing more binding opportunities between suspended and wall-immobilized molecules. This process can significantly reduce test times, important for both field-portable biosensors and for lab-based assays. A 2-D numerical simulation model is used to predict the effect of electrothermal flow on a heterogeneous immunoassay resulting from an AC potential applied to two parallel electrodes. The binding is increased by a factor of 7 for an applied voltage of 10 Vrms. The effect was investigated experimentally using a high affinity biotin-streptavidin reaction. Microstirred reaction rates were compared with passive reactions. The measurements show on average an order of magnitude increase in binding between immobilized biotin and fluorescently-labeled streptavidin after 5 minutes. Therefore, this technique shows significant promise for reducing incubation time and enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays.

  6. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Treponema pallidum in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mtiller; M. Moskophidis; H.-L. Borkhardt

    1987-01-01

    The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies toTreponema pallidum in sera of syphilitic patients is complicated by false positive reactions due to the interference of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) activity and the presence of treponemal IgG antibodies. Another source of error producing false negative results is the competition between treponemal IgG and IgM antibodies

  7. Validation of a microsphere immunoassay for serological leptospirosis diagnosis in human serum by comparison to the current gold standard.

    PubMed

    Wynwood, Sarah J; Burns, Mary-Anne A; Graham, Glenn C; Weier, Steven L; McKay, David B; Craig, Scott B

    2015-03-01

    A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT) method (now 100 years old) suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays. PMID:25807009

  8. Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM Antibody in a Dental Clinic Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Fotos; H. N. Westfall; I. S. Snyder; R. W. Miller; B. M. Mutchler

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and

  9. Flow-through amperometric immunosensor: fast 'sandwich' scheme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ghindilis, A L; Krishnan, R; Atanasov, P; Wilkins, E

    1997-01-01

    A flow-through immunosensor based on a high-surface-area carbon immunoelectrode has been developed. Dispersed carbon material serves as a carrier for immobilized antibodies and at the same time as an electrode material. The 'sandwich' scheme of immunoassay has been used. Iodine formed as a result of the enzymatic oxidation of iodide by a peroxidase label has been detected amperometrically. The immunosensor consists of a disposable sensing element (immunocolumn) containing dispersed carbon material with immobilized antibodies which also acts as a working electrode. A current collector connects the working electrode to the measuring device. The electrochemical detection time of the peroxidase-labeled immuno-complex does not exceed several minutes. The overall time of analysis including flowing of analyte, flowing of antigen, washing and detection stages is as low as 22 min. This technique allows fast determination of rabbit IgG (used as a model analyte) with a low detection limit in the picomolar range and also the determination of human IgM in blood plasma with a low detection limit in the nanomolar range. PMID:9228733

  10. Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

    2000-03-01

    Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

  11. Large-scale clinical validation of a lateral flow immunoassay for detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid specimens.

    PubMed

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Dalton, Justin B; Lee, Richard; Green, Rachel; Memon, Warda; Carroll, Karen C; Riedel, Stefan; Zhang, Sean X

    2015-05-01

    We compared a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to a currently used enzyme immunoassay for detection of cryptococcal antigen in 396 sera and 651 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. We found 97% concordance between the 2 assays. The LFA detected an additional 22 positives. Overall, the LFA had sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.6% for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. The LFA is rapid, accurate, and easy to perform, and it is suitable for routine patient care testing. PMID:25698631

  12. Ultrasensitive signal amplified immunoassay of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) using the atomic absorption of silver deposited on the surface of gold nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Cui; Huaqin Chu; Yongming Hu; Chuanlai Xu

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasensitive determination method was developed to detect the trace medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) residues in food. The operation procedure was mostly the same as the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The gold nanoparticle labelled goat anti-rabbit antibody was used here to take the traditional enzyme labelled antibody. Then the gold labelled antibody was used in the immunoassay as usual. The

  13. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Maragos, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 kDa), immunoassays for their detection have generally been constructed in competitive heterogeneous formats. An exception is fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), a homogeneous format that does not require the separation of bound and free labels (tracer). The potential for rapid, solution phase, immunoassays has been realized in the development of FPIA for many of the major groups of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, group B trichothecenes (primarily deoxynivalenol), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. This review describes the basic principles of FPIA and summarizes recent research in this area with regard to mycotoxins. PMID:22069541

  14. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD MATRICES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, and soil samples. The assay was rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit of det...

  16. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  17. Anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance proteins using quantum dot aggregated hollow microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-02-11

    A new anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol for detection of IgG1, as a model protein, was designed by using CdS quantum dot (QD) layer-by-layer assembled hollow microspheres (QDHMS) as molecular tags. Initially, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 specific antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic beads preferably selective to capture F(ab) of IgG1 analyte from the sample. For detection, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 (F(c)-specific) antibodies were covalently coupled to the synthesized QDHMS. In a sandwich-type immunoassay format, subsequent anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of cadmium released under acidic conditions from the coupled QDs was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode. The immunoassay combines highly efficient magnetic separation with signal amplification by the multilayered QD labels. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 1.0?fg?mL(-1) to 1.0??g?mL(-1) of IgG1 with a detection limit of 0.1?fg?mL(-1). The electrochemical immunoassay showed good reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. The analysis of clinical serum specimens revealed good accordance with the results obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The new immunoassay is promising for enzyme-free, and cost-effective analysis of low-abundance biomarkers. PMID:23292875

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LENGTH LINKER CONTAINING DHEA-7-CMO-ENZYME CONJUGATES ON SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF DHEA-17-CMO-ANTIBODY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tulsidas G. Shrivastav; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran P. Kariya; Rita Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Deepa Pandit; Pragati Ujawane; Poonam Kumari; Bhavana Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of spacers in enzyme conjugates is known to exert an influence on the assay parameters of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced 3 to 10 atomic length linkers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on sensitivity and specificity of dehydroepiandrosterone enzyme immunoassays. Dehydroepiandrosterone-17-carboxymethyloxime–bovine serum albumin (DHEA-17-CMO-BSA) was used as immunogen to raise the antiserum in New

  19. Intrathecal somatic hypermutation of IgM in multiple sclerosis and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Obermeier, Birgit; Moser, Markus; Coret, Francisco; Simó-Castelló, María; Boscá, Isabel; Pérez-Miralles, Francisco; Villar, Luisa M; Senel, Makbule; Tumani, Hayrettin; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Casanova, Bonaventura; Dornmair, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal oligoclonal bands of the cerebrospinal fluid are considered the most important immunological biomarkers of multiple sclerosis. They typically consist of clonally expanded IgG antibodies that underwent affinity maturation during sustained stimulation by largely unknown antigens. In addition, ?40% of patients with multiple sclerosis have oligoclonal bands that consist of expanded IgM antibodies. We investigated the molecular composition of IgM- and IgG-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of 12 patients with multiple sclerosis, seven patients with other neurological diseases, and eight healthy control subjects by high-throughput deep-sequencing and single-cell PCR. Further, we studied the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the key enzyme for affinity maturation of antibodies, in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 16 patients. From the cerebrospinal fluid of two multiple sclerosis patients we isolated single B cells and investigated the co-expression of antibody chains with activation-induced cytidine deaminase. In striking contrast to IgM-chains from peripheral blood, IgM-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis or neuroborreliosis showed a high degree of somatic hypermutation. We found a high content of mutations that caused amino acid exchanges as compared to silent mutations. In addition, more mutations were found in the complementarity determining regions of the IgM-chains, which interact with yet unknown antigens, as compared to framework regions. Both observations provide evidence for antigen-driven affinity maturation. Furthermore, single B cells from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis co-expressed somatically hypermutated IgM-chains and activation-induced cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that is crucial for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of antibodies and is normally expressed during activation of B cells in germinal centres. Clonal tracking of particular IgM(+) B cells allowed us to relate unmutated ancestor clones in blood to hypermutated offspring clones in CSF. Unexpectedly, however, we found no evidence for intrathecal isotype switching from IgM to IgG. Our data suggest that the intrathecal milieu sustains a germinal centre-like reaction with clonal expansion and extensive accumulation of somatic hypermutation in IgM-producing B cells. PMID:25060097

  20. Detection of Anthrax Toxin by an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay Using Europium Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shixing Tang; Mahtab Moayeri; Zhaochun Chen; Harri Harma; Jiangqin Zhao; Haijing Hu; Robert H. Purcell; Stephen H. Leppla; Indira K. Hewlett

    2009-01-01

    We developed a europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for the sensitive detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA). The ENIA exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.01 to 100 ng\\/ml and was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). False-positive results were not observed with serum samples from healthy adults, mouse plasma without PA, or plasma

  1. Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology

    PubMed Central

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection. PMID:23638044

  2. Improved serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection by detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM antibodies against P30 by using the immunoblot technique.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, U; Roos, T; Appoldt, D; Heesemann, J

    1992-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies against the major surface protein of Toxoplasma gondii were determined in a total of 195 human sera and five human cerebrospinal fluids by using a P30 membrane extract and the immunoblot technique. By using two different T. gondii strains (RH and BK) simultaneously as antigens, we were able to demonstrate diagnostically important strain-specific human antibody responses in 4.5% of the samples tested. A comparison of the immunoblot technique with an IgM immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the IgM and IgA immunoblot seems to be of advantage in the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in certain groups of patients, especially in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. The immunoblot technique described is easy to perform and might be useful as an additional serological assay for routine diagnosis of T. gondii infections. Images PMID:1624560

  3. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  4. Tracing the Remnants of Powerful Quasars to Probe the IGM

    E-print Network

    Torsten A. Ensslin; Rashid A. Sunyaev; Markus Brueggen

    2001-12-17

    Powerful quasars and radio galaxies are injecting large amounts of energy in the form of radio plasma into the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Once this nonthermal component of the IGM has radiatively cooled the remaining radio emission is difficult to detect. Two scenarios in which the fossil radio plasma can be detected and thus be used to probe the IGM are discussed: a) re-illumination of the radio emission due to the compression in large-scale shock waves, and b) inverse Compton scattered radiation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), cosmic radio background (CRB), and the internal very low frequency synchrotron emission of the still relativistic low energy electron population. We present 3-D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of scenario a) and compare them to existing observations. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the detection of process b) with upcoming instruments.

  5. Development of monoclonal immunoassays for the determination of triazole fungicides in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Manclús, Juan J; Moreno, María J; Plana, Emma; Montoya, Angel

    2008-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies for the detection of triazole fungicides have been developed. With this aim, hapten-protein conjugates, containing the common triazole and chlorinated aromatic moieties, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with the ability to sensitively bind several triazoles with different specificity were obtained. Both analyte- and class-specific ELISAs were developed. The hexaconazole-specific immunoassay can determine this fungicide with a limit of detection of 0.3 mug/L in standard buffer. The so-called triazole-specific immunoassay allowed for the detection of tetraconazole, penconazole, cyproconazole, and myclobutanil, with limits of detection in the 0.1-0.7 mug/L range. These immunoassays were applied to the determination of triazoles in spiked fruit juices. Samples were adequately diluted to minimize the matrix effects. Coefficients of variation were below 30%, and recoveries ranged from 62 to 135%. Therefore, the developed immunoassays can determine triazole fungicides in fruit juices down to the maximum residue limits currently legislated, without any sample treatment other than dilution. PMID:18783243

  6. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  7. Seeding-induced self-assembling protein nanowires dramatically increase the sensitivity of immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Men, Dong; Guo, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Hong-ping; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Cui, Zong-Qiang; Liang, Xiao-Sheng; Li, Ke; Leng, Yan; You, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to build a supersensitive and easily operable immunoassay, bifunctional protein nanowires were generated by seeding-induced self-assembling of the yeast amyloid protein Sup35p that genetically fused with protein G and an enzyme (methyl-parathion hydrolase, MPH), respectively. The protein nanowires possessed a high ratio of enzyme molecules to protein G, allowing a dramatic increase of the enzymatic signal when protein G was bound to an antibody target. As a result, a 100-fold enhancement of the sensitivity was obtained when applied in the detection of the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen. PMID:19402649

  8. Multi-Analyte Immunoassay for Pesticides: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Jiang; Fan Ming-tao

    2012-01-01

    The current trend of pesticide immunoassay is developing multi-analyte immunoassay, i.e., more than one target can be detected per test. In this mini-review the strategies of achieve multi-analyte immunoassay, which include multi-antibody strategy, broad-specificity antibody strategy and others, were briefly introduced. In addition, the recent developments of multi-analyte immunoassay for pesticides were summarized. At last, we give a future outlook

  9. Evaluation of factors affecting the performance of enzymatic SPan-1 immunoassays for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J; Chung, Y S; Ryan, W; Henslee, J G; Kim, Y S

    1989-12-20

    An avidin-biotin complex (ABC) sandwich enzymatic immunoassay was developed utilizing SPan-1, a murine monoclonal antibody of the IgM isotype. Biotin was attached to the epsilon-amino group of lysines of SPan-1 using biotin-N-hydroxysuccinimide esters with or without a spacer (aminohexane). Addition of biotin to carbohydrates was with biotin hydrazide after periodate oxidation of the immunoglobulin. The resultant assays were compared to a sandwich radioimmunoassay and to another form of the SPan-1 enzymatic immunoassay in which oxidized horseradish peroxidase had been directly conjugated to SPan-1. Comparable antigen detection limits were obtained regardless of whether biotin was added to the peptide or carbohydrates or whether a spacer was used or not. The ABC assay had approximately the same SPan-1 antigen detection limit as the radioimmunoassay. 90.6% of the human pancreatic cancer sera tested positive in the ABC assay as compared to a previously reported 93% positive rate with a radioimmunoassay. PMID:2691579

  10. Latex piezoelectric immunoassay: it's application for clinical and environmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kurosawa; M. Muratsugu; CHIKASHI NAKAMURA; HIDENOBU AIZAWA; NORIHIKO MINOURA; JUN MIYAKE; MINORU YOSHIMOTO; NAOKI KAMO

    1999-01-01

    Latex piezoelectric immunoassay (LPEIA) is a new immunoassay method that requires no immobilization of antigen or antibody on the electrode surface of quartz crystal, in contrast to previous immunoassays in which a piezoelectric crystal is used as a microbalance and immobilization is essential. The frequency change was observed during the aggregation of antibody- or antigen-coated latex particles. This method was

  11. Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Sickinger; Hans-Bertram Braun; Gerald Praast; Myriam Stieler; Cordelia Gundlach; Claudia Birkenbach; John Prostko; Mary Ann Palafox; Edwin Frias; Stephen Hsu; Matthew Matias; Dominick Pucci; Michael Hausmann; Ulrich Sagel; Darwin Smith

    2009-01-01

    Development of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay has been done to assist the clinician in acute Toxoplasma gondii infection detection, especially in pregnant women. Its use, in conjunction with ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo Avidity assays, will provide an array of assays particularly useful in the monitoring of pregnant females to determine the risk of maternal transmission of the parasite.

  12. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to quantitate proteins in biological functions.

    PubMed

    Germolec, D R

    1999-01-01

    Immunoassays are techniques for measuring the concentration or activity of a substance using immunological reactions. Several types of immunoassay are commonly used, including precipitation assays using antibody/antigen complexes, agglutination assays using coated erythrocytes or other particles, and radio-(RIA) and enzyme immunoassays. Multiple factors determine the best assay for a particular use, including sample concentration, technical difficulty, required precision, and availability of specialized equipment. The most sensitive assays are the radio- and enzyme immunoassays, however safety and environmental issues regarding the use of radioisotopes have limited the application of RIAs, and thus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) tend to be the method of choice when sample concentration is a critical issue. The potential for robotic automation and the availability of inexpensive microplate dilutors, pipetors, and readers has allowed for the generation of highly reproducible results for large numbers of samples in an short time. PMID:21380835

  13. Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

  14. Evaluation of commercially available diagnostic tests for the detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen and anti-dengue virus IgM antibody.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W; Margolis, Harold S

    2014-10-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%. PMID:25330157

  15. Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

  16. Determination of aflatoxin-B1 in poultry feed and its components employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uzma Maqbool; Maqbool Ahmad; Anwar-ul-Haq; M. Mohsin Iqbal

    2004-01-01

    A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay was standardized for aflatoxin B1 determination in poultry feed and its components using Riedel-de-Haen, ELISA Systems. A microtitration plate method was optimized using anti-aflatoxin B1 antibodies and peroxidase – aflatoxin B1 conjugate, based on competitive enzyme immunoassay principle. Standards of concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500?ng\\/L aflatoxin B1, prepared in phosphate-buffered saline, were

  17. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Rapid Cassette Test Kits for Diagnosis of Melioidosis in an Area of Endemicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun; Premjit Amornchai; Wirongrong Chierakul; Allen C. Cheng; Nicholas J. White; Sharon J. Peacock; Nicholas P. J. Day

    2004-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based rapid cassette immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM immuno- chromogenic test kit was compared to the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for the diagnosis of acute melioidosis in northeastern Thailand. Admission sera from 70 culture-confirmed septicemic melioidosis patients and 30 patients with localized infections were tested. As a control group, 80 patients with other acute febrile illnesses (other

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LENGTH LINKER CONTAINING DHEA-7-CMO-ENZYME CONJUGATES ON SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF DHEA-3-HS-ANTIBODY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tulsidas G. Shrivastav; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran P. Kariya; Rita Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Parul Jain; Suryakant Karwar; Jyoti Uyake; Bhavana Deshmukh

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced different homobifunctional spacers having varying atomic length (3 to 10) between enzyme and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) moiety and studied their effects on functional parameters such as sensitivity and specificity of DHEA enzyme

  19. Use of cloneable peptide-MBP fusion protein as a mimetic coating antigen in the standardized immunoassay for mycotoxin ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; He, Zhenyun; He, Qinghua; Qiu, Yulou; Chen, Bo; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xing

    2014-09-01

    The quality of mycotoxin conjugates is essential to the development of reliability of immunoassays for mycotoxins. However, conventional mycotoxin conjugates are usually synthesized by chemical methods, which are harmful to the environment and yield unwanted cross-reactions. In this study, using ochratoxin A (OTA) as a model system, a selected OTA mimotope (phage-displayed peptide) that specifically binds to anti-OTA antibody was expressed as soluble and monovalent fusions to maltose binding protein (MBP). These prepared fusion proteins can serve as a mimetic coating antigen in both a quantitative chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunoassay (CLEIA) and a qualitative dot immunoassay for OTA. One of the prepared mimetic coating antigen (L12-206-MBP)-based CLEIAs exhibited a half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.82 ng/mL and a working range of 0.30-2.17 ng/mL, which resemble those of the conventional OTA-OVA conjugate-based immunoassay. The dot immunoassay developed with both the OTA-OVA conjugate and the mimetics showed identical visual cutoff values of 5 ng/mL. The mimetic coating antigen proposed here is an OTA-free product and can be prepared reproducibly as a homogeneous product and facilitates standardization of immunoassays for the mycotoxin OTA. PMID:25127400

  20. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  1. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Du; Jun Wang; Limin Wang; Donglai Lu; Jordan N. Smith; Charles Timchalk; Yuehe Lin

    2011-01-01

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection

  2. Human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88: pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Haisma, H J; Pinedo, H M; Kessel, M A; van Muijen, M; Roos, J C; Plaizier, M A; Martens, H J; DeJager, R; Boven, E

    1991-12-18

    Twenty colorectal cancer patients were given an intravenous injection of human IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) 16.88 (8 mg) conjugated to 131I for tumor localization. After a 2-week interval, a second injection with 200, 500, or 1000 mg of unlabeled antibody added was given to groups of five patients each. at the end of the 2-hour infusion, 66% of the radioactivity remained in the circulation. Blood clearance of the 131I-labeled MAb 16.88 was biphasic with a mean half-life (T1/2 alpha) of 12 hours and T1/2 beta of 45 hours. Clearance rate was 0.09 L/hour. More than 90% of the 131I in serum was protein bound, with an immunoreactive fraction of 80% in the first 48 hours. Size exclusion chromatography indicated no degradation products other than 131I in serum and urine. The urinary excretion rate of 131I increased to 1.5% of the dose per hour at 24 hours, with 50% of the dose excreted in 34 hours. The pharmacokinetic profile of 131I-labeled MAb 16.88 was neither influenced by the total protein dose of antibody administered nor affected by specific uptake in tumor tissue in individual patients, as determined on early immunoscintigrams. The larger antibody doses showed a slightly slower excretion of 131I. The assays applied to determine immunogenicity were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, and the dot-blot assay. They had sensitivities ranging from 5 ng/mL to 0.5 micrograms/mL for goat or rabbit antihuman IgM. The assays did not reveal antihuman antibody responses. PMID:1744925

  3. Evaluation of five immunoassays for the determination of digoxin in serum.

    PubMed

    Sasieta, M; Jimeno, P

    1996-11-01

    Five immunoassays for the determination of digoxin have been evaluated (Digoxin II, Abbott; Cedia Digoxin XL, Microgenics; Coat-a-Count Digoxin, Diagnostic Procedure Corporation, DPC; "On-line" Digoxin, Roche Diagnostic Systems; EMIT 2000 Digoxin, Syva). Four of them required no sample pre-treatment. The methods included a radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay, two enzyme-immunoassays and a turbidimetric immunoassay: the last three mentioned were adapted to the Cobas Mira Plus. The intra- and inter-assay precision was lower than 9%, except for Microgenics. The calibration stability fluctuated from 120 days for Abbott to 27 days for the Roche test, 7 days for the Syva assay and 2 days for Microgenics. The DPC test was not assayed for calibration stability. The interference from "digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s)" differed according to the assay. The highest interference was seen with Abbott and Microgenics, and the lowest with the DPC test. The comparison among all the methods offered values of "r" higher than 0.95 except Microgenics and Syva assays where "r" was 0.896. The results obtained with Roche and Microgenics were higher than 12% of the remaining assays. PMID:8960471

  4. I. Studies on pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase in rat liver mitochondria. II. Identification of the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of IgM in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The orientation of the transmembrane enzyme, pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase, in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver has been determined by evaluating effects of proteases on the integrity of the enzyme in mitoplasts and submitochondrial particles. Following treatment of these membranes with the non-specific protease, proteinase K, antigenic proteolytic products were detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antibody prepared against purified bovine heart enzyme. Information from these proteolysis studies was used to construct a model of the orientation of transhydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this work, I have used the residualizing label, dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({asterisk}I-DLT) to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of the immunoglobulin, IgM. Purified IgM was labeled conventionally with {sup 125}I or with the residualizing label, {asterisk}I-DLT. The circulating half-life of the protein, 2.7 {plus minus} 0.3 days, was the same when measured using either label, indicating that the residualizing label does not affect the kinetics of the protein's catabolism in vivo. At 2.4 or 5.1 days post injection, the liver contained the major fraction of catabolized protein compared to all the other organs in the body. Additionally, following collagenase digestion of the liver, the hepatocytes were shown to be 77% responsible for the catabolism of IgM by the liver. Autoradiography of the liver revealed that the remaining 23% of IgM catabolized by the liver was due to the Kupffer cells.

  5. Enzyme immunoassay by dynamic enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of the enzyme reaction product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiying; Dou, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a kind of application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to immunology. In the proposed system, antibody immobilized on a solid substrate reacts with antigen, which binds with another antibody labeled with peroxidase. If this immunocomplex is subjected to reaction with o-phenylenediamine and hydrogenperoxide at 37°C, azoaniline is generated. This azo compound is adsorbed on a silver colloid and only the azo compound gives a strong surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERRS) spectrum. A linear relationship was observed between the peak intensity of the N=N stretching band and the concentration of antigen, revealing that one can determine the concentration of antigen by the SERRS measurement of the reaction product.

  6. Urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids: A highly efficient peroxidase-mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Xu, Mingdi; Lu, Minghua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-08-15

    The development of signal-amplified colorimetric immunoassay relies on the design of highly efficient signal-transduction tags. One promising route is to exploit a novel enzyme mimetic system as the signal label. Herein, we report that urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids (Au@PtNHs) can be utilized as a highly efficient peroxidase mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, one kind of tumor marker). Initially, urchin-like Au@PtNHs were discovered to outperform horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by a vast margin in terms of the turnover number toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) system and the stability against high temperatures and HRP inhibitors. Based on this discovery, the assay was simply carried out on a capture antibody-immobilized microplate by using the Au@PtNH-labeled detection antibody as a signal-transduction tag with a sandwich-type assay mode. The colorimetric signal stemmed from the labeled Au@PtNHs toward catalytic oxidation of TMB-H2O2 system. Experimental results indicated that the Au@PtNH-based colorimetric immunoassay could display a good colorimetric response toward PSA in the dynamic working range of 5-500pgmL(-)(1) with a low detection limit of 2.9pgmL(-)(1). Meanwhile, the developed immunoassay exhibited good precision and reproducibility, high specificity and acceptable accuracy for the detection of clinical serum samples. These results open up a new horizon for the development of highly sensitive, highly stable and inexpensive non-enzyme immunoassay platforms as an alternative to conventional enzyme-based immunoassay platforms. PMID:25814409

  7. Evaluating the bottlenecks of recombinant IgM production in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chromikova, Veronika; Mader, Alexander; Steinfellner, Willibald; Kunert, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Despite the fact, that monoclonal antibodies are the fastest growing group of biopharmaceuticals in development, this is not true for the IgM class, which remains as enigmatic as ever. While more examples of usefulness of IgMs for medical applications are emerging, their recombinant production is still not common. In our study, stable monoclonal IgM producing CHO DG44 and HEK 293 cell lines, expressing two model IgM molecules (IgM-617 and IgM-012) were established. Recombinant cell lines were compared in regard of specific productivity, specific growth rate, maximal achieved antibody titer, gene copy numbers and transcription levels of transgene. IgM-617 cell lines were identified as high while IgM-012 clones were low producers. Although differences in gene copy numbers as well as in transcription levels were observed, they did not seem to be a limitation. Levels of relevant endoplasmic reticulum-stress related proteins were analyzed and no indications of unfolded protein response were detected. This could indicate that the difference in the intrinsic protein stability of our model proteins (as was previously observed on purified samples) might cause lower yields of IgM-012. Transcriptomics and/or proteomics follow up studies might be necessary for identification of potential bottlenecks in IgM producing cell lines. PMID:24615530

  8. Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP?AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP?AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP?AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP?AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3?300 ng/mL OP?AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

  9. DNA Labeling Generates a Unique Amplification Probe for Sensitive Photoelectrochemical Immunoassay of HIV-1 p24 Antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Han, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay is an attractive methodology as it allows for an elegant and sensitive protein assay. However, advanced PEC immunoassay remains challenging and the established amplifications rely almost exclusively on the labeling of various enzymes, which usually suffer the inferior stabilities. Here we report the development and validation of the DNA labeling that leads to a unique amplification probe for the sensitive PEC immunoassay of HIV-1 capsid protein, p24 antigen, an important biomarker of human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Following the sandwich immunobinding, the DNA tags could be released and the subsequent dipurinization of the oligonucleotide strands enables the easy oxidation of free nucleobases at a CdTe quantum dots (QDs) modified ITO transducer. Such DNA tags induced PEC amplification and readout permits the exquisite assay of HIV-1 p24 antigen with high sensitivity. As compared to the existing method of enzymatic labeling, the easy preparation and stability of these labels make them very suitable for PEC amplification. Another merit of this method is that it separates the immunobinding from the PEC transducer, which eliminates the commonly existing affection during the biorecognition processes. This work paves a new route for the PEC immunoassay of HIV-1 p24 antigen and provides a general format for the PEC biomolecular detection by means of the DNA labeling. PMID:25981906

  10. Homogeneous fluorescence-based immunoassay via inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiang; Liu, Mei; Li, Baoxin

    2012-07-21

    Homogeneous immunoassays are becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because they are superior to heterogeneous immunoassays in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on CdTe QDs fluorescence. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the IFE of AuNPs on CdTe QDs fluorescence is greatly enhanced, resulting in a decrease of fluorescence intensity in the system. Based on this phenomenon, a wide dynamic range of 1-100 pg mL(-1) for determination of IgG can be obtained. The proposed method shows a detection limit of 0.3 pg mL(-1) for human IgG, which is much lower than the corresponding absorbance-based approach and compares favorably with other reported fluorescent methods. This immunoassay method is simple, rapid, cheap, and sensitive. The proposed method has been successfully applied to measuring IgG in serum samples, and the obtained results agreed well with those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:22655288

  11. Sensitive Giant Magnetoresistive-based Immunoassay for Multiplex Mycotoxin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Andy C.; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; Wang, Shan X.; Davis, Ronald W.; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A.; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and multiplexed measurement is vital in the detection of food-borne pathogens. While highly specific and sensitive, traditional immunochemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often require expensive read-out equipment (e.g. fluorescent labels) and lack the capability of multiplex detection. By combining the superior specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and simplicity of magnetic detection, we have developed a novel multiplex magnetic nanotag-based detection platform for mycotoxins that functions on a sub-picomolar concentration level. Unlike fluorescent labels, magnetic nanotags (MNTs) can be detected with inexpensive giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors such as spin-valve sensors. In the system presented here, each spin-valve sensor has an active area of 90 × 90 µm2, arranged in an 8×8 array. Sample is added to the antibody-immobilized sensor array prior to the addition of the biotinylated detection antibody. The sensor response is recorded in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-linked MNTs on the chip. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, zearalenone and HT-2) and show that a detection limit of 50 pg/mL can be achieved. PMID:20047828

  12. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed. PMID:25938198

  13. Fluorescent immunoassay visualization of sorbed pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.K.; Mossman, D.J. [Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwab, A.P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Feldbush, T.L. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Current methods of detecting sorbed soil pollutants require that the contaminant be extracted from the soil. In an effort to make detection simpler and safer, standard fluorescent immunoassay techniques are being modified to allow fluorescent tags on the pollutant to be viewed and photographed with epifluorescent microscopy. Initial research focuses on detecting chlorinated benzenes on various soil types and developing a technique for tagging these pollutants with appropriate antibodies. This should lead to detection in actual soil cores and a better understanding of how contaminants progress through different soils.

  14. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  15. Fluorimetric Immunoassay for Multianalysis of Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immunoassay was found to be 6.25–50?pg/mL. AFM1 as low as 1?pg/mL was detected by this method with assay volume 40??L. The multi-analysis of different aflatoxins was also investigated in the microwell plate, based on the cross-reactivity (CR) approach. Real milk samples were tested along with certified reference material by standard addition method and recovery analysis was done. The mAb-AFM1 showed 23.2% CR with AFB1, 50% CR with respect to AFM2, and least CR towards AFG1 (<1%). Furthermore, mixture analysis of AFM2 and AFB1 was carried out at specific concentrations of AFM1. The advantages of this developed immunoassay are high sensitivity, high throughput, multianalyte detection, versatility, and ease of handling. PMID:24000318

  16. Two Distinct Subtypes of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute Liver Failure Are Separable By Quantitative Serum IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Doan Y; Hynan, Linda S.; Yuan, He-Jun; Sanders, Corron; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Lok, Anna S.F.; Word, R. Ann; Lee, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) may occur following acute HBV infection (AHBV-ALF) or during an exacerbation of chronic HBV infection (CHBV-ALF). Clinical differentiation of the two is often difficult if a prior history of hepatitis B is not available. Quantitative measurements of anti-hepatitis B core immunoglobulin M (IgM anti-HBc) titers and of HBV viral loads (VLs) might allow separation of acute from chronic HBV-ALF. Methods Of 1602 patients with ALF, 60 met clinical criteria for AHBV-ALF and 27 for CHBV-ALF. Sera were available on 47 and 23 patients, respectively. A quantitative immunoassay was used to determine IgM anti-HBc levels, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to determine HBV VLs. Results AHBV-ALFs had much higher IgM anti-HBc titers than CHBV-ALFs, (signal to noise (S/N) ratio median 88.5, range 0–1,120, vs. 1.3, 0–750, p<0.001); a cut point for S/N ratio of 5.0 correctly identified 44/46 (96%) AHBV-ALFs and 16/23 (70%) CHBV-ALFs; the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.86, p<0.001. AHBV-ALF median admission VL was 3.9 (0–8.1) log10 IU/mL, vs. 5.2 (2.0–8.7) log10 IU/mL for CHBV-ALF, p<0.025. Twenty percent (12/60) of the AHBV-ALF group had no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detectable on admission to study, while no CHBV-ALF patients experienced HBsAg clearance. Rates of transplant-free survival were 33% (20/60) for AHBV-ALF vs. 11% (3/27) for CHBV-ALF, p=0.030. Conclusions AHBV-ALF and CHBV-ALF differ markedly in IgM anti-HBc titers, in HBV VLs and in prognosis, suggesting that the two forms are indeed different entities that might each have a unique pathogenesis. PMID:21987355

  17. Differentiation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Infection from CP7_E2alf Marker Vaccination by a Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Blome, Sandra; Widén, Frederik; Beer, Martin; Belák, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs that has a tremendous socioeconomic impact. Vaccines are available for disease control. However, most industrialized countries are implementing stamping-out strategies to eliminate the disease and avoid trade restrictions. These restrictions can be avoided through the use of marker vaccines such as CP7_E2alf. Marker vaccines have to be accompanied by reliable and robust discriminatory assays. In this context, a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was developed to distinguish CSF virus (CSFV)-infected animals from CP7_E2alf-vaccinated animals. To this end, three viral proteins, namely, CSFV E2, CSFV Erns, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2, were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system; they were used as antigens in a microsphere immunoassay, which was further evaluated by testing a large panel of pig sera and compared to a well-characterized commercial CSFV E2 antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a test version of an improved CSFV Erns antibody ELISA. Under a cutoff median fluorescence intensity value of 5,522, the multiplex microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.9% for the detection of antibodies against CSFV E2. The microsphere immunoassay and the CSFV Erns ELISA gave the same results for 155 out of 187 samples (82.8%) for the presence of CSFV Erns antibodies. This novel multiplex immunoassay is a valuable tool for measuring and differentiating immune responses to vaccination and/or infection in animals. PMID:25378351

  18. Development of rapid flow-through-based dot-immunoassay for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Subathra, M; Senthilkumar, T M A; Ramadass, P; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2011-01-01

    An IgG-ELISA used recombinant antigen and a rapid flow-through enzyme immunoassay were developed for rapid screening of leptospiral antibodies in dogs using recombinant LipL41, which is one of the conserved outer membrane proteins in pathogenic leptospires as the coating antigen. Results from this study were compared with the standard microscopic agglutination test and found that the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 75.46% and 93.29% and whereas that of flow-through-based dot-immunobinding assay were 87.73% and 89.63%, respectively. Relative merits of these tests were also assessed. The flow-through-based dot-immunobinding assay was thus proved to be a valid screening test for canine leptospirosis. PMID:19906426

  19. Biochip array technology immunoassay performance and quantitative confirmation of designer piperazines for urine workplace drug testing.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Concheiro, Marta; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Designer piperazines are emerging novel psychoactive substances (NPS) with few high-throughput screening methods for their identification. We evaluated a biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for phenylpiperazines (PNP) and benzylpiperazines (BZP) and analyzed 20,017 randomly collected urine workplace specimens. Immunoassay performance at recommended cutoffs was evaluated for PNPI (5 ?g/L), PNPII (7.5 ?g/L), and BZP (5 ?g/L) antibodies. Eight hundred forty positive and 206 randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Assay limits of detection for PNPI, PNPII, and BZP were 2.9, 6.3, and 2.1 ?g/L, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R (2)?>?0.99) with upper limits of 42 ?g/L for PNPI/PNII and 100 ?g/L for BZP. Quality control samples demonstrated imprecision <19.3 %CV and accuracies 86.0-94.5 % of target. There were no interferences from 106 non-piperazine substances. Seventy-eight of 840 presumptive positive specimens (9.3 %) were LC-HRMS positive, with 72 positive for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), a designer piperazine and antidepressant trazodone metabolite. Of 206 presumptive negative specimens, one confirmed positive for mCPP (3.3 ?g/L) and one for BZP (3.6 ?g/L). BAT specificity (21.1 to 91.4 %) and efficiency (27.0 to 91.6 %) increased, and sensitivity slightly decreased (97.5 to 93.8 %) with optimized cutoffs of 25 ?g/L PNPI, 42 ?g/L PNPI, and 100 ?g/L BZP. A high-throughput screening method is needed to identify piperazine NPS. We evaluated performance of the Randox BAT immunoassay to identify urinary piperazines and documented improved performance when antibody cutoffs were raised. In addition, in randomized workplace urine specimens, all but two positive specimens contained mCPP and/or trazodone, most likely from legitimate medical prescriptions. Graphical Abstract Biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for designer piperazines detection in urine. In chemiluminescent immunoassay, the labeled-drug (antigen) competes with the drug in the urine. In the absence of drug, the labeled-drug binds to the antibody releasing an enzyme (horseradish peroxidase) to react with the substrate and producing chemiluminescence. The higher the drug concentration in urine, the weaker the chemiluminescent signal is produced. All presumptive positive specimens and randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were analyzed and confirmed by a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry with limit of quantification of 2.5 or 5 ?g/L. PMID:25903022

  20. The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-09-25

    Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

  1. Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM antibody in a dental clinic population.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Westfall, H N; Snyder, I S; Miller, R W; Mutchler, B M

    1985-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and Legionella micdadei. Significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 20% and 16%, respectively, of the samples. This compares with 8% and 10%, respectively, for a randomly selected non-clinical group from the region (P less than 0.005). Samples from clinic personnel with significant IgG titers (greater than 1:128) were also evaluated for activity to each of the eight single-species antigens, with the following results: L. pneumophila, 45% (combined six strains); L. micdadei, 37%; and L. bozemanii, 18%. Comparing individuals' "years spent in the clinic environment" with the incidence of significant antibody levels strongly suggests that the risk of Legionella infection increases proportionately with increased clinic exposure time (P less than 0.05). Analysis of these data implies that Legionella may be present in the dental clinic environment, thus creating an increased risk for clinical personnel or patients. PMID:3865949

  2. Persistence of West Nile Virus (WNV) IgM antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Hema; Signs, Kimberly; Somsel, Patricia; Downes, Frances P; Clark, Patricia A; Massey, Jeffrey P

    2004-12-01

    The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) reported 644 laboratory positive human cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the 2002 outbreak in the US, of which 559 cases presented with either meningitis or encephalitis. The first line test utilized for diagnosis of WNV infection was the immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). We continued testing for WNV even during winter months of the year 2002-2003 due to the awareness of other modes of WNV transmission (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental, breast milk, and occupational) as well as concern for people traveling to endemic areas. As a result of year-round testing for WNV infections during 2002-2003, we detected WNV IgM-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from three patients persisting for 110, 141, and 199 days post acute phase infection in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. This is a new observation and there is no published data on the persistence of WNV IgM antibodies in CSF specimens beyond 47 days. Thus, it is important to note that the presence of WNV IgM class antibodies may not always reflect acute phase infection with this virus. PMID:15494271

  3. Effects of IgM Allotype Suppression on Serum IgM Levels, B-1 and B-2 Cells, and Antibody Responses ir Allotype Heterozygous F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Ann Marie

    1994-01-01

    IgM allotype heterozygous F1 mice were independently suppressed for Igh6a or Igh6b to evaluate the contribution of B-1 and B-2 cells to natural serum IgM levels and Ab responses. B-2 B cells expressing IgM of the suppressed allotype were evident in the spleens of suppressed mice 4 to 6 weeks after cessation of the suppression regimen, whereas B-1 B cells of the suppressed allotype were undetectable for up to 9 months. Although serum IgM of the suppressed allotype was initially depleted in mice suppressed for either allotype, by 7 months of age, there were detectable levels of IgM of the suppressed allotype in the serum; however, the levels were significantly below that found in nonsuppressed mice. When mice were immunized with either the T-independent or T-dependent form of phosphorylcholine, those suppressed for either allotype, and consequently depleted of B-1 B cells of that allotype, did not respond with phosphorylcholine-specific IgM of the suppressed allotype. In contrast, when mice were immunized with ?1-3 dextran, the Igh6a allotype-suppressed mice were able to produce dextran-specific IgM of that allotype. These results show that allotype-bearing B-1 cells of both allotypes can be effectively suppressed by this suppression protocol and this produces long-lasting effects on B-1 cell levels and serum IgM of the suppressed allotype. These observations reflect the derivation of the majority of B-1 cells from fetal-neonatal precursors, which cannot be replaced by newly emerging B-2 cells of adult origin. Their ablation by antibody treatment results in permanent alterations to the adult B-cell repertoire. PMID:7620324

  4. Performance of Indirect Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Serology Tests and IgM Capture Assays for Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMUEL RATNAM; GRAHAM TIPPLES; CAROL HEAD; MICHELINE FAUVEL; MARGARET FEARON; BRIAN J. WARD

    As progress is made toward elimination of measles, the laboratory confirmation of measles becomes increasingly important. However, both false-positive and false-negative results can occur with the routinely used indirect measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology tests. The measles IgM capture assay is considered to be more specific, and therefore, its use is indicated for confirmatory testing, but its relative performance has

  5. Production of a monoclonal antibody against serum immunoglobulin M of South American camelids and assessment of its suitability in two immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Adrián; Ledesma, Martín; Landone, Ignacio; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against immunoglobulin M (IgM) of South American camelids. A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to measure IgM in serum samples. Isotype and specificity of the mAb were assessed. The performance of the SRID assay was preliminarily evaluated in terms of working range, plate stability over a 4-week period, and initial intra- and interassay variation. The concentration of IgM was determined in 55 samples by SRID assay and ELISA, and results were not significantly different by t-test (0.64 ± 0.19 mg/ml for the SRID assay, and 0.58 ± 0.24 mg/ml for ELISA; P = 0.1489). The mAb was shown to be stable over the 4-week evaluation period, and the SRID assay was reproducible when tested in triplicate for intra-assay variability and in quadruplicate for interassay variability, with a percentage coefficient of variation of less than or equal to 5%. Also, the SRID assay proved to be sensitive enough to measure IgM levels in undiluted serum samples, and had a good correlation with ELISA. The current study is intended to submit a preliminary report of a mAb against IgM of South American camelids, and suggest the future potential of the mAb developed for diagnostic application, including use in the SRID assay. PMID:25057160

  6. Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1988-04-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

  7. Patterns of dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in suspected cases of dengue in Jamaica, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle G; Vickers, Ivan E; Salas, Rose Alba; Smikle, Monica Fisher

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of dengue immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies in patients presenting with dengue-like illnesses during 2003-2006 were investigated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of dengue antibodies, dengue IgM and dengue IgG antibodies were 59.4% (979/1647), 15.4% (254/1647) and 51.1% (841/1647), respectively. A statistically significantly increasing trend in the prevalence of dengue IgG antibodies with age was observed, ranging from 38.4% in patients aged less than 1 year to 90% in those 60 of years and over (p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.000-0.002). Conversely the seroprevalence of dengue IgM did not differ significantly with age and no seasonality in the number of cases was observed. The patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies found in the present study are consistent with those found in dengue endemic countries during inter-epidemic periods indicating that an increasing risk of a new dengue outbreak due to the accumulation of susceptible population. Preventive measures should be maintained to control the endemic spread and reduce the risk of outbreaks of dengue in Jamaica. The high seroprevalence rate of dengue IgG antibodies might have implications for the emergence of the more severe forms dengue infection in the Jamaican population. PMID:19478396

  8. Development of immunoassays for human urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmune assays (RIA) and enzyme linked immune assays for measurement of pro-urokinase and the two active forms of the enzyme were developed. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, with desired specificities against preselected synthetic regions of urokinase (UK), were obtained by immunization with the respective synthetic peptides and used to develop RIA for zymogen and the two activated forms of UK.

  9. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for monitoring nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity.

    PubMed

    Fiene, Amelie; Baqi, Younis; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    The following members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family, NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDase-2, -3, and -8, play an important role in purinergic signal transduction by regulating extracellular nucleotide levels. Potent and selective NTPDase inhibitors are required as pharmacological tools and have potential as novel drugs, e.g. for anti-cancer and anti-bacterial therapy. We have developed fast and sensitive NTPDase fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassays using the natural substrates (ATP or ADP). During the NTPDase1-catalyzed reaction, the substrate is dephosphorylated to ADP which is further dephosphorylated yielding AMP as the final product (by NTPDase1). NTPDase3 and -8 yield AMP and ADP, while NTPDase2 results mainly in the formation of ADP. Direct quantification of the respective product, AMP or ADP, is achieved by displacement of an appropriate fluorescent tracer nucleotide from a specific antibody leading to a change in fluorescence polarization. The assays are highly sensitive and can be performed with low substrate concentrations (20 ?M ATP or 10 ?M ADP) below the KM values of NTPDases, which simplifies the identification of novel competitive inhibitors. Optimized antibody and enzyme concentrations allow the reproducible detection of 2 ?M ADP and 1 ?M AMP (at 10% substrate conversion). Validation of the assays yielded excellent Z'-factors greater than 0.70 for all investigated NTPDase subtypes indicating high robustness of the analytical method. Furthermore, we tested a standard inhibitor and performed a first exemplary screening campaign with a library consisting of >400 compounds (Z'-factor: 0.87, hit rate 0.5%). Thereby we demonstrated the suitability of the FP assay for IC50 value determination and high-throughput screening in a 384-well format. The new FP assays were shown to be superior to current standard assays. PMID:25372046

  10. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, H.R. [Diametrix Detectors, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

  11. Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Annette C.; Willicott, Corey W.; Hage, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoassays have long been an important set of tools in clinical laboratories for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease. Over the last two decades there has been growing interest in utilizing capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a means for conducting immunoassays with clinical samples. The resulting method is known as a CE immunoassay. This approach makes use of the selective and strong binding of antibodies for their targets, as is employed in a traditional immunoassay, and combines this with the speed, efficiency, and small sample requirements of CE. This review discusses the variety of ways in which CE immunoassays have been employed with clinical samples. An overview of the formats and detection modes that have been employed in these applications is first presented. A more detailed discussion is then given on the type of clinical targets and samples that have been measured or studied by using CE immunoassays. Particular attention is given to the use of this method in the fields of endocrinology, pharmaceutical measurements, protein and peptide analysis, immunology, infectious disease detection, and oncology. Representative applications in each of these areas are described, with these examples involving work with both traditional and microanalytical CE systems. PMID:24132682

  12. The Impact of The IGM on High-Redshift Lyman Alpha Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Mark Dijkstra; Adam Lidz; Stuart Wyithe

    2007-05-04

    We calculate the impact of the intergalactic medium (IGM) on the observed Lyman alpha lines (hereafter Lya) emitted by galaxies in an ionised IGM at z>4. Our model accounts for gas clumping in the IGM and for the fact that high-redshift galaxies reside in overdense regions, which causes the velocity field of the IGM to depart from the Hubble flow. The observed shape of the Lya line varies widely, with dependence on the intrinsic width and systemic velocity of the line, a galaxies star formation rate and the local extra-galactic UV-background. For large star formation rates and levels of the UV-background, absorption in the IGM does not result in a Lya line that is asymmetric as is common among known high-redshift Lya emitters. For models in which the lines do show the observed strong asymmetry, the IGM typically transmits only 10-30% of the Lya flux. The increase in the ionising background that accompanied the completion of reionisation barely increased the IGM transmission, which suggests that LAEs of comparable luminosity should not appear to be significantly dimmer prior to overlap. In this light, we briefly discuss the potential of Lya emitters as a probe into the epoch of reionisation.

  13. IgM deposits on skin nerves in anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Raffaella; Erne, Beat; Lauria, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Borgna, Monica; Morbin, Michela; Arnold, Andreas; Czaplinski, Adam; Fuhr, Peter; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Steck, Andreas J

    2005-02-01

    Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) neuropathy is a chronic demyelinating neuropathy with predominant involvement of large sensory fibers and deposits of IgM and complement on sural nerve myelinated fibers. We assessed the presence of IgM deposits on skin myelinated nerve fibers and the involvement of unmyelinated axons in anti-MAG neuropathy. Skin biopsies were performed in 14 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy, in 8 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and in 2 patients with IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy. Biopsies were taken at the proximal thigh in 20 patients, at the distal leg in 21 patients, at the proximal arm in 13 patients, and at the hand or fingertip in 10 patients. We found IgM deposits on dermal myelinated fibers in all anti-MAG neuropathy patients, with a greater prevalence at the distal site of the extremities. Deposits were located throughout the length of the fibers and at the paranodal loops. CIDP and IgM paraproteinemic neuropathies did not show any deposit of IgM. Anti-MAG neuropathy and CIPD patients showed a decrease in epidermal nerve fiber density reflecting an associated axonal loss. In anti-MAG neuropathy, both large- and small-diameter nerve fibers are affected, and specific deposits of IgM are found on skin myelinated nerve fibers. PMID:15668968

  14. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  15. Suppressor T cells prevent in vitro expression of IgM rheumatoid factor in some healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, W.J.

    1981-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from 11 of 30 healthy adults elaborated detectable IgM RF when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. The influence of T cells on IgM RF production by autologous B Cells prepared from donors whose unfractionated MNL synthesized IgM RF in response to PMW was investigated. Untreated T cells supported IgM RF production by autologous B cells with optimal synthesis observed at T:B cell ratios of 2:1 at higher T:B cell ratios a decline in IgM RF production occurred. In contrast, at higher T:B cell ratios irradiated T cells supported consistently higher levels of IgM RF production than untreated T cells suggesting the presence of radiosensitive suppressor T cells for IgM RF in these individuals. Irridiated T cells were compared to untreated T cells for capacity to support IgM RF production by autologous B cells from 12 randomly selected donors at T:B cell ratios of 3:1. Untreated T cells from 4 of 12 individuals were capable of cooperating in induction of IgM RF production by autologous B cells, whereas irradiated T cells supported IgM RF production in 6 of 12 individuals. Levels of IgM RF production in all 6 individuals were significantly higher with irradiated T cells than with untreated T cells; in 2 individuals IgM RF synthesis by autologous B cells was observed only in the presence of irradiated T cells. In 4 of 6 individuals increases in the ratio of IgM RF total IgM synthesis occured with irradiated T cells (when compared to untreated T cells), suggesting disproportionate suppression of RF production. These results indicate the presence of radiosensitive T cells capable of suppressing IgM RF production in a significant fraction of healthy adults and raise the possibility that these cells may regulate in vivo expression of RF.

  16. A secondary antibody format chemiluminescence immunoassay for the determination of estradiol in human serum.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhen; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-09-15

    A competitive immunoassay for estradiol (E2) based on secondary antibody format was established. The donkey anti-rabbit IgG was used as the secondary antibody to coat micro-plates, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H(2)O(2) chemiluminescent system with high sensitivity was chosen as the detection system. The addition of sodium trichloroacetate (CCl(3)COONa) in the enzyme buffer as a replaceable packing material can realize directly analysis of E2 in human serum without extraction, which improved reproducibility and resolution of the assay. Additionally, the method showed specific recognition of estrogen, without cross-reaction for the major steroids (estrone (E1), estriol (E3), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, testosterone (T)) commonly found in human serum. The chemiluminescence immunoassay with secondary antibody can be applied to detect E2 with good precision at concentrations as low as 1.48 pg mL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of E2 in 97 human sera and showed a good correlation compared with the commercially radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with a correlative coefficient of 0.9881. This method has exhibited great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit and can be used in the clinical analysis of E2 in human serum. PMID:20801358

  17. Ultrasensitive On-Chip Immunoassays with a Nanoparticle-Assembled Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hee; Sudheendra, L.; Kim, Hee-Joo; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) is employed to generate 2D array of nanoparticles coated with biological molecules (i.e. antibodies). Phase matching of the excitation and the emission in the 2D arrays with particles produces a highly enhanced fluorescence signal that was shown to improve the limit of detection in immunoassays. The phase matching is achieved when the particle are in the sub-100 nm range. A comparison between different size particles shows that the sensitivity of an immunoassay is extended to a range that is difficult to achieve with standard technology (e.g. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-ELISA). The effectiveness of this novel configuration of particle-in-a well was demonstrated with an assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; breast cancer biomarker), with a detection limit as low as 10 aM in less than 10 ?l of serum-based sample. The limit of detection of HER2 indicated far superior assay performance compared to the corresponding standard 96-well plate-based ELISA. The particle-based photonic platform reduces the reagent volume and the time for performing an assay in comparison to competing methods. The simplicity of operation and the level of sensitivity demonstrated here can be used for rapid and early-stage detection of biomarkers. PMID:22957818

  18. Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent versus electrochemiluminescent immunoassay in food and serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Stanker, Larry H

    2013-01-23

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most potent biological toxins. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for the detection of BoNT serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an effort to improve toxin detection levels in complex matrices such as food and sera, we evaluated the performance of existing antitoxin mAbs using a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay platform developed by Meso Scale Discovery. In side-by-side comparisons, the limits of detection (LODs) observed for ELISA and the ECL immunoassay for BoNT/A were 12 and 3 pg/mL, and for BoNT/B, they were 17 and 13 pg/mL, respectively. Both the ELISA and the ECL method were more sensitive than the "gold standard" mouse bioassay. The ECL assay outperformed ELISA in detection sensitivity in most of the food matrices fortified with BoNT/A and in some foods spiked with BoNT/B. Both the ELISA and the ECL immunoassay platforms are fast, simple alternatives for use in the routine detection of BoNTs in food and animal sera. PMID:23265581

  19. AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.

    1996-04-01

    AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

  20. Detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in river water with a colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Aihua; Hu, Jing; Lin, Manman; Wen, Mengtang; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Chongxin; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhong, Jianfeng; Jiao, Lingxia; Xie, Yajing; Zhang, Cunzhen; Yu, Xiangyang; Liang, Ying; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-08-15

    3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) is a general metabolite of synthetic pyrethroids. It could be used as a generic biomarker for multiple pyrethroids exposure for human or pyrethroid residues in the environment. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 3-PBA were developed by using PBA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an immunogen. In the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format, the I50 and I10 values of purified mAbs were 0.63 and 0.13?g/ml, respectively, with a dynamic range between 0.19 and 2.04?g/ml. Then, the colloidal gold (CG)-based lateral flow immunoassay was established based on the mAbs. The working concentration of coating antigen and CG-labeled antibodies and the blocking effects were investigated to get optimal assay performance. The cutoff value for the assay was 1?g/ml 3-PBA, and the detection time was within 10min. A total of 40 river water samples were spiked with 3-PBA at different levels and determined by the lateral flow immunoassay without any sample pretreatments. The negative false rate was 2.5%, and no positive false results were observed at these levels. This lateral flow immunoassay has the potential to be an on-site screening method for monitoring 3-PBA or pyrethroid residues in environmental samples. PMID:25957127

  1. Technical and clinical comparison of two fully automated methods for the immunoassay of CA 125 in serum.

    PubMed

    Yan, G; Ju, H; Liang, Z; Zhang, T

    1999-05-27

    The sensitivity and precision of two fully automated enzyme immunoassays, a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the determination of the ovarian carcinoma antigen CA 125 were evaluated by comparison with an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Sera were obtained from patients with ovarian carcinoma (N = 28 before treatment and N = 24 after treatment), digestive system cancer (N = 21 before treatment) and from healthy women (N = 90). The CLEIA showed a good agreement with the IRMA in terms of the positivity rate, accuracy and assay linearity, whereas the ELISA gave some false positive results. The mean value of CA 125 in the sera of healthy women was 14, 16 and 20 U/ml determined using the CLEIA, IRMA and ELISA procedures with standard deviations (SD) of 6.9, 7.3 and 8.8 U/ml, respectively. Both the reproducibility and precision of the CLEIA with coefficients of variation (CV) of 4.6% intra-assay and 7.6% inter-assay were better than those of the ELISA with CV of 6.2% intra-assay and 15.2% inter-assay (N = 16). We conclude that the CLEIA is the preferable method for CA 125 determinations and the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:10365777

  2. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  3. A new modular chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser evaluated.

    PubMed

    Ognibene, A; Drake, C J; Jeng, K Y; Pascucci, T E; Hsu, S; Luceri, F; Messeri, G

    2000-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and testosterone assays have been used as a probe to evaluate the performances of a new modular chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay analyser, the Abbott Architect 2000. The evaluation was run in parallel on other systems that use CL as the detection reaction: DPC Immulite, Chiron Diagnostics ACS-180 and ACS Centaur (TSH functional sensitivity only). TSH functional sensitivity was 0.0012, 0.009, 0.033 and 0.039 mU/I for the Architect, Immulite, ACS Centaur and ACS-180, respectively. Testosterone functional sensitivity was 0.38, 3.7 and 2.0 nmol/l for Architect, Immulite and ACS-180, respectively. Good correlation was obtained between the ACS-180 and Architect for all assays. The Immulite correlation did not agree well with the Architect or ACS-180 for fT4 and testosterone but was in good agreement for TSH. Regarding fT4 and testosterone, equilibrium dialysis and isotopic dilution gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively were used as reference methods. For both within- and between-run precision, the Architect showed the best reproducibility for all three analytes (CV < 6%). PMID:10905763

  4. Novel electrochemical immunoassay for quantitative monitoring of biotoxin using target-responsive cargo release from mesoporous silica nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Liao, Jiayao; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2013-10-01

    A novel homogeneous immunoassay protocol was designed for quantitative monitoring of small molecular biotoxin (brevetoxin B, PbTx-2, as a model) by using target-responsive cargo release from polystyrene microsphere-gated mesoporous silica nanocontainer (MSN). Initially, monoclonal mouse anti-PbTx-2 capture antibody was covalently conjugated onto the surface of MSN (mAb-MSN), and the electroactive cargo (methylene blue, MB) was then trapped in the pores of mAb-MSN by using aminated polystyrene microspheres (APSM) based on the electrostatic interaction. Upon addition of target PbTx-2, the positively charged APSM was displaced from the negatively charged mAb-MSN because of the specific antigen-antibody reaction. Thereafter, the molecular gate was opened, and the trapped methylene blue was released from the pores. The released methylene blue could be monitored by using a square wave voltammetry (SWV) in a homemade microelectrochemical detection cell. Under optimal conditions, the SWV peak current increased with the increasing of PbTx-2 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 3.5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1) PbTx-2 at the 3Sblank criterion. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation with identical batches were ?6% and 9.5%, respectively. The specificity and sample matrix interfering effects were acceptable. The analysis in 12 spiked seafood samples showed good accordance between results obtained by the developed immunoassay and a commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Importantly, the target-responsive controlled release system-based electrochemical immunoassay (CRECIA) offers a promising scheme for the development of advanced homogeneous immunoassay without the sample separation and washing procedure. PMID:23998398

  5. Unique ligand-binding property of the human IgM Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kazuhito; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Kearney, John F; Kubagawa, Hiromi

    2015-02-15

    The IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) is the newest FcR, and coligation of Fc?R and Fas/CD95 on Jurkat cells with agonistic IgM anti-Fas mAb was shown to inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis. The ligand-binding activity of human Fc?R was further examined. Fc?R-mediated protection from apoptosis was partially blocked by addition of 10(4) molar excess of IgM or its soluble immune complexes, but it could be inhibited by addition of 10-fold excess of IgM anti-CD2 mAb. This suggests that Fc?R binds more efficiently to the Fc portion of IgM reactive with plasma-membrane proteins than to the Fc portion of IgM in solution. The former interaction occurred in cis on the same cell surface, but not in trans between neighboring cells. This cis engagement of Fc?R resulted in modulation of Ca(2+) mobilization via CD2 on Jurkat cells or BCRs on blood B cells upon cross-linkage with the corresponding IgM mAbs. Several functional changes were observed with Fc?R mutants: 1) significant increase in IgM ligand binding in the cytoplasmic tail-deletion mutant, 2) enhanced cap formation in Fc?R upon IgM binding at 4°C with a point mutation of the transmembrane His to Phe, and 3) less protective activity of Fc?R in IgM anti-Fas mAb-mediated apoptosis assays with a point mutation of the membrane-proximal Tyr to Phe. These findings show the importance of the cis engagement of Fc?R and its critical role in receptor function. Hence, Fc?R on B, T, and NK cells may modulate the function of surface proteins recognized by natural or immune IgM Abs on the shared membrane cell surface. PMID:25601920

  6. Vesiculovirus Neutralization by Natural IgM and Complement

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Ammayappan, Arun; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Stojdl, David; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because of its very low human seroprevalence, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has promise as a systemic oncolytic agent for human cancer therapy. However, as demonstrated in this report, the VSV infectious titer drops by 4 log units during the first hour of exposure to nonimmune human serum. This neutralization occurs relatively slowly and is mediated by the concerted actions of natural IgM and complement. Maraba virus, whose G protein is about 80% homologous to that of VSV, is relatively resistant to the neutralizing activity of nonimmune human serum. We therefore constructed and rescued a recombinant VSV whose G gene was replaced by the corresponding gene from Maraba virus. Comparison of the parental VSV and VSV with Maraba G substituted revealed nearly identical host range properties and replication kinetics on a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, in contrast to the parental VSV, the VSV with Maraba G substituted was resistant to nonimmune human serum. Overall, our data suggest that VSV with Maraba G substituted should be further investigated as a candidate for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy applications. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of disseminated cancers, but antibody neutralization of circulating oncolytic virus particles remains a formidable barrier. In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely related but serologically distinct member of the family Rhabdoviridae, which demonstrated greatly diminished susceptibility to both nonimmune and VSV-immune serum neutralization. VSV with Maraba G substituted or lentiviral vectors should therefore be further investigated as candidates for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy applications. PMID:24648451

  7. Characterisation of echidna IgM provides insights into the time of divergence of extant mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Belov; Lars Hellman; Desmond W Cooper

    2002-01-01

    The immunobiology of monotremes is poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the characterisation of the heavy chain of IgM from Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short-beaked echidna. The echidna heavy chain constant region of IgM (C?) was isolated from a spleen cDNA library using a Trichosurus vulpecula probe. It has approximately 46.5% amino acid identity to marsupial and eutherian C?s, and

  8. Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Br Andlein; Judith Lorenz; Nele Ruoff; Frank Hensel; Ines Beyer; Justus M Uller; Konrad Neukam; Bertram Illert; Matthias Eck; Hans Konrad M Uller-hermelink; H. Peter Vollmers

    Abstract. Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross- linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic),are believed to be the most effective weapons,against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also

  9. Soil Enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functionality and resilience of natural and managed ecosystems mainly rely on the metabolic abilities of microbial communities, the main source of enzymes in soils. Enzyme mediated reactions are critical in the decomposition of organic matter, cycling of nutrients, and in the breakdown of herbic...

  10. Enzymes, Industrial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes serve key roles in numerous biotechnology processes and products that are commonly encountered in the forms of food and beverages, cleaning supplies, clothing, paper products, transportation fuels, pharmaceuticals, and monitoring devices. Enzymes can display regio- and stereo-specificity, p...

  11. Quantitative heterogeneous immunoassays in protein modified polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic channels for rapid detection of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Conventional detection of disease biomarkers employs techniques such as lateral-flow assays or central laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Miniaturization and performance improvement of such traditional immunoassays using microfluidic technologies has proved promising in producing rapid, sensitive and automated next-generation immunosensors for quantitative diagnoses in the point-of-care setting. In this article a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based immunosensor is presented for rapid detection of C-reactive protein. PDMS is selected in part because of the vast popularity of using PDMS as a material for microfluidic devices and in part because of the challenge of obtaining a stable surface coating with PDMS for immunosensing applications. Practical procedures for fabrication, surface modification, and preservation of the microfluidic immuno-chips as well as detailed descriptions of performing the microfluidic heterogeneous assay are presented. PMID:23329452

  12. Physiological IgM Class Catalytic Antibodies Selective for Transthyretin Amyloid*

    PubMed Central

    Planque, Stephanie A.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hara, Mariko; Sonoda, Sari; Murphy, Sarah K.; Watanabe, Kenji; Mitsuda, Yukie; Brown, Eric L.; Massey, Richard J.; Primmer, Stanley R.; O'Nuallain, Brian; Paul, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Peptide bond-hydrolyzing catalytic antibodies (catabodies) could degrade toxic proteins, but acquired immunity principles have not provided evidence for beneficial catabodies. Transthyretin (TTR) forms misfolded ?-sheet aggregates responsible for age-associated amyloidosis. We describe nucleophilic catabodies from healthy humans without amyloidosis that degraded misfolded TTR (misTTR) without reactivity to the physiological tetrameric TTR (phyTTR). IgM class B cell receptors specifically recognized the electrophilic analog of misTTR but not phyTTR. IgM but not IgG class antibodies hydrolyzed the particulate and soluble misTTR species. No misTTR-IgM binding was detected. The IgMs accounted for essentially all of the misTTR hydrolytic activity of unfractionated human serum. The IgMs did not degrade non-amyloidogenic, non-superantigenic proteins. Individual monoclonal IgMs (mIgMs) expressed variable misTTR hydrolytic rates and differing oligoreactivity directed to amyloid ? peptide and microbial superantigen proteins. A subset of the mIgMs was monoreactive for misTTR. Excess misTTR was dissolved by a hydrolytic mIgM. The studies reveal a novel antibody property, the innate ability of IgMs to selectively degrade and dissolve toxic misTTR species as a first line immune function. PMID:24648510

  13. Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Wilson, S.B.; Tomaski, A.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1985-04-01

    The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, the authors studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. They observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP. They obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3. The authors demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP.

  14. Development of a Bead Immunoassay To Measure Vi Polysaccharide-Specific Serum IgG after Vaccination with the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vi Polysaccharide ?

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Herman F.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Whisnant, Carol C.; Stephenson, James L.; Wagener, Diane K.; Majumder, Partha P.

    2010-01-01

    Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is used as one of the available vaccines to prevent typhoid fever. Measurement of Vi-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with Vi polysaccharide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may be complicated due to poor binding of the Vi polysaccharide to ELISA plates resulting in poor reproducibility of measured antibody responses. We chemically conjugated Vi polysaccharide to fluorescent beads and performed studies to determine if a bead-based immunoassay provided a reproducible method to measure vaccine-induced anti-Vi serum IgG antibodies. Compared to ELISA, the Vi bead immunoassay had a lower background and therefore a greater signal-to-noise ratio. The Vi bead immunoassay was used to evaluate serum anti-Vi IgG in 996 subjects from the city of Kolkata, India, before and after vaccination. Due to the location being one where Salmonella serotype Typhi is endemic, approximately 45% of the subjects had protective levels of anti-Vi serum IgG (i.e., 1 ?g/ml anti-Vi IgG) before vaccination, and nearly 98% of the subjects had protective levels of anti-Vi serum IgG after vaccination. Our results demonstrate that a bead-based immunoassay provides an effective, reproducible method to measure serum anti-Vi IgG responses before and after vaccination with the Vi polysaccharide vaccine. PMID:20107010

  15. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38?ppt range with a measurement range of 10?ppt–100?ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8?min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R?=?0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:25152888

  16. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Immunoassay for Fat Cell Differentiation Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Johlfs, Mary G.; Gorjala, Priyatham; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Le, Thuc T.; Fiscus, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling cellular proteome is critical to understanding signal integration during cell fate determination. In this study, the capability of capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays to detect post-translational modifications (PTM) of protein isoforms is demonstrated. cIEF immunoassays exhibit protein detection sensitivity at up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods. This detection ultra-sensitivity permits proteomic profiling of several nanograms of tissue samples. cIEF immunoassays are employed to simultaneously profile three protein kinases during fat cell differentiation: cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I) of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, protein kinase B (Akt) of the insulin signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Interestingly, a switch in the expression level of PKG- isoforms is observed during fat cell differentiation. While both PKG-I? and PKG-I? isoforms are present in preadipocytes, only PKG-I? isoform is expressed in adipocytes. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level increases for Akt while decreases for ERK1 and ERK2 following the maturation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Taken together, cIEF immunoassay provides a highly sensitive means to study fat cell differentiation proteomics. cIEF immunoassay should be a powerful proteomics tool to study complex protein signal integration in biological systems. PMID:26132171

  17. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION PLAN FOR WESTINGHOUSE BIO-ANALYTIC SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan provides a detailed design and description of the demonstration and evaluation program for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems immunoassay technologies specific for the analysis of pentachlorophenol. he immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachl...

  18. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

  19. The Effects of Sample Matrices on Immunoassays to Detect Microcystin-LR in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Immunoassays are widely used biochemical techniques to detect microcystins in environmental samples. The use of immunoassays for the detection of microcystins is vulnerable to matrix components and other interferents. This study is an evaluation of the effects of interf...

  20. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  1. An interference-free and rapid electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay for one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Md Rajibul; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Tamilavan, Vellaiappillai; Park, Seonhwa; Kim, Sinyoung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Kim, Min-Gon; Yang, Haesik

    2014-03-21

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in clinical samples is of great importance for rapid and cost-effective diagnosis. However, it is extremely challenging to develop an electrochemical POCT technique retaining both ultrasensitivity and simplicity. We report an interference-free electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay that enables one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum. The electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling combined with an enzymatic reaction of an enzyme label is used to obtain high signal amplification. The ECC redox cycling involving Ru(NH3)6(3+), enzyme product, and tris(3-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) depends on pH, because the formal potentials of an enzyme product and TCEP increase with decreasing pH although that of Ru(NH3)6(3+) is pH-independent. With consideration of the pH dependence of ECC redox cycling, a noble combination of enzyme label, substrate, and product [?-galactosidase, 4-amino-1-naphthyl ?-D-galactopyranoside, and 4-amino-1-naphthol, respectively] is introduced to ensure fast and selective ECC redox cycling of the enzyme product along with a low background level. The selective ECC redox cycling at a low applied potential (0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl) minimizes the interference effect of electroactive species (L-ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid) in serum. A detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) for troponin I is obtained only 11 min after serum dropping without the use of an additional solution. Moreover, the lateral-flow immunoassay is applicable to the analysis of real clinical samples. PMID:24482801

  2. Differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis B in IgM anti-HBc positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Won; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors that differentiate acute hepatitis B (AHB) from chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation (CHB-AE). METHODS: From 2004 to 2013, a total of 82 patients (male n = 52, 63.4%; female n = 30, 36.6%) with clinical features of acute hepatitis with immunoglobulin M antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc) were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups; AHB (n = 53) and CHB-AE (n = 29). The AHB group was defined as patients without a history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before the episode and with loss of hepatitis B surface antigen within 6 mo after onset of acute hepatitis. Biochemical and virological profiles and the sample/cutoff (S/CO) ratio of IgM anti-HBc were compared to determine the differential diagnostic factors. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis demonstrated that, the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were meaningful factors. The S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc was significantly higher in the AHB group, while the HBV DNA level was significantly higher in the CHB-AE group. The optimal cutoff values of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels for differentiating the two conditions were 8 S/CO ratio and 5.5 log10 IU/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% and 89.7% for the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and 81.1% and 72.4% for HBV DNA levels, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of both the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were not significantly different (0.933 vs 0.844, P = 0.105). When combining IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA, the diagnostic power significantly improved compared to HBV DNA alone (P = 0.0056). The combination of these factors yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels was a useful tool for differentiating AHB from CHB-AE in patients with positive IgM anti-HBc. PMID:25852281

  3. Intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids predicts an aggressive disease course in MS.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luisa M; Sádaba, María C; Roldán, Ernesto; Masjuan, Jaime; González-Porqué, Pedro; Villarrubia, Noelia; Espiño, Mercedes; García-Trujillo, José A; Bootello, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cermeño, José C

    2005-01-01

    Oligoclonal IgM bands restricted to cerebrospinal fluid are an unfavorable prognostic marker in MS, the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS. We have attempted to identify the B cell subpopulation responsible for oligoclonal IgM secretion and the specificity of these bands. In addition, we explored the relationship between specificity and disease evolution. Intrathecal B cell subpopulations present in 29 MS patients with oligoclonal IgM bands and 52 without them were analyzed. A considerable increase in CD5(+) B lymphocytes was found in patients with oligoclonal IgM bands. These cells mostly secrete IgM antibodies recognizing nonproteic molecules. We also studied whether oligoclonal IgM bands present in cerebrospinal fluid of 53 MS patients were directed against myelin lipids. This was the case in most patients, with phosphatidylcholine being the most frequently recognized lipid. Disease course of 15 patients with oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids and 33 patients lacking them was followed. Patients with anti-lipid IgM suffered a second relapse earlier, had more relapses, and showed increased disability compared with those without anti-lipid IgM. The presence of intrathecal anti-myelin lipid IgM antibodies is therefore a very accurate predictor of aggressive evolution in MS. PMID:15630459

  4. National prevalence estimates for cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG avidity and association between high IgM antibody titer and low IgG avidity.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Sheila C; Staras, Stephanie A S; Amin, Minal M; Schmid, D Scott; Cannon, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the mother during pregnancy presents risk of CMV infection of the fetus with resulting permanent disability. CMV IgM antibody is generated following primary CMV infection but also can appear during nonprimary CMV infection and is thus of limited diagnostic use by itself. In contrast, the presence of low CMV IgG avidity has been shown to be a unique and reliable serologic indicator of primary CMV infection. We measured CMV IgG and IgM antibody levels and IgG avidity in sera from a population sample of 6,067 U.S. women aged 12 to 49 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). The CMV IgG prevalence was 58% overall and increased strongly with age. The CMV IgM prevalence was 3.0% overall and remained relatively flat across age groups. The prevalence of low IgG avidity was 2.0% overall, decreased sharply with age, and was seen mainly among IgM-positive sera. Fourteen to 18% of the CMV IgM-positive sera were low IgG avidity, presumably representing primary CMV infection. High CMV IgM antibody titer was a strong predictor of low IgG avidity. The ability to reliably identify primary CMV infection during pregnancy is important for management of the pregnancy, including possible treatment options for the fetus. Both IgM and IgG avidity measurements provide useful clinical information for evaluating primary CMV infection, although commercial tests for CMV IgG avidity are not yet widely available in the United States. PMID:21918114

  5. Comparison of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Immunofluorescence and Complement Fixation Tests for Detection of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Immunoglobulin M

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER R. FIELD; JODY L. MITCHELL; AVELINA SANTIAGO; DAVID J. DICKESON; SAU-WAN CHAN; DAVID W. T. HO; ALAN M. MURPHY; ANDREA J. CUZZUBBO; PETER L. DEVINE

    2000-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of Q fever (PanBio Coxiella burnetii immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA, QFM-200) was compared to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for C. burnetii IgM and the complement fixation test (CFT). The ELISA demonstrated 92% agreement with the reference method (IFAT), and gave a sensitivity of 99% (69 of 70 samples)

  6. Enzyme Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The enzyme reaction rate activity allows students to simulate the effects of variables such as temperature and pH on the reaction rate of the enzyme catalase. This computer simulation is best used after the students have done a wet lab experiment. The value of the simulation is that it requires the students to interpret and analyze the graphical representation of data and it enables the running of mutiple experiments in a short amount of time.

  7. Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed Central

    Cines, D B; Wilson, S B; Tomaski, A; Schreiber, A D

    1985-01-01

    The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, we studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. We observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP (less than 10%), (P less than 0.01). We obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3 (P less than 0.01, r = 0.53). We demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. The isolated IgM fraction from these two plasmas was able to activate complement and place 3H-C3 on normal platelets. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP. PMID:4039335

  8. Functional characterization of IgM(+) B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  9. Improved Methods for Immunoassay of Mycothiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIA D. UNSON; GERALD L. NEWTON; KAREN F. ARNOLD; CHARLES E. DAVIS

    1999-01-01

    Improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods have been developed for the determination of femtomole amounts of mycothiol (MSH), the main low-molecular-weight thiol in mycobacteria. The immu- noassays utilize an affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody that is highly specific for the pseudodisaccha- ride moiety of MSH. MSH was first biotinylated by the thiol-specific reagent 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocy- tin. The MSH-biotin adduct was then captured

  10. Distribution of radiolabeled human and mouse monoclonal IgM antibodies in murine models.

    PubMed

    Halpern, S E; Hagan, P L; Chen, A; Birdwell, C R; Bartholomew, R M; Burnett, K G; David, G S; Poggenburg, K; Merchant, B; Carlo, D J

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and kinetics of six human and one murine monoclonal IgM antibodies (MoAb) were studied in BALB/c mice. Labeling was with 111In, 75Se, and 125I. The monomers and pentamers of certain MoAbs were studied. Human distribution studies were also performed. The serum containing [111In]MoAb was obtained from one of the patients 24 hr after administration and injected into mice which were then killed and assayed for 111In distribution. In general, the [75Se] and [111In]MoAbs had distribution and kinetic patterns that were similar while the 125I-labeled MoAbs dehalogenated after 4 hr. Monomers and pentamers had highly similar distributions suggesting that the distribution of IgMs may be based on factors other than molecular size. The murine IgM showed a somewhat different distribution in mice than did human IgMs. Serum from the patient containing [111In]MoAb had a distribution in mice similar to that of the patient with high liver and gastrointestinal uptake. The human imaging indicates that it is possible to target tumor with human IgM MoAbs, but significant problems remain in regard to their clinical use. PMID:3171697

  11. Distribution of radiolabeled human and mouse monoclonal IgM antibodies in murine models

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.L.; Chen, A.; Birdwell, C.R.; Bartholomew, R.M.; Burnett, K.G.; David, G.S.; Poggenburg, K.; Merchant, B.; Carlo, D.J.

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and kinetics of six human and one murine monoclonal IgM antibodies (MoAb) were studied in BALB/c mice. Labeling was with /sup 111/In, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 125/I. The monomers and pentamers of certain MoAbs were studied. Human distribution studies were also performed. The serum containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb was obtained from one of the patients 24 hr after administration and injected into mice which were then killed and assayed for /sup 111/In distribution. In general, the (/sup 75/Se) and (/sup 111/In)MoAbs had distribution and kinetic patterns that were similar while the /sup 125/I-labeled MoAbs dehalogenated after 4 hr. Monomers and pentamers had highly similar distributions suggesting that the distribution of IgMs may be based on factors other than molecular size. The murine IgM showed a somewhat different distribution in mice than did human IgMs. Serum from the patient containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb had a distribution in mice similar to that of the patient with high liver and gastrointestinal uptake. The human imaging indicates that it is possible to target tumor with human IgM MoAbs, but significant problems remain in regard to their clinical use.

  12. Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B; Witztum, Joseph L; Lang, Irene M; Binder, Christoph J

    2015-02-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA(+) MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE(+) MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

  13. Influenza virus-specific neutralizing IgM antibodies persist for a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2014-11-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50 × 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM(+)) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG(+) plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  14. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG+ plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  15. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  16. A rapid diffusion immunoassay in a T-sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anson Hatch; Andrew Evan Kamholz; Kenneth R. Hawkins; Matthew S. Munson; Eric A. Schilling; Bernhard H. Weigl; Paul Yager

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a rapid diffusion immunoassay that allows measurement of small molecules down to subnanomolar concentrations in <1 min. This competitive assay is based on measuring the distribution of a labeled probe molecule after it diffuses for a short time from one region into another region containing antigen-specific antibodies. The assay was demonstrated in the T-sensor, a simple microfluidic

  17. Streamlining Immunoassays with Immiscible Filtrations Assisted by Surface Tension

    E-print Network

    Beebe, David J.

    cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen (PSA). Assay performance was assessed by measuring known, such as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to detect prostate cancer (FDA approved in 19942 ), new biomarkers fg of protein. IFAST immunoassay functionality is demonstrated by detecting a well accepted prostate

  18. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

  19. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

  20. Effect of phenolic compounds on immunoassays of peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are antioxidants. Because of their health benefit, PCs may be added to some food products. Occasionally, these products may be subjected to screening for food allergens (i.e. peanuts). In this case, the screening (an immunoassay technique) may or may not be affected by the P...

  1. Monitoring Pesticides and Personal Care Chemicals in Water by Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bo...

  2. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  3. IgM MGUS associated with anti-MAG neuropathy: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Mir, Muhammad A; Pandey, Manoj K; Sivik, Jeffrey K; Raheja, Divisha

    2015-06-01

    Anti-MAG neuropathy is a very rare form of acquired polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We conducted a retrospective review of 194 consecutive MGUS patients seen at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute. We identified six patients among 37 (16 %) with IgM MGUS with anti-MAG neuropathy. Interestingly, an additional patient had anti-MAG neuropathy without MGUS. Common clinical manifestations were numbness and paresthesias of the extremities and gait imbalance. All four patients treated with rituximab and none of the three untreated ones had a subjective improvement of their symptoms. We conclude that all patients with IgM MGUS and neuropathy should be screened for anti-MAG antibodies and, if positive, they should be offered treatment with rituximab. PMID:25572169

  4. Cytogenetic aberrations in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Eurelings, Marijke; Lokhorst, Henk M; Notermans, Nicolette C; Krijtenburg, Pieter Jaap; Kessel, Berris van; Eleveld, Mark J; Bloem, Andries; Wokke, John H; Poot, Martin; Buijs, Arjan

    2007-09-15

    The occurrence and nature of cytogenetic aberrations in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy was determined. Therefore, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in 22 patients with polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay in 18 of these patients and genome-wide-array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in eight of these 18 patients. Four patients had 10-20% and one patient had 30% B cells with IgH rearrangements; one patient had additional loss of 14qter; one patient had amplification of 6p and loss of 6q. Cytogenetic aberrations may be found in one third of the patients with neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and are mainly associated with indolent Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia. PMID:17543994

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  6. Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

  7. Food Enzymes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  8. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  9. Determination of estradiol in human serum using magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Wang, Xu; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-10-10

    A magnetic particles (MPs)-based chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility was proposed for the evaluation of estradiol (E(2)) in human sera. The MPs coated with secondary antibody were used as dispersed solid phase for the immunoassay, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H(2)O(2) chemiluminescent system with high sensitivity was chosen as the detection system. The method showed specific recognition to E(2), without cross-reaction for the major steroids, including estrone (E(1)), estriol (E(3)), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, and testosterone (T), which was commonly found in human serum. The addition of sodium trichloracetate (Na-TCA) in the enzyme buffer as a blocking agent contributed to the realization of direct analysis of E(2) in human serum without extraction. Besides, the effects of several physicochemical parameters, including the dilution ratios of E(2)-6-HRP conjugate and anti-E(2) polyclonal antibody, immunoreaction time, chemiluminescent (CL) substrate volume, volume of MPs, and CL reaction time, were studied and optimized. The proposed method had a detection limit of 2.51pgmL(-1) with a larger working range of 15-1000pgmL(-1). The inter-assay and intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) were both less than 15%. The average recoveries of three different spiked concentration samples were 93.3, 106 and 101%, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of E(2) in 105 human sera and showed a good correlation compared with the commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with a correlative coefficient of 0.9892. This method has exhibited great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit and could be used in the clinical analysis of E(2) in human serum. PMID:18809084

  10. Development of a microchip Europium nanoparticle immunoassay for sensitive point-of-care HIV detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Du, Bingchen; Zhang, Panhe; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; DeVoe, Don L; Hewlett, Indira K

    2014-11-15

    Rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic assays play an indispensable role in determination of HIV infection stages and evaluation of efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. Recently, our laboratory developed a sensitive Europium nanoparticle-based microtiter-plate immunoassay capable of detecting target analytes at subpicogram per milliliter levels without the use of catalytic enzymes and signal amplification processes. Encouraged by its sensitivity and simplicity, we continued to miniaturize this assay to a microchip platform for the purpose of converting the benchtop assay technique to a point-of-care test. It was found that detection capability of the microchip platform could be readily improved using Europium nanoparticle probes. We were able to routinely detect 5 pg/mL (4.6 attomoles) of HIV-1 p24 antigen at a signal-to-blank ratio of 1.5, a sensitivity level reasonably close to that of microtiter-plate Europium nanoparticle assay. Meanwhile, use of the microchip platform effectively reduced sample/reagent consumption 4.5 fold and shortened total assay time 2 fold in comparison with microtiter plate assays. Complex matrix substance in plasma negatively affected the microchip assays and the effects could be minimized by diluting the samples before loading. With further improvements in sensitivity, reproducibility, usability, assay process simplification, and incorporation of portable time-resolved fluorescence reader, Europium nanoparticle immunoassay technology could be adapted to meet the challenges of point-of-care diagnosis of HIV or other health-threatening pathogens at bedside or in resource-limited settings. PMID:24880655

  11. Microbead electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for detection and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaojiang; Hilsen, Rayanne E; Hu, Wei-Gang; Fulton, R Elaine

    2010-11-01

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay, incorporating chemically biotinylated and ruthenylated antibodies down-selected from a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal reagents, was developed to detect and identify Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the optimized ECL assay was 10(3)pfu/ml VEEV TC-83 virus and 1 ng/ml recombinant (r) VEEV E2 protein. The LOD of the ECL assay was approximately one log unit lower than that of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) incorporating the same immunoreagents. Repetition of ECL assays over time and by different operators demonstrated that the assay was reproducible (coefficient of variation 4.7-18.5% month-to-month; 3.3-8.8% person-to-person). The VEEV ECL assay exhibited no cross-reactivity with two closely related alphaviruses or with 21 heterologous biological agents. A genetically biotinylated recombinant VEEV antibody, MA116SBP, was evaluated for utility for detection of rE2; although functional in the ECL assay, the LOD was two log units higher (100 ng/ml vs 1 ng/ml) using MA116SBP than when chemically biotinylated antibody was used. The ECL assay detected VEEV at the lowest LOD (highest sensitivity) hitherto reported in the published literature and ECL assay results were generated in ?60 min compared to a 6-8h period required for ELISA. Results have demonstrated a sensitive, rapid, and fully automated ECL immunoassay for detection and identification of VEEV. PMID:20678522

  12. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA.

    PubMed

    Tak For Yu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M; Cornell, Timothy T; Shanley, Thomas P; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology ('AlphaLISA') in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45?min with a limit of detection down to 10?pg mL(-1). The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  13. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA

    PubMed Central

    Tak For Yu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45?min with a limit of detection down to 10?pg mL?1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  14. Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring authorship Abstract The human peripheral B cell compartment displays a large population of IgM IgD CD27 The human peripheral B cell compartment displays, in contrast to the mouse, a large population of CD27

  15. Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells des Hopitaux de Paris, Kremlin- Bicêtre (France) 10 Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University compartment displays a large population of IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ "memory" B cell carrying a mutated Ig receptor. We

  16. PAM4 Immunoassay Alone and in Combination with CA19-9 for the Detection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David V.; Gaedcke, Jochen; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H.; Liu, Mengling; Newsome, Guy; Goldenberg, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibody PAM4 has high specificity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as well as its precursor lesions, but is not reactive with normal and benign pancreatic tissues. Our purpose was to evaluate a PAM4-based serum-immunoassay alone, and in combination with the CA19-9 assay, for the detection of PDAC with particular attention to early-stage disease. Methods Sera from patients with confirmed PDAC (N=298), other cancers (N=99), benign disease of the pancreas (N=120), and healthy adults (N=79) were evaluated by specific enzyme-immunoassay for concentration of PAM4 and CA19-9 antigen levels by blinded analyses. All tests for statistical significance were two-sided. Results Overall sensitivity for PAM4 detection of PDAC was 76%, with 64% of stage-1 patients also identified. The detection rate was considerably higher (85%) for advanced disease. The assay showed high specificity compared to benign pancreatic disease (85%), with a positive likelihood ratio (+LR) of 4.93. CA19-9 provided an overall sensitivity of 77%, and was positive in 58% of patients with stage-1 disease; however, specificity was significantly lower for CA19-9 (68%) with a +LR=2.85 (P=0.026 compared to PAM4). Importantly, a combined PAM4/CA19-9 assay demonstrated an improved sensitivity (84%) for overall detection of PDAC without significant loss of specificity (82%), as compared to either arm alone. Conclusions The PAM4-immunoassay identified approximately two-thirds of stage-1 PDAC patients with high discriminatory power with respect to benign, non-neoplastic pancreatic disease. These results provide a rationale for testing patient groups considered at high-risk for PDAC with a combined PAM4/CA19-9 biomarker assay for detection of early-stage PDAC. PMID:22898932

  17. Pectinolytic Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicemol Jacob

    Pectic substances are prominent structural constituents of primary cell walls and middle lamella in non-woody plant tissues.\\u000a Pectinases are a group of enzymes that contribute to the degradation of pectin by various mechanisms. In nature, pectinases\\u000a are important for plants as they help in cell wall extension and fruit ripening. They have a significant role in maintaining\\u000a ecological balance by

  18. COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF EFFECTS OF THYROXINE, CORTISOL PAR LE VEAU NOUVEAU-NÉ. INFLUENCE DE LA THYROXINE, DU CORTISOL ET DE LA TEMPÉRATURE AMBIANTE À LA. Furthermore, a negative correlation existed between the levels of thyroid hormone in the plasma at birth

  19. Immunological mechanisms that associate with oligoclonal IgM band synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luisa M; Espiño, Mercedes; Cavanillas, María L; Roldán, Ernesto; Urcelay, Elena; de la Concha, Emilio G; Sádaba, Maria C; Arroyo, Rafael; González-Porqué, Pedro; Alvarez-Cermeño, José C

    2010-10-01

    We described previously that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids (M+) develop an aggressive disease. Our aim was to assess possible mechanisms regulating the production of these antibodies. We studied B cell subsets in 180 patients with MS, and 69 with other neurological diseases. M+ MS patients showed a moderate increase of CD5(+) B-cell percentage in peripheral blood and a considerable augment of these cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that correlated with intrathecal IgM production. The appearance of CD5(+) B cells into the central nervous system (CNS) was related to increased CXCL13 and TNF-alpha levels in CSF. Moreover, the presence of oligoclonal IgM associated with a SNP at position -376 of the TNF-alpha promoter. These results help to elucidate the B lymphocytes responsible for intrathecal IgM secretion in MS and the origin of this abnormal B-cell response in patients with aggressive MS. PMID:20621566

  20. Hyper IgM immunodeficiency. A primary dysfunction of B lymphocyte isotype switching.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, D; Haber, P; Rich, K; Cooper, M D

    1983-01-01

    Immunological evaluations (lymphocyte markers, B cell differentiation, T cell function) were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four individuals with hyper IgM immunodeficiency. Number, proportion, and proliferation of T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte subpopulations were relatively normal in affected individuals. The percentage and number of B cells expressing surface IgM and IgD were either normal or elevated in both blood and lymph nodes. However, surface IgG- and IgA-bearing B lymphocytes were completely absent. In vitro stimulation of blood lymphocytes with both T cell-dependent and T-cell independent polyclonal B cell activators resulted in normal numbers of IgM plasma cells and IgM secretion in cultures, but failed to induce any IgG- or IgA-producing cells. This failure of isotype switching was intrinsic to the B cell population and did not involve aberrant T cell help or suppression. Therefore, individuals with this disorder possess an intrinsic B cell dysfunction that is not related to abnormal T cell regulation. PMID:6605368

  1. AL amyloidosis associated with IgM paraproteinemia: clinical profile and treatment outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashutosh D. Wechalekar; Helen J. Lachmann; Hugh J. B. Goodman; Arthur Bradwell; Philip N. Hawkins; Julian D. Gillmore

    2008-01-01

    AL amyloidosis associated with immu- noglobulin M (IgM) paraproteinemia is rare. We report 103 consecutive such patients evaluated at the National Amy- loidosis Centre (London, United King- dom) between 1988 and 2006. Renal, cardiac, and lymph node amyloid was present in 53%, 35%, and 21% of pa- tients, respectively, at presentation and 2 or more organs were involved in 54%.

  2. Selected strategies for improving sensitivity and reliability of immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Kricka, L J

    1994-03-01

    Selected recent advances in immunoassay are reviewed. Development has continued on new labels (beta-lactamase, pyrophosphatase, luciferases, photoproteins, pyridopyridazines, europium cryptates, metal carbonyl complexes, porphines, phosphors) and label-detection methods (e.g., chemiluminescence assays, thermometric assays, NADP(+)- and FADP-based coupled assays). Various methods have been explored to increase assay sensitivity, including label amplification via catalyzed reporter deposition (peroxidase label) and immuno-polymerase chain reaction (DNA label). The focus of new immunoassay strategies has been on improved reliability (bispecific antibodies), assay simplification (piezoelectric and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors, phase-modulation fluorescence spectroscopy, polymerized bilayer assemblies), and simultaneous multianalyte testing (e.g., quadruple labeling with lanthanides, one-step test devices for drugs of abuse). PMID:7802752

  3. [Study of regeneration based on SERS labelled immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Ge, Ming; Yao, Jian-lin; Sun, Ru; Gu, Ren-ao

    2010-07-01

    Labelled immunoassay by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has great research and application value. It combines SERS which has the high sensitivity and high selectivity with specific adsorption in immunology. The present paper mainly studies the regeneration about SERS labelled immunoassay, striving to develop the recycling value of it. The authors used glycine-HCl eluent for the sandwich structure including solid matrix antibody, antigen and labelled immuno-gold colloids, then the authors had got expected result. The complex of antibody and antigen would be separated by changing the pH scale. It could elute the most antigen and the labelled immuno-gold colloids. Also the authors could assemble it again and distinguish the characteristic SERS spectrum of the reporter molecules. Under this condition, we researched the stability and reusing of this technology. The authors found that it has better stability and it retained activity after 10 recycles of applications. PMID:20827970

  4. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  5. Placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in IgM anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Viala, Karine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Créange, Alain; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Pouget, Jean; Clavelou, Pierre; Vial, Christophe; Steck, Andreas; Musset, Lucile; Marin, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether rituximab 375 mg/m2 was efficacious in patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein antibody demyelinating neuropathy (IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy). Methods: Fifty-four patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The inclusion criteria were inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score (ISS) ?4 and visual analog pain scale >4 or ataxia score ?2. The primary outcome was mean change in ISS at 12 months. Results: Twenty-six patients were randomized to a group receiving 4 weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 rituximab, and 28 patients to placebo. Intention-to-treat analysis, with imputation of missing ISS values by the last observation carried forward method, showed a lack of mean change in ISS at 12 months, 1.0 ± 2.7 in the rituximab group, and 1.0 ± 2.8 in the placebo group. However, changes were observed, in per protocol analysis at 12 months, for the number of patients with an improvement of at least 2 points in the INCAT disability scale (p = 0.027), the self-evaluation scale (p = 0.016), and 2 subscores of the Short Form–36 questionnaire. Conclusions: Although primary outcome measures provide no evidence to support the use of rituximab in IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy, there were improvements in several secondary outcomes in per protocol analysis. Level of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that rituximab is ineffective in improving ISS in patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy. PMID:23667063

  6. Membrane-controlled depletion of complement activity by spin-label-specific IgM.

    PubMed

    Humphries, G M; McConnell, H M

    1977-08-01

    Complement depletion mediated by high molecular weight (IgM) rabbit antibodies specifically bound to spin-label lipid haptens dispersed in model membranes is controlled by various physical attributes of those membranes other than the total number of exposed determinants that they provide. Carrier lipids used at 32 degrees were (i) a "fluid" phosphatidylcholine (PC), (ii) a "solid" PC, and (iii) a cholesterol/PC mixture. The concentration of hapten in the plane of the membranes (two-dimensional concentration) was varied while the overall hapten molarity (three-dimensional concentration) was kept constant. Both specific binding and the efficiency of depletion by IgM are markedly enhanced by systematically decreasing the average distance between haptens (infinity --> 26 A). Heterogeneous distribution was found to be more favorable than a random homogeneous distribution of the same number of haptens in the same total quantity of lipids. IgM efficiency is also markedly increased by the inclusion of cholesterol in PC membranes, an effect thought to result from enhanced projection of the determinant from the surface of the membrane and hence increased accessibility to the antibody-binding site. Furthermore, the efficiency of IgM was increased by using haptens dispersed in fluid rather than in solid PC membranes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that IgM molecules must be bound to a critical multiple of antigenic determinants at a membrane surface in order to induce complement-mediated attack and that subtle variation of the physical state of membrane antigens can be the crucial factor in determining the outcome of this type of efferent immune response. PMID:198789

  7. IgM Repertoire Biodiversity is Reduced in HIV-1 Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Hou, Wei; Liu, Li; Cai, Yunpeng; Wallet, Mark Andrew; Gardner, Brent Paul; Chang, Kaifen; Lowe, Amanda Catherine; Rodriguez, Carina Adriana; Sriaroon, Panida; Farmerie, William George; Sleasman, John William; Goodenow, Maureen Michels

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV-1 infection or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disrupt B cell homeostasis, reduce memory B cells, and impair function of IgG and IgM antibodies. Objective: To determine how disturbances in B cell populations producing polyclonal antibodies relate to the IgM repertoire, the IgM transcriptome in health and disease was explored at the complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) sequence level. Methods: 454-deep pyrosequencing in combination with a novel analysis pipeline was applied to define populations of IGHM CDRH3 sequences based on absence or presence of somatic hypermutations (SHM) in peripheral blood B cells. Results: HIV or SLE subjects have reduced biodiversity within their IGHM transcriptome compared to healthy subjects, mainly due to a significant decrease in the number of unique combinations of alleles, although recombination machinery was intact. While major differences between sequences without or with SHM occurred among all groups, IGHD and IGHJ allele use, CDRH3 length distribution, or generation of SHM were similar among study cohorts. Antiretroviral therapy failed to normalize IGHM biodiversity in HIV-infected individuals. All subjects had a low frequency of allelic combinations within the IGHM repertoire similar to known broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Conclusion: Polyclonal expansion would decrease overall IgM biodiversity independent of other mechanisms for development of the B cell repertoire. Applying deep sequencing as a strategy to follow development of the IgM repertoire in health and disease provides a novel molecular assessment of multiple points along the B cell differentiation pathway that is highly sensitive for detecting perturbations within the repertoire at the population level. PMID:24298273

  8. SlipChip for immunoassays in nanoliter volumes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weishan; Chen, Delai; Du, Wenbin; Nichols, Kevin P.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a SlipChip-based approach to perform bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays with multiple nanoliter-volume samples. As a potential device to analyze the output of the chemistrode, the performance of this platform was tested using low concentrations of biomolecules. Two strategies to perform the immunoassay in the SlipChip were tested: 1) a unidirectional slipping method to combine the well containing a sample with a series of wells preloaded with reagents; 2) a back-and-forth slipping method to introduce a series of reagents to a well containing the sample by reloading and slipping the well containing the reagent. The SlipChips were fabricated with hydrophilic surfaces on the interior of the wells and with hydrophobic surfaces on the face of the SlipChip to enhance filling, transferring, and maintaining aqueous solutions in shallow wells. Nanopatterning was used to increase the hydrophobic nature of the SlipChip surface. Magnetic beads containing the capture antibody were efficiently transferred between wells and washed by serial dilution. An insulin immunoenzymatic assay showed a detection of limit of ~13 pM. Forty eight droplets of nanoliter volume were analyzed in parallel, including an on-chip calibration. The design of the SlipChip is flexible to accommodate other types of immunoassays, both heterogeneous and homogeneous. This work establishes the possibility of using SlipChip-based immunoassays in small volumes for a range of possible applications, including analysis of plugs from a chemistrode, detection of molecules from single cells, and diagnostic monitoring. PMID:20334360

  9. An Immunoassay Platform Based on CMOS Hall Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut Aytur; P. Robert Beatty; Bernhard Boser; Tomohiro Ishikawa

    2002-01-01

    We describe an immunoassay utilizing standard CMOS technology. An array of Hall sensors is used to detect the magnetic beads that serve as the assay signal. Electrical and magnetic modulation is employed to improve the sensitivity of the sensors. The devices receive two post-processing steps to improve sensitivity and biocompatibility. We have fabricated prototype devices using a 0.25-µm BiCMOS process,

  10. A microfluidic chip for heterogeneous immunoassay using electrokinetical control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqing Hu; Yali Gao; Philip M. Sherman; Dongqing Li

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the development of a novel, automated, electrokinetically controlled heterogeneous immunoassay on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip. A numerical method has been developed to simulate the electrokinetically driven, time-dependent delivery processes of reagents and washing solutions within the complex microchannel network. Based on the parameters determined from the numerical simulations, fully automated on-chip experiments to detect Helicobacter pylori

  11. Flow-through amperometric immunosensor: fast ‘sandwich’ scheme immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L Ghindilis; R Krishnan; P Atanasov; E Wilkins

    1997-01-01

    A flow-through immunosensor based on a high-surface-area carbon immunoelectrode has been developed. Dispersed carbon material serves as a carrier for immobilized antibodies and at the same time as an electrode material. The ‘sandwich’ scheme of immunoassay has been used. Iodine formed as a result of the enzymatic oxidation of iodide by a peroxidase label has been detected amperometrically. The immunosensor

  12. Single Step Nanoplasmonic Immunoassay for the Measurement of Protein Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; de la Zerda, Adam; Paranjape, Amit; Awdeh, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoplasmonic biosensor for highly-sensitive, single-step detection of protein biomarkers is presented. The principle is based on the utilization of the optical scattering properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to bio-recognition molecules. The nanoplasmonic properties of the GNRs were utilized to detect proteins using near-infrared light interferometry. We show that the antibody-conjugated GNRs can specifically bind to our model analyte, Glucose Transporter-1 (Glut-1). The signal intensity of back-scattered light from the GNRs bound after incubation, correlated well to the Glut-1 concentration as per the calibration curve. The detection range using this nanoplasmonic immunoassay ranges from 10 ng/mL to 1 ug/mL for Glut-1. The minimal detectable concentration based on the lowest discernable concentration from zero is 10 ng/mL. This nanoplasmonic immunoassay can act as a simple, selective, sensitive strategy for effective disease diagnosis. It offers advantages such as wide detection range, increased speed of analysis (due to fewer incubation/washing steps), and no label development as compared to traditional immunoassay techniques. Our future goal is to incorporate this detection strategy onto a microfluidic platform to be used as a point-of-care diagnostic tool. PMID:25587399

  13. Single step nanoplasmonic immunoassay for the measurement of protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; de la Zerda, Adam; Paranjape, Amit; Awdeh, Richard M

    2013-03-01

    A nanoplasmonic biosensor for highly-sensitive, single-step detection of protein biomarkers is presented. The principle is based on the utilization of the optical scattering properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to bio-recognition molecules. The nanoplasmonic properties of the GNRs were utilized to detect proteins using near-infrared light interferometry. We show that the antibody-conjugated GNRs can specifically bind to our model analyte, Glucose Transporter-1 (Glut-1). The signal intensity of back-scattered light from the GNRs bound after incubation, correlated well to the Glut-1 concentration as per the calibration curve. The detection range using this nanoplasmonic immunoassay ranges from 10 ng/mL to 1 ug/mL for Glut-1. The minimal detectable concentration based on the lowest discernable concentration from zero is 10 ng/mL. This nanoplasmonic immunoassay can act as a simple, selective, sensitive strategy for effective disease diagnosis. It offers advantages such as wide detection range, increased speed of analysis (due to fewer incubation/washing steps), and no label development as compared to traditional immunoassay techniques. Our future goal is to incorporate this detection strategy onto a microfluidic platform to be used as a point-of-care diagnostic tool. PMID:25587399

  14. Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on electrochemical measurement of enzymatically produced polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Yu, Aimin

    2014-02-01

    A novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed based on the electrochemical measurement of polyaniline, which was catalytically produced by horseradish peroxidase-functionalized gold nanoparticle (HRP-Au NP) probe at an immunosensor. The immunosensor was prepared step-wise by first modifying the electrode with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Au NPs nanocomposite followed by the immobilization of capture antibodies on its surface. After performing a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured HRP-Au NP nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation of aniline to produce electroactive polyaniline on the immunosensor surface. The electrochemical measurement of polyaniline enabled a novel detection strategy for HRP-based immunoassay. Both the signal amplification of the HRP-Au NP nanoprobe and the electron transfer acceleration of rGO/Au NPs on the immunosensor surface greatly improved the detection sensitivity of the immunoassay method. With the use of human IgG as a model analyte, this method showed a wide linear range over 4 orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 9.7 pg/mL. In addition, the immunosensor had low cost, satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and acceptable reliability. The relatively positive potential range for the polyaniline measurement completely excluded the conventional interference from dissolved oxygen. Thus, this method provides a promising potential for practical applications. PMID:24392763

  15. Development and evaluation of a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay based on Andes hantavirus recombinant nucleoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. PADULA; C. M. ROSSI; M. O. DELLA VALLE; P. V. MARTINEZ; S. B. COLAVECCHIA; A. EDELSTEIN; S. D. L. MIGUEL; R. D. RABINOVICH; E. L. SEGURA

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) with high mortality rate has been reported in five countries in South America. Rapid accurate methods are important both for monitoring acute infections and for epidemiological studies. The Andes virus nucleoprotein amino acid sequence has a high identity percentage compared with other sequences of this region and has been chosen for the development of diagnostic reagents.

  16. COMPARISON OF SOIL PBDE LEVELS USING HRGC-HRMS AND MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are the major class of compounds used to prevent fires in furniture, textiles, and electronic equipment. Because they are structurally similar to dioxin and polychlorobiphenyl, PBDEs have been shown to be persistent environmental contaminants that can accumula...

  17. ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY WITH MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR THE DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rotavirus infections are generally recognized as a major problem in young children; however, they have also been associated with severe gastroenteritis in adults and neonates. Infections in neonates are usually asymptomatic, although the incidence of infection may be high. Adult ...

  18. Enzyme immunoassays in brown snake ( Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming: Detecting venom, antivenom and venom–antivenom complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. O’Leary; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jennifer J. Schneider; Simon G. A. Brown; Bart J. Currie

    2006-01-01

    Although a commercial snake venom detection kit (SVDK) is available to distinguish between the five major snake groups in Australia, there is no assay for quantifying venom or antivenom concentrations in envenomed patients. Serum samples were obtained from patients with brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming before and after the administration of antivenom and patients with suspected brown snake bites but

  19. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection of sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim in milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin Märtlbauer; Regine Meier; Ewald Usleber; Gerhard Terplan

    1992-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim were prepared by using bovine serum albumin conjugates of the respective substances as antigens for the immunization of rabbits. The specificity and sensitivity of these antibodies were tested by using the respective drug coupled to horseradish peroxidase as the labelled antigen in a competitive assay. The antiserum against sulfamethazine showed relative cross?reactivities

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE 2,3,7,8- CHLORINE SUBSTITUTED DIOXINS AND FURANS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assess the use of the EIA kit produced by Cape Technologies for screening or semi-quantitative analysis of samples from wood- treatment sites for polychlorinated dioxins and furans. The project officer will determine the ease-of-use and reproducibility of the kits as well as eval...

  1. [Stabilization of peroxidase conjugates used in enzyme immunoassay systems to detect Ebola and Marburg virus antigens].

    PubMed

    Pirozhkov, A P; Borisevich, I V; Snetkova, O Iu; Androshchuk, I A; Syromiatnikova, S I; Khmelev, A L; Shatokhina, I V; Kudrin, V Iu; Timofeev, M A; Pantiukhov, V B; Borisevich, S V; Markov, V I; Bondarev, V P

    2010-01-01

    The time course of changes in the activity of solutions of horseradish peroxidase conjugates with immunoglobulins against Ebola and Marburg fevers was studied in the presence of different components. The series of the conjugates of ELISA kits for the detection of Ebola and Marburg virus antigens, which were prepared on the basis of the designed stabilizing solution, preserved at less than 90% of its baseline activity during 10 months at a storage temperature of 2 to 8 degrees C. PMID:20364672

  2. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in soil samples by enzyme-linked immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Lindergard; S. E Wade; S Schaaf; R. S Barwick; H. O Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    An ELISA protocol was adapted for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil samples and the limit of detection of the test was determined. A modified indirect antigen capture ELISA protocol was developed using monoclonal antibodies against the oocyst outer wall. The accuracy of the ELISA was compared to spiked soil samples and measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity

  3. Production of antibodies and development of highly sensitive formats of enzyme immunoassay for saxitoxin analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Micheli; S. Di Stefano; D. Moscone; G. Palleschi; S. Marini; M. Coletta; R. Draisci; F. delli Quadri

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the production of antibodies against saxitoxin (STX) is described, as is the optimization and comparison of two competitive ELISA formats (direct and indirect) for the detection of this toxin. Tests were performed in a 96-well microplate using the toxin-specific polyclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory, obtained from rabbits immunized with saxitoxin-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (STX-KLH). In indirect ELISA

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for semicarbazide--the nitrofuran metabolite and food contaminant.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kevin M; Samsonova, Jeanne V; Plumpton, Laura; Elliott, Christopher T; Kennedy, D Glenn

    2007-05-29

    Semicarbazide (SEM), the marker residue for the banned nitrofuran veterinary antibiotic nitrofurazone (NFZ), has been detected regularly in foods (47% of recent nitrofuran EU Rapid Alerts involve SEM). However, the validity of SEM as a definitive marker for NFZ has been undermined by SEM arising from other sources including azodicarbonamide, a plastics blowing agent and flour treatment additive. An inexpensive screening test for SEM in food matrices is needed--all SEM testing currently uses expensive LC-MS/MS instrumentation. We now report the first production of antibodies against derivatised SEM. A novel carboxyphenyl SEM derivative was used to raise a polyclonal antibody that has been incorporated into a semi-quantitative microtitre plate ELISA, validated according to the criteria set out in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, for use with chicken muscle. The antibody is highly specific for derivatised SEM, cross-reactivity being 1.7% with NFZ and negligible with a wide range of other nitrofurans and poultry drugs. Samples are derivatised with o-nitrobenzaldehyde and simultaneously protease digested before extraction by cation exchange SPE. The ELISA has a SEM detection capability (CCbeta) of 0.25 microg kg(-1) when a threshold of 0.21 microg kg(-1) is applied to the selection of samples for confirmation (lowest observed 0.25 microg kg(-1) fortified sample, n=20), thus satisfying the EU nitrofurans' minimum required performance limit of 1 microg kg(-1). NFZ-incurred muscles (12) containing SEM at 0.5-5.0 microg kg(-1) by LC-MS/MS, all screened positive by this ELISA protocol which is also applicable to egg and chicken liver. PMID:17499072

  5. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  6. Immunoassay on Free-Standing Electrospun Dapeng Wu, Daewoo Han, and Andrew J. Steckl*

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    - mercial membranes have been widely used as bioassay substrates for DNA (Southern blotting) (1), protein (Western blotting) (2), lateral flow immunochromatographic assays, and common immunoassays (3). After 30

  7. An improved automated immunoassay for C-reactive protein on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tie Q.; Kramer, Steve; Chu, Victor P.; Hudson, Dave; Kilgore, Daniel; Salyer, Sue; Parker, Grace; Eyberger, Amy; Arentzen, Rene; Koiv, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Recent clinical data indicate that the measurement of the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) requires a higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range than most of the current methods can offer. Our goal was to develop a totally automated and highly sensitive CRP assay with an extended range on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric-immunoassay (PETIA) technology. The improved method was optimized and compared to the Binding Site's radial immunodiffusion assay using disease state specimens to minimize interference. Assay performance was assessed on the Dimension® system in a 12-instrument inter-laboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 622) was performed between the improved CRP method on the Dimension® system and the N Latex CRP mono method on the Behring Nephelometer, using a number of reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. The method was also referenced to the standard material, CRM470, provided by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The improved CRP method was linear to 265.1mg/l with a detection limit between 0.2 and 0.5mg/l. The method detects antigen excess from the upper assay limit to 2000mg/l, thereby allowing users to retest the sample with dilution. Calibration was stable for 60 days. The within-run reproducibility (CV) was less than 5.1% and total reproducibility ranged from 1.1 to 6.7% between 3.3 and 265.4mg/l CRP. Linear regression analysis of the results on the improved Dimension® method (DM) versus the Behring Nephelometer (BN) yielded the following equation: DM = 0.99 × BN ? 0.37; r = 0.992. Minimal interference was observed from sera of patients with elevated IgM, IgG and IgA. The recovery of the IFCC standard was within 100 ± 7 % across multiple lots of reagent and calibrator. The improved CRP method provided a sensitive, accurate and rapid approach to quantify CRP in serum and plasma on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system. The ability to detect antigen excess eliminated reporting falsely low results caused by the ‘prozone effect’. PMID:18924698

  8. Multicenter Analytical Evaluation of the Automated Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Cyclosporine

    PubMed Central

    Vogeser, Michael; Shipkova, Maria; Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Wallemacq, Pierre; Orth, Matthias; Widmann, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used as a posttransplantation immunosuppressant drug, and careful monitoring of CsA concentration in whole blood is essential. A new automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for CsA measurement has been assessed in a multicenter evaluation. Methods: Residual EDTA whole blood samples from patients undergoing CsA therapy after organ transplant were used in assay evaluation at 5 clinical laboratories in Europe. Experiments included imprecision according to CLSI EP5-A2 (within-run and intermediate), lower limit of quantification, linearity according to CLSI EP6-A, and recovery of commercial external quality control samples. In addition, comparisons to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in routine use at each investigational site and to commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay methods were performed. Results: Imprecision testing gave coefficients of variation of less than 9% in the 30–2000 mcg/L range for both within-run and intermediate imprecision. Lower limit of quantification of 6.8 mcg/L at one investigational site and 1.8 mcg/L at a second site at 20% coefficient of variation were observed. Linearity was measured over the concentration range 0–2000 mcg/L, yielding a deviation of less than ±12%. External quality control sample recovery by ECLIA was 93%–114% of LC-MS/MS sample recovery. Deming regression analysis of ECLIA method comparison to combined LC-MS/MS results yielded a slope of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.06] and intercept of 2.8 mcg/L (95% CI, 1.5–4.1 mcg/L). Comparison to chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85–0.89) and intercept of 1.4 mcg/L (95% CI, ?0.89 to 3.7 mcg/L); comparison to antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) and intercept of ?4.2 mcg/L (95% CI, ?7.1 to ?1.2 mcg/L). Conclusions: The data from this multicenter evaluation indicate that the new ECLIA-based cyclosporine assay is fit for its purpose, the therapeutic monitoring of CsA. PMID:24646730

  9. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine paraquat residues in milk, beef, and potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Emon, J.; Seiber, J.; Hammock, B.

    1987-09-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has included paraquat on its list of compounds to be considered for monitoring in foods. However, present methods do not easily accommodate the processing of large numbers of samples, thus limiting routine monitoring of the compound. The conventional method, based on spectrophotometry of reduced paraquat solutions, requires time-consuming sample preparation. Although the advantages of immunoassays for pesticide residue analysis have been pointed out, the reported immunoassays for paraquat have only been applied to cases of clinical poisoning or human exposure assessment. In this study, spiked milk, potato, and beef were analyzed directly, without prior cleanup, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  10. A selective defect in IgM antigen receptor synthesis and transport causes loss of cell surface IgM expression on tolerant B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, S E; Goodnow, C C

    1994-01-01

    To explore the biochemical basis for maintaining immunological tolerance by functional inactivation of self-reactive B lymphocytes, transgenic mice carrying rearranged anti-lysozyme immunoglobulin transgenes and a lysozyme transgene were used as a source of large numbers of tolerant self-reactive B cells. Antigen receptors of the IgD isotype were expressed at normal levels on tolerant B cells, contained the heterodimeric MB1/B29 signalling component of the receptor complex and were structurally indistinguishable from IgD on nontolerant B cells. In contrast, cell surface expression of IgM receptor complexes on tolerant B cells was greatly reduced, despite normal expression of mRNA encoding the receptor components. Three-fold fewer immunoreactive mu heavy chains were detectable after a short period of biosynthetic labelling and the immunoreactive mu chains produced were paired with kappa light chains and assembled normally into intact receptor complexes containing the MB1/B29 heterodimer. Nascent IgM receptor complexes nevertheless failed to be processed into an endoglycosidase H-resistant form in the tolerant B cells and thus appeared to be selectively blocked in their transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi. These findings demonstrate that intracellular trafficking of antigen receptor complexes is regulated by exposure to receptor stimuli at the cell surface causing a long-lasting decrease in surface receptor expression on tolerant B cells. Images PMID:8112296

  11. Development of a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for determining chrysoidine, a banned dye, in soybean milk film.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongtao; Liu, Jin; Song, Lijun; Shen, Yudong; Haughey, Simon A; Guo, Haoxian; Yang, Jinyi; Xu, Zhenlin; Jiang, Yueming; Sun, Yuanming

    2011-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA?was developed for the first time for the detection of chrysoidine, a dye banned in soybean milk film. Two haptens with different spacer arms were synthesized to produce antibodies. Both homologous and heterologous immunoassay formats were compared to enhance the icELISA sensitivity. The heterologous icELISA exhibited better performance, with an IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) of 0.33 ng/mL, a limit of detection (LOD, 10% inhibitory concentration) of 0.04 ng/mL, and a limit of quantitation (LOQ, 20%-80% inhibitory concentration) from 0.09 to 4.9 ng/mL. The developed icELISA was high sensitive and specific, and was applied to determine chrysoidine in fortified soybean milk film samples. The results were in good agreement with that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. PMID:21849932

  12. Multi-allergen screening immunoassay for the detection of protein markers of peanut and four tree nuts in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, S; Abbott, M; Davies, D; Cléroux, C; Delahaut, P

    2005-08-01

    A multiresidue enzyme immunoassay was developed to check for the presence of markers of peanut, hazelnut, almond, cashew and Brazil nuts in a single run. The assay was designed under the competitive indirect format and adapted for screening purposes applied to chocolate samples. The limit of detection for this assay was below 1 microg g-1 protein for each allergenic food. In most cases, the high specificity of the antibodies used allowed the identification of each particular allergenic food with no possible confusion. This assay was proven to be useful as part of an analytical procedure involving the identification of the unknown allergenic food among peanut and other tree nuts in recalled samples before the application of a quantitative technique to determine the level of cross-contamination. PMID:16147426

  13. Immunodeficiency in the chicken. II. Production of monomeric IgM following testosterone treatment or infection with Gumboro disease.

    PubMed

    Ivanyi, J

    1975-06-01

    Chickens were treated at an early embryonal age with testosterone propionate or infected neonatally with the virus producing Gumboro disease. Their sera were subsequently fractionated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and showed a complete deficiency of IgG and the presence of IgM which was eluted with the 7S protein fraction. Purified and 125-I-labelled monomeric IgM was examined by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to contain both mu and light chains, together with a chain of intermediary size, which was absent from the patterns of 19S IgM or IgG. PMID:166037

  14. Immunodeficiency in the chicken. II. Production of monomeric IgM following testosterone treatment or infection with Gumboro disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, J

    1975-01-01

    Chickens were treated at an early embryonal age with testosterone propionate or infected neonatally with the virus producing Gumboro disease. Their sera were subsequently fractionated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and showed a complete deficiency of IgG and the presence of IgM which was eluted with the 7S protein fraction. Purified and 125-I-labelled monomeric IgM was examined by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to contain both mu and light chains, together with a chain of intermediary size, which was absent from the patterns of 19S IgM or IgG. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:166037

  15. Comparison of Immunoassay and HPLC for Analyzing Fluridone Concentrations: New Applications for Immunoassay Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Netherland; David R. Honnell; Alicia G. Staddon; Kurt D. Getsinger

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used to analyze concentrations of the aquatic herbicide fluridone (l-methyl-3 phenyl-5-[-3 (trifluromethyl) phenyl]-4 (IH) pyridinone) in 488 surface water samples collected from two lakes in Michigan treated in 1997, 2 Michigan lakes treated in 1998, 1 lake in Florida treated in 1996, and a series of research

  16. Searching for Diffuse Ly? Emission in the Local IGM/CGM with HST/COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven V.; Green, J. C.; Danforth, C.; GTO, HST/COS

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has observed thousands of Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest absorbers with both the G130M grating (0< z < 0.19) and the G160M grating (0.14 < z < 0.48). In this research, we use the two-dimensional nature of the COS FUV detector to constrain the Ly? EMISSION associated with both these Ly? absorbers, AND regions of the IGM not associated with Ly? absorbers. We will divide our Ly? absorber sample based upon proximity to the closest known galaxy to differentiate emission between intergalactic (IGM) and circumgalactic (CGM) regions. We will discuss the limits of these constraints/detections in terms of both cosmological implications and from a technological standpoint (If we were to design a Ly? emission detection/mapping mission, what have we learned from HST+COS ?).

  17. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%. PMID:24725888

  18. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Lee; Jing Li Huang; Ming Fai Lui; Karolina Malecek; Yuko Ohta; Arne Mooers; Ellen Hsu

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15-200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1- D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of immunoconjugates of a human IgM and polymeric drug carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. T. Hoes; J. Grootoonk; J. Feijen; P. J. Boon; F. Kaspersen; P. Loeffen; I. Schlachter; M. Winters; E. S. Bos

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and purification of radiolabelled immunoconjugates, composed of a human IgM monoclonal antibody directed against an intracellular tumour-associated antigen and either poly (alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PGA) or poly[N5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-glutamine] (PHEG) is described. Coupling of polymers to the antibody was performed through disulfide bond formation involving a single thiol group at the C-terminus of the polymer chain and 2-pyridyldisulfide groups introduced onto

  20. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victor; Huang, Jing Li; Lui, Ming Fai; Malecek, Karolina; Ohta, Yuko; Mooers, Arne; Hsu, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15–200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1-D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer loci, and characterized the IgH isotypes for organization, functionality, and the somatic diversification mechanisms that act upon them. Gene numbers differ slightly between individuals (~15), but five active IgM subclasses are always present. Each gene undergoes rearrangement that is strictly confined within the minilocus; in B cells there is no interaction between adjacent loci located ?120 kb apart. Without combinatorial events, the shark IgM H chain repertoire is based on junctional diversity and, subsequently, somatic hypermutation. We suggest that the significant contribution by junctional diversification reflects the selected novelty introduced by RAG in the early vertebrate ancestor, whereas combinatorial diversity coevolved with the complex translocon organization. Moreover, unlike other cartilaginous fishes, there are no germline-joined VDJ at any nurse shark ? locus, and we suggest that such genes, when functional, are species-specific and may have specialized roles. With an entire complement of IgM genes available for the first time, phylogenetic analyses were performed to examine how the multiple Ig loci evolved. We found that all domains changed at comparable rates, but VH appears to be under strong positive selection for increased amino acid sequence diversity, and surprisingly, so does C?2. PMID:18490746

  1. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul U. Cameron; Penelope Jones; Malgorzata Gorniak; Kate Dunster; Eldho Paul; Sharon Lewin; Ian Woolley; Denis Spelman

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited

  2. Detection of Anthrax Toxin by an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay Using Europium Nanoparticles?

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shixing; Moayeri, Mahtab; Chen, Zhaochun; Harma, Harri; Zhao, Jiangqin; Hu, Haijing; Purcell, Robert H.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Hewlett, Indira K.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for the sensitive detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA). The ENIA exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.01 to 100 ng/ml and was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). False-positive results were not observed with serum samples from healthy adults, mouse plasma without PA, or plasma samples collected from mice injected with anthrax lethal factor or edema factor alone. For the detection of plasma samples spiked with PA, the detection sensitivities for ENIA and ELISA were 100% (11/11 samples) and 36.4% (4/11 samples), respectively. The assay exhibited a linear but qualitative correlation between the PA injected and the PA detected in murine blood (r = 0.97731; P < 0.0001). Anthrax PA was also detected in the circulation of mice infected with spores from a toxigenic Sterne-like strain of Bacillus anthracis, but only in the later stages of infection. These results indicate that the universal labeling technology based on europium nanoparticles and its application may provide a rapid and sensitive testing platform for clinical diagnosis and laboratory research. PMID:19129473

  3. Development of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay for tetrodotoxin detetcion based on monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sumei; Chen, Qing-Ai; Zhang, Yuming; Wang, Rongzhi; Jin, Ni; Pang, Jie; Wang, Shihua

    2015-09-15

    A monoclonal hybridoma cell named 5B9 against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was obtained after fusion of myeloma SP2/0 cells with spleen cells isolated from the immunized Balb/c mice. The 5B9 monoclonal antibody (McAb) with high affinity (about 2.55×10(9)) is specific to TTX, and this McAb belongs to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold immunoassay were established based on this McAb. The linear range of ELISA to detect TTX was 5-500ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 4.44ng/mL. The average CV of intra- and inter-assay was less than 8%, with the samples recovery range of 70.93-99.99%. A competitive format colloidal gold strip was developed for detection of TTX in real samples, and the LOD for TTX is 20ng/mL, and the assay time of the qualitative test can be finished in less than 10min without any equipment. The result from test strip revealed that the test strip has a good agreement with those obtained from ELISA. PMID:25913446

  4. Design and development of heterologous competitive immunoassays for the determination of boscalid residues.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Marzo, Javier; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2014-07-21

    Boscalid is a modern agrochemical belonging to the so-called chemical class of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides. With the aim of developing rapid analytical screening methods for this relevant compound, we herein report the synthesis of new boscalid mimics and the study of their suitability for the production of polyclonal antibodies. Aliphatic spacer arms equivalent in length and composition were tethered at two different aromatic rings of the target molecular structure. These haptens, besides being used for immunization, were employed in the development of heterologous competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) in order to improve assay detectability. Direct and indirect immunoassays were tailored and applied to the determination of samples with incurred boscalid residues. The assays were characterized in terms of sensitivity, specificity, trueness, and precision. Limit of quantification was established at 5 ?g kg(-1), coefficients of variation were lower than 20%, and recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 90 to 137%. Finally, ELISA performance was evaluated by Deming regression analysis with tomato and cucumber samples, selecting ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the reference method. The results showed that the proposed cELISAs are useful for the routine determination of boscalid fungicides in foods with high-sample throughput and affordable cost. PMID:24893153

  5. Immunoassay of red dyes based on the monoclonal antibody of ?-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong H; Zhang, Hui C; Xu, Rui T; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian P

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multi-analyte immunoassay for the determination of eight red dyes in food samples. Two dye intermediates (2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and 1-amino-2-naphthol) were used as the haptens to produce the monoclonal antibodies. The obtained monoclonal antibodies recognized Sudan 1-4, Para red, Sudan red G, Sudan red B and Acid orange II simultaneously. After evaluation of different antibody/coating antigen combinations, a heterologous indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed to determine the eight red dyes in food samples (chili oil, chili powder, tomato sauce, hotpot seasoning). The crossreactivities to the eight analytes were in the range of 61%-79% (with ?-naphthol as 100%), and the limits of detection were in the range of 1.3-1.9 ng/mL. The recoveries of the eight analytes from the fortified blank samples were in the range of 84.2%-115% with coefficients of variation lower than 18.3%. Therefore, this method could be used as a rapid and simple tool to detect the residues of the eight red dyes in foods. PMID:26079338

  6. A rapid sandwich immunoassay for human fetuin A using agarose-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2015-07-01

    A rapid sandwich immunoassay (IA) with enhanced signal response for human fetuin A (HFA) was developed by modifying the surface of a KOH-treated polystyrene microtiter plate (MTP) with agarose and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The agarose-APTES complex binds covalently to the hydroxyl moiety of the MTP plate to serve as a binding platform for bioconjugation of EDC-activated anti-HFA antibody (Ab) via carbodiimide coupling. The one-step kinetics-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) enabled the detection of HFA in 30min with a limit of detection (LOD) and a linear range of 0.02ngmL(-1) and 1-243ngmL(-1), respectively. It detected HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum, and HFA in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma of patients with high precision similar to that of conventional ELISA. The anti-HFA Ab-bound agarose-functionalized MTPs retained their functional activity after 6 weeks of storage in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4 at 4°C. PMID:26088779

  7. Nanoporous Gold as a Solid Support for Protein Immobilization for the Development of Immunoassays, and for Biomolecular Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Binod Prasad

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is a versatile material of high surface area to volume ratio that can be readily modified with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols to which biomolecules can be linked. NPG presents new opportunities for the development of immunoassays, and for the development of carbohydrate based assays. This thesis explores the use of NPG as a support for self-assembled monolayers, their linkage to antibody-enzyme conjugates for immunoassay development, and for the study and application of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Direct kinetic electrochemical immunoassays were developed on NPG for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The decrease in enzymatic conversion of p-aminophenylphosphate to p-aminophenol, by alkaline phosphatase conjugated to an antibody, due to steric hindrance caused by the presence of antigen on antibody, was observed as a drop in peak current in square-wave voltammetry. Detection limit of these assays was 0.075 ng mL -1 and 0.015 ng mL-1 for PSA and CEA, respectively. Similarly, the linear range of determination of these biomarkers extended up to 30 ng mL-1 and 10 ng mL-1 for PSA and CEA, respectively. Minimal interference was observed using newborn calf serum as a substitute for the human serum matrix. A rapid and sensitive enzyme linked lectinsorbant assay was also developed for the study of glycoprotein-lectin interactions on the NPG surface. Self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on NPG were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Similarly, the applicability of this surface for the formation of carbohydrate monolayers and its application for lectin carbohydrate interactions was also studied. Pure and mixed SAMs of 8-mercaptooctyl ?-D-mannopyranoside (?Man-C8-SH) and ?-D-Gal-(1?4)-?-D-Gal-(1?)-D-Glc-1-O-mercaptooctane (Gb3-C8-SH) with alkanethiols having varying tail groups were prepared. Binding affinity and binding kinetics of concanavalin A to mannoside and soybean agglutinin to galactose in these SAMs were found to be different on NPG than on flat polycrystalline gold, and was also sensitive to the chemical composition of the modified surfaces.

  8. Abnormalities in IgA and IgM are associated with treatment-resistant ITP.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Jon E; Campigotto, Federico; Neuberg, Donna; Bussel, James B

    2012-05-24

    We hypothesized that immune dysregulation, as represented by abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, may increase immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) severity. A cross-sectional analysis was performed encompassing patients with ITP seen at the New York Presbyterian Platelet Disorder Center in the past 10 years. The subjects' Ig levels were measured, and subjects were analyzed for differences in treatment response. Subjects with an IgA level greater than median had a significantly increased chance of failing to respond to standard treatment (steroids, intravenous Ig, and intravenous anti-D) than did subjects with an IgA level lower than median (37 of 271, 14%; vs 22 of 281, 8%; P = .03) and an increased risk for bleeding (36 of 378, 10%; vs 19 of 386, 5%; P = .02). Subjects with an IgM less than 56 (lower limit of normal) failed to respond to standard treatment more often than patients with a normal IgM (12 of 67, 18%; vs 44 of 467, 9%; P = .05) with a trend toward worsened response to splenectomy (3 of 18, 17%; vs 36 of 86, 42%; P = .06). These observations suggest that immune dysregulation, as represented by elevations in IgA or decreased levels of IgM, are associated with ITP that is more resistant to treatment. PMID:22490683

  9. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  10. Constitutive activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase induces the formation of autoreactive IgM plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Rogier; Kil, Laurens; Flierman, Roelof; van der Zee, Marten; Dingjan, Gemma M; Middendorp, Sabine; Maas, Alex; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2010-09-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signals provide the basis for B-cell differentiation in the BM and subsequently into follicular, marginal zone, or B-1 B-cell subsets. We have previously shown that B-cell-specific expression of the constitutive active E41K mutant of the BCR-associated molecule Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) leads to an almost complete deletion of immature B cells in the BM. Here, we report that low-level expression of the E41K or E41K-Y223F Btk mutants was associated with reduced follicular B-cell numbers and significantly increased proportions of B-1 cells in the spleen. Crosses with 3-83 mu delta and VH81X BCR Tg mice showed that constitutive active Btk expression did not change follicular, marginal zone, or B-1 B-cell fate choice, but resulted in selective expansion or survival of B-1 cells. Residual B cells were hyperresponsive and manifested sustained Ca(2+) mobilization. They were spontaneously driven into germinal center-independent plasma cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased numbers of IgM(+) plasma cells in spleen and BM and significantly elevated serum IgM. Because anti-nucleosome autoantibodies and glomerular IgM deposition were present, we conclude that constitutive Btk activation causes defective B-cell tolerance, emphasizing that Btk signals are essential for appropriate regulation of B-cell activation. PMID:20623551

  11. Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive Immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive of immunoassay. We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenox sequences from immunized alpaca and phage display technology for antibody selection. Since the first

  12. PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    Grob, David

    1946-01-01

    1. The literature on conditions affecting the activity of proteolytic enzymes has been reviewed. 2. Experimental data on the control of the activity of trypsin, leucoprotease, papain, serum antiprotease, leucopeptidase, and pancreatic peptidase have been presented. These data indicate that: (a) The polymorphonuclearleucocytes of the cat contain abundant proteinase and peptidase active at neutral pH; those of the rabbit lack proteinase active at neutral pH. (b) Reducing agents, including several biologically important thiol-sulfhydryl compounds and ascorbic acid, inhibit the activity of leucoprotease and trypsin. For each reductant the degree of inhibition is proportional to the reducing capacity of the medium. (c) p-Aminobenzoic acid, sulfonamides (especially sulfathiazole), and many diphenyl sulfones inhibit the activity of leucoprotease. (d) Serum, plasma, several heavy metals, ammonium salts, asparagine, thiourea, heparin, glutamic acid, tyrothricin, calcium chloride, and bile salts and bile acids also inhibit the activity of leucoprotease, and in most cases of trypsin too. (e) Preparations of tryptic digests of proteins, and egg white trypsin inhibitor, inhibit trypsin to a much greater degree than leucoprotease. (f) Mild oxidizing agents increase the activity of leucoprotease and trypsin. (g) Oxidizing agents and some inhibitors of sulfhydryl groups inhibit the antiproteolytic activity of the serum. It is suggested that serum antiprotease may consist (chiefly) of reducing agents, including thiol-sulfhydryl peptides which exert their antiproteolytic activity by virtue of the presence of sulfhydryl groups. (h) The antiproteolytic activity of the serum is progressively weakened by exposure to a hydrogen ion concentration below pH 6.5 or above pH 9.7. Because of this the pH optima of leucoprotease and trypsin are shifted in the presence of serum from pH of 7 and 8 to pH of 6 to 6.5, and the range of activity of these enzymes is slightly widened, in both acid and alkaline reactions. (i) Reducing agents increase the activity of leucopeptidase and pancreatic peptidase. Serum, sulfathiazole, and thiourea have little or no effect. 3. The significance of the oxidation-reduction system in the control of the activity of leucoprotease, trypsin, serum antiprotease, leucopeptidase, and pancreatic peptidase has been emphasized. PMID:19873458

  13. Enzyme immunosensing of pepsinogens 1 and 2 by scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Yasukawa; Yu Hirano; Naomi Motochi; Hitoshi Shiku; Tomokazu Matsue

    2007-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was applied to a dual enzyme immunoassay for the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1) and pepsinogen 2 (PG2). Sandwich-type immunocomplexes labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were constructed on microspots consisting of anti-PG1 IgG antibody and anti-PG2 IgG antibody. These microspots were fabricated on a hydrophobic glass substrate using a capillary microspotting technique. In the presence of

  14. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Willison; C. P. O'Leary; J. Veitch; L. D. Blumhardt; M. Busby; M. Donaghy; P. Fuhr; H. Ford; A. Hahn; S. Renaud; H. A. Katifi; S. Ponsford; M. Reuber; A. Steck; I. Sutton; W. Schady; P. K. Thomas; A. J. Thompson; J.-M. Vallat; J. Winer

    2001-01-01

    Summary The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a para- proteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM anti- bodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (?2-8)NeuAc(?2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl

  15. Target-induced displacement reaction accompanying cargo release from magnetic mesoporous silica nanocontainers for fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Niessner, Reinhard; Li, Peiwu; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-11-01

    A new fluorescence immunoassay strategy based on a target-induced displacement reaction with cargo release from protein-gated carbohydrate-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) was developed for sensitive detection of small molecular mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, AFB1 used in this case). To construct such an assay system, MMSN was initially functionalized with mannose-terminated silanes, then capped with biotinylated concanavalin A (Con A) entrapped rhodamine B (RB) within the pores through the carbohydrate-protein interaction, and then biotinylated monoclonal anti-AFB1 capture antibody was conjugated to Con A-functionalized MMSN by the streptavidin-biotin chemistry. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) heavily functionalized with invertase and bovine serum albumin-AFB1 conjugate were utilized as the trace tag. With AFB1 introduction, a competitive immunoreaction for the immobilized anti-AFB1 antibody on the MMSN was started between target analyte and the labeled AFB1 on the AuNP. Accompanied by AuNP, the carried invertase hydrolyzed sucrose in glucose and fructose. The generated glucose competed with the mannose for Con A and displaced the Con A-antibody complex from the MMSN, resulting in the opening of molecular gates owing to the uncapping of MMSN, thereby the entrapped RB could release from the pores. The released RB could be quantitatively determined by a fluorometer. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity decreased with the increasing AFB1 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 8 pg mL(-1) at the 3sblank criterion. Intra- and interbatch assay precisions were lower than 9 and 9.5% (CV), respectively. The method featured unbiased identification of negative (blank) and positive samples. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of naturally contaminated peanut samples between the fluorescence immunoassay and a commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. PMID:24070267

  16. Multiple signal amplified electrochemiluminescent immunoassay for hg(2+) using graphene-coupled quantum dots and gold nanoparticles-labeled horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fudong; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Kang; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2015-04-21

    A multiple signal amplification strategy was designed for an ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay for Hg(2+). This strategy was achieved using graphene conjugated with a large number of CdSe quantum dots to enhance the basal signal and enormous horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to consume the coreactant H2O2 generated in situ. The immunosensor was constructed by immobilization of coating antigen on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-graphene-CdSe composites (PDDA-GN-CdSe), and a strong electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal was obtained. When the immunosensor was immersed in antibody-AuNPs-HRP composites, the ECL signal greatly decreased, which was ascribed to the bound enzyme on the electrode surface. The self-produced coreactant H2O2 was consumed by o-phenylenediamine in the presence of enzyme, effectively decreasing the ECL intensity from the quantum dots. The Hg(2+) in solution and the corresponding coating antigen competed for the limited antibody, and thus, the ECL intensity was linearly dependent on the logarithm of the mercury(II) concentration from 0.2 to 1000 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.06 ng mL(-1). The immunoassay exhibited good stability and accuracy and acceptable reproducibility, indicating that it provides a promising approach for the detection of trace mercury and other small molecular compounds in environmental samples. PMID:25799039

  17. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Hervé; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michèle; Créminon, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 103 and 103 CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

  18. Development of competitive immunoassays to hydroxyl containing fungicide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Jarvis, Shila; Maddison, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies and the development of competitive immunoassays to pesticide metabolites of the fungicides imazalil, carbendazim and thiabendazole. The metabolite specific hydroxyl residues were used as the reactive group with which to link the metabolite to the carrier proteins Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). In each case immune responses in mice were raised and monoclonal antibodies were produced. Antibodies were developed into competitive ELISAs to the appropriate metabolite. The antibody raised to a metabolite of imazalil was optimised into a competitive ELISA format which had an assay IC50 of 7.5 ?g/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 ?g/L. A single antibody isolated against the metabolite of carbendazim had assay IC50s of 3.2 and 2.7 ?g/L for the metabolites of carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively with an LOD of 0.38 ?g/L for both. These sensitive immunoassays may have application in the monitoring of human exposure to these fungicide residues either by occupational or non-occupational routes. PMID:21728812

  19. Sensitive Immunoassays of Nitrated Fibrinogen in Human Biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Qian, Weijun; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Smith, Richard D.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Three new sandwich immunoassays for detection of nitrated biomarker have been established with potential applications in biomedical studies and clinical practice. In this study, nitrated human fibrinogen, a potential oxidative stress biomarker for several pathologies, was chosen as the target. To improve the sensitivity and overcome the interference caused by the complexity of human biofluids, we developed three sandwich strategies using various combinations of primary antibody and secondary antibody. All three strategies demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity towards nitrated forms of fibrinogen in buffer, but their performances were dramatically reduced when tested with human plasma and serum samples. Systematically optimizations were carried out to investigate the effects of numerous factors, including sampling, coating, blocking, and immunoreactions. Our final optimization results indicate that two of these strategies retain sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for use as assays in human physiological samples. Specifically, detection limits reached the pM level and the linear response ranges were up to nM level with a correlation coefficient > 0.99. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of using an electrochemical immunoassay for a nitrated biomarker in a physiological fluid. This novel approach provides a rapid, sensitive, selective, cost efficient and robust bioassay for detection of oxidative stress in pathology and for clinical applications. Moreover, the sandwich strategies developed in this paper can be readily used to establish effective methods targeting other nitration biomarkers.

  20. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  1. Heterophilic antibodies as a source of error in immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, L.; Witkin, M.; Shuler, S.; Neely, H.; Gilbert, S.

    1985-05-01

    Antibodies directed against IgG used in an immunoassay, when present in patient serum, may lead to erroneous estimates of analyte by combining with the primary antibody and effectively reducing its concentration. In two patients with anti-rabbit IgG the authors obtained apparently elevated TSH, LH, and FSH estimates using competitive, second antibody kits Dilutional parallelism could not be demonstrated using these kits. Normal TSH estimates were obtained using one of several IRMAs and a competitive assay which included rabbit IgG in the buffer. Normal LH and FSH estimates (including dilutional parallelism) were obtained using competitive assay kits which included rabbit IgG in the buffer. The authors were not able to repair the antibody-limited kits by adding rabbit IgG, as the second antibody concentration was inadequate to precipitate the added IgG Heterophilic antibody directed against the assay antibody presents a significant potential problem in immunoassay. This problem is most pronounced in antibody limited systems and may be avoided by the addition of same-species IgG. The laboratory user may not be able to make this addition unless the separation step is reoptomized. Antibody excess (IRMA) systems are effected if the offending antibody is present in concentrations sufficient to saturate the extracting antibody. Practically, a heterophilic antibody must be suspected by demonstrating nonparallelism. This potential problem should be more widely appreciated.

  2. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

  3. BIOCHEMISTRY: Remote Enzyme Microsurgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J. Martin Bollinger (Pennsylvania State University; Department of Chemistry)

    2010-03-12

    Enzymes enhance the rate of chemical reactions. Useful electrophiles for use in these reactions are few in the standard amino acid building blocks of enzymes. This perspective discusses "enzyme microsurgery" for construction of an electrophile.

  4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Contain Significantly Less IgM against Mono-Methylated Lysine than Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1–19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31–19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31–19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31–19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31–19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31–19 (H31–19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ?-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31–19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions. PMID:23874652

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  6. Influence of oligoclonal IgM specificity in multiple sclerosis disease course.

    PubMed

    Villar, Lm; García-Barragán, N; Espiño, M; Roldán, E; Sádaba, Mc; Gómez-Rial, J; González-Porqué, P; Alvarez-Cermeño, Jc

    2008-03-01

    Oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB) against myelin lipids predict an aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) course. However, the clinical significance of OCMB without lipid specificity, present in other MS patients, remains unknown. We describe here a characterization of these antibodies and study their role in MS progression. Fifty-four MS patients showing CSF-restricted OCMB were included in this study at disease onset and followed-up during 61.1 +/- 2.7 months. The specificity of OCMB and the CSF B-cell profile were investigated. A second CSF IgM study was performed in a group of eight patients. Thirty-eight patients showed OCMB against myelin lipids (M+L+) and other sixteen had OCMB lacking this specificity (M+L-). The CD5+ B cell subpopulation, responsible for most persistent IgM responses, was considerably higher in M+L+ than in M+L- patients (3.3 +/- 0.6% versus 0.8 +/- 0.2, P = 0.009). In addition, M+L+ bands persisted during disease course, while M+L- disappeared during follow-up. M+L+ patients suffered more relapses (4.2 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.3, P = 0.002) and reached higher disability (EDSS score of 2.2 +/- 0.2 versus 1.2 +/- 0.2, P = 0.02) than M+L- group. These data corroborate that anti-lipid OCMB associate with an aggressive MS course and show that OCMB that do not recognize myelin lipids represent a transient immune response related to a more benign disease course. PMID:17942517

  7. How to Search for Islands of Neutral Hydrogen in the z ~ 5.5 IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Observations of the Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest may allow reionization to complete as late as z ~ 5.5, provided the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficiently inhomogeneous at these redshifts. In this case, significantly neutral islands may remain among highly ionized gas with the ionized regions allowing some transmission through the Ly? forest. This possibility has the important virtue that it is eminently testable with existing Ly? forest data. In particular, we describe three observable signatures of significantly neutral gas in the z ~ 5.5 IGM. We use mock quasar spectra produced from numerical simulations of reionization to develop these tests. First, we quantify how the abundance and length of absorbed regions in the forest increase with the volume-averaged neutral fraction in our reionization model. Second, we consider stacking the transmission profile around highly absorbed regions in the forest. If and only if there is significantly neutral gas in the IGM, absorption in the damping wing of the Ly? line will cause the transmission to recover slowly as one moves from absorbed to transmitted portions of the spectrum. Third, the deuterium Ly? line should imprint a small but distinctive absorption feature slightly blueward of absorbed neutral regions in the Ly? forest. We show that these tests can be carried out with existing Keck HIRES spectra at z ~ 5.5, with the damping wing being observable for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.05 and the deuterium feature observable with additional high-resolution spectra for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.2.

  8. Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

  9. Quantum Dots as Reporters in Multiplexed Immunoassays for Biomarkers of Exposure to Agrochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, M.; Dosev, D.; Davies, A. E.; Gee, S. J.; Kennedy, I. M.; Hammock, B. D.

    2008-01-01

    The application of quantum dots (QDs) as labels in immunoassay microarrays for the multiplex detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) and atrazine-mercapturate (AM) has been demonstrated. PBA and AM are biomarkers of exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and to the herbicide atrazine, respectively. Microarrays were fabricated by microcontact printing of the coating antigens in line patterns onto glass substrates. Competitive immunoassays were successfully performed using QDs (QD560 and QD620) as reporters. The multiplexed immunoassays were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The application of QD fluorophores facilitates multiplex assays and therefore can contribute to enhanced throughput in biomonitoring. PMID:19079795

  10. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wattal, C; Malla, N; Khan, I A; Agarwal, S C

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done for the detection of immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) antibodies to Echinococcus granulosus in surgically proved cases of hydatidosis, especially pulmonary hydatidosis, by use of human hydatid cyst fluid antigen and soluble scolex antigen. This assay was compared with the following standardized techniques: the indirect hemagglutination test, the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and Casoni's intradermal test. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with either of the antigens (human hydatid cyst fluid or soluble scolex antigen), was more sensitive and specific than the other techniques in diagnosing cases of hydatidosis, especially hydatid disease of the lung. Images PMID:3522626

  11. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Wattal, C; Malla, N; Khan, I A; Agarwal, S C

    1986-07-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done for the detection of immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) antibodies to Echinococcus granulosus in surgically proved cases of hydatidosis, especially pulmonary hydatidosis, by use of human hydatid cyst fluid antigen and soluble scolex antigen. This assay was compared with the following standardized techniques: the indirect hemagglutination test, the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and Casoni's intradermal test. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with either of the antigens (human hydatid cyst fluid or soluble scolex antigen), was more sensitive and specific than the other techniques in diagnosing cases of hydatidosis, especially hydatid disease of the lung. PMID:3522626

  12. Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry · All organisms convert small organic compounds, of which there are more than 1000, are catalyzed by enzymes. Glucose (C6) Pentose (C5) Triose (C3) Pyruvate Complete Metabolic Network TOP #12;#12;Enzymes · Enzymes are large proteins that all organisms synthesize

  13. Immunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins by moving magnetic particles in a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps. PMID:25460894

  14. One-step homogeneous immunoassay for small analytes.

    PubMed

    Pulli, Timo; Höyhtyä, Matti; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina

    2005-04-15

    We have developed a one-step, homogeneous noncompetitive immunoassay for small analytes using recombinant antibodies and morphine as the model analyte. A highly specific antibody against the immune complex (IC) formed between an anti-morphine antibody and morphine was selected from a naive scFv phage display library. The in vitro phage library selection procedure avoids the difficulties associated with the production of anti-IC antibodies by animal immunization. The anti-morphine and the anti-IC antibodies were labeled with a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) fluorophores. In the FRET assay the labeled antibodies were incubated with saliva samples spiked with morphine, codeine, or heroin. Within 2 min, 5 ng/mL morphine, which is clearly under the recommended cutoff level, was detected without cross-reactivity to codeine or heroin. This assay principle is also widely applicable to other small analytes. PMID:15828804

  15. A highly sensitive caffeine immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, José João; Weller, Michael G; Panne, Ulrich; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2010-04-01

    A new immunoassay has been developed based on a commercially available anti-caffeine monoclonal antibody and a de novo synthesized tracer, using horseradish peroxidase and UV-visible detection. Caffeine, which is frequently found in surface waters, can be quantified with a relative error lower than 20% for concentrations above 0.025 microg L(-1) (limit of quantitation, direct analysis). The limit of detection is 0.001 microg L(-1) and can be reduced by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Moreover, with minor adaptations, the assay can be used to quantify caffeine in several beverages, shampoo, and caffeine tablets. The results obtained by ELISA correlate well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the tested matrices. Several surface waters from Berlin were analysed and all tested positive for caffeine, with concentrations higher than 0.030 microg L(-1). In one run 66 samples can be analysed within 2 h. PMID:20155491

  16. Molecular interactions between human IgG, IgM rheumatoid factor and streptococcal IgG Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A K; Gharavi, A E; Christensen, P

    1988-01-01

    Group A streptococci type M15 were previously shown to bind both human IgG via the Fc component and a purified monoclonal IgM kappa rheumatoid factor (IgM RF). Using 125I-labelled IgG and 125I-labelled IgM RF, the present study gave association constants of 2.2 x 10(7) and 2.9 x 10(8) M-1, respectively. The binding of 125I-IgG to the streptococci was inhibited by unlabelled IgG, IgG Fc and fragment D of staphylococcal protein A but not by the IgM RF or F(ab')2 of anti-idiotype antibodies to RF (anti-Id RF). Inversely, unlabelled IgM RF and anti-Id RF inhibited the binding of 125I-IgM RF markedly and unlabelled human IgG and IgG Fc only slightly or moderately, respectively. Thus, group A streptococci type M15 showed different binding sites for IgG Fc and the antibody combining sites of a human monoclonal RF. The findings were still more complex on a background of previous reports showing that streptococcal IgG Fc receptors and RFs bind to the same amino acids on the Fc molecule. This complex pattern may play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3286523

  17. Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies1[S

    PubMed Central

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A.; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lang, Irene M.; Binder, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA+ MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE+ MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

  18. Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jason S.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2010-01-01

    Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers. Luminex MagPlex microspheres are encoded with the same dyes as standard xMAP microspheres, but have superparamagnetic properties to aid in preparation of samples in complex matrices. In this work, we present results demonstrating use of MagPlex for sample preparation and identification of bacteria and a toxin spiked into a variety of food samples. Fluorescence-coded MagPlex microsphere sets coated with antibodies for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were used to capture these bacteria and toxin from spiked foodstuffs and then evaluated by the Luminex system in a multiplex format; spiked foods included apple juice, green pepper, tomato, ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, milk, lettuce, spinach, and chicken washes. Although MagPlex microspheres facilitated recovery of the microspheres and targets from the complex matrices, assay sensitivity was sometimes inhibited by up to one to three orders of magnitude; for example the detection limits E. coli spiked into apple juice or milk increased 100-fold, from 1000 to 100,000 cfu/mL. Thus, while the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the Luminex MagPlex microspheres allow for rapid, multiplexed testing for bacterial contamination in typically problematic food matrices, our data demonstrate that achieving desired limits of detection is still a challenge. PMID:20953301

  19. The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Suzuki, Yo; Hanly, Timothy J.; Murao, Ayako; Roth, Frederick P.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Being a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides numerous advantages for expression and functional characterization of proteins from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast as a host have been hampered by the lack of tools to engineer strains expressing a large number of genetic components. In addition to inserting multiple genes, it is often desirable to knock out or replace multiple endogenous genes that might interfere with the processes studied. Here, we describe the “insertion Green Monster” (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes into the yeast genome in a rapid and reproducible manner and permit simultaneous replacement of selected yeast genes. As a proof of principle, we have used the iGM method to replace components of the yeast pathway for methionine sulfoxide reduction with genes encoding the human selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery and generated a single yeast strain carrying 11 exogenous components of the selenoprotein biosynthetic pathway in precisely engineered loci. PMID:24776987

  20. Gravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Guéguinou, Nathan; Schenten, Véronique; Bascove, Matthieu; Koch, Guillemette Gauquelin; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2013-01-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is affected when animal development occurs onboard a space station. To answer this question, embryos of the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl, were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) before the initiation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression. Thus, antibody synthesis began in space. On landing, we determined the effects of spaceflight on P. waltl development and IgM heavy-chain transcription. Results were compared with those obtained using embryos that developed on Earth. We find that IgM heavy-chain transcription is doubled at landing and that spaceflight does not affect P. waltl development and does not induce inflammation. We also recreated the environmental modifications encountered by the embryos during their development onboard the ISS. This strategy allowed us to demonstrate that gravity change is the factor responsible for antibody heavy-chain transcription modifications that are associated with NF-?B mRNA level variations. Taken together, and given that the larvae were not immunized, these data suggest a modification of lymphopoiesis when gravity changes occur during ontogeny. PMID:22993194

  1. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

  2. Detecting benzodiazepines: immunoassays compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Rexin, D A; Herold, D A

    1994-03-01

    We tested 231 urine samples by six immunoassay methods--EMIT d.a.u., EMIT II, Roche Abuscreen Online, Abbott TDx, Diagnostic Products Corp. (DPC) double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA), and Biosite Triage--and by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine how the immunoassays performed on samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use (n = 100) and in random urine drug screening (n = 131). In general, all of the assays were successful in detecting oxazepam and related metabolites, even at concentrations below the stated cutoffs. However, the negative predictive value of benzodiazepine immunoassays for samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use ranged from 86% to 96%. A primary difference between the test kits was the ability of DPC RIA and Triage to detect lorazepam when other assays did not. Contrary to previous reports, pretreatment of specimens with glucuronidase was not necessary to detect oxazepam-related metabolites with these immunoassays. PMID:8131270

  3. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  4. Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D-dimer

    E-print Network

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Small unilamellar liposomes comprised functionalized with antibodies. The liposomes were conjugated with thousands of fluorescein molecules and 10

  5. Development of an integrated capillary valve-based preconcentrator and surface-based immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Liu, Vincent Hok

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of integrated preconcentrator and immunoassay was developed. A novel, self-aligned method for patterning Nafion resin was developed and applied to create a preconcentrator. In a parallel effort, a surface-based ...

  6. Encapsulation of enzymes and cells in sol-gel matrices for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anup K.; Gupta, Alok; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred; Bhatia, Rimple B.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. J.

    1999-12-01

    Porous silicate materials made by low temperature sol-gel process are promising host matrices for encapsulation of biomolecules. Their mechanical strength, chemical inertness, hydrophilic nature, and above all, their optical transparency makes them an exciting platform for development of biosensors. To date, researchers have focused on sol-gel routes using alkoxides for encapsulation of biomolecules. However, formation of alcohol as a byproduct is an undesired complication as it can have detrimental effect on the activity of entrapped biomolecules. We have developed a novel sol-gel process to encapsulate biological molecules (such as enzymes, antibodies and cells) that uses neutral pH, room temperature, and does not generate alcohol as a byproduct. The process uses sodium silicate as precursor and is carried out in two steps--preparation of a low pH silicate sol followed by gelation at neutral pH in a buffer containing biomolecules. We developed a novel homogeneous immunoassay for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and have encapsulated the immunoassay reagents in sol-gel matrices to product dispersible biosensors for the detection of TNT. Using the sol-gel doped with immunoassay reagents, we can detect TNT at low ppm levels. We also report encapsulation of E. Coli cells expressing the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase on the cell surface in sol-gel matrices. The cell- doped sol-gel material can be used to develop biosensors for detection of organophosphates.

  7. High selective and sensitive capillary electrophoresis-based electrochemical immunoassay enhanced by gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Li, Xiaolin; Ge, Anqing; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Xuemei; Li, Xuemei

    2013-03-15

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based electrochemical (EC) immunoassay (IA) enhanced by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed for the determination of shellfish toxins. After competitive immunoreaction between shellfish toxin antigen (Ag), horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antigen (Ag*), and limited antibody (Ab), the immune sample was introduced into capillary and conjugated with AuNPs. The presence of AuNPs modifies the mobilities of analytes and improves separation resolution between analytes. Furthermore, the AuNPs were used as multianalyte carriers of the excess signaling Ag* and the bound enzyme-labeled complex (Ag*-Ab) to achieve an amplification of EC signal. Enhanced resolution and sensitivity were obtained by using bioconjugates featuring HRP labels linked to AuNPs. The four shellfish toxins were baseline separated by using AuNPs. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the migration time were 1.3-3.5% for intraday and 3.1-4.6% for interday, respectively. The RSDs of the peak area were 2.8-4.6% for intraday and 4.1-6.9% for interday, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range of 3.1-36.7 ng/L. The enhanced CE based EC-IA with AuNPs labels was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of four shellfish toxins in shellfish samples. With high resolving power and sensitivity, the proposed method has shown great potential to become an attractively alternative method for simultaneous determination of diverse red tide poisons in shellfish samples. PMID:23062557

  8. Insolubilization process increases enzyme stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Lyn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Enzymes complexed with polymeric matrices contain properties suggesting application to enzyme-controlled reactions. Stability of insolubilized enzyme derivatives is markedly greater than that of soluble enzymes and physical form of insolubilized enzymes is useful in column and batch processes.

  9. Competitive adsorption-desorption of IgM monomers-dimers on silica and modified silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suvajyoti; Wayment, Joshua; Rastogi, Vinayak; Li, Mingdong; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2013-07-15

    Understanding competitive adsorption-desorption of proteins onto surfaces is an important area of research in food processing and biomedical engineering. Here, we demonstrate, how electrospray-differential mobility analysis that has been traditionally used for characterizing bionanoparticles, can be used for quantifying complex competitive adsorption-desorption of oligomeric proteins or multiprotein systems using monomers and dimers of IgM as a model example onto silica and modified silica surfaces. Using ES-DMA, we show that IgM dimers show a preference to stay adsorbed to different surfaces although monomers adsorb more easily and desorption rates of monomers and dimers of IgM are surface-type-dependent and are not significantly affected by shear. We anticipate that this demonstration will make ES-DMA a popular "label-free" method for studying multicomponent multi-oligomeric protein adsorption to different surfaces in the future. PMID:23628202

  10. Investigation of Different Group A Immunoassays following One Dose of Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine or A/C Polysaccharide Vaccine in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Findlow, H.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Aase, A.; Bash, M. C.; Chadha, H.; Elie, C.; Laher, G.; Martinez, J.; Herstad, T.; Newton, E.; Viviani, S.; Papaspyridis, C.; Kulkarni, P.; Wilding, M.; Preziosi, M. P.; Marchetti, E.; Hassan-King, M.; La Force, F. M.; Carlone, G.; Borrow, R.

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled phase I study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new group A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) in volunteers aged 18 to 35 years was previously performed. Subjects received one dose of either the PsA-TT conjugate vaccine, meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (PsA/C), or tetanus toxoid vaccine. The conjugate vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic as demonstrated by a standardized group A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). This report details further analysis of the sera using four additional immunologic assays to investigate the relationship between the different immunoassays. The immunoassays used were an SBA assay that used human complement (hSBA), a group A-specific IgG multiplexed bead assay, and two opsonophagocytic antibody (OPA) assays which used two different methodologies. For each vaccine group, geometric mean concentrations or geometric mean titers were determined for all assays before and 4, 24, and 48 weeks after vaccination. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the six assays using data from all available visits. An excellent correlation was observed between the group A-specific IgG concentrations obtained by ELISA and those obtained by the multiplexed bead assay. hSBA and rSBA titers correlated moderately, although proportions of subjects with putatively protective titers and those demonstrating a ?4-fold rise were similar. The two OPA methods correlated weakly and achieved only a low correlation with the other immunoassays. The correlation between hSBA and group A-specific IgG was higher for the PsA-TT group than for the PsA/C group. PMID:19474264

  11. Microparticle-Enhanced Nephelometric Immunoassay of Alpha-Lactalbumin in Human Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Louise Cuillière; Mounia Abbadi; Claire Molé; Paul Montagne; Marie-Christine Béné; Gilbert Faure

    1997-01-01

    A microparticle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay was developed for alpha-lactalbumin quantitation in human milk. It is based on the nephelometric measurement of the light scattered during the competitive immunoagglutination of a microparticle-alpha-lactalbumin conjugate with an anti-alpha-lactalbumin antiserum. This immunoassay is sensitive (detection limit in reaction mixture, 1.5 ?g\\/L) and could be performed in high dilution of milk, excluding any interference or sample

  12. Evaluation of the new architect cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity assays.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, K; Bodeus, M; Van Ranst, M; Goubau, P

    2009-06-01

    A panel of new cytomegalovirus (CMV) assays for use on the Architect instrument has been developed, including a CMV avidity assay based on a new technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the fully automated CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity tests on the Architect instrument with those of other available assays. A total of 503 consecutive fresh patient serum specimens (routine serum specimens) and 96 serum specimens from 33 pregnant women with a recent CMV primary infection (seroconversion serum specimens) were tested for CMV IgM and IgG by the Architect (Abbott), Vidas (BioMérieux), and Enzygnost (Siemens) assays. The seroconversion sera and 100 preselected serum specimens IgM negative and IgG positive by the AxSYM assay were also tested by the IgG avidity tests on the Architect and Vidas instruments. The relative agreements for CMV IgM determination with routine sera between the Architect assay and the Vidas, Enzygnost, and AxSYM assays were 97%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, for the CMV IgM tests and 99%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for the CMV IgG tests. The specificities of the CMV IgG avidity test were 98% for the Architect assay and 76% for the Vidas assay. No high CMV IgG avidity test results were found within the first 3 months after seroconversion by either of those assays. The correlation between the results of the newly developed CMV IgM and IgG tests on the Architect instrument with the Vidas and Enzygnost assays was excellent (> or = 94%). The CMV IgG avidity test reliably excluded patients with recent infections and showed an excellent specificity (98%). PMID:19339470

  13. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Willison, H J; O'Leary, C P; Veitch, J; Blumhardt, L D; Busby, M; Donaghy, M; Fuhr, P; Ford, H; Hahn, A; Renaud, S; Katifi, H A; Ponsford, S; Reuber, M; Steck, A; Sutton, I; Schady, W; Thomas, P K; Thompson, A J; Vallat, J M; Winer, J

    2001-10-01

    The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a paraproteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (alpha2-8)NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl epitopes common to many gangliosides including GDlb, GD3, GTlb and GQlb. In 17 out of 18 cases, the serum contained benign IgM paraproteins, and in four of these cases at least two IgM paraproteins were present. The IgM antibodies were also cold agglutinins in 50% of cases. The clinical picture comprised a chronic neuropathy with marked sensory ataxia and areflexia, and with relatively preserved motor function in the limbs. In addition, 16 out of 18 cases had motor weakness affecting oculomotor and bulbar muscles as fixed or as relapsing-remitting features. When present in their entirety, these clinical features have been described previously under the acronym CANOMAD: chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgM paraprotein, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies. This distribution of clinical features is reminiscent of Miller Fisher syndrome, in which acute-phase anti-disialylated ganglioside IgG antibodies are found. Clinical electrophysiology and nerve biopsy show both demyelinating and axonal features. A partial response to intravenous immunoglobulin and other treatments is reported in some cases. PMID:11571215

  14. Blockade of self-reactive IgM significantly reduces injury in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Michael S.; Alicot, Elisabeth M.; Schuerpf, Franziska; Chiu, Isaac; Li, Jinan; Moore, Francis D.; Carroll, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Coronary artery occlusion resulting in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of mortality in the western world. Circulating natural IgM has been shown to play a significant role in reperfusion injury, leading to the notion of a pathogenic response against self by the innate immune system. A specific self-antigen (non-muscle myosin heavy chain II) was recently identified as the major target of pathogenic natural IgM. Therefore, we hypothesized that a synthetic peptide mimetope (N2) or monoclonal antibodies directed against the self-antigen would prevent specific IgM binding to the self-antigen and reduce reperfusion injury in the heart. Methods and results We find that treatment with N2 peptide reduces infarct size by 47% and serum cardiac troponin-I levels by 69% following 1 h ischaemia and 24 h reperfusion. N2 peptide or an anti-N2 F(ab?)2 (21G6) is also effective at preventing IgM and complement deposition. Additionally, N2 peptide treatment significantly reduces monocyte and neutrophil infiltration at 24 h and collagen deposition at 5 days. Finally, we show that human IgM (hIgM) also includes specificity for the highly conserved self-antigen and that myocardial injury in antibody-deficient mice reconstituted with hIgM is blocked by treatment with N2 peptide or 21G6 F(ab?)2. Conclusion The findings in this study identify potential therapeutics [i.e. N2 peptide or 21G6 F(ab?)2] that prevent specific IgM binding to ischaemic antigens in the heart, resulting in a significant reduction in cardiac I/R injury. PMID:20462867

  15. Serological detection of hepatitis B viral infection by a panel of solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ourania E. Tsitsilonis; Apollon Thrasyvoulides; Apostolos Balafas; John F. Voutsas; Michael Papamichail; Peggy Lymberi

    2004-01-01

    Immunoassays for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in biological samples were developed. Using recombinant HBV antigens (Ags) and HBV-specific antibodies (Abs), we designed and evaluated a panel of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) detecting the main hepatitis B-related viral markers, namely HBV surface Ag (HBsAg), HBV e Ag (HBeAg), Abs to HBsAg (anti-HBs), Abs to HBV core Ag (anti-HBc)

  16. Teleost fish mount complex clonal IgM and IgT responses in spleen upon systemic viral infection.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Véronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frédéric; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM(+) and IgT(+) spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences. PMID:23326228

  17. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM tests for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Pascal; Paris, Luc; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies is commonly performed for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the accuracy of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM test at four European laboratories compared to local reference methods. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility ranged from 1.0 to 6.5% for IgG and from 0.8 to 3.2% for IgM. Seroconversion panels revealed high overall concordance with the reference tests. The Elecsys test detected IgG antibodies earlier than the Cobas Core IgG test in 19 of 47 panels; persisting IgM antibodies were observed in the VIDAS but not the Elecsys test in five of 47 panels. In 31.4% of latent stage sera with persistent IgM antibodies (positive LIASON IgM), the Elecsys IgM test gave negative results indicating increased “clinical” specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys IgG assay ranged from 99.45 to 100% and 87.50–99.80%, respectively, and 91.11–95.74 and 98.45–99.79% for the Elecsys IgM assay, respectively. In conclusion, excellent reproducibility and accuracy make the Elecsys Toxo G and M tests highly suitable for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. The lower detection rates for persistent IgM in the Elecsys IgM test increase “clinical” specificity and decrease the need for follow-up testing. PMID:26185683

  18. Improved Serodiagnosis of Salmonella Enteric Fevers by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, William J.; Joseph, Sam W.; Weiss, Emilio

    1981-01-01

    The value of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of typhoid or paratyphoid fevers was tested with a collection of five sets of sera from 23 individuals who had no history of Salmonella infection from a nonendemic area (set 1) and from 143 patients from a highly endemic area (sets 2 to 5). The test was performed with a crude cell envelope fraction derived from Salmonella typhi. On the basis of results with sera in set 1, titers >160 (inverse of serum dilution) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) or >500 for IgG were regarded as signifying a specific antibody response. These titers were occasionally exceeded in sera in set 2, derived from patients with no clinical or laboratory evidence of Salmonella infection. In presumptive cases of typhoid or paratyphoid fevers (culture positive and agglutination negative or vice versa; 13 patients, set 3, and 26 patients, set 4, respectively), IgG antibodies were encountered more frequently than IgM, but some sera were negative in each group. In 81 confirmed cases (culture and agglutination positive, set 5) IgG antibodies were detected in at least one of the paired sera from all patients, and the IgG titers were higher (median 3,500) than those of the IgM antibodies (median 600). There was no evidence of a significant difference in IgM or IgG titers between acute- and convalescent-phase sera. The titers of 10 paired sera from patients from whom S. enteritidis, bioserotype paratyphi A, was isolated were somewhat lower than those of 84 patients with S. typhi isolation (serogroup D). There was some correlation between O antigen agglutination and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but otherwise the titers in the two serological tests varied independently. Of 11 patients in set 3 (2 patients with serogroup B agglutinins omitted), 1 belonged to blood group O, in contrast to 54 group O among 107 agglutination-positive patients, a distribution not necessarily reflected by the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. This study has provided good evidence that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can serve as a valuable aid to the diagnosis of Salmonella infection in an endemic area, as a substitute for the agglutination test. PMID:7007413

  19. Antibody assay of rabbit sera for outer membrane vesicles of Haemophilus influenzae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Harada; Y. Sakakura; Y. Yoshinaka

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against outer membrane vesicles (OMV) antigen ofHaemophilus influenzae type b. In this ELISA system, IgG antibody titers were about 40 fold higher than those in indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The IgG antibody titers by this ELISA of rabbit sera obtained after immunization were comparable with those

  20. Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay of Phosphorylated p53 Using Protein-Cage Templated Lead Phosphate and Carbon Nanospheres for Signal Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Aiqiong; Bao, Yuanwu; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Shin, Yongsoon; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-11-20

    Phosphorylated p53 at serin 15 (phospho-p53-15) is a potential biomarker of Gamma-radiation exposure. In this paper, we described a new magnetic particles (MPs)-based electrochemical immunoassay of human phospho-p53-15 using carbon nanospheres (CNS) and protein-cage templated lead phosphate nanoparticles for signal amplification. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by three aspects: 1) The protein-cage nanoparticle (PCN) and p53-15 signal antibody (p53-15 Ab2) are linked to CNS (PCNof each apoferritin; 3) MPs capture a large amount of primary antibodies. Using apoferritin templated metallic phosphate instead of enzyme as label has the advantage of eliminating the addition of mediator or immunoreagents and thus makes the immunoassay system simpler. The subsequent stripping voltammetric analysis of the released lead ions were detected on a disposable screen printed electrode. The response current was proportional to the phospho-p53-15 concentration in the range of 0.02 to 20 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. This method shows a good stability, reproducibility and recovery.

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Forbidden Chemical Residues in Milk Using Dual-Label Time-Resolved Reverse Competitive Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Based on Amine Group Functionalized Surface

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haiyang; Wen, Kai; Shen, Jianzhong; Cao, Xingyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a sensitive dual-label time-resolved reverse competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay was developed for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) and clenbuterol (CLE) in milk. The strategy was performed based on the distinction of the kinetic characteristics of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in chemiluminesecence (CL) systems and different orders of magnitude in HRP CL value for CAP and ALP CL value for CLE in the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Capture antibodies were covalently bound to the amine group functionalized chemiluminescent microtiter plate (MTP) for efficient binding of detection antibodies for the enzymes labeled CAP (HRP-CAP) and CLE (ALP-CLE). The CL signals were recorded at different time points by the automatic luminometers with significant distinction in the dynamic curves. When we considered the ALP CL value (about 105) of CLE as background for HRP CL signal value (about 107) of CAP, there was no interaction from ALP CL background of CLE and the differentiation of CAP and CLE can be easily achieved. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of CAP and CLE in milk samples were 0.00501 µg L?1 and 0.0128 µg L?1, with the ranges from 0.0003 µg L?1 to 0.0912 µg L?1 and from 0.00385 µg L?1 to 0.125 µg L?1, respectively. The developed method is more sensitive and of less duration than the commercial ELISA kits, suitable for simultaneous screening of CAP and CLE. PMID:25313517

  2. Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Yousry

    2014-01-01

    An immunoassay-based algorithm, involving three commercial kits, was introduced and evaluated for screening and identification of Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens in human stool specimens. Initially, Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek kit (TechLab), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was adopted for screening. The ELISA-positive reactions were subsequently characterised by RIDA Quick Giardia and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium immunochromatographic kits (R-Biopharm). A gold standard test comprising PCR and microscopy was used for preparing control samples. Performance of individual kits was tested against these samples which included 50 Giardia-positive, 40 Cryptosporidium-positive, and 70 Cryptosporidium/Giardia-negative. For Cryptosporidium, specificities of the ELISA and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium kits were 95.71% and 100%, respectively. Both kits demonstrated sensitivity of 95%. For Giardia, the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia kits showed sensitivities of 100% and 97.5%, respectively. Specificities obtained by the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia were 95.7% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of two reference PCRs, on 250 random samples, the algorithm exhibited sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 97.06%, 100.00%, 100.00%, and 98.91%, respectively. In conclusion, this immunoassay-based algorithm can be used as routine test in diagnostic laboratories for screening and identification of a large number of samples. PMID:24616804

  3. Production and Characterization of IgM Monoclonal Antibodies Against Hyphal Antigens of Stachybotrys Species

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Schmechel, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has been proposed to exacerbate respiratory morbidity. To date, advances in Stachybotrys detection have focused on the identification of unique biomarkers that can be detected in human serum; however, the availability of immunodiagnostic reagents to Stachybotrys species have been limited. In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. Eight immunoglobulin M MAbs were produced and four were specifically identified in the capture ELISA to react with the cScp. Cross-reactivity of the MAbs was tested against crude hyphal extracts derived from 15 Stachybotrys isolates representing nine Stachybotrys species as well as 39 other environmentally abundant fungi using a capture ELISA. MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). ELISA analysis demonstrated that all MAbs strongly reacted with extracts of S. chartarum but not with extracts of 39 other fungi. However, four MAbs showed cross-reactivity to the phylogenetically related genus Memnoniella. fHIA analysis confirmed that greatest MAb reactivity was ultrastructurally localized in hyphae and phialides. The results of this study further demonstrate the feasibility of specific MAb-based immunoassays for the detection of S. chartarum. PMID:21466283

  4. Call admission control for CDMA systems with Interference Guard Margin (IGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-01-01

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme and a resource-reservation estimation (RRE) method suitable for the interference-based wireless system, such as wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA), are proposed in this work. The proposed CAC scheme gives preferential treatment to high priority handoff calls by pre-reserving a certain amount of interference margin called the interference guard margin (IGM). The amount of guard margin is determined by the measurement performed by the RRE module in base stations. Each RRE module dynamically adjusts the level of guard margin by considering traffic conditions in neighboring cells based upon handoff requests. A service model is adopted to support multiple services, which includes mobile terminal's data rate, different levels of priorities, mobility and rate adaptivity characteristics. Simulations are conducted with OPNET to study the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of the objective function, blocking probabilities and system utilization under different traffic conditions.

  5. Development of an immunoassay for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) based upon the recombinant Fab fragment of 2,4-D specific antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van C.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dau, Hung A.; Tham, Thu N.; Quyen, Dinh T.; Bachmman, Till; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2001-09-01

    To develop an immunoassay and further an immunosensor for 2,4-D based upon recombinant antibody, the Fab fragments of 2,4-D specific antibody were expressed in E. coli. Western blotting analysis of the periplasmic cell fractions shown that under the non-reducing condition only a single protein band at a molecular mass of 45-kDa, corresponding to the whole Fab fragment was detected. Antigen binding activity for 2,4-D was found only in the extract of cells bearing the 2,4-D plasmid. An immunoassay based on the competitive reaction of 2,4-D and enzyme tracer with 2,4-D Fab fragments immobilized on micro titer plates via rabbit anti-mouse IgC was developed. Using this assay, 2,4-D could be detected at concentration range of 0.5 (mu) g/1 to 10(mu) g/1. The center point of the 2,4-D test was found at a concentration of 5 (mu) g/l. The assay was applied for detection of 2,4-D in spiked orange samples, resulting in recovery rate of 90 percent. The immunoassay could be applied to monitor human exposure to 2,4-D from contamination in fruit samples.

  6. Enzyme responsive acetaminophen hydrogels

    E-print Network

    Vemula, Praveen

    Utilization of enzyme catalysis as a tool to disassemble self-assembled hydrogels to control the release encapsulated drug provides an opportunity to design a wide range of enzyme-specific low-molecular-weight hydrogelators ...

  7. The Impact of a Percolating IGM on Redshifted 21 cm Observations of Quasar HII Regions

    E-print Network

    Paul M. Geil; Stuart Wyithe

    2008-03-04

    We assess the impact of inhomogeneous reionization on detection of HII regions surrounding luminous high redshift quasars using planned low frequency radio telescopes. Our approach is to implement a semi-numerical scheme to calculate the 3-dimensional structure of ionized regions surrounding a massive halo at high redshift, including the ionizing influence of a luminous quasar. As part of our analysis we briefly contrast our scheme with published semi-numerical models. We calculate mock 21cm spectra along the line of sight towards high redshift quasars, and estimate the ability of the planned Murchison Widefield Array to detect the presence of HII regions. The signal-to-noise for detection will drop as the characteristic bubble size grows during reionization because the quasar's influence becomes less prominent. However, quasars will imprint a detectable signature on observed 21cm spectra that is distinct from a region of typical IGM. At epochs where the mean hydrogen neutral fraction is ~30% or greater we find that neutral gas in the IGM surrounding a single quasar will be detectable (at a significance of 5 sigma) within 100 hour integrations in more than 50% of cases. 1000 hour integrations will be required to detect a smaller neutral fraction of 15% in more than 50% of cases. A highly significant detection will be possible in only 100 hours for a stack of 10 smaller 3 proper Mpc HII regions. The accurate measurement of the global average neutral fraction () will be limited by systematic fluctuations between lines of sight for single HII regions. We estimate the accuracy with which the global neutral fraction could be measured from a single HII region to be 50%, 30% and 20% for ~ 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 respectively.

  8. Osmotic blood-brain barrier opening to IgM monoclonal antibody in the rat.

    PubMed

    Neuwelt, E A; Minna, J; Frenkel, E; Barnett, P A; McCormick, C I

    1986-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of iodinated monoclonal antibody (MAb) delivery to normal rat brain were examined. The mean cerebrovascular permeability-surface area (PA; permeability X capillary surface area) to immunoglobulin M (IgM) MAb (mol wt 1,000,000) 10 min after infusion was 0.40 X 10(-6) S-1. When osmotic blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is utilized, the PA increased to 8.36 X 10(-6) S-1. Neither intravenous nor intracarotid MAb administration significantly affected delivery to brain. However, osmotic BBB opening significantly (P less than 0.0005) increased MAb uptake independent of the route of administration. After BBB opening and intracarotid MAb the maximum concentration in brain at 1 h was 0.72% per gram of the total administered dose. For 6 h postdisruption, ipsilateral brain levels were 25- to 100-fold greater than in the contralateral hemisphere or nonbarrier-disrupted controls. MAb concentration in brain slightly decreased over 72 h (P less than 0.05). Antibody recovered from disrupted brain retained 90% of its immunological reactivity for at least 24 h. MAb delivery to ipsilateral brain after BBB disruption was linear over a dose of 0.5-5.0 micrograms IgM, whereas the percentage of the total administered dose remained unchanged. After osmotic treatment, barrier opening was maximal to MAb delivery for 1 min with delivery declining rapidly thereafter. The type of anesthesia used and the administration of a thyroid-blocking agent were found to affect brain MAb levels after BBB disruption. PMID:3706572

  9. Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry · All organisms convert small organic compounds shown here: All of these reactions, of which there are more than 1000, are catalyzed by enzymes. Glucose Phosphate PathwayEMP Pathway #12;Amino Acids #12;More Complete Metabolic Network TOP #12;#12;Enzymes

  10. Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Extracellular Enzymes Lab Biochemistry · All organisms convert small organic compounds by enzymes. Glucose (C6) Pentose (C5) Triose (C3) Pyruvate (C3) AcetylCoA (C2) Citrate (C6) Oxoglutarate (C5 Cycle Pentose Phosphate PathwayEMP Pathway #12;More Complete Metabolic Network TOP #12;#12;Enzymes

  11. A clinical and neurobiological case of IgM NMDA receptor antibody associated encephalitis mimicking bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Choe, Chi-Un; Karamatskos, Evangelos; Schattling, Benjamin; Leypoldt, Frank; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Gerloff, Christian; Friese, Manuel A; Mulert, Christoph

    2013-07-30

    Autoimmune encephalitis associated with IgG antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR) presents with neurological symptoms, such as seizures, and especially psychiatric symptoms, such as hallucinations, psychosis, agitation and anxiety. To date, however, the pathological relevance of IgM NMDAR antibodies remains elusive. Here, we describe clinical, neuroradiological and neurobiological findings of a 28-year-old male presenting with IgM NMDAR antibodies coincident with autoimmune encephalitis characterized by symptoms of bipolar disorder. After repeated steroid treatment, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities improved and no NMDAR antibody was detectable. Using primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that patient's serum containing IgM NMDAR antibodies reduced the detection of NMDAR on neuronal cells and decreased cell survival. Although NMDAR encephalitis with IgG antibodies is increasingly recognized and diagnosed, atypical presentations with NMDAR antibodies with immunoglobulin subclasses other than IgG pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Further clinical and neurobiological studies are needed to study the pathophysiological relevance of IgM NMDAR antibodies. PMID:23246244

  12. State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Franzini, Maria; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Passino, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to BNP in human plasma of patients with heart failure. These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. On the other hand, clinical laboratories should take part in external quality assessment (EQA) programs to evaluate the bias of their method in comparison to other BNP methods. Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1-32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results. PMID:25547534

  13. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  14. Backscattering particle immunoassays in wire-guide droplet manipulations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; You, David J

    2008-01-01

    A simpler way for manipulating droplets on a flat surface was demonstrated, eliminating the complications in the existing methods of open-surface digital microfluidics. Programmed and motorized movements of 10 muL droplets were demonstrated using stepper motors and microcontrollers, including merging, complicated movement along the programmed path, and rapid mixing. Latex immunoagglutination assays for mouse immunoglobulin G, bovine viral diarrhea virus and Escherichia coli were demonstrated by merging two droplets on a superhydrophobic surface (contact angle = 155 +/- 2 degrees ) and using subsequent back light scattering detection, with detection limits of 50 pg mL-1, 2.5 TCID50 mL-1 and 85 CFU mL-1, respectively, all significantly lower than the other immunoassay demonstrations in conventional microfluidics (~1 ng mL-1 for proteins, ~100 TCID50 mL-1 for viruses and ~100 CFU mL-1 for bacteria). Advantages of this system over conventional microfluidics or microwell plate assays include: (1) minimized biofouling and repeated use (>100 times) of a platform; (2) possibility of nanoliter droplet manipulation; (3) reprogrammability with a computer or a game pad interface. PMID:19014703

  15. Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, S.; Moros, M.; Fernández-Pacheco, R.; Ibarra, M. R.; Grazú, V.; de la Fuente, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

  16. System and method for a parallel immunoassay system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a target antigen using massively parallel immunoassay technology. In this system, high affinity antibodies of the antigen are covalently linked to small beads or particles. The beads are exposed to a solution containing DNA-oligomer-mimics of the antigen. The mimics which are reactive with the covalently attached antibody or antibodies will bind to the appropriate antibody molecule on the bead. The particles or beads are then washed to remove any unbound DNA-oligomer-mimics and are then immobilized or trapped. The bead-antibody complexes are then exposed to a test solution which may contain the targeted antigens. If the antigen is present it will replace the mimic since it has a greater affinity for the respective antibody. The particles are then removed from the solution leaving a residual solution. This residual solution is applied a DNA chip containing many samples of complimentary DNA. If the DNA tag from a mimic binds with its complimentary DNA, it indicates the presence of the target antigen. A flourescent tag can be used to more easily identify the bound DNA tag.

  17. Aqueous two-phase systems enable multiplexing of homogeneous immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arlyne B.; Frampton, John P.; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of protein biomarkers is critical for biomarker validation and early disease detection. Current multiplex immunoassays are time consuming costly and can suffer from low accuracy. For example, multiplex ELISAs require multiple, tedious, washing and blocking steps. Moreover, they suffer from nonspecific antibody cross-reactions, leading to high background and false-positive signals. Here, we show that co-localizing antibody-bead pairs in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) enables multiplexing of sensitive, no-wash, homogeneous assays, while preventing nonspecific antibody cross-reactions. Our cross-reaction-free, multiplex assay can simultaneously detect picomolar concentrations of four protein biomarkers ((C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6) in cell supernatants using a single assay well. The potential clinical utility of the assay is demonstrated by detecting diagnostic biomarkers (CXCL10 and CXCL9) in plasma from 88 patients at the onset of the clinical symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PMID:25083509

  18. The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidwell, David

    1991-01-01

    The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

  19. Backscattering particle immunoassays in wire-guide droplet manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; You, David J

    2008-01-01

    A simpler way for manipulating droplets on a flat surface was demonstrated, eliminating the complications in the existing methods of open-surface digital microfluidics. Programmed and motorized movements of 10 ?L droplets were demonstrated using stepper motors and microcontrollers, including merging, complicated movement along the programmed path, and rapid mixing. Latex immunoagglutination assays for mouse immunoglobulin G, bovine viral diarrhea virus and Escherichia coli were demonstrated by merging two droplets on a superhydrophobic surface (contact angle = 155 ± 2°) and using subsequent back light scattering detection, with detection limits of 50 pg mL-1, 2.5 TCID50 mL-1 and 85 CFU mL-1, respectively, all significantly lower than the other immunoassay demonstrations in conventional microfluidics (~1 ng mL-1 for proteins, ~100 TCID50 mL-1 for viruses and ~100 CFU mL-1 for bacteria). Advantages of this system over conventional microfluidics or microwell plate assays include: (1) minimized biofouling and repeated use (>100 times) of a platform; (2) possibility of nanoliter droplet manipulation; (3) reprogrammability with a computer or a game pad interface. PMID:19014703

  20. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

  1. Human serum antibody response to Campylobacter jejuni infection as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, M J; Duncan, D J

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adapted to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM classes of human serum antibody to Campylobacter jejuni. Sera were tested from healthy controls, from ill persons at various intervals after exposure to an epidemiologically implicated vehicle for Campylobacter sp. enteritis, from persons exposed to these same vehicles who remained well, and from persons who chronically drank raw milk. The major antigens in the C. jejuni acid-washed antigen preparations from three different strains all migrated at about 30,000 and 63,000. Persons with Campylobacter enteritis developed rising serum IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies during the second week after infection; IgG and IgM elevations persisted longer than did IgA. Exposed persons who remained well showed similar, but lower, antibody rises. Chronic raw milk drinkers had elevated IgG levels, but not IgM or IgA levels, whether or not they were acutely exposed to an implicated vehicle. Images PMID:6715034

  2. Molecular similarity methods for predicting cross-reactivity with therapeutic drug monitoring immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Siam, Mohamed G; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2009-06-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, 2-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  3. Molecular Similarity Methods for Predicting Cross-Reactivity With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Siam, Mohamed G.; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, two-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  4. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain.

    PubMed

    Jose, Joachim; Park, Min; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2010-05-14

    The Z-domain of protein A has been known to bind specifically to the F(c) region of antibodies (IgGs). In this work, the Z-domain of protein A was expressed on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by using "Autodisplay" technology as a fusion protein of autotransport domain. The E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain was applied to the sandwich-type immunoassay as a solid-support of detection-antibodies against a target analyte. For the feasibility demonstration of the E. coli based immunoassay, C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was carried out by using E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain. The limit of detection (LOD) and binding capacity of the E. coli based immunoassay were estimated to be far more sensitive than the conventional ELISA. Such a far higher sensitivity of E. coli based immunoassay than conventional ELISA was explained by the orientation control of immobilized antibodies and the mobility of E. coli in assay matrix. From the test results of 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' serum and 15 healthy samples, a cut-off value was established to have optimal sensitivity and selectivity values for RA. The CRP test result of each individual sample was compared with ELISA which is the reference method for RA diagnosis. From this work, the E. coli with Z-domain was proved to be feasible for the medical diagnosis based on sandwich-type immunoassay. PMID:20441874

  5. Evaluation of screen-printed gold on low-temperature co-fired ceramic as a substrate for the immobilization of electrochemical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Fakunle, Eyitayo S; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Shultz, John L; Toland, Alan D; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2006-12-01

    Screen-printed gold (SPG, Dupont gold conductor 5734) on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials (Dupont dielectric tape 951, mostly composed of alumina and silica) has been demonstrated to be a substrate for electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays. The effect of two different cleaning treatments and the extent of nonspecific adsorption on the SPG/LTCC and plain LTCC surfaces were also evaluated. LTCC materials hold promise for constructing a new generation of devices for microelectrochemical sensing and assays. Facile fabrication in three dimensions with integrated conducting elements makes them attractive. A standard sandwich immunoassay for a model analyte, mouse IgG, was used to evaluate the LTCC materials. After the assembly of components onto chips of SPG/LTCC and plain LTCC, p-aminophenol that was generated enzymatically by the enzyme label was detected electrochemically with a separate glassy carbon electrode. Cleaning SPG/LTCC with a piranha solution (7:1 vol/vol of concentrated H2SO4/30% H2O2), traditionally used for other gold surfaces prior to SAM assembly, resulted in a notable decrease in assay signal and an increase in nonspecific adsorption when compared to cleaning with water alone. Assay components assemble specifically on plain LTCC, with only a small percent attributed to NSA. Environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal the tremendous chemical heterogeneity and complexity of both SPG/LTCC and plain LTCC surfaces and aid in the explanation of assay results. A 10% acetate Tween bovine serum albumin solution and an ethanolic solution of 4 mM 1-butanol eliminate assay signals originating from plain LTCC. The outcomes of these studies can now be used to achieve miniaturized electrochemical immunoassays on LTCC materials where both plain and SPG surfaces are present. PMID:17129069

  6. Low-temperature co-fired ceramic microchannels with individually addressable screen-printed gold electrodes on four walls for self-contained electrochemical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Fakunle, Eyitayo S; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Microchannel devices were constructed from low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials with screen-printed gold (SPG) electrodes in three dimensions--on all four walls--for self-contained enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays with electrochemical detection. The microchannel confines the solution to a small volume, allowing concentration of electroactive enzymatically generated product and nearby electrodes provide high-speed and high-sensitivity detection: it also facilitates future integration with microfluidics. LTCC materials allow easy construction of three-dimensional structures compared with more traditional materials such as glass and polymer materials. Parallel processing of LTCC layers is more amenable to mass production and fast prototyping, compared with sequential processing for integrating multiple features into a single device. LTCC and SPG have not been reported previously as the basis for microchannel immunoassays, nor with integrated, individually addressable electrodes in three dimensions. A demonstration assay for mouse IgG at 5.0 ng/mL (3.3 × 10(-11) M) with electrochemical detection was achieved within a 1.8 cm long × 290 ?m high × 130 ?m wide microchannel (approximately 680 nL). Two of four SPG electrodes span the top and bottom walls and serve as the auxiliary electrode and the assay site, respectively. The other two (0.7 cm long × 97 ?m wide) are centered lengthwise on the sidewalls of the channel. One serves as the working and the other as the pseudoreference electrode. The immunoassay components were immobilized at the bottom SPG region. Enzymatically generated p-aminophenol was detected at the internal working electrode within 15 s of introducing the enzyme substrate p-aminophenyl phosphate. A series of buffer rinses avoided nonspecific adsorption and false-positive signals. PMID:20803005

  7. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...classification for diagnostic devices known as methotrexate enzyme immunoassays. Methotrexate enzyme immunoassays are considered pre-Amendment...Medical Device Amendments became effective. Methotrexate enzyme immunoassays are currently...

  8. Nanoparticle-based Immunoassays for Sensitive and Early Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Capsid (p24) Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shixing; Hewlett, Indira

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using nanoparticle (NP)-based assays for improving detection sensitivity of HIV-1 p24 antigen. The first assay is a gold NP-based biobarcode amplification (BCA) assay which could detect HIV-1 p24 antigen at levels as low as 0.1 pg/ml. Compared with BCA, the lower limit of detection (LOD) for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was 10 ~ 15 pg/ml. These results demonstrate that the HIV-1 p24 BCA assay offers 100 ~ 150-fold enhancement in the detection limit over the traditional colorimetric ELISA. Furthermore, the BCA assay detected HIV-1 infection 3 days earlier than ELISA in seroconversion samples. A second assay is the europium (Eu+) NP-based immunoassay (ENIA), which uses Eu+ NPs to replace gold NPs in the BCA assay to further simplify the detection method and decrease the incubation time. For detection of HIV-1 p24, the lower LOD for ENIA was 0.5 pg/ml. These results indicate that the universal labeling technology based on NPs and its application may provide a rapid and sensitive testing platform for clinical diagnosis and laboratory research. PMID:20225948

  9. Detection of Anthrax Toxin in the Serum of Animals Infected with Bacillus anthracis by Using Engineered Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Robert; Brasky, Kathleen; Geiger, Robert; Carrion, Ricardo; Hubbard, Gene B.; Leppla, Stephen; Patterson, Jean L.; Georgiou, George; Iverson, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Several strategies that target anthrax toxin are being developed as therapies for infection by Bacillus anthracis. Although the action of the tripartite anthrax toxin has been extensively studied in vitro, relatively little is known about the presence of toxins during an infection in vivo. We developed a series of sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of both the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) components of the anthrax exotoxin in serum. The assays utilize as capture agents an engineered high-affinity antibody to PA, a soluble form of the extracellular domain of the anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR2/CMG2), or PA itself. Sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify PA and LF in animals infected with the Ames or Vollum strains of anthrax spores. PA and LF were detected before and after signs of toxemia were observed, with increasing levels reported in the late stages of the infection. These results represent the detection of free PA and LF by ELISA in the systemic circulation of two animal models exposed to either of the two fully virulent strains of anthrax. Simple anthrax toxin detection ELISAs could prove useful in the evaluation of potential therapies and possibly as a clinical diagnostic to complement other strategies for the rapid identification of B. anthracis infection. PMID:16760326

  10. A Sensitive and Specific Quantitation Method for Determination of Serum Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, Diederik W.D.; Barefield, David; Govindan, Suresh; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers are becoming increasingly more important in clinical decision-making, as well as basic science. Diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) is largely driven by detecting cardiac-specific proteins in patients' serum or plasma as an indicator of myocardial injury. Having recently shown that cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is detectable in the serum after MI, we have proposed it as a potential biomarker for MI. Biomarkers are typically detected by traditional sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. However, this technique requires a large sample volume, has a small dynamic range, and can measure only one protein at a time. Here we show a multiplex immunoassay in which three cardiac proteins can be measured simultaneously with high sensitivity. Measuring cMyBP-C in uniplex or together with creatine kinase MB and cardiac troponin I showed comparable sensitivity. This technique uses the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) method of multiplexing in a 96-well plate combined with electrochemiluminescence for detection. While only small sample volumes are required, high sensitivity and a large dynamic range are achieved. Using this technique, we measured cMyBP-C, creatine kinase MB, and cardiac troponin I levels in serum samples from 16 subjects with MI and compared the results with 16 control subjects. We were able to detect all three markers in these samples and found all three biomarkers to be increased after MI. This technique is, therefore, suitable for the sensitive detection of cardiac biomarkers in serum samples. PMID:23963065

  11. Performance of the halogen immunoassay to assess airborne mouse allergen-containing particles in a laboratory animal facility

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne mouse allergen is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. Conventional assessment techniques provide mass-based exposure estimates that may not capture completely the inhalation risk of airborne allergen particles. In contrast to mass-based estimates, the halogen immunoassay (HIA) combines immunoblotting and microscopy to directly assess allergen-containing particles. We evaluated the HIA for the assessment of airborne mouse allergen and compared the results to the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Particulate matter (PM)10 and PM2.5 samples (30 min, 4 l/m) were collected in a mouse facility before, during, and after disturbance of soiled bedding. Concentrations of Mus m 1-positive particles (haloed particles (HPs)) and intensities of the haloes were determined with the HIA. Although HPs/m3 were positively correlated with mass concentration (statistically significant only with Mus m 1 concentration on PM10), replicates of mass concentration showed higher variability than HPs/m3. After disturbance, most of the HPs were in the PM2.5 fraction. Mean haloes intensities were similar before, during, and after disturbance. The HIA was able to measure allergen-containing particles with less variability than the ELISA, detected the shift of HPs to smaller particles after disturbance, and may suggests similar halo intensity by particles detected during and after disturbance. Our findings suggest that the HIA can be used to assess indoor concentrations of mouse allergen particles and their morphological characteristics. PMID:22805992

  12. Performance of the halogen immunoassay to assess airborne mouse allergen-containing particles in a laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-01-01

    Airborne mouse allergen is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. Conventional assessment techniques provide mass-based exposure estimates that may not capture completely the inhalation risk of airborne allergen particles. In contrast to mass-based estimates, the halogen immunoassay (HIA) combines immunoblotting and microscopy to directly assess allergen-containing particles. We evaluated the HIA for the assessment of airborne mouse allergen and compared the results to the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Particulate matter (PM)(10) and PM(2.5) samples (30?min, 4?l/m) were collected in a mouse facility before, during, and after disturbance of soiled bedding. Concentrations of Mus m 1-positive particles (haloed particles (HPs)) and intensities of the haloes were determined with the HIA. Although HPs/m(3) were positively correlated with mass concentration (statistically significant only with Mus m 1 concentration on PM(10)), replicates of mass concentration showed higher variability than HPs/m(3). After disturbance, most of the HPs were in the PM(2.5) fraction. Mean haloes intensities were similar before, during, and after disturbance. The HIA was able to measure allergen-containing particles with less variability than the ELISA, detected the shift of HPs to smaller particles after disturbance, and may suggests similar halo intensity by particles detected during and after disturbance. Our findings suggest that the HIA can be used to assess indoor concentrations of mouse allergen particles and their morphological characteristics. PMID:22805992

  13. Human alpha-fetal protein immunoassay using fluorescence suppression with fluorescent-bead/antibody conjugate and enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junhyoung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Lee, JaeJong; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple and rapid immunoassay using fluorescent microbeads and enzyme-substrate reactions to measure alpha-fetal protein (AFP) concentrations. We demonstrated the functionality of the fluorescent immunosensor using antibody-conjugated fluorescent latex beads (AB-FLBs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to catalyze a reaction, where the products would precipitate and suppress the fluorescence of AB-FLBs. First, the AB-FLBs were incubated with antigen, biotinylated antibodies (bABs), and streptavidin-HRP (SAv-HRP) to form a sandwich-type immunoreaction. The mixture was then filtered through a membrane to concentrate the beads on a small area. After washing to remove unbound bABs and SAv-HRP, a chromogenic HRP substrate and H2O2 were added to form precipitates on the FLB surface. The suppression of the fluorescence was measured with a fluorescent image analyzer system. Under optimized conditions, AFP could be measured at concentrations as low as 1pgmL(-1) with a dynamic range up to 100ngmL(-1). PMID:25897880

  14. Presentation of a nano-based tag for immunoassay, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Fuente, Jesus Martinez De La

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate four immunoassays, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (AMBSANPs). First, the capability of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs under different conditions was evaluated. Then, serial concentrations of pure ?HCG were added to wells coated with ?HCG antibody for immunoassays 1 and 2, and wells coated with ?HCG aptamer for immunoassays 3 and 4. Next, AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG antibody was added for immunoassays 1 and 3, and AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG aptamer were added for immunoassays 2 and 4. Finally, the optical density (OD) of each well was read at 340 nm, and compared with controls. Moreover, the concentration of ?HCG in the clinical samples was quantified by immunoassays 1, 2, 3, 4 and ELISA, and then compared. The effect of some serum interferences on these immunoassay methods was evaluated. The authors observed that the amount of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs increased with an increase in H + ion concentration and temperature, and decreased with an increase in ion strength. The correlation (R(2)) between ELISA and immunoassays 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 0.97, 0.97, 0.98, 0.99, respectively. It was found that the increase in the serum interferences led to a decrease in the measured ?HCG concentration. PMID:25650325

  15. A SERS-based microfluidic immunoassay using an in-situ synthesized gold substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kequan; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wu, Lei; Zong, Shenfei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering)-based immunoassay in microfluidic system has been developed with in-situ synthesis of gold substrate and immune reporter named as 4MBA (4-Mercaptobenzoic acid)-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates. The gold substrate was fabricated simply by introducing the hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) trihydrate (HAuCl4) solution to microchannels using a microfluidic pump. It was found that the obtained deposited gold nanoparticles were uniform in size and shape. Then the sandwich immunoassays were performed using the gold substrates based on SERS signals. In the immunoassay, the gold nanoparticles decorated surface was modified with certain antibodies to recognize the specific kind of antigen, which was flowed through the microfluidic channel afterwards. Then 4MBA-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates were employed as the SERS probes to quantitatively detect the antigen. The experimental results showed a good specificity and limit of detection (LOD) about 1 ng/mL.

  16. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

  17. Enabling Rapid and Specific Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Immunoassay Using Nanoscaled Surface Shear Forces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-06-23

    A rapid and simple approach is presented to address two critical issues of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay such as removal/avoiding nonspecific adsorption and reducing assay time. The approach demonstrated involves rationally designed fluorophore-integrated gold/silver nanoshells as SERS nanotags and utilizes alternative current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD)-induced nanoscaled surface shear forces to enhance the capture kinetics. The assay performance was validated in comparison with hydrodynamic flow and conventional immunoassay-based devices. These nanoscaled physical forces acting within nanometer distances from the electrode surface enabled rapid (40 min), sensitive (10 fg/mL), and highly specific detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer patient samples. We believe this approach presents potential for the development of rapid and sensitive SERS immunoassays for routine clinical diagnosis. PMID:25978642

  18. Rational enzyme redesign

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    Protein engineering is first a means of elucidating structure-function relations in an enzyme, and second, a means of changing a protein to make it serve a different, but generally related, purpose. In principle, one may change the functional characteristics of an enzyme by altering its substrate specificity, kinetics, optimum range of activity, and chemical mechanism. Obviously one cannot make all possible combinations of amino acid changes for even the smallest enzyme, so the essential question is which changes to make. The intent of rational protein/enzyme redesign is to alter a protein/enzyme in a timely and premeditated fashion. This article provides an outline of the process of rational enzyme redesign.

  19. The fine specificity of IgM anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is different from that of IgG ACPA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The antigen recognition pattern of immunoglobulin M (IgM) could, when directed against protein antigens, provide an indication of the antigenic moieties triggering new B cells. The half-life of IgM is short and memory B cells against T-cell-dependent protein antigens typically produce IgG and not IgM antibodies. In this study, we analyzed whether a difference exists between the fine specificity of IgM versus IgG anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Methods We determined the fine specificity of IgM and IgG ACPAs in 113 ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients with IgM cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (CCP2) levels above 100 AU/ml. Fine specificity was assessed by performing ELISA using citrullinated peptides derived from vimentin, fibrinogen-?, fibrinogen-? and ?-enolase, as well as citrullinated proteins fibrinogen and myelin basic protein. The arginine counterparts were used as controls. Results Recognition of defined citrullinated antigens by IgM ACPA was confined to samples that also displayed recognition by IgG ACPA. However, the IgM ACPA response displayed a more restricted antigen recognition profile than IgG ACPA (OR = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Our data show that several defined citrullinated antigens are recognized only by IgG ACPA, whereas others are also recognized by IgM ACPA. These observations suggest that not all citrullinated antigens are able to activate new B cells despite concurrent recognition by IgG ACPA. PMID:22129077

  20. Restriction Enzyme Mapping Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This laboratory activity, by the Biotechnology Education and Training Sequence Investment (BETSI) project at Southwestern College, walks students and educators through the procedure of restriction enzyme mapping. Restriction enzymes are found in bacteria and "cleave the double helix of DNA at specific places." This activity, which is broken up into two parts, allows students to observe this process by presenting specific procedure steps and illustrations to guide them. There is also a worksheet for students to complete: Analysis of a Restriction Enzyme Digest of a Plasmid. This is a helpful activity for any biotechnology classroom to give students hands-on experiences with enzymes and the reconstruction of recombinant DNA molecules.