Science.gov

Sample records for ignition facility quality

  1. National Ignition Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.

    1996-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.

  2. National Ignition Facility quality assurance program plan revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C R

    1998-06-01

    NIF Project activities will be conducted in a manner consistent with the guidance and direction of the DOE Order on Quality Assurance (414.1), the LLNL QA Program, and the Laser Directorate QA Plan. Quality assurance criteria will be applied in a graded manner to achieve a balance between the rigor of application of QA measures and the scale, cost, and complexity of the work involved. Accountability for quality is everyone's, extending from the Project Manager through established lines of authority to all Project personnel, who are responsible for the requisite quality of their own work. The NLF QA Program will be implemented by personnel conducting their activities to meet requirements and expectations, according to established plans and procedures that reflect the way business is to be conducted on the Project.

  3. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials & Optical Technology (LM&OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM&OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies.

  4. Producing National Ignition Facility (NIF)-quality beams on the Nova and Beamlet lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C.C.; Auerbach, J.M.; Ehrlich, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Nova and Beamlet lasers were used to simulate the beam propagation conditions that will be encountered during the National Ignition Facility operation. Perturbation theory predicts that there is a 5mm scale length propagation mode that experiences large nonlinear power growth. This mode was observed in the tests. Further tests have confirmed that this mode can be suppressed with improved spatial filtering.

  5. The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber and room for 100 diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10'' bar; conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and planets. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules in 23-ns pulses of infrared light and over 16 kJ in 3.5 ns pulses at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as multi-color laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  6. The National Ignition Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-06-16

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in ICF targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effect testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule and costs associated with the construction project.

  7. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  8. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Daniel Abraham

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  9. Progress Toward Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R L

    2011-10-17

    The principal approach to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is indirect drive. A schematic of an ignition target is shown in Figure 1. The laser beams are focused through laser entrance holes at each end of a high-Z cylindrical case, or hohlraum. The lasers irradiate the hohlraum walls producing x-rays that ablate and compress the fuel capsule in the center of the hohlraum. The hohlraum is made of Au, U, or other high-Z material. For ignition targets, the hohlraum is {approx}0.5 cm diameter by {approx}1 cm in length. The hohlraum absorbs the incident laser energy producing x-rays for symmetrically imploding the capsule. The fuel capsule is a {approx}2-mm-diameter spherical shell of CH, Be, or C filled with DT fuel. The DT fuel is in the form of a cryogenic layer on the inside of the capsule. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, producing a spherical implosion. The imploding shell stagnates in the center, igniting the DT fuel. NIC has overseen installation of all of the hardware for performing ignition experiments, including commissioning of approximately 50 diagnostic systems in NIF. The diagnostics measure scattered optical light, x-rays from the hohlraum over the energy range from 100 eV to 500 keV, and x-rays, neutrons, and charged particles from the implosion. An example of a diagnostic is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) built by a collaboration of scientists from MIT, UR-LLE, and LLNL shown in Figure 2. MRS measures the neutron spectrum from the implosion, providing information on the neutron yield and areal density that are metrics of the quality of the implosion. Experiments on NIF extend ICF research to unexplored regimes in target physics. NIF can produce more than 50 times the laser energy and more than 20 times the power of any previous ICF facility. Ignition scale hohlraum targets are three to four times larger than targets used at smaller facilities, and the ignition drive pulses are two to five times longer. The larger

  10. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met. PMID:23629062

  11. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  12. On thermonuclear ignition criterion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven H.

    2014-10-15

    Sustained thermonuclear fusion at the National Ignition Facility remains elusive. Although recent experiments approached or exceeded the anticipated ignition thresholds, the nuclear performance of the laser-driven capsules was well below predictions in terms of energy and neutron production. Such discrepancies between expectations and reality motivate a reassessment of the physics of ignition. We have developed a predictive analytical model from fundamental physics principles. Based on the model, we obtained a general thermonuclear ignition criterion in terms of the areal density and temperature of the hot fuel. This newly derived ignition threshold and its alternative forms explicitly show the minimum requirements of the hot fuel pressure, mass, areal density, and burn fraction for achieving ignition. Comparison of our criterion with existing theories, simulations, and the experimental data shows that our ignition threshold is more stringent than those in the existing literature and that our results are consistent with the experiments.

  13. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline.

  14. The National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Boyes, J.D.; Kumpan, S.A.; Sorem, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KD0), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 {mu}m) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, the authors completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program`s site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. This article presents an overview of the NIF project.

  15. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R P

    2009-12-01

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  16. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; Hammel, Bruce A.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Callahan, Debra A.; Town, Richard P. J.

    2010-05-15

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of one-dimensional simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as two-dimensional simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  17. National Ignition Facility for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Murray, J.R.

    1997-10-08

    The National Ignition Facility for inertial confinement fusion will contain a 1.8 MJ, 500 TW frequency-tripled neodymium glass laser system that will be used to explore fusion ignition and other problems in the physics of high temperature and density. We describe the facility briefly. The NIF is scheduled to be completed in 2003.

  18. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  19. The Ignition Target for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, L J; Moses, E I; Carlisle, K; Kilkenny, J

    2007-03-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility presently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for performing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density (HED) science. When completed in 2009, NIF will be able to produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light for target experiments that will create conditions of extreme temperatures (>10{sup 8} K), pressures (10-GBar) and matter densities (> 100 g/cm{sup 3}). A detailed program called the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been developed to enable ignition experiments in 2010, with the goal of producing fusion ignition and burn of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel mixture in millimeter-scale target capsules. The first of the target experiments leading up to these ignition shots will begin in 2008. Targets for the National Ignition Campaign are both complex and precise, and are extraordinarily demanding in materials fabrication, machining, assembly, cryogenics and characterization. An overview of the campaign for ignition will be presented, along with technologies for target fabrication, assembly and metrology and advances in growth and x-ray imaging of DT ice layers. The sum of these efforts represents a quantum leap in target precision, characterization, manufacturing rate and flexibility over current state-of-the-art.

  20. Engineering the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J; Hackel, R; Larson, D; Manes, K; Murray, J; Sawicki, R

    1998-08-19

    The engineering team of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has developed a highly optimized hardware design that satisfies stringent cost, performance and schedule requirements. After a 3-year effort, the design will culminate at the end of FY98 with the completion of major Title II design reviews. Every element of the facility from optic configuration, facility layout and hardware specifications to material selection, fabrication techniques and part tolerancing has been examined to assure the minimum cost per joule of laser energy delivered on target. In this paper, the design of the major subsystems will be discussed from the perspective of this optimization emphasis. Focus will be placed on the special equipment hardware which includes laser, beam transport, opto-mechanical , system control and target area systems. Some of the unique features in each of these areas will be discussed to highlight how significant cost savings have been achieved while maintaining reasonable and acceptable performance risk. Key to the success has also been a vigorous development program that commenced nearly 4 years ago and has been highly responsive to the specific needs of the NIF project. Supporting analyses and prototyping work that evolved from these parallel activities will also be discussed.

  1. Confinement of ignition and yield on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Foley, D.; Anderson, A.; Burnham, A.; Reitz, T.; Latkowski, J.; Bernat, T.

    1996-06-14

    The National Ignition Facility Target Areas and Experimental Systems has reached mid-Title I design. Performance requirements for the Target Area are reviewed and design changes since the Conceptual Design Report are discussed. Development activities confirm a 5-m radius chamber and the viability of a boron carbide first wall. A scheme for cryogenic target integration with the NIF Target Area is presented.

  2. The National Ignition Facility Project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-06-16

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule, and costs associated with the construction project.

  3. The Revamping of an Ignition Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    The revamping of an Ignition Test Facility, located in the Research Combustion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. The history of how the test cell has adapted efficiently to a variety of test programs is discussed. The addition of a second test stand for ignition and small-scale rocket testing is detailed. An overview of the facility and the current test programs is offered. Planned upgrades for the future are outlined.

  4. IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of

  5. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  6. The national ignition facility: path to ignition in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Bonanno, R. E.; Haynam, C. A.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Patterson, R. W., Jr.; Sawicki, R. H.; van Wonterghem, B. M.

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam laser facility presently under construction at LLNL. When completed, NIF will be a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW ultraviolet laser system. Its missions are to obtain fusion ignition and to perform high energy density experiments in support of the US nuclear weapons stockpile. Four of the NIF beams have been commissioned to demonstrate laser performance and to commission the target area including target and beam alignment and laser timing. During this time, NIF demonstrated on a single-beam basis that it will meet its performance goals and demonstrated its precision and flexibility for pulse shaping, pointing, timing and beam conditioning. It also performed four important experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density Science. Presently, the project is installing production hardware to complete the project in 2009 with the goal to begin ignition experiments in 2010. An integrated plan has been developed including the NIF operations, user equipment such as diagnostics and cryogenic target capability, and experiments and calculations to meet this goal. This talk will provide NIF status, the plan to complete NIF, and the path to ignition.

  7. The National Ignition Facility and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, J. G.; Paisner, J. A.; Lowdermilk, W. H.; Boyes, J. D.; Kumpan, S. A.; Sorem, M. S.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. The National Ignition Facility construction project will require the best of our construction industries and its success will depend on the best products offered by hundreds of the nation's high technology companies. Three-fourths of the construction costs will be invested in industry. This article reviews the design, cost and schedule, and required industrial involvement associated with the construction project.

  8. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  9. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  10. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  11. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baisden, P.

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  12. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    SciTech Connect

    Hands, J.

    1996-04-09

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions.

  13. National Ignition Facility Comes to Life

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2003-09-01

    First conceived of nearly 15 years ago, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is up and running and successful beyond almost everyone's expectations. During commissioning of the first four laser beams, the laser system met design specifications for everything from beam quality to energy output. NIF will eventually have 192 laser beams. Yet with just 2% of its final beam configuration complete, NIF has already produced the highest energy laser shots in the world. In July, laser shots in the infrared wavelength using four beams produced a total of 26.5 kilojoules of energy per beam, not only meeting NIF's design energy requirement of 20 kilojoules per beam but also exceeding the energy of any other infrared laser beamline. In another campaign, NIF produced over 11.4 kilojoules of energy when the infrared light was converted to green light. An earlier performance campaign of laser light that had been frequency converted from infrared to ultraviolet really proved NIF's mettle. Over 10.4 kilojoules of ultraviolet energy were produced in about 4 billionths of a second. If all 192 beamlines were to operate at these levels, over 2 megajoules of energy would result. That much energy for the pulse duration of several nanoseconds is about 500 trillion watts of power, more than 500 times the US peak generating power.

  14. Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Ignition Hohlraum Energetics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R J; Rosen, M D; Michel, P A; Divol, L; Moody, J D; Kyrala, G A; Schneider, M B; Kline, J L; Thomas, C A; Milovich, J L; Callahan, D A; Meezan, N B; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Berger, R L; Edwards, M J; Suter, L J; Haan, S W; Lindl, J D; Dixit, S; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Moses, E I; Scott, H A; Harte, J A; Zimmerman, G B

    2010-11-22

    A series of forty experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] to study energy balance and implosion symmetry in reduced- and full-scale ignition hohlraums was shot at energies up to 1.3 MJ. This paper reports the findings of the analysis of the ensemble of experimental data obtained that has produced an improved model for simulating ignition hohlraums. Last year the first observation in a NIF hohlraum of energy transfer between cones of beams as a function of wavelength shift between those cones was reported [P. Michel, et al, Phys of Plasmas, 17, 056305, (2010)]. Detailed analysis of hohlraum wall emission as measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH) has allowed the amount of energy transferred versus wavelength shift to be quantified. The change in outer beam brightness is found to be quantitatively consistent with LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] simulations using the predicted energy transfer when possible saturation of the plasma wave mediating the transfer is included. The effect of the predicted energy transfer on implosion symmetry is also found to be in good agreement with gated x-ray framing camera images. Hohlraum energy balance, as measured by x-ray power escaping the LEH, is quantitatively consistent with revised estimates of backscatter and incident laser energy combined with a more rigorous non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium atomic physics model with greater emissivity than the simpler average-atom model used in the original design of NIF targets.

  15. National Ignition Facility design, performance, and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Paisner, J.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1994-09-16

    A conceptual design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been completed and its cost has been estimated by a multilaboratory team. To maximize the performance/cost ratio a compact, segmented amplifier is used in a multipass architecture. Many recent optical and laser technology developments have been incorporated into the final design. The Beamlet project has successfully demonstrated the new concept. The mission of ICF Program using the NEF is to achieve ignition and gain in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects experiments, and for civilian applications such as inertial fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high energy density.

  16. A polar-drive shock-ignition design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K. S.; McKenty, P. W.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marozas, J. A.; Skupsky, S.; Shvydky, A.; Betti, R.; Hohenberger, M.; Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R.

    2013-05-15

    Shock ignition [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007)] is being pursued as a viable option to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Shock-ignition target designs use a high-intensity laser spike at the end of a low-adiabat assembly pulse to launch a spherically convergent strong shock to ignite the hot spot of an imploding capsule. A shock-ignition target design for the NIF is presented. One-dimensional simulations indicate an ignition threshold factor of 4.1 with a gain of 58. A polar-drive beam-pointing configuration for shock-ignition experiments on the NIF at 750 kJ is proposed. The capsule design is shown to be robust to the various one- and two-dimensional effects and nonuniformities anticipated on the NIF. The target is predicted to ignite with a gain of 38 when including all anticipated levels of nonuniformity and system uncertainty.

  17. Construction Safety for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Predmore, R

    2000-09-01

    This Construction Safety Program (CSP) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presents safety protocols and guidelines that management and workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment. Appendix A, a separate companion document, includes further applicable environmental, safety, and health requirements for the NIF Project. Specifically this document: {sm_bullet} Defines the fundamental site safety philosophy, {sm_bullet} Identifies management roles and responsibilities, {sm_bullet} Defines core safety management processes, {sm_bullet} Identifies LLNL institutional requirements, and {sm_bullet} Defines the functional areas and facilities accrued by the program and the process for transition of facilities, functional areas, and/or systems from construction to activation. Anyone willfully or thoughtlessly disregarding standards will be subject to immediate removal from the site. Thorough job planning will help ensure that these standards are met.

  18. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  19. The Technology of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2001-08-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawat, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. A number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved in the course of designing NIF. This presentation will discuss some of the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible.

  20. Overview of the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density (HED) science. The NIF is a 192-beam, Nd-glass laser facility that is capable of producing 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, and over 50 times more energetic than other existing ICF facilities. The NIF construction began in 1997, and the facility, which was completed in 2009, is now fully operational. The facility is capable of firing up to 192 laser beams onto a target placed at the center of a 10-m-diameter spherical target chamber. Experiments involving the use of tritium have been underway for some time. These experiments present radiological issues: prompt neutron/gamma radiation, neutron activation, fission product generation, and decay radiation. This paper provides an introduction to the NIF facility and its operation, describes plans for the experimental program, and discusses radiological issues associated with the NIF's operations. PMID:23629059

  1. National Ignition Facility Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2000-08-14

    The ''National Ignition Facility (NIF) Justification of Mission Need'', which was approved by the Secretary of Energy in January 1993, defines the mission of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program and discusses the specific mission of the NIF Project. The NIF experimental capability will allow nuclear-weapons scientists to assess stockpile problems, verify computational tools, test for nuclear-weapons effects, and increase their understanding of weapons physics. The three weapons laboratory directors and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs have reviewed the role of the NIT; in Stockpile Stewardship in a joint letter. Along with the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative numerical simulations and other aboveground experimental facilities, the NIF will provide critical data that will allow the United States to maintain its technical capabilities in nuclear weapons in the absence of underground testing. As a secondary objective, the NIF will advance our understanding of ICF and help to assess its potential as an energy source. Achieving fusion ignition in the NIF will advance both defense and energy objectives. In affirming the Project's Critical Decision 2,* ''Approval of New Start'', the Secretary of Energy verified the mission need and emphasized that the NIF has the potential to contribute significantly to the DOE missions.

  2. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  3. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Kumpan, S.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Boyes, J.D.; Sorem, M.

    1995-08-02

    DOE commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KDO), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 {mu}m) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program`s site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994.2 Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a Key Decision One (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the Project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. The Project will cost approximately $1.1 billion and will be completed at the end of FY 2002.

  4. The National Ignition Facility: Transition to a User Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Atherton, J.; Lagin, L.; Larson, D.; Keane, C.; MacGowan, B.; Patterson, R.; Spaeth, M.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Wegner, P.; Kauffman, R.

    2016-03-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been operational since March 2009 and has been transitioning to a user facility supporting ignition science, high energy density science (HEDS), national security applications, and fundamental science. The facility has achieved its design goal of 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of 3ω light on target, and has performed target experiments with 1.9 MJ at peak powers of 410 TW. The facility is on track to perform over 200 target shots this year in support of all of its user communities. The facility has nearly 60 diagnostic systems operational and has shown flexibility in laser pulse shape and performance to meet the requirements of its multiple users. Progress continues on its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It has performed over 40 indirect-drive experiments with cryogenic-layered capsules. New platforms are being developed for HEDS and fundamental science. Equation-of-state and material strength experiments have been done on a number of materials with pressures of over 50 MBars obtained in diamond, conditions never previously encountered in the laboratory and similar to those found in planetary interiors. Experiments are also in progress investigating radiation transport, hydrodynamic instabilities, and direct drive implosions. NIF continues to develop as an experimental facility. Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) is now being installed on NIF for producing high-energy radiographs of the imploded cores of ignition targets and for short pulse laser-plasma interaction experiments. One NIF beam is planned for conversion to two picosecond beams in 2014. Other new diagnostics such as x-ray Thomson scattering, low energy neutron spectrometer, and multi-layer reflecting x-ray optics are also planned. Incremental improvements in laser performance such as improved optics damage performance, beam balance, and back reflection control are being pursued.

  5. Status of the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Boyes, J.D.; Sorem, M.S.; Soures, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    The ultimate goal of worldwide research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to develop fusion as an inexhaustible, economic, environmentally safe source of electric power. Following nearly thirty years of laboratory and underground fusion experiments, the next step toward this goal is to demonstrate ignition and propagating burn of fusion fuel in the laboratory. The National Ignition Facility(NIF) Project is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for just this purpose. NIF will use advanced Nd-glass laser technology to deliver 1.8 MJ of 0.35-um laser light in a shaped pulse, several nanoseconds in duration, achieving a peak power of 500 TW. A national community of U.S. laboratories is participating in this project, now in its final design phase. Franceand the United Kingdom are collaborating on development of required technology under bilateral agreements with the US. This paper presents thestatus of the laser design and development of its principal components and optical elements.

  6. Stockpile Stewardship and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2012-01-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's most energetic laser system, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Since the completion of the construction project in March 2009, NIF has completed nearly 150 target experiments for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), High Energy Density Stewardship Science (HEDSS) in the areas of radiation transport, material dynamics at high pressure in the solid state, as well as fundamental science and other national security missions. NIF capabilities and infrastructure are in place to support all of its missions with over 50 X-ray, optical and nuclear diagnostic systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic targets and DT layered capsules. NIF is now qualified for use of tritium and other special materials as well as to perform high yield experiments and classified experiments. DT implosions with record indirect-drive neutron yield of 4.5 x 10{sup 14} neutrons have been achieved. A series of 43 experiments were successfully executed over a 27-day period, demonstrating the ability to perform precise experiments in new regimes of interest to HEDSS. This talk will provide an update of the progress on the NIF capabilities, NIC accomplishments, as well as HEDSS and fundamental science experimental results and an update of the experimental plans for the coming year.

  7. Target alignment in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.; Bliss, E.S.; Murray, J.E.

    1994-06-06

    Accurate placement of hundreds of focused laser beams on target is necessary to achieve success in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The current system requirement is {le}7 {mu}rad error in output pointing and {le}1 mm error in focusing. To accommodate several system shots per day, a target alignment system must be able to align the target to chamber center, inject an alignment beam to represent each shot beam, and point and focus the alignment beams onto the target in about one hour. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed a target alignment concept and built a prototype to validate the approach. The concept comprises three systems: the chamber center reference, target alignment sensor, and target alignment beams.

  8. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  9. National Ignition Facility Target Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; Kozioziemski, B J; Nikroo, A; Wilkens, H L; Bhandarkar, S; Forsman, A C; Haan, S W; Hoppe, M L; Huang, H; Mapoles, E; Moody, J D; Sater, J D; Seugling, R M; Stephens, R B; Takagi, M; Xu, H W

    2007-12-10

    The current capsule target design for the first ignition experiments at the NIF Facility beginning in 2009 will be a copper-doped beryllium capsule, roughly 2 mm in diameter with 160-{micro}m walls. The capsule will have a 75-{micro}m layer of solid DT on the inside surface, and the capsule will driven with x-rays generated from a gold/uranium cocktail hohlraum. The design specifications are extremely rigorous, particularly with respect to interfaces, which must be very smooth to inhibit Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. This paper outlines the current design, and focuses on the challenges and advances in capsule fabrication and characterization; hohlraum fabrication, and D-T layering and characterization.

  10. The National Ignition Facility: Experimental Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-09-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar, conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars, planets and in nuclear weapons. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules of infrared light and over 16 kJ at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for facility diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as green laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  11. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Boyes, John D.; Kumpan, Steven A.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Sorem, Michael S.

    1995-12-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a conceptual design report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a key decision zero (KD0), justification of mission need. Motivated by the progress to date by the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova technical contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 micrometer) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a memorandum of agreement in August 1993, and established a project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE defense program's site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a facilities requirements document, a conceptual design scope and plan, a target physics design document, a laser design cost basis document, a functional requirements document, an experimental plan for indirect drive ignition, and a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA) document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a key decision one (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. In February 1995, the NIF Project was

  12. Radiological analysis of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.

    1993-10-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be capable of providing a laser output pulse at 0.35 {mu}m wavelength with an energy of 1.8 MJ and a power of 500 TW. The NIF will house a multi-beamline, Nd-doped-glass laser capable of delivering such pulses into a target chamber. In the target chamber, a positioner will center a target containing fusion fuel (a deuterium-tritium mixture) for each ignition shot. Diagnostics in the chamber will provide the test data (e.g., neutron and x-ray yields). The NIF baseline case would result in deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron yields of about 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 19} per fusion shot. The baseline fusion shots would use 2 Ci of tritium per capsule, with an annual input of about 600 Ci (60 mg). The resulting anticipated annual airborne emissions would consist of approximately 10 Ci of tritium and small amounts of activated air species. The NEF shielding configuration would limit the direct and skyshine radiation intensities around the facility to less than 0.1 rem/y on site and to less than 0.001 rem/y off site. This report presents the results of atmospheric transport calculations for tritium and activated air emissions; neutron and secondary gamma-ray shielding calculations; and results of benchmark studies for validating the EPA CAP88-PC code (for the transport of tritium) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory neutron-photon transport code TART. All calculations were normalized to the annual baseline case of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 20} DT-fusion neutrons. Tritium emissions were normalized to 10 Ci/y. Radiological analyses show that normal NIF operations would result in off-site radiation intensities that would represent insignificant increases over the natural background radiation intensity. The NIF is a national facility, and the DOE has not completed the site evaluation process. Although the results presented in this report are for LLNL, the analytical approach is applicable to any site.

  13. Analyses of laser-plasma interactions in National Ignition Facility ignition targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Langdon, A. B.; Langer, S. H.; Still, C. H.; Williams, E. A.

    2008-05-15

    A capability to analyze laser-plasma interactions (LPI) for ignition targets to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility has been developed and exercised. LPI in these targets may cause direct energy loss (backscatter) or energy redirection (beam spray, deflection, and energy transfer). These analyses range from analyzing the gain exponents for backscatter and beam spray to performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations of laser beam propagation in the most promising candidate ignition target designs. In the former assessment, ignition designs are iterated to reduce the gain exponent values. In the latter, beam propagation simulations are performed to analyze the reflectivity and beam transmission of speckled laser beams in the computed plasma profiles of the ignition targets. In current ignition designs, laser reflectivity is calculated to be well below 10%.

  14. National Ignition Facility Project Site Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dun, C

    2003-09-30

    This Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presents safety protocols and requirements that management and workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment during activities performed on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project Site Safety Program (NPSSP) requires that activities at the NIF Project site be performed in accordance with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual'' and the augmented set of controls and processes described in this NIF Project Site Safety Program. Specifically, this document: (1) Defines the fundamental NIF site safety philosophy. (2) Defines the areas covered by this safety program (see Appendix B). (3) Identifies management roles and responsibilities. (4) Defines core safety management processes. (5) Identifies NIF site-specific safety requirements. This NPSSP sets forth the responsibilities, requirements, rules, policies, and regulations for workers involved in work activities performed on the NIF Project site. Workers are required to implement measures to create a universal awareness that promotes safe practice at the work site and will achieve NIF management objectives in preventing accidents and illnesses. ES&H requirements are consistent with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual''. This NPSSP and implementing procedures (e.g., Management Walkabout, special work procedures, etc.,) are a comprehensive safety program that applies to NIF workers on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project site includes the B581/B681 site and support areas shown in Appendix B.

  15. The National Ignition Facility: The world's largest optical system

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J

    2007-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam fusion laser, is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with an expected completion in 2008. The facility contains 7,456 meter-scale optics for amplification, beam steering, vacuum barriers, focusing, polarization rotation, and wavelength conversion. A multiphase program was put in place to increase the monthly optical manufacturing rate by up to 20x while simultaneously reducing cost by up to 3x through a sub-scale development, full-scale facilitization, and a pilot production phase. Currently 80% of the optics are complete with over 50% installed. In order to manufacture the high quality optics at desired manufacturing rate of over 100 precision optics per month, new more deterministic advanced fabrication technologies had to be employed over those used to manufacture previous fusion lasers.

  16. Magnetized Inertial Confinement Fusion on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, G.; Rhodes, M.; Zimmermann, G.; Ho, D.; Strozzi, D.; Blackfield, D.; Hawkins, S.

    2015-11-01

    We are assessing the potential of imposed magnetic fields on ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Both magnetized room-temperature DT gas targets and CH/diamond cryo-ignition capsules are under study. Initial applied fields of 30-70T that compress to greater than 10,000T (100MG) under capsule implosion may relax conditions required for ignition and burn due to suppression of electron heat conduction, reduction of alpha deposition range and stabilization of hydro instabilities. This may permit recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in otherwise submarginal capsules. We will report on the design and performance simulations of magnetized ignition targets and hohlraum physics, and summarize present experiments testing the attainable magnetic field limits in hohlraum-coil systems driven by a pulsed power supply. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344 and LDRD 14-ERD-028.

  17. Optical specification -- Their Role in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J K; Aikens, D M; Wang, D Y; Williams, W H

    2000-03-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has completed its design phase and is well into construction. In this talk, we review the optic specification rationale, along with examples of particular specifications and measurements.

  18. National Ignition Facility Beamline Pupil Relay Plane Location and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Korniski, R J; Lawson, J K

    2002-01-29

    Axial astigmatism can be introduced into the nominal design of an optical system by tilted and tilted-wedged plates. The pupil images in the National Ignition Facility experience many such components. Some ramifications will be explored.

  19. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a User Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Christopher; NIF Team

    2013-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has made significant progress towards operation as a user facility. Through June 2013, NIF conducted over 1200 experiments in support of ICF, HED science, and development of facility capabilities. The NIF laser has met or achieved all specifications and a wide variety of diagnostic and target fabrication capabilities are in place. A NIF User Group and associated Executive Board have been formed. Two User Group meetings have been conducted since formation of the User Group. NIF experiments in fundamental science have provided important new results. NIF ramp compression experiments have been conducted using diamond and iron, with EOS results obtained at pressures up to approximately 50 Mbar and 8 Mbar, respectively. Initial experiments in supernova hydrodynamics, the fundamental physics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and equation of state in the Gbar pressure regime have also been conducted. This presentation will discuss the fundamental science program at NIF, including the proposal solicitation and scientific review processes and other aspects of user facility operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Neutron Spectroscopy on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    The performance of cryogenic fuel implosion experiments in progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is measured by an experimental threshold factorfootnotetextM. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051003 (2011). (ITFX) and a generalized Lawson Criterion.footnotetextC. D. Zhou and R. Betti, Phys. Plasmas 15, 102707 (2008); P. Y. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 135002 (2010); and R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010). The ITFX metric is determined by the fusion yield and the areal density of an assembled deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel mass. Typical neutron yields from NIF implosions are greater than 10^14 allowing the neutron energy spectrum to be measured with unprecedented precision. A NIF spectrum is composed of neutrons created by fusion (DT, DD, and TT reactions) and neutrons scattered by the dense, cold fuel layer. Neutron scattering is used to determine the areal density of a NIF implosion and is measured along four lines of sight by two neutron time-of-flight detectors, a neutron imaging system, and the magnetic recoil spectrometer. An accurate measurement of the instrument response function for these detectors allows for the routine production of neutron spectra showing DT fuel areal densities up to 1.3 g/cm^2. Spectra over neutron energies of 10 to 17 MeV show areal-density asymmetries of 20% that are inconsistent with simulations. New calibrations and analyses have expended the spectral coverage down to energies less than the deuterium backscatter edge (1.5 MeV for 14 MeV neutrons). These data and analyses are presented along with a compilation of other nuclear diagnostic data that show a larger-than-expected variation in the areal density over the cold fuel mass. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with NIC.

  1. Major Survey of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Curnow, G; Nelson, D

    2000-07-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an inertial confinement fusion project being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The project is comprised of two buildings and the high technology equipment. The NIF houses 192 separate laser beams that generate approximately two megajoules of energy and 500 terawatts of power. The laser beams travel through a large optical system that contains over 7,500 large-aperture optical components (40 cm by 40 cm) and approximately 30,000 small-aperture optical components (less than 20 cm diameter). The NIF laser will be enclosed in a building that is approximately 200 meters in length (l) by 100 meters in width (w) by 15 meters in height (h) scheduled for completion by the end of 2002. A 0.5 mm target will be positioned inside a 10 meter sphere in the Target Building which measures approximately 35 meters (l) by 90 meters (w) by 30 meters (h). To achieve optimum laser operation the optics will require precision positioning and alignment. As a result, the mechanical components that support the optics require accurate positioning. State-of-the-art surveying, measuring techniques, and uncertainty and error analyses are being used to measure the control network and mechanical components. These include laser trackers, total stations, precision digital levels, and simulations of measurement scenarios. In February of this year the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NIF Precision Survey Group (PSG) completed a planned survey of the facility to establish an intermediate control network. This control network is to be used to begin installing the mechanical components, which include over 40 large vessels (3 x 3 x 10 meters), over the next year. The requirement is to have a control network accurate to +/- 3 mm, 3 sigma. The majority of the control network was measured using total stations and precision leveling. A laser tracker, in combination with total station and precision level

  2. Shot Automation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R; Casavant, D D; Cline, B D; Demaret, R D; Domyancic, D M; Elko, S D; Fisher, J M; Hermann, M R; Krammen, J E; Kohut, T R; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Ludwigsen, A P; Patterson, Jr., R W; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A; Van Arsdall, P J; Van Wonterghem, B M

    2005-09-21

    A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to automate shots performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System This framework automates a 4-8 hour shot sequence, that includes inputting shot goals from a physics model, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams and verification of status. This sequence consists of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots using a 4-minute countdown, triggering during the last 2 seconds using a high-precision timing system, followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based execution driven of scriptable automation called macro steps. The framework is driven by high-level shot director software that provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 25 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundles) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification. Collaboration supervisors translate shot life cycle state commands from the shot director into sequences of ''macro steps'' to be distributed to each of its shot supervisors. Each Shot supervisor maintains order of macro steps for each subsystem and supports collaboration between macro steps. They also manage failure, restarts and rejoining into the shot cycle (if necessary) and manage auto/manual macro step execution and collaborations between other collaboration supervisors. Shot supervisors execute macro step shot functions commanded by collaboration supervisors. Each macro step has database-driven verification phases and a scripted perform phase. This provides for a highly flexible methodology for performing a variety of NIF shot types. Database tables define the order of work and dependencies (workflow) of macro steps to be performed for a

  3. Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Berger, R L; Doeppner, T; Meezan, N B; Ralph, J; Ross, J S; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2009-11-12

    A series of laser plasma interaction experiments at OMEGA (LLE, Rochester) using gas-filled hohlraums shed light on the behavior of stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering at various plasma conditions encountered in indirect drive ignition designs. We present detailed experimental results that quantify the density, temperature, and intensity thresholds for both of these instabilities. In addition to controlling plasma parameters, the National Ignition Campaign relies on optical beam smoothing techniques to mitigate backscatter. We show that polarization smoothing is effective at controlling backscatter. These results provide an experimental basis for forthcoming experiments on National Ignition Facility.

  4. The National Ignition Facility neutron imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Mark D; Batha, Steven H; Bradley, Paul A; Day, Robert D; Clark, David D; Fatherley, Valerie E; Finch, Joshua P; Gallegos, Robert A; Garcia, Felix P; Grim, Gary P; Jaramillo, Steven A; Montoya, Andrew J; Moran, Michael J; Morgan, George L; Oertel, John A; Ortiz, Thomas A; Payton, Jeremy R; Pazuchanics, Peter; Schmidt, Derek W; Valdez, Adelaida C; Wilde, Carl H; Wilson, Doug C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is scheduled to begin deuterium-tritium (DT) shots possibly in the next several years. One of the important diagnostics in understanding capsule behavior and to guide changes in Hohlraum illumination, capsule design, and geometry will be neutron imaging of both the primary 14 MeV neutrons and the lower-energy downscattered neutrons in the 6-13 MeV range. The neutron imaging system (NIS) described here, which we are currently building for use on NIF, uses a precisely aligned set of apertures near the target to form the neutron images on a segmented scintillator. The images are recorded on a gated, intensified charge coupled device. Although the aperture set may be as close as 20 cm to the target, the imaging camera system will be located at a distance of 28 m from the target. At 28 m the camera system is outside the NIF building. Because of the distance and shielding, the imager will be able to obtain images with little background noise. The imager will be capable of imaging downscattered neutrons from failed capsules with yields Y(n)>10(14) neutrons. The shielding will also permit the NIS to function at neutron yields >10(18), which is in contrast to most other diagnostics that may not work at high neutron yields. The following describes the current NIF NIS design and compares the predicted performance with the NIF specifications that must be satisfied to generate images that can be interpreted to understand results of a particular shot. The current design, including the aperture, scintillator, camera system, and reconstruction methods, is briefly described. System modeling of the existing Omega NIS and comparison with the Omega data that guided the NIF design based on our Omega results is described. We will show NIS model calculations of the expected NIF images based on component evaluations at Omega. We will also compare the calculated NIF input images with those unfolded from the NIS images generated from our NIS numerical

  5. Visualization of Target Inspection data at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D; Antipa, N

    2012-02-16

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the target capsules used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure capsule surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. These instruments produce multi-gigabyte datasets which consist of tens to hundreds of files. Existing software can handle viewing a small subset of an entire dataset, but none can view a dataset in its entirety. Additionally, without an established mode of transport that keeps the target capsules properly aligned throughout the assembly process, a means of aligning the two dataset coordinate systems is needed. The goal of this project is to develop web based software utilizing WebGL which will provide high level overview visualization of an entire dataset, with the capability to retrieve finer details on demand, in addition to facilitating alignment of multiple datasets with one another based on common features that have been visually identified by users of the system.

  6. Robustness Studies of Ignition Targets for the National Ignition Facility in Two Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D

    2007-11-07

    Inertial confinement fusion capsules are critically dependent on the integrity of their hot spots to ignite. At the time of ignition, only a certain fractional perturbation of the nominally spherical hot spot boundary can be tolerated and the capsule still achieve ignition. The degree to which the expected hot spot perturbation in any given capsule design is less than this maximum tolerable perturbation is a measure of the ignition margin or robustness of that design. Moreover, since there will inevitably be uncertainties in the initial character and implosion dynamics of any given capsule, all of which can contribute to the eventual hot spot perturbation, quantifying the robustness of that capsule against a range of parameter variations is an important consideration in the capsule design. Here, the robustness of the 300 eV indirect drive target design for the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl, et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] is studied in the parameter space of inner ice roughness, implosion velocity, and capsule scale. A suite of two thousand two-dimensional simulations, run with the radiation hydrodynamics code Lasnex, is used as the data base for the study. For each scale, an ignition region in the two remaining variables is identified and the ignition cliff is mapped. In accordance with the theoretical arguments of Levedahl and Lindl [Nucl. Fusion 37, 165 (1997)] and Kishony and Shvarts [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4925 (2001)], the location of this cliff is fitted to a power law of the capsule implosion velocity and scale. It is found that the cliff can be quite well represented in this power law form, and, using this scaling law, an assessment of the overall (one- and two-dimensional) ignition margin of the design can be made. The effect on the ignition margin of an increase or decrease in the density of the target fill gas is also assessed.

  7. X-ray driven implosions at ignition relevant velocities on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Le Pape, S.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Farley, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Di Nicola, P.; Callahan, D. A.; Robey, H. F.; Thomas, C. A.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Eder, D. C.; Schneider, M. B.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Backlit convergent ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are indirect drive implosions that study the inflight dynamics of an imploding capsule. Side-on, backlit radiography provides data used by the National Ignition Campaign to measure time-dependent properties of the capsule ablator including its center of mass radius, velocity, and unablated mass. Previously, Callahan [D. A. Callahan et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056305 (2012)] and Hicks [D. H. Hicks et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 122702 (2012)] reported backlit convergent ablator experiments demonstrating velocities approaching those required for ignition. This paper focuses on implosion performance data in the “rocket curve” plane, velocity vs. ablator mass. These rocket curve data, along with supporting numerical simulations, show that the nominal 195 μm-thick ignition capsule would reach the ignition velocity goal V = 370 km/s with low ablator mass remaining–below the goal of M = 0.25 mg. This finding led to experiments with thicker capsule ablators. A recent symmetry capsule experiment with a 20 μm thicker capsule driven by 520 TW, 1.86 MJ laser pulse (along with a companion backlit convergent ablator experiment) appears to have demonstrated V≥350 km/s with ablator mass remaining above the ignition goal.

  8. Point design targets, specifications, and requirements for the 2010 ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, S. W.; Lindl, J. D.; Callahan, D. A.; Clark, D. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Hammel, B. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Cook, R. C.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatchett, S. P.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ho, D. D.; Huang, H.; Jones, O. S.; Kline, J.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Milovich, J. L.; Moreno, K. A.; Moses, E. I.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Peterson, K.; Pollaine, S. M.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P.; Vesey, R.; Weber, S. V.; Wilkens, H. L.; Wilson, D. C.

    2011-05-01

    Point design targets have been specified for the initial ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. The targets contain D-T fusion fuel in an ablator of either CH with Ge doping, or Be with Cu. These shells are imploded in a U or Au hohlraum with a peak radiation temperature set between 270 and 300 eV. Considerations determining the point design include laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, laser operations, and target fabrication. Simulations were used to evaluate choices, and to define requirements and specifications. Simulation techniques and their experimental validation are summarized. Simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of target performance to uncertainties and variations in experimental conditions. A formalism is described that evaluates margin for ignition, summarized in a parameter the Ignition Threshold Factor (ITF). Uncertainty and shot-to-shot variability in ITF are evaluated, and sensitivity of the margin to characteristics of the experiment. The formalism is used to estimate probability of ignition. The ignition experiment will be preceded with an experimental campaign that determines features of the design that cannot be defined with simulations alone. The requirements for this campaign are summarized. Requirements are summarized for the laser and target fabrication.

  9. The Application of Imposed Magnetic Fields to Ignition and Thermonuclear Burn on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, G.; Ho, D.; Zimmerman, G.; Strozzi, D.; Rhodes, M.; Plummer, R.; Hawkins, S.

    2014-10-01

    We are studying the impact of highly compressed axial magnetic fields on ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Both magnetized room-temperature DT gas targets and CH/diamond cryo-ignition capsules are under study. Initial seed fields of 30--70 T that compress to greater than 10000 T (100 MG) under implosion can reduce hotspot conditions required for ignition and propagating burn [L. J. Perkins et al., Phys. Plasmas (2013)]. The field can also reduce hohlraum laser-plasma interactions by increasing the temperature, and supress the transport of hot electron preheat to the capsule. These combined attributes of compressed B-fields may permit recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic conditions and, more generally, may permit attainment of ignition in targets redesigned to operate under reduced drive and/or lower convergence ratios. Present engineering studies are also assessing the maximum attainable fields for a NIF hohlraum coil driven by a pulsed power supply located in a NIF Diagnostic Insertion Module (DIM). LLNL is operated by LLNS, LLC, for the U.S.DOE, NNSA under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work supported by LLNL LDRD 14-ER-028.

  10. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-09-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF construction was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 27, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility, will ultimately produce 1.8-MJ, 500-TW of 351-nm third-harmonic, ultraviolet light. On March 10, 2009, total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began in August 2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments includes diagnostics, a cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational, integrated into the facility, and ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely

  11. Transport and handling of National Ignition Facility beamline optic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Yakuma, S.C.; Grasz, E.L.; Rowe, A.W.; Yourchenko, G.; Swan, D.A.; Robles, G.M.

    1997-12-23

    Installing the thousands of optics that make up the laser for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex operation. This paper introduces the Optical Transport and Material Handling designs that will be used to deliver the optics. The transport and handling hardware is being designed to allow autonomous, semiautonomous, and manual operations.

  12. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. The NIF project is scheduled for completion in March 2009. Currently, all 192 beams have been operationally qualified and have produced over 4.0 MJ of light at the fundamental wavelength of 1053 nm, making NIF the world's first megajoule laser. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader scientific applications. The plan is to begin 96-beam symmetric indirect-drive ICF experiments early in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). This national effort to achieve fusion ignition is coordinated through a detailed plan that includes the science, technology and equipment such as diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator and user optics required for ignition experiments. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility soon after project completion and to conduct a credible ignition campaign in 2010. When the NIF is complete, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustaining nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory will be much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of inertial fusion energy (IFE) and will likely focus

  13. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  14. The physics basis for ignition using indirect-drive targets on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindl, John D.; Amendt, Peter; Berger, Richard L.; Glendinning, S. Gail; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Haan, Steven W.; Kauffman, Robert L.; Landen, Otto L.; Suter, Laurence J.

    2004-02-01

    The 1990 National Academy of Science final report of its review of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the 10-beam Nova laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the highest-priority prerequisite for proceeding with construction of an ignition-scale laser facility, now called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These objectives were chosen to demonstrate that there was sufficient understanding of the physics of ignition targets that the laser requirements for laboratory ignition could be accurately specified. This research on Nova, as well as additional research on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester, is the subject of this review. The objectives of the U.S. indirect-drive target physics program have been to experimentally demonstrate and predictively model hohlraum characteristics, as well as capsule performance in targets that have been scaled in key physics variables from NIF targets. To address the hohlraum and hydrodynamic constraints on indirect-drive ignition, the target physics program was divided into the Hohlraum and Laser-Plasma Physics (HLP) program and the Hydrodynamically Equivalent Physics (HEP) program. The HLP program addresses laser-plasma coupling, x-ray generation and transport, and the development of energy-efficient hohlraums that provide the appropriate spectral, temporal, and spatial x-ray drive. The HEP experiments address the issues of hydrodynamic instability and mix, as well as the effects of flux asymmetry on capsules that are scaled as closely as possible to ignition capsules (hydrodynamic equivalence). The HEP program also addresses other capsule physics issues associated with ignition, such as energy gain and energy loss to the fuel during implosion in the absence of alpha-particle deposition. The results from the Nova and Omega experiments approach the NIF requirements for most of the important ignition capsule parameters, including

  15. Shock ignition: a new approach to high gain inertial confinement fusion on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L J; Betti, R; LaFortune, K N; Williams, W H

    2009-07-24

    Shock ignition, an alternative concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, is explored as a new approach to high gain, inertial confinement fusion targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results indicate thermonuclear yields of approximately 120-250 MJ may be possible with laser drive energies of 1-1.6 MJ, while gains of approximately 50 may still be achievable at only approximately 0.2 MJ drive energy. The scaling of NIF energy gain with laser energy is found to be G approximately 126E (MJ);{0.510}. This offers the potential for high-gain targets that may lead to smaller, more economic fusion power reactors and a cheaper fusion energy development path. PMID:19659364

  16. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  17. High Performance Imaging Streak Camera for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Opachich, Y. P.; Kalantar, D.; MacPhee, A.; Holder, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Hatch, B.; Brown, C.; Landen, O.; Perfect, B. H.; Guidry, B.; Mead, A.; Charest, M.; Palmer, N.; Homoelle, D.; Browning, D.; Silbernagel, C.; Brienza-Larsen, G.; Griffin, M.; Lee, J. J.; Haugh, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray streak camera platform has been characterized and implemented for use at the National Ignition Facility. The camera has been modified to meet the experiment requirements of the National Ignition Campaign and to perform reliably in conditions that produce high EMI. A train of temporal UV timing markers has been added to the diagnostic in order to calibrate the temporal axis of the instrument and the detector efficiency of the streak camera was improved by using a CsI photocathode. The performance of the streak camera has been characterized and is summarized in this paper. The detector efficiency and cathode measurements are also presented.

  18. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P M; Robey, H F; Boehly, T R; Alger, E; Azevedo, S; Berzins, L V; Bhandarkar, S D; Bowers, M W; Brereton, S J; Callahan, D; Castro, C; Chandrasekaran, H; Choate, C; Clark, D; Coffee, K R; Datte, P S; Dewald, E L; DiNicola, P; Dixit, S; Doeppner, T; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, M J; Eggert, J H; Fair, J; Farley, D R; Frieders, G; Gibson, C R; Giraldez, E; Haan, S; Haid, B; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C; Hicks, D G; Holunga, D M; Horner, J B; Jancaitis, K; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kline, J L; Krauter, K G; Kroll, J J; LaFortune, K N; Pape, S L; Malsbury, T; Maypoles, E R; Milovich, J L; Moody, J D; Moreno, K; Munro, D H; Nikroo, A; Olson, R E; Parham, T; Pollaine, S; Radousky, H B; Ross, G F; Sater, J; Schneider, M B; Shaw, M; Smith, R F; Thomas, C A; Throop, A; Town, R J; Trummer, D; Van Wonterghem, B M; Walters, C F; Widmann, K; Widmayer, C; Young, B K; Atherton, L J; Collins, G W; Landen, O L; Lindl, J D; MacGowan, B J; Meyerhofer, D D; Moses, E I

    2011-10-24

    An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a reentrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.

  19. Diagnosing and controlling mix in National Ignition Facility implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B. A.; Scott, H. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Suter, L. J.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Peterson, K.

    2011-05-15

    High mode number instability growth of ''isolated defects'' on the surfaces of National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] capsules can be large enough for the perturbation to penetrate the imploding shell, and produce a jet of ablator material that enters the hot-spot. Since internal regions of the CH ablator are doped with Ge, mixing of this material into the hot-spot results in a clear signature of Ge K-shell emission. Evidence of jets entering the hot-spot has been recorded in x-ray images and spectra, consistent with simulation predictions [Hammel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 6, 171 (2010)]. Ignition targets have been designed to minimize instability growth, and capsule fabrication improvements are underway to reduce ''isolated defects.'' An experimental strategy has been developed where the final requirements for ignition targets can be adjusted through direct measurements of mix and experimental tuning.

  20. Radiochemistry diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Cerjan, C J; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Bernstein, L A; Stoyer, M A; Fortner, R J; Schneider, D H

    2010-02-22

    Radiochemistry-based techniques will be an important complement to x-ray implosion diagnostics. Simulations demonstrate the value of alpha-induced or deuteron-induced reactions as a direct measurement of static mix contamination in DT-filled ignition capsules. In this proceedings we examine to what extent neutron-induced reactions might be highly correlated with the energetically down-scattered neutron fraction which is, in turn, related to the critical quantity of fuel areal density, {rho}R. Although alpha and deuteron reactions are highly suppressed in HT/D-filled capsules, neutron-induced reactions produce robust abundances and 2% measurements of the relevant radiological ratios is achievable. We conclude that radiochemical data are strongly correlated with the down-scattered fraction and fuel areal density. Unknown physics, primarily uncertainties in the direct T-T fusion neutron cross section and, to a lesser extent, various radiochemical production cross sections are important but calibration shots can be used to reduce these errors. The primary advantage of radiochemistry remains - it is the only technique that samples down-scattered neutrons from the entire capsule during the burn. In particular radiochemistry correlated with other diagnostics can be used to minimize experimental uncertainties and thus maximize gain.

  1. High resolution simulations of ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Cook, A W; Edwards, M J; Hammel, B A; Koning, J M; Marinak, M M

    2011-02-17

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and - most recently - experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as two thousand, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to two hundred on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode twelve hundred have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  2. The National Ignition Facility Wavefront Requirements and Optical Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W; Whitman, P A; Henesian, M

    2004-01-05

    With the first four of its eventual 192 beams now executing shots, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is already the world's largest and most energetic laser. The optical system performance requirements that are in place for NIF are derived from the goals of the missions it is designed to serve. These missions include inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and the study of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. These mission requirements have led to a design strategy for achieving high quality focusable energy and power from the laser and to specifications on optics that are important for an ICF laser. The design of NIF utilizes a multipass architecture with a single large amplifier type that provides high gain, high extraction efficiency and high packing density. We have taken a systems engineering approach to the practical implementation of this design that specifies the wavefront parameters of individual optics in order to achieve the desired cumulative performance of the laser beamline. This presentation provides a detailed look at the causes and effects of performance degradation in large laser systems and how NIF has been designed to overcome these effects. We will also present results of spot size performance measurements that have validated many of the early design decisions that have been incorporated in the NIF laser architecture.

  3. The National Ignition Facility Wavefront Requirements and Optical Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Whitman, P K; Henesian, M A; Stowers, I F; Honig, J

    2004-06-03

    With the first four of its eventual 192 beams now executing shots and generating more than 100 kilojoules of laser energy at its primary wavelength of 1.06 {micro}m, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is already the world's largest and most energetic laser. The optical system performance requirements that are in place for NIF are derived from the goals of the missions it is designed to serve. These missions include inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and the study of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. These mission requirements have led to a design strategy for achieving high quality focusable energy and power from the laser and to specifications on optics that are important for an ICF laser. The design of NIF utilizes a multipass architecture with a single large amplifier type that provides high gain, high extraction efficiency and high packing density. We have taken a systems engineering approach to the practical implementation of this design that specifies the wavefront parameters of individual optics in order to achieve the desired cumulative performance of the laser beamline. This presentation provides a detailed look at the causes and effects of performance degradation in large laser systems and how NIF has been designed to overcome these effects. We will also present results of spot size performance measurements that have validated many of the early design decisions that have been incorporated in the NIF laser architecture.

  4. The Wavefront Control System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Van Atta, L; Perez, M; Zacharias, R; Rivera, W

    2001-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires that pulses from each of the 192 laser beams be positioned on target with an accuracy of 50 {micro}m rms. Beam quality must be sufficient to focus a total of 1.8 MJ of 0.351-{micro}m light into a 600-{micro}m-diameter volume. An optimally flat beam wavefront can achieve this pointing and focusing accuracy. The control system corrects wavefront aberrations by performing closed-loop compensation during laser alignment to correct for gas density variations. Static compensation of flashlamp-induced thermal distortion is established just prior to the laser shot. The control system compensates each laser beam at 10 Hz by measuring the wavefront with a 77-lenslet Hartmann sensor and applying corrections with a 39-actuator deformable mirror. The distributed architecture utilizes SPARC AXi computers running Solaris to perform real-time image processing of sensor data and PowerPC-based computers running VxWorks to compute mirror commands. A single pair of SPARC and PowerPC processors accomplishes wavefront control for a group of eight beams. The software design uses proven adaptive optic control algorithms that are implemented in a multi-tasking environment to economically control the beam wavefronts in parallel. Prototype tests have achieved a closed-loop residual error of 0.03 waves rms. aberrations, the spot size requirement and goal could not be met without a wavefront control system.

  5. Ignition target design and robustness studies for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Krauser, W.J.; Hoffman, N.M.; Wilson, D.C.

    1995-12-01

    Recent results are presented from two-dimensional LASNEX calculations of the indirectly driven hohlraum and ignition capsules proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The calculations concentrate on two capsule designs, the baseline design which has a bromine-doped plastic ablator, and the beryllium design which has a copper-doped beryllium ablator. Both capsules have a cryogenic fuel layer. Primary emphasis in these calculations is placed upon robustness studies detailing various sensitivities. These studies fall naturally into two categories, those performed with integrated modeling where the capsule, hohlraum, and laser rays all are modeled simultaneously with the laser power levels as the only energy input, and those performed in a capsule-only mode where an externally imposed drive is applied to the exterior of the ignition capsule and only the capsule performance is modeled. Integrated modeling calculations address sensitivities to, e.g., the laser pointing; among other things, capsule-only calculations address yield degradation due to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by initial surface roughnesses on the capsules. Limitations of the calculational models and directions for future research are discussed. The results of the robustness studies performed to date enhance the authors` confidence that the NIF can achieve ignition and produce 10--15 MJ of capsule yield with one or more capsule designs.

  6. Laser design basis for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.; Manes, K.R.; Murray, J.R.; Renard, P.A.; Sawicki, R.; Trenholme, J.B.; Williams, W.

    1994-06-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion initiated by highly intense laser beams has been the subject of experiment for many years. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents the culmination of design efforts to provide a laser facility that will successfully demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory. In this so-called inertial confinement approach, energetic driver beams (laser, X-ray, or charged particle) heat the outer surface of a spherical capsule containing deuterium and tritium (DT) fuel. As the capsule surface explosively evaporates, reaction pressure compresses the DT fuel causing the central core of the fuel to reach extreme density and temperature. When the central temperature is high enough, DT fusion reactions occur. The energy released from these reactions further heats the compressed fuel, and fusion burn propagates outward through the colder regions of the capsule much more rapidly than the inertially confined capsule can expand. The resulting fusion reactions yield many times more energy than was absorbed from the driver beams.

  7. Analysis of optics damage growth at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z. M.; Nostrand, M.; Whitman, P.; Bude, J.

    2015-11-01

    Optics damage growth modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica. We will show the results of single shot growth comparisons, damage site lifetime comparisons as well as growth metrics for each individual NIF beamline. These results help validate the consistency of the damage growth models and allow us to have confidence in our strategic planning in regards to projected optic usage.

  8. Status Of The National Ignition Campaign And National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Lagin, L; Brunton, G; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Fisher, J; Fishler, B; Ludwigsen, P; Marshall, C; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Townsend, S

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that will contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an object-oriented, CORBA-based system distributed among over 1800 frontend processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. In the fall of 2010, a set of experiments began with deuterium and tritium filled targets as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). At present, all 192 laser beams routinely fire to target chamber center to conduct fusion and high energy density experiments. During the past year, the control system was expanded to include automation of cryogenic target system and over 20 diagnostic systems to support fusion experiments were deployed and utilized in experiments in the past year. This talk discusses the current status of the NIC and the plan for controls and information systems to support these experiments on the path to ignition.

  9. A review of indirect-drive ignition design options for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Thomas R.

    1998-11-01

    As construction continues on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Livermore, ignition capsule design and fabrication efforts also continue at both LLNL and LANL. These efforts are directed toward finding the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule most likely to achieve ignition and propagated burn when imploded by x-rays obtained from the conversion of laser light in a gold hohlraum, i. e., the indirect drive method. At this time, copper doped beryllium (Be+Cu) and polyimide (C_22H_10N_2O_4) remain as possible capsule ablator material candidates. We choose these materials based on both successful implosion performance as predicted by one-, two-, and three dimensional numerical simulations and on suitable fabrication and material characteristics. These characteristics include attainable surface finishes, permeability, strength, radio frequency and/or infrared radiation transmission, thermal conductivity, and material homogeneity. Numerical simulations predict that capsules with either a Be+Cu or a polyimide ablator have less sensitivity to initial surface roughnesses than polystyrene (CH) ablator capsules. We have designed ignition capsules using these two ablator materials to operate at both low peak drive temperature (250 eV) and low total laser energy (900 kJ). These drive conditions are significantly less than NIF and fuel confinement time consistent with achieving ignition. Fabrication of Be+Cu shells appears feasible by two different methods: LANL has demonstrated shell assembly by brazing together machined hemispheres and LLNL has successfully sputter deposited Be on spherical mandrels. To enhance surface smoothness, this latter technique may require the addition of boron during the sputtering process. Polyimide material has the advantage of being transparent to optical, infrared, and radio frequency radiation. These properties will allow visual inspection of the DT ice layer formation, and enhancement of the ice surface smoothness once formed

  10. Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility

    SciTech Connect

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; McGeoch, M. W.

    2006-05-15

    An approach to a high-repetition ignition facility based on direct drive with the krypton-fluoride laser is presented. The objective is development of a 'Fusion Test Facility' that has sufficient fusion power to be useful as a development test bed for power plant materials and components. Calculations with modern pellet designs indicate that laser energies well below a megajoule may be sufficient. A smaller driver would result in an overall smaller, less complex and lower cost facility. While this facility might appear to have most direct utility to inertial fusion energy, the high flux of neutrons would also be able to address important issues concerning materials and components for other approaches to fusion energy. The physics and technological basis for the Fusion Test Facility are presented along with a discussion of its applications.

  11. Progress in modelling ignition implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J.

    2016-03-01

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign on the National Ignition Facility showed significant discrepancies between 2-D simulations predictions of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of implosion degradation within a reasonable 2-D simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories. Since this simulation study was undertaken, more recent experiments have brought to light several effects that can significantly impact implosion performance, in particular large inflight long-wavelength shell asymmetries and larger than expected perturbations seeded by the capsule support tent. These effects are now being included in the simulation model and show improved agreement with observation. In addition, full-capsule 3-D simulations with resolution adequate to model the dominant unstable hydrodynamic modes are being run and show further improvements in agreement with experiment.

  12. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  13. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories participation in the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyes, J.; Boyer, W.; Chael, J.; Cook, D.; Cook, W.; Downey, T.; Hands, J.; Harjes, C.; Leeper, R.; McKay, P.; Micano, P.; Olson, R.; Porter, J.; Quintenz, J.; Roberts, V.; Savage, M.; Simpson, W.; Seth, A.; Smith, R.; Wavrik, M.; Wilson, M.

    1996-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility is a $1.1B DOE Defense Programs Inertial Confinement Fusion facility supporting the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The goal of the facility is to achieve fusion ignition and modest gain in the laboratory. The NIF project is responsible for the design and construction of the 192 beam, 1.8 MJ laser necessary to meet that goal. - The project is a National project with participation by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (URLLE) and numerous industrial partners. The project is centered at LLNL which has extensive expertise in large solid state lasers. The other partners in the project have negotiated their participation based on the specific expertise they can bring to the project. In some cases, this negotiation resulted in the overall responsibility for a WBS element; in other cases, the participating laboratories have placed individuals in the project in areas that need their individual expertise. The main areas of Sandia`s participation are in the management of the conventional facility design and construction, the design of the power conditioning system, the target chamber system, target diagnostic instruments, data acquisition system and several smaller efforts in the areas of system integration and engineering analysis. Sandia is also contributing to the technology development necessary to support the project by developing the power conditioning system and several target diagnostics, exploring alternate target designs, and by conducting target experiments involving the ``foot`` region of the NIF power pulse. The project has just passed the mid-point of the Title I (preliminary) design phase. This paper will summarize Sandia`s role in supporting the National Ignition Facility and discuss the areas in which Sandia is contributing. 3 figs.

  15. The National Ignition Facility Data Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, R W; Adams, P A; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Hutton, M S; Lagin, L J; Townsend, S L

    2009-09-24

    NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. This presentation discusses the design, architecture, and implementation of the NIF Data Repository (NDR), which provides for the capture and long-term digital storage of peta-scale datasets produced by conducting experimental campaigns. The NDR is a federated database that provides for the capture of: experimental campaign plans, machine configuration & calibration data, raw experimental results and the processed results produced by scientific workflows. The NDR provides for metadata, pedigree, quality, effectivity, versioning and access control for each of the data categories. A critical capability of the NDR is its extensive data provisioning capabilities and protocols that enable scientists, local and remote alike, to review the results of analysis produced by the NDR's analysis pipeline or to download datasets for offline analysis. The NDR provides for the capture of these locally-produced analysis results to enable both peer review and follow-on automated analysis.

  16. National Ignition Facility Project Completion and Control System Status

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P J; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Fisher, J M; Frazier, T M; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Reed, R K

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. Completed in 2009, NIF is a stadium-sized facility containing a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW 192-beam ultraviolet laser and target chamber. A cryogenic tritium target system and suite of optical, X-ray and nuclear diagnostics will support experiments in a strategy to achieve fusion ignition starting in 2010. Automatic control of NIF is performed by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is implemented by 2 MSLOC of Java and Ada running on 1300 front-end processors and servers. The ICCS framework uses CORBA distribution for interoperation between heterogeneous languages and computers. Laser setup is guided by a physics model and shots are coordinated by data-driven distributed workflow engines. The NIF information system includes operational tools and a peta-scale repository for provisioning experimental results. This paper discusses results achieved and the effort now underway to conduct full-scale operations and prepare for ignition.

  17. Capsule Performance Optimization for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, Otto

    2009-11-01

    The overall goal of the capsule performance optimization campaign is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. This will be accomplished using a variety of targets that will set key laser, hohlraum and capsule parameters to maximize ignition capsule implosion velocity, while minimizing fuel adiabat, core shape asymmetry and ablator-fuel mix. The targets include high Z re-emission spheres setting foot symmetry through foot cone power balance [1], liquid Deuterium-filled ``keyhole'' targets setting shock speed and timing through the laser power profile [2], symmetry capsules setting peak cone power balance and hohlraum length [3], and streaked x-ray backlit imploding capsules setting ablator thickness [4]. We will show how results from successful tuning technique demonstration shots performed at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. We will also present estimates of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors, and show that these get reduced after a number of shots and iterations to meet an acceptable level of residual uncertainty. Finally, we will present results from upcoming tuning technique validation shots performed at NIF at near full-scale. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] E. Dewald, et. al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (2008) 10E903. [0pt] [2] T.R. Boehly, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 16 (2009) 056302. [0pt] [3] G. Kyrala, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 247. [0pt] [4] D. Hicks, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 2.

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  19. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Batha, S. H.

    2014-09-01

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  20. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S. A. Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  1. Assuring operational readiness of the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Sandra J; Papp, Frank

    2013-06-01

    National Ignition Facility experiments involve the use of a variety of materials that generate a number of radiological issues. Along with the use of tritium and depleted uranium, shots generating neutrons create prompt radiation fields as well as fission and activation products. In order to assure readiness for these hazards, a series of readiness reviews was conducted as the hazards were introduced. Each step was built upon the previous steps, as well as the basic infrastructure and operating capability of the laser facility. A detailed preparation plan for the introduction of these hazards was developed. This included ensuring required equipment was in place and ready, all plans and procedures were developed, and personnel were trained and qualified to perform work in the environment. The approach for preparing the facility for operations under the new set of conditions, the preparations for the readiness reviews, the review process, as well as the approach to initial operations are discussed. PMID:23629065

  2. Systems reliability analysis for the national ignition facility

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, K.C.; Annese, C.E.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-06-12

    A Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) analysis was initiated for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is an inertial confinement fusion research facility designed to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction; the preferred site for the NIF is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF RAM analysis has three purposes: (1) to allocate top level reliability and availability goals for the systems, (2) to develop an operability model for optimum maintainability, and (3) to determine the achievability of the allocated goals of the RAM parameters for the NIF systems and the facility operation as a whole. An allocation model assigns the reliability and availability goals for front line and support systems by a top-down approach; reliability analysis uses a bottom-up approach to determine the system reliability and availability from component level to system level.

  3. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  4. Automated Experimental Data Analysis at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S G; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bond, E J; Edwards, P W; Glenn, S M; Liebman, J A; Tappero, J D; Warrick, A L; Williams, W H

    2009-09-24

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam 1.8 MJ ultraviolet laser system designed to support high-energy-density science, including demonstration of inertial confinement fusion ignition. After each target shot lasting {approx}20 ns, scientists require data acquisition, analysis and display within 30 minutes from more than 20 specialized high-speed diagnostic instruments. These diagnostics measure critical x-ray, optical and nuclear phenomena during target burn to quantify ignition results and compare to computational models. All diagnostic data (hundreds of Gbytes) are automatically transferred to an Oracle database that triggers the NIF Shot Data Analysis (SDA) Engine, which distributes the signal and image processing tasks to a Linux cluster. The SDA Engine integrates commercial workflow tools and messaging technologies into a scientific software architecture that is highly parallel, scalable, and flexible. Results are archived in the database for scientist approval and displayed using a web-based tool. The unique architecture and functionality of the SDA Engine will be presented along with an example.

  5. National Ignition Facility Control and Information System Operational Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C D; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Fisher, J M; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Mathisen, D G; Lagin, L J; Rhodes, J J; Shaw, M J

    2009-10-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, is the world's highest-energy laser fusion system and one of the premier large scale scientific projects in the United States. The system is designed to setup and fire a laser shot to a fusion ignition or high energy density target at rates up to a shot every 4 hours. NIF has 192 laser beams delivering up to 1.8 MJ of energy to a {approx}2 mm target that is planned to produce >100 billion atm of pressure and temperatures of >100 million degrees centigrade. NIF is housed in a ten-story building footprint the size of three football fields as shown in Fig. 1. Commissioning was recently completed and NIF will be formally dedicated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29, 2009. The control system has 60,000 hardware controls points and employs 2 million lines of control system code. The control room has highly automated equipment setup prior to firing laser system shots. This automation has a data driven implementation that is conducive to dynamic modification and optimization depending on the shot goals defined by the end user experimenters. NIF has extensive facility machine history and infrastructure maintenance workflow tools both under development and deployed. An extensive operational tools suite has been developed to support facility operations including experimental shot setup, machine readiness, machine health and safety, and machine history. The following paragraphs discuss the current state and future upgrades to these four categories of operational tools.

  6. A polar-drive-ignition design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Anderson, K. S.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Zuegel, J. D.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2012-05-15

    Polar drive [Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] will enable direct-drive experiments to be conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], while the facility is configured for x-ray drive. A polar-drive ignition design for the NIF has been developed that achieves a gain of 32 in two-dimensional (2-D) simulations, which include single- and multiple-beam nonuniformities and ice and outer-surface roughness. This design requires both single-beam UV polarization smoothing and one-dimensional (1-D) multi-frequency modulator (MFM) single-beam smoothing to achieve the required laser uniformity. The multi-FM smoothing is employed only during the low-intensity portion of the laser pulse, allowing for the use of sufficient smoothing-by-spectral-dispersion bandwidth while maintaining safe laser operations during the high-intensity part of the pulse. This target is robust to all expected sources of perturbations.

  7. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Archuleta, T N; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Danly, C R; Day, R D; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Oertel, J A; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-10-24

    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system will be presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system will be presented. We will also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  8. A sensitive neutron spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, R. G.; Chrien, R. E.; Klare, K. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Wilson, D. C.; Haan, S.

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a sensitive neutron spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility laser at Livermore. The spectrometer will consist of a 1020 channel single-neutron-interaction time-of-flight detector array fielded 23 m from the neutron-producing target. It will use an existing detector array together with upgraded electronics for improved time resolution. Measurements of neutron yield, ion and electron temperatures, and density-radius product are all possible under certain conditions using one-, two-, or three-step reaction processes. The locations of the most important potential sources of scattered neutron backgrounds are determined as the first step in designing collimation to reduce these backgrounds.

  9. Polar-direct-drive experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Hohenberger, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Bates, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Dixit, S. N.; Edgell, D. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Karasik, M.; Knauer, J. P.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Obenschein, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Regan, S. P.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sio, H.; Skupsky, S.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-05-01

    Polar-direct-drive experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are being used to validate direct-drive-implosion models. Energy coupling and fast-electron preheat are the primary issues being studied in planar and imploding geometries on the NIF. Results from backlit images from implosions indicate that the overall drive is well modeled although some differences remain in the thickness of the imploding shell. Implosion experiments to mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and preheat from two-plasmon decay are planned for the next year.

  10. The neutron imaging system fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittinghoff, D. N.; Atkinson, D. P.; Bower, D. E.; Drury, O. B.; Dzenitis, J. M.; Frank, M.; Liddick, S. N.; Moran, M. J.; Roberson, G. P.; Weiss, P. B.; Grim, G. P.; Aragonez, R. J.; Archuleta, T. N.; Batha, S. H.; Clark, D. D.; Clark, D. J.; Danly, C. R.; Day, R. D.; Fatherley, V. E.; Finch, J. P.; Garcia, F. P.; Gallegos, R. A.; Guler, N.; Hsu, A. H.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Mares, D.; Martinson, D. D.; Merrill, F. E.; Morgan, G. L.; Munson, C.; Murphy, T. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Polk, P. J.; Schmidt, D. W.; Tregillis, I. L.; Valdez, A. C.; Volegov, P. L.; Wang, T. F.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilke, M. D.; Wilson, D. C.; Buckles, R. A.; Cradick, J. R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Lutz, S. S.; Malone, R. M.; Traille, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system is presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system is presented. We also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  11. The First Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; Glenzer, S; Froula, D; Dewald, E; Suter, L J; Schneider, M; Hinkel, D; Fernandez, J; Kline, J; Goldman, S; Braun, D; Celliers, P; Moon, S; Robey, H; Lanier, N; Glendinning, G; Blue, B; Wilde, B; Jones, O; Schein, J; Divol, L; Kalantar, D; Campbell, K; Holder, J; MacDonald, J; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A; Collins, R; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Gregori, G; Kirkwood, R; Young, B; Foster, J; Hansen, F; Perry, T; Munro, D; Baldis, H; Grim, G; Heeter, R; Hegelich, B; Montgomery, D; Rochau, G; Olson, R; Turner, R; Workman, J; Berger, R; Cohen, B; Kruer, W; Langdon, B; Langer, S; Meezan, N; Rose, H; Still, B; Williams, E; Dodd, E; Edwards, J; Monteil, M; Stevenson, M; Thomas, B; Coker, R; Magelssen, G; Rosen, P; Stry, P; Woods, D; Weber, S; Alvarez, S; Armstrong, G; Bahr, R; Bourgade, J; Bower, D; Celeste, J; Chrisp, M; Compton, S; Cox, J; Constantin, C; Costa, R; Duncan, J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Gautier, C; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hargrove, D; James, T; Kamperschroer, J; Kimbrough, J; Landon, M; Lee, D; Malone, R; May, M; Montelongo, S; Moody, J; Ng, E; Nikitin, A; Pellinen, D; Piston, K; Poole, M; Rekow, V; Rhodes, M; Shepherd, R; Shiromizu, S; Voloshin, D; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Young, P; Arnold, P; Atherton, L J; Bardsley, G; Bonanno, R; Borger, T; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S; Cooper, F; Dixit, S; Erbert, G; Eder, D; Ehrlich, B; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Gardner, S; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Hall, T; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermann, M; Hermes, G; Huber, S; Jancaitis, K; Johnson, S; Kauffman, B; Kelleher, T; Kohut, T; Koniges, A E; Labiak, T; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lund, D; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K R; Marshall, C; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Menapace, J; Mertens, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Ross, G; Robert, V; Tobin, M; Sailors, S; Saunders, R; Schmitt, M; Shaw, M; Singh, M; Spaeth, M; Stephens, A; Tietbohl, G; Tuck, J; Van Wonterghem, B; Vidal, R; Wegner, P; Whitman, P; Williams, K; Winward, K; Work, K

    2005-11-11

    A first set of laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and x-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options.

  12. Preliminary hazards analysis for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In summary, it provides: a general description of the facility and its operation; identification of hazards at the facility; and details of the hazards analysis, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions. As part of the safety analysis procedure set forth by DOE, a PHA must be performed for the NIF. The PHA characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility, and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required, and the DOE Order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis report. The hazards of primary concern associated with NIF are radiological and toxicological in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of radionuclides and chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels and by examining postulated bounding accidents associated with the hazards of greatest significance. Such postulated bounding accidents cannot take into account active mitigative features; they must assume the unmitigated consequences of a release, taking into account only passive safety features. In this way, the intrinsic hazard level of the facility can be ascertained.

  13. Safety systems and access control in the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert K; Bell, Jayce C

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser system. The facility has the potential to generate ionizing radiation due to the interaction between the laser beams and target material, with neutrons and gamma rays being produced during deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. To perform these experiments, several types of hazards must be mitigated and controlled to ensure personnel safety. NIF uses a real-time safety system to monitor and mitigate the hazards presented by the facility. The NIF facility Safety Interlock System (SIS) monitors for oxygen deficiency and controls access to the facility preventing exposure to laser light and radiation from the Radiation Generating Devices. It also interfaces to radiation monitoring and other radiological monitoring and alarm systems. The SIS controls permissives to the hazard-generating equipment and annunciates hazard levels in the facility. To do this reliably and safely, the SIS has been designed as a fail-safe system with a proven performance record now spanning over 10 y. This paper discusses the SIS, its design, implementation, operator interfaces, validation/verification, and the hazard mitigation approaches employed in the NIF. A brief discussion of the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis supporting the SIS will also be presented. The paper ends with a general discussion of SIS do's and don'ts and common design flaws that should be avoided in SIS design. PMID:23629061

  14. Control and Information Systems for the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brunton, Gordon; Casey, Allan; Christensen, Marvin; Demaret, Robert; Fedorov, Mike; Flegel, Michael; Folta, Peg; Fraizer, Timothy; Hutton, Matthew; Kegelmeyer, Laura; et al

    2015-11-03

    Orchestration of every National Ignition Facility (NIF) shot cycle is managed by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which uses a scalable software architecture running code on more than 1950 front-end processors, embedded controllers, and supervisory servers. The ICCS operates laser and industrial control hardware containing 66 000 control and monitor points to ensure that all of NIF’s laser beams arrive at the target within 30 ps of each other and are aligned to a pointing accuracy of less than 50 μm root-mean-square, while ensuring that a host of diagnostic instruments record data in a few billionths of a second.more » NIF’s automated control subsystems are built from a common object-oriented software framework that distributes the software across the computer network and achieves interoperation between different software languages and target architectures. A large suite of business and scientific software tools supports experimental planning, experimental setup, facility configuration, and post-shot analysis. Standard business services using open-source software, commercial workflow tools, and database and messaging technologies have been developed. An information technology infrastructure consisting of servers, network devices, and storage provides the foundation for these systems. This paper is an overview of the control and information systems used to support a wide variety of experiments during the National Ignition Campaign.« less

  15. Control and Information Systems for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, Gordon; Casey, Allan; Christensen, Marvin; Demaret, Robert; Fedorov, Mike; Flegel, Michael; Folta, Peg; Fraizer, Timothy; Hutton, Matthew; Kegelmeyer, Laura; Lagin, Lawrence; Ludwigsen, Pete; Reed, Robert; Speck, Douglas; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2015-11-03

    Orchestration of every National Ignition Facility (NIF) shot cycle is managed by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which uses a scalable software architecture running code on more than 1950 front-end processors, embedded controllers, and supervisory servers. The ICCS operates laser and industrial control hardware containing 66 000 control and monitor points to ensure that all of NIF’s laser beams arrive at the target within 30 ps of each other and are aligned to a pointing accuracy of less than 50 μm root-mean-square, while ensuring that a host of diagnostic instruments record data in a few billionths of a second. NIF’s automated control subsystems are built from a common object-oriented software framework that distributes the software across the computer network and achieves interoperation between different software languages and target architectures. A large suite of business and scientific software tools supports experimental planning, experimental setup, facility configuration, and post-shot analysis. Standard business services using open-source software, commercial workflow tools, and database and messaging technologies have been developed. An information technology infrastructure consisting of servers, network devices, and storage provides the foundation for these systems. This paper is an overview of the control and information systems used to support a wide variety of experiments during the National Ignition Campaign.

  16. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-07-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  17. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  18. Debris Characterization Diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Celeste, J.R. Stoyer, M.A.; Suter, L.J.; Tobin, M.T.; Grun, J.; Davis, J.F.; Barnes, C.W.; Wilson, D.C.

    2000-06-07

    Generation of debris from targets and by x-ray ablation of surrounding materials will be a matter of concern for experimenters and the operations staff at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Target chamber and final optics protection, for example debris shield damage, and efficient facility operation drive the interest for the NIF staff. Experimenters are primarily concerned with diagnostic survivability, separation of mechanical versus radiation induced test object response in the case of effects tests, and radiation transport through the debris field when the net radiation output is used to benchmark computer codes. In addition, radiochemical analysis of activated capsule debris during ignition shots can provide a measure of the ablator. Conceptual design of the Debris Monitor and Rad-Chem Station, one of the NIF core diagnostics, is presented. Methods of debris collection, particle size and mass analysis, impulse measurement, and radiochemical analysis are given. A description of recent experiments involving debris collection and impulse measurement on the OMEGA and Pharos lasers is also provided.

  19. First Hohlraum Drives Studies on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald,E.; Landen, O.; Suter, L.; et al; .

    2006-01-01

    The first hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the first four laser beams have activated the indirect-drive experimental capabilities and tested radiation temperature limits imposed by hohlraum plasma filling. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 9 TW, 1 to 9 ns long square pulses and energies of up to 17 kJ to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed previously at other laser facilities. Furthermore, for a variety of hohlraum sizes and pulse lengths, the measured x-ray flux shows signatures of plasma filling that coincide with hard x-ray emission from plasma streaming out of the hohlraum. These observations agree with hydrodynamic simulations and with analytical modeling that includes hydrodynamic and coronal radiative losses. The modeling predicts radiation temperature limits on full NIF (1.8 MJ) that are significantly greater than required for ignition hohlraums.

  20. Defense in depth: laser safety and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jamie J.

    2011-03-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or "Defense in Depth."

  1. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  2. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  3. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Larson, D. J.; et al

    2016-01-06

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by themore » function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Lastly, recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF are discussed.« less

  4. PROMPT DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S

    2008-09-23

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately understand the prompt radiation environment within NIF. Prompt dose values are calculated for different phases of NIF operation. Results of the analysis were used to determine the final thicknesses of the Target Bay (TB) and secondary doors as well as the required shield thicknesses for all unused penetrations. Integrated dose values at different locations within the facility are needed to formulate the personnel access requirements within different parts of the facility. The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration; (2) All shielding requirements for Phase I operation are met; (3) Negligible dose values (a fraction of mrem) are expected in normally occupied areas during Phase I; (4) In preparation for the Ignition Campaign and Phase IV of operation, all primary and secondary shield doors will be installed; (5) Unused utility penetrations in the Target Bay and Switchyard walls ({approx}50%) will be shielded by 1 foot thick concrete to reduce prompt dose inside and outside the NIF facility; (6) During Phase IV, a 20 MJ shot will produce acceptable dose levels in the occupied areas as well as at the nearest site boundary; (7) A comprehensive radiation monitoring plan will be put in place to monitor dose values at large number of locations; and (8) Results of the dose monitoring will be used to modify personnel access requirements if needed.

  5. Hot-Spot Mix in Ignition-Scale Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.

    2011-10-01

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume.The ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < λ < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 100-ng allowance for hot-spot mix.1 Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results. The measured dependence of hot-spot mix on the implosion velocity and on the high-mode ablator-surface perturbations will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with the National Ignition Campaign Mix Working Group. S. W. Haan et. al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011>).

  6. National Ignition Facility (NIF) FY2015 Facility Use Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, P.; Wisoff, Jeff

    2014-12-18

    Major features of the FY2015 NIF Use Plan include: • Performing a record number of layered DT experiments with 28 planned compared with 15 in FY2014. Executing the first plutonium experiments on the NIF in support of the Science Campaigns. • Over 300 targets shots, a 57% increase compared to FY14. This is a stretch goal defined in the 120-Day Study document, and relies upon the success of many shot-rate improvement actions, as well as on the distribution of shot type selected by the users. While the Plan is consistent with this goal, the increased proportion of layered DT experiments described above reduces the margin against this goal. • Commissioning of initial ARC capability, which will support both SSP-HED and SSPICF programs. • Increase in days allocated to Discovery Science to a level that supports an ongoing program for academic use of NIF and an annual solicitation for new proposals. • Six Facility Maintenance and Reconfiguration (FM&R) periods totaling 30 days dedicated to major facility maintenance and modifications. • Utilization of the NIF Facility Advisory Schedule Committee (FASC) to provide stakeholder review and feedback on the NIF schedule. The Use Plan assumes a total FY2015 LLNL NIF Operations funding in MTE 10.7 of $229.465M and in MTE 10.3 of 47.0M. This Use Plan will be revised in the event of significant changes to the FY2015 funding or if NNSA provides FY2016 budget guidance significantly reduced compared to FY2015.

  7. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hsing, W. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell thickness

  8. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Doeppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; and others

    2012-12-15

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% {+-} 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel {rho}R on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell

  9. The National Ignition Facility: the World's Largest Optics and Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Campbell, J H; Stolz, C J; Wuest, C R

    2003-01-27

    The National Ignition Facility, a center for the study of high energy density plasma physics and fusion energy ignition, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The heart of the NIF is a frequency tripled, flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser system comprised of 192 independent laser beams. The laser system is capable of generating output energies of 1.8MJ at 351nm and at peak powers of 500 TW in a flexible temporal pulse format. A description of the NIF laser system and its major components is presented. We also discuss the manufacture of nearly 7500 precision large optics required by the NIF including data on the manufactured optical quality vs. specification. In addition, we present results from an on-going program to improve the operational lifetime of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm section of the laser.

  10. Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volegov, P.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Merrill, F. E.; Warrick, A. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2014-02-01

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (˜100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics.

  11. Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Izumi, N; Ma, T; Merrill, F E; Warrick, A L; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2014-02-01

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics. PMID:24593362

  12. Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volegov, P.; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Warrick, A. L.

    2014-02-15

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics.

  13. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R. L.

    2014-05-15

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8 MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6 × 10{sup 13} and ∼0.3 g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  14. Validating hydrodynamic growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L. Casey, D. T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Raman, K. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    We present new hydrodynamic growth experiments at the National Ignition Facility, which extend previous measurements up to Legendre mode 160 and convergence ratio 4, continuing the growth factor dispersion curve comparison of the low foot and high foot pulses reported by Casey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 011102(R) (2014)]. We show that the high foot pulse has lower growth factor and lower growth rate than the low foot pulse. Using novel on-capsule fiducial markers, we observe that mode 160 inverts sign (changes phase) for the high foot pulse, evidence of amplitude oscillations during the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase of a spherically convergent system. Post-shot simulations are consistent with the experimental measurements for all but the shortest wavelength perturbations, reinforcing the validity of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of ablation front growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

  15. Optical assembly and alignment for the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, P.A.; Grasz, E.L.; Wong, H.; Schmitt, E.H.; Simmons, M.R.

    1997-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will use about 8,000 large optics to carry a high-power laser through a stadium-size building, and will do so on a very tight schedule and budget. The collocated Optics Assembly Building (OAB) will assemble and align, in a clean-room environment, the NIF`s large optics, which are the biggest optics ever assembled in such an environment. In addition, the OAB must allow for just-in-time processing and clean transfer to the areas where the optics will be used. By using a mixture of off-the-shelf and newly designed equipment and by working with industry, we have developed innovative handling systems to perform the clean assembly and precise alignment required for the full variety of optics, as well as for postassembly inspection. We have also developed a set of loading mechanisms that safely get the clean optics to their places in the main NIF building.

  16. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, L A; McCarville, T; Decker, T; Pardini, T; Ayers, J; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Brejnholt, N F; Izumi, N; Mirkarimi, P; Pivovaroff, M; Smalyuk, V; Vogel, J; Walton, C; Kilkenny, J

    2014-11-01

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10-25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μm field of view. PMID:25430187

  17. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Rygg, J R; Zylstra, A B; Séguin, F H; LePape, S; Bachmann, B; Craxton, R S; Garcia, E M; Kong, Y Z; Gatu-Johnson, M; Khan, S F; Lahmann, B J; McKenty, P W; Petrasso, R D; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sayre, D B; Sio, H W

    2015-11-01

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF's 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the (3)He(d,p)(4)He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10(10) protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n)(3)He reactions also show 2 × 10(10) isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons. PMID:26628185

  18. Hydrodynamic growth and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, J.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Landen, O.; McNaney, J.; Mintz, M.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Pino, J.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rowley, D.; Tipton, R.; Weber, S.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix were studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. In addition, implosion performance and mix have been studied at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits to yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role.

  19. Next Generation Gamma Ray Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Barlow, D. B.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Hernandez, J. E.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Moy, K.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.

    Fusion reaction history and ablator areal density measurements based on gamma ray detection are an essential part of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Capability improvements are being implemented in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m). The ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will provide 200x more sensitivity, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps, and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) - a Compton spectrometer intended to provide true gamma energy resolution (<=5%) for isolation of specific lines such as t(d, γ) , D(n, γ) , 12C(n,n' γ) and energetic charged particle nuclear reactions indicative of ablator/fuel mix

  20. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  1. Optical Propagation Modeling for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W H; Auerbach, J M; Henesian, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Manes, K R; Mehta, N C; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A; Shaw, M J; Widmayer, C C

    2004-01-12

    Optical propagation modeling of the National Ignition Facility has been utilized extensively from conceptual design several years ago through to early operations today. In practice we routinely (for every shot) model beam propagation starting from the waveform generator through to the target. This includes the regenerative amplifier, the 4-pass rod amplifier, and the large slab amplifiers. Such models have been improved over time to include details such as distances between components, gain profiles in the laser slabs and rods, transient optical distortions due to the flashlamp heating of laser slabs, measured transmitted and reflected wavefronts for all large optics, the adaptive optic feedback loop, and the frequency converter. These calculations allow nearfield and farfield predictions in good agreement with measurements.

  2. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rygg, J. R.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Khan, S. F.; Sayre, D. B.; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H. W.; Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; McKenty, P. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.

    2015-11-15

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF’s 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10{sup 10} protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He reactions also show 2 × 10{sup 10} isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  3. Shot-time photography at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovec, Donald; Christensen, Kim

    2015-08-01

    The Nation Ignition Facility (NIF) conducts a variety of experiments to study matter at the extremes, including studies of material properties, hydrodynamics, and the interaction of intense radiation fields with matter. The NIF supports the users by operating twenty-four hours a day, with a laser shot rate that averages one per day. We have developed a shot time camera that has the capability to provide an image of each shot for the users. While initially more of a promotional tool, there is emerging interest from the scientific staff in support of their experiments at the NIF. The shot time camera is a time integrated, shot-triggered, digital camera that images visible light generated at shot time in the NIF target chamber. It is selectable by the user and operates automatically with the NIF shot cycle. We will discuss the system design, recent results, and plans for the future.

  4. Optimization of the National Ignition Facility primary shield design

    SciTech Connect

    Annese, C.E.; Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.; Miller, W.F.; Latkowski, J.; Lee, J.D.; Soran, P.; Tobin, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    Minimum cost design concepts of the primary shield for the National Ignition laser fusion experimental Facility (NIF) are searched with the help of the optimization code SWAN. The computational method developed for this search involves incorporating the time dependence of the delayed photon field within effective delayed photon production cross sections. This method enables one to address the time-dependent problem using relatively simple, time-independent transport calculations, thus significantly simplifying the design process. A novel approach was used for the identification of the optimal combination of constituents that will minimize the shield cost; it involves the generation, with SWAN, of effectiveness functions for replacing materials on an equal cost basis. The minimum cost shield design concept was found to consist of a mixture of polyethylene and low cost, low activation materials such as SiC, with boron added near the shield boundaries.

  5. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, A; Alger, T; Azevedo, S; Chang, J; Glenn, S; Kegelmeyer, L; Liebman, J; Spaeth, M; Whitman, P

    2007-10-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will routinely fire high energy shots (approaching 10 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics will be inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's the growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the 'corner stone' of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  6. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conder, Alan; Chang, Jim; Kegelmeyer, Laura; Spaeth, Mary; Whitman, Pam

    2010-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely fires high energy shots (> 6 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics are inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the "corner stone" of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  7. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conder, Alan; Alger, Terry; Azevedo, Stephen; Chang, Jim; Glenn, Steven; Kegelmeyer, Laura; Liebman, Judith; Spaeth, Mary; Whitman, Pam

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will routinely fire high energy shots (approaching 10 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics will be inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's the growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the "corner stone" of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  8. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, J. R.; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Khan, S. F.; Lahmann, B. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Sio, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF's 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the 3He(d,p)4He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (1010 protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (˜13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n)3He reactions also show 2 × 1010 isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  9. Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wade H.; Auerbach, Jerome M.; Henesian, Mark A.; Jancaitis, Kenneth S.; Manes, Kenneth R.; Mehta, Naresh C.; Orth, Charles D.; Sacks, Richard A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Widmayer, Clifford C.

    2004-05-01

    Optical propagation modeling of the National Ignition Facility has been utilized extensively from conceptual design several years ago through to early operations today. In practice we routinely (for every shot) model beam propagation starting from the waveform generator through to the target. This includes the regenerative amplifier, the 4-pass rod amplifier, and the large slab amplifiers. Such models have been improved over time to include details such as distances between components, gain profiles in the laser slabs and rods, transient optical distortions due to the flashlamp heating of laser slabs, measured transmitted and reflected wavefronts for all large optics, the adaptive optic feedback loop, and the frequency converter. These calculations allow nearfield and farfield predictions in good agreement with measurements.

  10. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pickworth, L. A. McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C.; Kilkenny, J.

    2014-11-15

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μm field of view.

  11. Configuring the National Ignition Facility for direct-drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1995-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a project whose primary mission is to provide an above-ground experimental capability for maintaining nuclear competence and weapons effects simulation, and to pursue the achievement of fusion ignition utilizing solid state lasers as the energy driver. In this facility a large number of laser beams are focused onto a small target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The laser energy is delivered in a few billionths of a second, raising the temperature and density of the nuclear materials in the target to levels where significant thermonuclear energy is released. The thermonuclear reaction proceeds very rapidly, so that the target materials remain confined by their own inertia during the thermonuclear reaction. This type of approach is called inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The proposed project is described in a conceptual design report (CDR) that was released in May 1994. Early in FY95, a collaboration between the University of Rochester and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established to study reconfiguring the NIF to accommodate direct-drive experiments. The present paper is a report to the scientific community, primarily the scientists and engineers working on the design of the NIF. It represents results from work in progress, specifically work completed by the end of the second quarter FY95. This report has two main sections. The first describes the target requirements on the laser drive, and the second part describes how the NIF laser can be configured to accommodate both indirect and direct drive. The report includes a description of the scientific basis for these conclusions. Though a complete picture does not exist, the present understanding is sufficient to conclude that the primary target requirements and laser functional requirements for indirect and direct drive are quite compatible. It is evidently straightforward to reconfigure the NIF to accommodate direct and indirect drive.

  12. Development and testing of an ignition physics test facility and an oxygen/methane swirl torch igniter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Jesus Roberto

    There are many advantages to LOX/methane propulsion, such as in-situ resource utilization from Mars and the Moon, and simplicity of ground operations due to its non-toxic nature. There exists a lack of fundamental understanding of the ignition physics, and flame characteristics of these propellants when related to rocket propulsion, which has created undesirably long design cycles and flight hardware that is not optimized. Motivated by these issues, a study of the ignition physics of a shear coaxial injector is proposed, in which the flow field dynamics and ignition transients will be observed through a visually accessible combustion chamber. The main goal of this work is to study the effects of geometric differences of the injector, such as recess in the liquid oxygen post and thickness of the LOX post, on the jet breakup downstream of the injector, and the flame anchoring mechanism and location. A facility was developed to support this endeavor in a safe and efficient way, including a cryogenic delivery system, a Multipurpose Optically Accessible Combustor (MOAC) with torch igniter, and a bunker with a Data Acquisition and Remote Controls system (DARCS). A swirl coflow premixed torch igniter was designed, manufactured and developed with the intent of using it as the MOAC's main ignition source. It was designed to use oxygen and methane as the propellants in an incremental step towards the goal of a LOX/methane rocket engine. Extensive testing was done on the igniter in the development phase to prove that it will reliable ignite and sustain combustion under a variety of propellant inlet conditions of which include: warm gas, cold gas, and liquid cryogenic conditions. The testing phase also provided data for component reliability and proof of concept for the testing facilities designed, especially for the cryogenic delivery system, and methane condensing unit. Future injector testing parameters of the hardware produced is included along with recommendations to

  13. THE AUTOIGNITION OF CYCLOPENTANE IN AN IGNITION QUALITY TESTER

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-08-01

    Cyclopentane, a flammable hydrocarbon, is being considered as a working fluid for waste heat recovery applications using Organic Rankine Cycles with Direct Evaporators. A postulated failure mode consisting of a pinhole leak in a heat exchanger tube raises safety concerns due to autoignition of the working fluid. The ignition delay time (IDT) of cyclopentane was measured using an Ignition Quality Test™ (IQT™) device. Hot, vitiated air was used to simulate turbine exhaust gas (TEG). Experiments were conducted in accordance with ASTM D6890 (with exception to charge pressure and temperature) to determine ignition delay of the fuel at atmospheric pressure for vitiated air (13.3% oxygen). The test matrixencompassed equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and chamber temperatures ranging from 673 to 823 K to establish a set of ignition delay curves. IDT was observed to decrease with increasing temperature and equivalence ratio. For the cases tested, no ignition was observed at temperatures at or below 723 K or at an equivalence ratio of 0.5.

  14. Design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Richard J.; Karpenko, Victor P.; Adams, Chris H.; Patel, C. S.; Pittenger, L. C.; Lee, F. Dean; Reitz, T. C.; Hibbard, Wilthea J.; Horton, W. R.; Trummer, David J.; Tobin, Michael T.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Wavrik, R. W.; Pittman, P. C.

    1997-12-01

    The preliminary design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility has been completed. The target area is required to meet a challenging set of engineering system design requirements and user needs. The target area must provide the appropriate conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and subsequent target emissions represent new design challenges for ICF facility design. Prior to each shot, the target area must provide the required target illumination, target chamber vacuum, diagnostics, and optically stable structures. During the shot, the impact of the target emissions on the target chamber, diagnostics, and optical elements is minimized and the workers and public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, residual radioactivation is managed to allow the required accessibility. Diagnostic data is retrieved, operations and maintenance activities are conducted, and the facility is ready for the next shot. The target area subsystems include the target chamber, target positioner, structural systems, target diagnostics, environmental systems, and the final optics assembly. The engineering design of the major elements of the target area requires a unique combination of precision engineering, structural analysis, opto-mechanical design, random vibration suppression, thermal stability, materials engineering, robotics, and optical cleanliness. The facility has been designed to conduct both x-ray driven targets and to be converted at a later date for direct drive experiments. The NIF has been configured to provide a wide range of experimental environments for the anticipated user groups of the facility. The design status of the major elements of the target area is described.

  15. ICStatus and progress of the National Ignition Facility as ICF and HED user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Kauffman, R. L.; Larson, D. W.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Since its completion in 2009, the National Ignition Facility has been operated in support of NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship mission, providing unique experimental data in the high energy density regime. We will describe the progress made by the National Ignition facility in the user office and management, facility capabilities, target diagnostics and diagnostics development. We will also discuss the results of a major effort to increase the shot rate on NIF. An extensive set of projects, developed in conjunction with the HED community and drawing on best practices at other facilities, improved shot rate by over 80% and recently enabled us to deliver 356 target experiments in FY15 in support of the users. Through an updated experimental set-up and review process, computer controlled set-up of the laser and diagnostics and disciplined operations, NIF also continued to deliver experimental reliability, precision and repeatability. New and complex platforms are introduced with a high success rate. Finally we discuss how new capabilities and further efficiency improvements will enable the successful execution of ICF and HED experimental programs required to support the quest for Ignition and the broader Science Based Stockpile Stewardship mission

  16. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hamza, A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2007-05-15

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures ({approx_equal}4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx_equal}790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (<3 {mu}m), development of nanoporous (<100 nm cell size) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood-number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented that utilize either 1 or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the National Ignition Facility to generate the requested 2 MJ reverse-ramp pulse shape for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx_equal}100) pulse shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nanocrystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned

  17. National Ignition Facility neutron time-of-flight measurements (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, R. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Moran, M. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Eckart, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Haslam, J. J.; Clancy, T. J.; Yeoman, M. F.; Warwas, D. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2010-10-01

    The first 3 of 18 neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2×1010 2.45 MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates that the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  18. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Glebov, V Y; Moran, M J; McNaney, J M; Kilkenny, J D; Eckart, M; Zacharias, R A; Haslam, J J; Clancy, T J; Yeoman, M F; Warwas, D P; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C; Knauer, J; Horsfield, C J

    2010-05-13

    The first three of eighteen neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2 x 10{sup 10} 2.45-MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  19. Overview of small optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, D; Bissinger, H D

    1999-07-01

    LLNL's project to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192 beam laser system capable of generating enough light energy necessary to achieve fusion ignition, will require 26,641 small optics, many of which will be supplied in the form of cleaned, tested and aligned assemblies. These assemblies will be built to print, cleaned to specifications, and tested to performance specifications, ready to be installed in the laser system. A wide range of potential suppliers will participate in the manufacture of these sophisticated opto-mechanical systems. The injection laser system requires 7,440 precision optical components manufactured to state of the art performance specifications. In addition to 550 aspheric lenses, almost 2,000 precision spherical elements are required. Wave-fronts are specified in terms of P-V, RMS and RMS Gradient wave-front error, with strict requirements on the filtering and resolution which is required. Precision polarizers, high reflectors, leaking mirrors, high damage threshold coatings and cleanliness levels of 50 to 100 are also specified for this section of the NIF laser. The alignment and diagnostics systems for the NIF require 19,201 optics, many of which have requirements that exceed those of the injection laser system. All of these optics will be purchased using the ISO 10110 drawing notations. Other sections of the laser system will utilize commercial, off the shelf components to control cost. This paper will give an overview of the project and its objectives, with specific attention to the small optics required for the NIF. Keywords: NIF, small optics, overview, components.

  20. The Hohlraum Drive Campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John D.

    2013-10-01

    The Hohlraum drive effort on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser has three primary goals: 1) improve hohlraum performance by improving laser beam propagation, reducing backscatter from laser plasma interactions (LPI), controlling x-ray and electron preheat, and modifying the x-ray drive spectrum; 2) improve understanding of crossbeam energy transfer physics to better evaluate this as a symmetry tuning method; and 3) improve modeling in order to find optimum designs. Our experimental strategy for improving performance explores the impact of significant changes to the hohlraum shape, wall material, gasfill composition, and gasfill density on integrated implosion experiments. We are investigating the performance of a rugby-shaped design that has a significantly larger diameter (7 mm) at the waist than our standard 5.75 mm diameter cylindrical-shaped hohlraum but maintains approximately the same wall area. We are also exploring changes to the gasfill composition in cylindrical hohlraums by using neopentane at room temperature to compare with our standard helium gasfill. In addition, we are also investigating higher He gasfill density (1.6 mg/cc vs nominal 0.96 mg/cc) and increased x-ray drive very early in the pulse. Besides these integrated experiments, our strategy includes experiments testing separate aspects of the hohlraum physics. These include time-resolved and time-integrated measurements of cross-beam transfer rates and laser-beam spatial power distribution at early and late times using modified targets. Non-local thermal equilibrium modeling and heat transport relevant to ignition experiments are being studied using sphere targets on the Omega laser system. These simpler targets provide benchmarks for improving our modeling tools. This talk will summarize the results of the Hohlraum Drive campaign and discuss future directions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  1. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D{sub 2} gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ∼500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 × 10{sup 14} to 1.2 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2}. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Bates, J. W.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Karasik, M.; Kessler, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Kurz, C.; Lafon, M.; LaFortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meeker, J. F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Obenschain, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmayer, C.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-05-11

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D₂ gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10¹⁴ to 1.2 10¹⁵W/cm². Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Bates, J. W.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Karasik, M.; Kessler, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Kurz, C.; Lafon, M.; LaFortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meeker, J. F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Obenschain, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmayer, C.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D2 gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500-750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 x 1014 to 1.2 x 1015 W/cm2. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  4. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; et al

    2015-05-11

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beammore » geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D₂ gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10¹⁴ to 1.2 10¹⁵W/cm². Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.« less

  5. Multi-axis neutron imaging at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittinghoff, D. N.; Bettencourt, R.; Christensen, K.; Grim, G. P.; Hibbard, R. L.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Shingleton, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Fatherley, V. E.; Simpson, R.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) rely on a neutron imager to measure the 2D size and shape of the neutron-producing region in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma. Since the existing neutron imager is located on the equator of the NIF chamber, it provides only one view of the plasma, which complicates understanding the inherently three-dimensional nature of the implosion. Attempts to use x-ray images combined with the neutron image to improve our understanding of the 3D neutron-burn volume have proved to be inconsistent with the fuel mass. This result is understandable since neutrons and x-rays are not produced or propagated in the same manner. Thus, it is desirable to use multiple neutron imagers, and we are designing two neutron imagers on lines of sight that are nearly orthogonal to the current imager, one near the pole of the chamber and one near the equator, for fielding on the NIF in the next five years. In this paper, we will discuss the current designs, including the resolution, field of view and placement in the facility that will be required to use the three orthogonal neutron imagers to measure the neutron burn volume of plasmas at NIF. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. National Ignition Facility and Managing Location, Component, and State

    SciTech Connect

    Foxworthy, C; Fung, T; Beeler, R; Li, J; Dugorepec, J; Chang, C

    2011-07-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system coupled with a 10-meter diameter target chamber. There are over 6,200 Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) comprised of more than 104,000 serialized parts that make up the NIF. Each LRU is a modular unit typically composed of a mechanical housing, laser optics (glass, lenses, or mirrors), and utilities. To date, there are more than 120,000 data sets created to characterize the attributes of these parts. Greater than 51,000 Work Permits have been issued to install, maintain, and troubleshoot the components. One integrated system is used to manage these data, and more. The Location Component and State (LoCoS) system is a web application built using Java Enterprise Edition technologies and is accessed by over 1,200 users. It is either directly or indirectly involved with each aspect of NIF work activity, and interfaces with ten external systems including the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and the Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM). Besides providing business functionality, LoCoS also acts as the NIF enterprise service bus. In this role, numerous integration approaches had to be adopted including: file exchange, database sharing, queuing, and web services in order to accommodate various business, technical, and security requirements. Architecture and implementation decisions are discussed.

  7. National Ignition Facility Project Site Safety Program Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2001-09-30

    These rules apply to all National Ignition Facility (NIF) workers (workers), which include Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) employees, non-LLNL employees (including contract labor, supplemental labor, vendors, personnel matrixed/assigned from other national laboratories, participating guests, visitors and students) and contractors/subcontractors. The General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices shall be used by management to promote the prevention of incidents through indoctrination, safety and health training, and on-the-job application. As a condition for contract award, all employers shall conduct an orientation for all newly hired and rehired employees before those workers will be permitted to start work in this facility. This orientation shall include a discussion of the following information. The General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices must be posted at a conspicuous location at the job site office or be provided to each supervisory worker who shall have it readily available. Copies of the General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices can also be included in employee safety pamphlets. The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) rules at the NIF Project site are based upon compliance with the most stringent of Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL, Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), California (Cal)/OSHA, and federal and state environmental requirements.

  8. The first target experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Froula, D. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Suter, L. J.; Schneider, M. B.; Hinkel, D. E.; Fernandez, J. C.; Kline, J. L.; Goldman, S. R.; Braun, D. G.; Celliers, P. M.; Moon, S. J.; Robey, H. S.; Lanier, N. E.; Glendinning, S. G.; Blue, B. E.; Wilde, B. H.; Jones, O. S.; Schein, J.; Divol, L.; Kalantar, D. H.; Campbell, K. M.; Holder, J. P.; McDonald, J. W.; Niemann, C.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Collins, G. W.; Bradley, D. K.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Gregori, G.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Young, B. K.; Foster, J. M.; Hansen, J. F.; Perry, T. S.; Munro, D. H.; Baldis, H. A.; Grim, G. P.; Heeter, R. F.; Hegelich, M. B.; Montgomery, D. S.; Rochau, G. A.; Olson, R. E.; Turner, R. E.; Workman, J. B.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Kruer, W. L.; Langdon, A. B.; Langer, S. H.; Meezan, N. B.; Rose, H. A.; Still, C. H.; Williams, E. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Monteil, M.-C.; Stevenson, R. M.; Thomas, B. R.; Coker, R. F.; Magelssen, G. R.; Rosen, P. A.; Stry, P. E.; Woods, D.; Weber, S. V.; Young, P. E.; Alvarez, S.; Armstrong, G.; Bahr, R.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Bower, D.; Celeste, J.; Chrisp, M.; Compton, S.; Cox, J.; Constantin, C.; Costa, R.; Duncan, J.; Ellis, A.; Emig, J.; Gautier, C.; Greenwood, A.; Griffith, R.; Holdner, F.; Holtmeier, G.; Hargrove, D.; James, T.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Landon, M.; Lee, F. D.; Malone, R.; May, M.; Montelongo, S.; Moody, J.; Ng, E.; Nikitin, A.; Pellinen, D.; Piston, K.; Poole, M.; Rekow, V.; Rhodes, M.; Shepherd, R.; Shiromizu, S.; Voloshin, D.; Warrick, A.; Watts, P.; Weber, F.; Young, P.; Arnold, P.; Atherton, L.; Bardsley, G.; Bonanno, R.; Borger, T.; Bowers, M.; Bryant, R.; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S.; Cooper, F.; Dixit, S. N.; Erbert, G.; Eder, D. C.; Ehrlich, R. E.; Felker, B.; Fornes, J.; Frieders, G.; Gardner, S.; Gates, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Grace, S.; Hall, T.; Haynam, C. A.; Heestand, G.; Henesian, M. A.; Hermann, M.; Hermes, G.; Huber, S.; Jancaitis, K.; Johnson, S.; Kauffman, B.; Kelleher, T.; Kohut, T.; Koniges, A. E.; Labiak, T.; Latray, D.; Lee, A.; Lund, D.; Mahavandi, S.; Manes, K. R.; Marshall, C.; McBride, J.; McCarville, T.; McGrew, L.; Menapace, J.; Mertens, E.; Murray, J.; Neumann, J.; Newton, M.; Opsahl, P.; Padilla, E.; Parham, T.; Parrish, G.; Petty, C.; Polk, M.; Powell, C.; Reinbachs, I.; Rinnert, R.; Riordan, B.; Ross, G.; Robert, V.; Tobin, M.; Sailors, S.; Saunders, R.; Schmitt, M.; Shaw, M.; Singh, M.; Spaeth, M.; Stephens, A.; Tietbohl, G.; Tuck, J.; van Wonterghem, B. M.; Vidal, R.; Wegner, P. J.; Whitman, P.; Williams, K.; Winward, K.; Work, K.; Wallace, R.; Nobile, A.; Bono, M.; Day, B.; Elliott, J.; Hatch, D.; Louis, H.; Manzenares, R.; O'Brien, D.; Papin, P.; Pierce, T.; Rivera, G.; Ruppe, J.; Sandoval, D.; Schmidt, D.; Valdez, L.; Zapata, K.; MacGowan, B. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Springer, P. T.; Hammel, B. A.; Moses, E. I.; Miller, G. H.

    2007-08-01

    A first set of shock timing, laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and X-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1 9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options. The experiments have demonstrated excellent agreement between measured and predicted laser-target coupling in foils and hohlraums, even when extended to a longer pulse regime unattainable at previous laser facilities, validated the predicted effects of beam smoothing on intense laser beam propagation in long scale-length plasmas and begun to test 3D codes by extending the study of laser driven hydrodynamic jets to 3D geometries.

  9. Pressure Effects Analysis of National Ignition Facility Capacitor Module Events

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S; Ma, C; Newton, M; Pastrnak, J; Price, D; Prokosch, D

    1999-11-22

    Capacitors and power conditioning systems required for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have experienced several catastrophic failures during prototype demonstration. These events generally resulted in explosion, generating a dramatic fireball and energetic shrapnel, and thus may present a threat to the walls of the capacitor bay that houses the capacitor modules. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of the capacitor bay walls to withstand the overpressure generated by the aforementioned events. Two calculations are described in this paper. The first one was used to estimate the energy release during a fireball event and the second one was used to estimate the pressure in a capacitor module during a capacitor explosion event. Both results were then used to estimate the subsequent overpressure in the capacitor bay where these events occurred. The analysis showed that the expected capacitor bay overpressure was less than the pressure tolerance of the walls. To understand the risk of the above events in NIF, capacitor module failure probabilities were also calculated. This paper concludes with estimates of the probability of single module failure and multi-module failures based on the number of catastrophic failures in the prototype demonstration facility.

  10. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

    2001-10-19

    The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

  11. Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Alger, E. T.; Berger, R. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Burkhart, S. C.; Burr, R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Castro, C.; Choate, C.; Clark, D. S.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; DiNicola, P.; DiNicola, J. M.; and others

    2012-05-15

    The first inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments with equimolar deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fuel have been performed on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments use 0.17 mg of fuel with the potential for ignition and significant fusion yield conditions. The thermonuclear fuel has been fielded as a cryogenic layer on the inside of a spherical plastic capsule that is mounted in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 192 laser beams for a total laser energy of 1.6 MJ produces a soft x-ray field with 300 eV temperature. The ablation pressure produced by the radiation field compresses the initially 2.2-mm diameter capsule by a factor of 30 to a spherical dense fuel shell that surrounds a central hot-spot plasma of 50 {mu}m diameter. While an extensive set of x-ray and neutron diagnostics has been applied to characterize hot spot formation from the x-ray emission and 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium primary fusion neutrons, thermonuclear fuel assembly is studied by measuring the down-scattered neutrons with energies in the range of 10 to 12 MeV. X-ray and neutron imaging of the compressed core and fuel indicate a fuel thickness of (14 {+-} 3) {mu}m, which combined with magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements of the fuel areal density of (1 {+-} 0.09) g cm{sup -2} result in fuel densities approaching 600 g cm{sup -3}. The fuel surrounds a hot-spot plasma with average ion temperatures of (3.5 {+-} 0.1) keV that is measured with neutron time of flight spectra. The hot-spot plasma produces a total fusion neutron yield of 10{sup 15} that is measured with the magnetic recoil spectrometer and nuclear activation diagnostics that indicate a 14.1 MeV yield of (7.5{+-}0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} which is 70% to 75% of the total fusion yield due to the high areal density. Gamma ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity of (170 {+-} 30) ps. These indirect-drive implosions result in the highest areal densities

  12. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P; Cerjan, C; Hamza, A; Hinkel, D; Milovich, J L; Robey, H F

    2006-10-26

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include non-cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma mediated laser backscatter, low threshold ignition temperatures ({approx} 4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx} 790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (< 3 {micro}m), development of nano-porous (<100 nm) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials-science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented which utilize either 1 MJ or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the NIF to generate the requested reverse-ramp pulse shape for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx}100) pulse-shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nano-crystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nano-porous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nano-materials science developments and the

  13. Scaling laws for ignition at the National Ignition Facility from first principles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J T; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven H

    2013-10-01

    We have developed an analytical physics model from fundamental physics principles and used the reduced one-dimensional model to derive a thermonuclear ignition criterion and implosion energy scaling laws applicable to inertial confinement fusion capsules. The scaling laws relate the fuel pressure and the minimum implosion energy required for ignition to the peak implosion velocity and the equation of state of the pusher and the hot fuel. When a specific low-entropy adiabat path is used for the cold fuel, our scaling laws recover the ignition threshold factor dependence on the implosion velocity, but when a high-entropy adiabat path is chosen, the model agrees with recent measurements. PMID:24229109

  14. Neutron activation diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited).

    PubMed

    Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Bernstein, L A; Bionta, R M; Caggiano, J A; Casey, D T; Cooper, G W; Drury, O B; Frenje, J A; Hagmann, C A; Hatarik, R; Knauer, J P; Johnson, M Gatu; Knittel, K M; Leeper, R J; McNaney, J M; Moran, M; Ruiz, C L; Schneider, D H G

    2012-10-01

    Neutron yields are measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by an extensive suite of neutron activation diagnostics. Neutrons interact with materials whose reaction cross sections threshold just below the fusion neutron production energy, providing an accurate measure of primary unscattered neutrons without contribution from lower-energy scattered neutrons. Indium samples are mounted on diagnostic instrument manipulators in the NIF target chamber, 25-50 cm from the source, to measure 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion neutrons through the (115)In(n,n')(115 m) In reaction. Outside the chamber, zirconium and copper are used to measure 14 MeV deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons via (90)Zr(n,2n), (63)Cu(n,2n), and (65)Cu(n,2n) reactions. An array of 16 zirconium samples are located on port covers around the chamber to measure relative yield anisotropies, providing a global map of fuel areal density variation. Neutron yields are routinely measured with activation to an accuracy of 7% and are in excellent agreement both with each other and with neutron time-of-flight and magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements. Relative areal density anisotropies can be measured to a precision of less than 3%. These measurements reveal apparent bulk fuel velocities as high as 200 km/s in addition to large areal density variations between the pole and equator of the compressed fuel. PMID:23126840

  15. Automatic Alignment System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhlelmsen, K C; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Horowitz, B; Miller Kamm, V J; Reynolds, C A

    2007-10-04

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 30 minutes. The system commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics. Twenty-two control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze high-resolution images of the beam and references. Process-leveling assures the computational load is evenly spread on the cluster. Algorithms also estimate measurement accuracy and reject off-normal images. One challenge to achieving rapid alignment of beams in parallel is the efficient coordination of shared laser devices, such as sensors that are configurable to monitor multiple beams. Contention for shared resources is managed by the Component Mediation System, which precludes deadlocks and optimizes device motions using a hierarchical component structure. A reservation service provided by the software framework prevents interference from competing instances of automated controls or from the actions of system operators. The design, architecture and performance of the system will be discussed.

  16. Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J M; Barker, C E; Burkhart, S C; Couture, S A; DeYoreo, J J; Hackel, L A; Hibbard, R L; Liou, L W; Norton, M A; Wegner, P J; Whitman, P A

    1998-10-30

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) incorporates a type I/type II third harmonic generator to convert the 1.053-{micro}m fundamental wavelength of the laser amplifier to a wavelength of 0.351 {micro}m for target irradiation. To understand and control the tolerances in the converter design, we have developed a comprehensive error budget that accounts for effects that are known to influence conversion efficiency, including variations in amplitude and phase of the incident laser pulse, temporal bandwidth of the incident laser pulse, crystal surface figure and bulk non-uniformities, angular alignment errors, Fresnel losses, polarization errors and crystal temperature variations. The error budget provides specifications for the detailed design of the NIF final optics assembly (FOA) and the fabrication of optical components. Validation is accomplished through both modeling and measurement, including full-scale Beamlet tests of a 37-cm aperture frequency converter in a NIF prototype final optics cell. The prototype cell incorporates full-perimeter clamping to support the crystals, and resides in a vacuum environment as per the NIF design.

  17. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  18. Imaging VISAR diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Bower, J R; Bradley, D K; Capelle, G A; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eckart, M J; Eggert, J H; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Hicks, D G; Kaufman, M I; MacGowan, B J; Montelongo, S; Ng, E W; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W; Zapata, P G

    2004-08-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. A VISAR (Velocity Interferometry System for Any Reflector) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two interferometers. A 60-kW VISAR probe laser operates at 659.5 nm with variable pulse width. Special coatings on the mirrors and cutoff filters are used to reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and to pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, passive shock breakout light, or thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing other experimenters to use that port. A unique resolution pattern has been designed to validate the VISAR diagnostic before each use. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. Seven CCD cameras monitor the diagnostic alignment.

  19. Radiological design aspects of the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Brereton, Sandra J; Khater, Hesham

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been designed to accommodate some challenging radiological conditions. The high prompt neutron source (up to 1.6 × 10(19) neutrons per shot) results in the need for significant fixed shielding. Concrete shielding approximately 2 m thick is used for the primary (target bay) shield. Penetrations in this shield, including those required for 192 laser beams, utilities, diagnostics, and 19 shielded personnel access doors, make the design challenging. An additional 28 shield doors are part of the secondary shield. In addition, the prompt neutron pulse results in activated air within the target bay, requiring special ventilation considerations. Finally, targets can use a number of hazardous and radioactive materials including tritium, beryllium, and depleted uranium (the latter of which results in the generation of small quantities of fission products). Frequent access is required to the associated potentially contaminated volumes for experimental setup, facilitating the need for local exhaust ventilation to manage these hazards. This paper reviews some of these challenges, design considerations, and the engineering solutions to these design requirements. PMID:23629060

  20. Modeling the National Ignition Facility neutron imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D C; Grim, G P; Tregillis, I L; Wilke, M D; Patel, M V; Sepke, S M; Morgan, G L; Hatarik, R; Loomis, E N; Wilde, C H; Oertel, J A; Fatherley, V E; Clark, D D; Fittinghoff, D N; Bower, D E; Schmitt, M J; Marinak, M M; Munro, D H; Merrill, F E; Moran, M J; Wang, T-S F; Danly, C R; Hilko, R A; Batha, S H; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-10-01

    Numerical modeling of the neutron imaging system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), forward from calculated target neutron emission to a camera image, will guide both the reduction of data and the future development of the system. Located 28 m from target chamber center, the system can produce two images at different neutron energies by gating on neutron arrival time. The brighter image, using neutrons near 14 MeV, reflects the size and symmetry of the implosion "hot spot." A second image in scattered neutrons, 10-12 MeV, reflects the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only ∼1%-7% of the neutrons. A misalignment of the pinhole assembly up to ±175 μm is covered by a set of 37 subapertures with different pointings. The model includes the variability of the pinhole point spread function across the field of view. Omega experiments provided absolute calibration, scintillator spatial broadening, and the level of residual light in the down-scattered image from the primary neutrons. Application of the model to light decay measurements of EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A suggests that DPAC-30 and Liquid A would be preferred over the BCF99-55 scintillator chosen for the first NIF system, if they could be fabricated into detectors with sufficient resolution. PMID:21033855

  1. Direct drive: Simulations and results from the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Radha, P. B.; Hohenberger, M.; Edgell, D. H.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Boehly, T. R.; et al

    2016-04-19

    Here, the direct-drive implosion physics is being investigated at the National Ignition Facility. The primary goal of the experiments is twofold: to validate modeling related to implosion velocity and to estimate the magnitude of hot-electron preheat. Implosion experiments indicate that the energetics is well-modeled when cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is included in the simulation and an overall multiplier to the CBET gain factor is employed; time-resolved scattered light and scattered-light spectra display the correct trends. Trajectories from backlit images are well modeled, although those from measured self-emission images indicate increased shell thickness and reduced shell density relative to simulations. Sensitivitymore » analyses indicate that the most likely cause for the density reduction is nonuniformity growth seeded by laser imprint and not laser-energy coupling. Hot-electron preheat is at tolerable levels in the ongoing experiments, although it is expected to increase after the mitigation of CBET. Future work will include continued model validation, imprint measurements, and mitigation of CBET and hot-electron preheat.« less

  2. Main amplifier power conditioning for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M., LLNL

    1998-06-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will utilize a 18 MJ glass laser to study inertial confinement fusion This laser will be driven by a power conditioning system which must simultaneously deliver over 260 MJ of electrical energy to the nearly 7700 flashlamps The power conditioning system is divided into independent modules that store, shape and deliver pulses of energy to the flashlamps The NIF power conditioning system which is being designed and built by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) in collaboration with LLNL and industrial partners, is a different architecture from any laser power conditioning system previously built at LLNL This particular design architecture was chosen as the most cost- effective way to reliably deliver the large amount of energy needed for NIF This paper will describe the development and design of the NIF power conditioning system It will discuss the design objectives as well as the key design issues and technical hurdles that are being addressed in an ongoing component development and system validation program being supported by both SNL and LLNL.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix are being studied in hohlraum-driven implosions using gas-filled plastic shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments are motivated by observed elevated amounts of plastic mixed into the hot spot, degrading the performance of high-compression cryogenic DT layered implosions on NIF. Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations are being developed to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. Ablation-front RT growth measurements will be carried out for mode numbers ranging from 30 to 80 at drive conditions relevant to high-compression cryogenic implosions. In addition, implosion performance and mix are being studied at peak compression using plastic ``Symcap'' shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions are used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction is used as a measure of implosion performance. Experimental results and comparisons with 1D and 2D simulations, including mix models, will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Direct drive: Simulations and results from the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Hohenberger, M.; Edgell, D. H.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Campbell, E. M.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Dixit, S. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Moody, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Petrasso, R. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Sio, H.; Skupsky, S.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-05-01

    Direct-drive implosion physics is being investigated at the National Ignition Facility. The primary goal of the experiments is twofold: to validate modeling related to implosion velocity and to estimate the magnitude of hot-electron preheat. Implosion experiments indicate that the energetics is well-modeled when cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is included in the simulation and an overall multiplier to the CBET gain factor is employed; time-resolved scattered light and scattered-light spectra display the correct trends. Trajectories from backlit images are well modeled, although those from measured self-emission images indicate increased shell thickness and reduced shell density relative to simulations. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the most likely cause for the density reduction is nonuniformity growth seeded by laser imprint and not laser-energy coupling. Hot-electron preheat is at tolerable levels in the ongoing experiments, although it is expected to increase after the mitigation of CBET. Future work will include continued model validation, imprint measurements, and mitigation of CBET and hot-electron preheat.

  5. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  6. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S J

    2002-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was originally prepared in 1997 in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported NIF Critical Decision 3, approval to initiate construction (DOE, 1997a). The plan was updated in 1998 to reflect realized risks such as the finding and successful clean up of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-filled electrical capacitors at the NIF excavation during initial construction and the litigation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship (DOE, 1996b) by a group of non-governmental organizations led by the Natural Resources Defense Council. The current update of the Risk Management Plan brings it into compliance with the applicable DOE Orders and Standards and addresses new risks, such as assuring safety during the period when construction, special equipment installation, and commissioning are occurring simultaneously at the NIF site, and the extensive use of models to manage technical performance risk. The objectives of the updated plan are to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting performance and regulatory requirements, ES&H, cost, and schedule; (2) Assess or the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H, costs, and schedule; and (3) Address suitable risk mitigation measures for each identified risk.

  7. National Ignition Facility Shot Data Analysis Module Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S; Glenn, S; Lopez, A; Warrick, A; Beeler, R

    2007-10-03

    This document provides the guidelines for software development of modules to be included in Shot Data Analysis (SDA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An Analysis Module is a software entity that groups a set of (typically cohesive) functions, procedures and data structures for performing an analysis task relevant to NIF shot operations. Each module must have its own unique identification (module name), clear interface specifications (data inputs and outputs), and internal documentation. It is vitally important to the NIF Program that all shot-related data be processed and analyzed in a consistent way that is reviewed by scientific and engineering experts. SDA is part of a NIF Integrated Product Team (IPT) whose goal is to provide timely and accurate reporting of shot results to NIF campaign experimentalists. Other elements of the IPT include the Campaign Management Tool (CMT) for configuring experiments, a data archive and provisioning system called CMS, a calibration and configuration database (CDMS), and a shot data visualization tool (SDV). We restrict our scope at this time to guidelines for modules written in Interactive Data Language, or IDL1. This document has sections describing example IDL modules and where to find them, how to set up a development environment, IDL programming guidelines, shared IDL procedures for general use, and revision control.

  8. A tour of the proposed National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    When built, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will house the world`s most powerful neodymium glass laser system. NIF will be 50 times more powerful than the Laboratory`s Nova laser, currently the world`s most powerful. The NIF will contain 192 independent laser beams, or {open_quotes}beamlets,{close_quotes} each with a square aperture of a little less than 40 cm on a side. For economy and efficiency, beamlets will be stacked four high and twelve wide into four large arrays. The beamlines will require more than 9000 large-format optics (greater than 40 x 40 cm) and several thousand smaller optics. Compared to the size of the current Nova facility at LLNL, which uses a single-pass amplifier laser architecture, the compact multipass design of the proposed NIF system allows us to put a laser with a typical output that is 40 times greater than Nova`s into a building only about twice the size. This article follows the path of a photon from the master oscillator and preamplifier, through the NIF main laser components, to the target. It also highlights some of the development efforts, begun many years ago, for components, such as the multipass glass amplifiers and plasma electrode Pockels cell, that allow us to design a large, multipass glass laser economically and at very low risk. Results from our recently completed Beamlet Demonstration Project, involving a prototype NIF beamline, along with the models and design codes we are testing ensure that we can have great confidence in the performance projected for NIF.

  9. Target area chamber system design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.; Boyes, J.; Olson, C.; Dempsey, F.; Garcia, R.; Karpenko, V.; Anderson, A.; Tobin, M.; Latkowski, J.

    1994-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed Department of Energy facility which will contribute to the resolution of important Defense Program and inertial fusion energy issues for energy production in the future. The NIF will consist of a laser system with 192 independent beamlets transported to a target chamber. The target chamber is a multi-purpose structure that provides the interface between the target and the laser optics. The chamber must be capable of achieving moderate vacuum levels in reasonable times; it must remain dimensionally stable within micron tolerances, provide support for the optics, diagnostics, and target positioner; it must minimize the debris from the x-ray and laser light environments; and it must be capable of supporting external neutron shielding. The chamber must also be fabricated from a low activation material. The fusion reaction in the target gives off neutrons, x-ray and gamma rays. The x-rays and gamma rays interact with the interior of the target chamber wall while neutrons penetrate the wall. In order to minimize the neutron activation of components outside the target chamber and to absorb gammas emitted from the activated chamber, shielding will be placed immediately outside the chamber. The target chamber contains the target positioner. The target positioner moves the target from outside the chamber to the center of the chamber and positions the target at the focal spot of the laser beams. The target positioner must be survivable in a harsh radioactive environment. The materials used must be low activation and have a high stiffness to weight ratio to maintain target stability. This paper describes the conceptual design of the target chamber, target postioner, and shielding for the NIF.

  10. National Ignition Facility monthly status report--February 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2000-02-29

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Safety: The Incident Analysis and Construction Management Safety Review Teams were formed to review the January 13, 2000, accident in which a worker received a back injury when a 42-in.-diameter duct fell during installation. One action is to contract DuPont to review the Safety Program. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering; (2) laser glass--a second pilot run at one of the two commercial suppliers is ongoing successfully; and (3) operational costs associated with final optics assembly (FOA) optics components--methods are being developed to mitigate 3{omega} damage and to resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The completion of the Title II design of laser equipment is now approximately 83% complete. The Beampath Infrastructure System is on the critical schedule path. The procurement strategy was evaluated by commercial construction management and Architectural/Engineering (A/E) contractors with a panel of independent experts, the Beampath Infrastructure System (BIS) Implementation Review Committee Advisory Group. The BIS Integration Management and Installation Services (IMI) Subcontractor solicitation package and approach

  11. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  12. Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeamans, C. B.; Cassata, W. S.; Church, J. A.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Határik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Sio, H. W.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Cooper, G. W.; Eckart, M. J.; Edwards, E. R.; Faye, S. A.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Grant, P. M.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, K. J.; Moran, M. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Sepke, S. M.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Velsko, C. A.; Volegov, P.

    2016-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) relies on a suite of nuclear diagnostics to measure the neutronic output of experiments. Neutron time-of-flight (NTOF) and neutron activation diagnostics (NAD) provide performance metrics of absolute neutron yield and neutron spectral content: spectral width and non-thermal content, from which implosion physical quantities of temperature and scattering mass are inferred. Spatially-distributed flange- mounted NADs (FNAD) measure, with nearly identical systematic uncertainties, primary DT neutron emission to infer a whole-sky neutron field. An automated FNAD system is being developed. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) shares few systematics with comparable NTOF and NAD devices, and as such is deployed for independent measurement of the primary neutronic quantities. The gas-Cherenkov Gamma Reaction History (GRH) instrument records four energy channels of time-resolved gamma emission to measure nuclear bang time and burn width, as well as to infer carbon areal density in experiments utilizing plastic or diamond capsules. A neutron imaging system (NIS) takes two images of the neutron source, typically gated to create coregistered 13-15 MeV primary and 6-12 MeV downscattered images. The radiochemical analysis of gaseous samples (RAGS) instrument pumps target chamber gas to a chemical reaction and fractionation system configured with gamma counters, allowing measurement of radionuclides with half-lives as short as 8 seconds. Solid radiochemistry collectors (SRC) with backing NAD foils collect target debris, where activated materials from the target assembly are used as indicators of neutron spectrum content, and also serve as the primary diagnostic for nuclear forensic science experiments. Particle time-of-flight (PTOF) measures compression-bang time using DT- or DD-neutrons, as well as shock bang-time using D3He-protons for implosions with lower x-ray background. In concert, these diagnostics serve to measure the basic and advanced

  13. First Beryllium Capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, John

    2015-11-01

    The first implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules have been conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to confirm the superior ablation properties and to elucidate possible Be-ablator issues. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs have measured the laser energy backscatter, shock velocities, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable, if not better, for Be than for plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results demonstrate good coupling of laser energy to the target and control over the implosion shape indicating the feasibility of Be capsule design opening up a larger design space for ICF. In addition, this data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicates that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules.

  14. Installation of line replaceable units into the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bahowick, S; Mcmahon, D; Rowe, A; Tiszauer, D; Yakuma, S

    1999-03-08

    In the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under design and construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 192 high-power laser beamlines incorporating over 8,000 large optics, are focused onto a target smaller than a dime. The actual laser path will be contained within the Laser Target Area Building (LTAB), but the smaller adjacent building, the Optics Assembly Building, is where the optic modules are assembled and aligned. After the optics are finished in the OAB they must be transported and installed into the LTAB. While this is done strict cleanliness and handling conditions must be maintained. To maximize the efficiency of this process the optics are assembled into Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), which typically consist of a mechanical housing, laser optics, utilities, actuators and kinematic mounts. In this paper the Optical Transport and Material Handling designs that will be used to deliver the LRUs into the NIF laser bays are presented. Five types of delivery systems have been developed to deliver the LRUs to their locations in the LTAB. They are top loading, bottom loading, side loading, switchyard loading and target area loading. The first three operate in the laser bay of the LTAB and are transported between the OAB and the LTAB by the Laser Bay Transport System (LBTS). All delivery systems must maintain each optical LRU assemblies' specified shock, vibration, cleanliness, and environmental requirements. The design for each delivery system must take into consideration the cleanliness, functionality and alignment of the LRUs while maximizing commonality in order to meet the beamline installation schedule. This paper focuses on the design challenges of the bottom, side and top loading delivery systems and especially on how commonality among these varied systems is achieved.

  15. Progress in hohlraum physics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J. D. Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Amendt, P. A.; Baker, K. L.; Bradley, D.; Celliers, P. M.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Eder, D. C.; Edwards, M. J.; Jones, O.; Haan, S. W.; Ho, D.; Hopkins, L. B.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Kauffman, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Advances in hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were made this past year in hohlraum efficiency, dynamic shape control, and hot electron and x-ray preheat control. Recent experiments are exploring hohlraum behavior over a large landscape of parameters by changing the hohlraum shape, gas-fill, and laser pulse. Radiation hydrodynamic modeling, which uses measured backscatter, shows that gas-filled hohlraums utilize between 60% and 75% of the laser power to match the measured bang-time, whereas near-vacuum hohlraums utilize 98%. Experiments seem to be pointing to deficiencies in the hohlraum (instead of capsule) modeling to explain most of the inefficiency in gas-filled targets. Experiments have begun quantifying the Cross Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) rate at several points in time for hohlraum experiments that utilize CBET for implosion symmetry. These measurements will allow better control of the dynamic implosion symmetry for these targets. New techniques are being developed to measure the hot electron energy and energy spectra generated at both early and late time. Rugby hohlraums offer a target which requires little to no CBET and may be less vulnerable to undesirable dynamic symmetry “swings.” A method for detecting the effect of the energetic electrons on the fuel offers a direct measure of the hot electron effects as well as a means to test energetic electron mitigation methods. At higher hohlraum radiation temperatures (including near vacuum hohlraums), the increased hard x-rays (1.8–4 keV) may pose an x-ray preheat problem. Future experiments will explore controlling these x-rays with advanced wall materials.

  16. Recent performance results of the National Ignition Facility Beamlet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Wegner, P.J.; Lawson, J.K.; Auerbach, J.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Barker, C.E.; Thompson, C.E.; Widmayer, C.C.; Caird, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    The laser driver for the National Ignition Facility will be a departure from previous inertial confinement fusion laser architecture of a master oscillator single pass power amplifier (MOPA) design. The laser will use multi-segment Nd:Glass amplifiers in a multipass cavity arrangement, which can be assembled into compact and cost effective arrays to deliver the required multi- megajoule energy to target. A single beam physics prototype, the Beamlet, has been in operation for over two years and has demonstrated the feasibility of this architecture. We present a short review of Beamlet`s performance and limitations based on beam quality both at its fundamental and frequency converted wavelengths of 1.053 and 0.351 {mu}m.

  17. National Ignition Facility monthly status report-January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2000-01-31

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Safety: On January 13, 2000, a worker received a back injury when a 42-in.-diameter duct fell during installation. He was taken by helicopter to the hospital and released on January 16, 2000. All work in the area was suspended, and the construction contractors went through a thorough safety review before work was started. A DOE occurrence report was filed. An independent LLNL Incident Analysis Team is reviewing the cause of the accident and will report out on March 1. A Project management review team is reviewing construction line management and safety support and will also report out on March 1. Several changes in work planning and site management have been incorporated to increase site safety. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering; (2) laser glass--a second pilot run at one of the two commercial suppliers is ongoing; and (3) operational costs associated with final optics assembly (FOA) optics components--methods are being developed to mitigate 3 {omega}damage and resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The completion of the Title II design of laser equipment is now approximately 80% complete. The Beampath Infrastructure

  18. National Ignition Facility monthly status report--April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2000-05-26

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SSM PEIS). Safety: On Saturday April 29, 2000, while preparing the Ringer crane for operation at the NIF site, a mechanical malfunction was observed by the operator. He stopped work and consulted with line management. They agreed with the operator's assessment, and with the Livermore Emergency Duty Officer, implemented a precautionary evacuation of the area around the crane. DOE was notified of the situation. The crane was then placed in a safe condition. A crane maintenance vendor is inspecting the crane and a management team headed by the Beampath Infrastructure System Associate Project Manager is reviewing the documentation, crane history, and repairs to ensure that the crane is fully safe before reuse. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering working groups; (2) laser glass, where a second pilot run at both commercial suppliers is expected to confirm the mitigation steps identified in the first pilot run; and (3) operational costs associated with Final Optics Assembly (FOA) optics components, where methods are being developed to mitigate 3 {omega} damage and to resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The project completion

  19. The Potential of Fast Ignition and Related Experiments with A Petawatt Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Cowan, T.E.; Hatchett, S.P.; Henry, E.A.; Koch, J.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; MacKinnon, A.; Offenberger, A.A.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M. D.; Phillips, T.J.; Sangster, T.C.; Singh, M.S.; Snavely, R.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tsukamoto, M.; Wharton, K.B.; Wilks, S.C.

    2000-04-06

    A model of energy gain induced by fast ignition of thermonuclear burn in compressed deuterium-tritium fuel, is used to show the potential for 300x gain with a driver energy of 1 M J, if the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were to be adapted for fast ignition. The physics of fast ignition has been studied using a petawatt laser facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Laser plasma interaction in a preformed plasma on a solid target leads to relativistic self-focusing evidenced by x-ray images. Absorption of the laser radiation transfers energy to an intense source of relativistic electrons. Good conversion efficiency into a wide angular distribution is reported. Heating by the electrons in solid density CD{sub 2} produces 0.5 to 1/keV temperature, inferred from the D-D thermo-nuclear neutron yield.

  20. The 27.3 meter neutron time-of-flight system for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Morgan, G. L.; Aragonez, R.; Archuleta, T. N.; Bower, D. E.; Danly, C. R.; Drury, O. B.; Dzenitis, J. M.; Fatherley, V. E.; Felker, B.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilke, M. D.

    2013-09-01

    One of the scientific goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA, is to obtain thermonuclear ignition by compressing 2.2 mm diameter capsules filed with deuterium and tritium to densities approaching 1000 g/cm3 and temperatures in excess of 4 keV. Thefusion reaction d + t --> n + a results in a 14.03 MeV neutron providing a source of diagnostic particles to characterize the implosion. The spectrum of neutrons emanating from the assembly may be used to infer the fusion yield, plasma ion temperature, and fuel areal density, all key diagnostic quantities of implosion quality. The neutron time-of-flight (nToF) system co-located along the Neutron Imaging System line-of-site, (NIToF), is a set of 4 scintillation detectors located approximately 27.3 m from the implosion source. Neutron spectral information is inferred using arrival time at the detector. The NIToF system is described below, including the hardware elements, calibration data, analysis methods, and an example of its basic performance characteristics.

  1. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  2. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; et al

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infermore » the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  3. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Olson, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; Bell, P.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Collins, G.; Dixit, S.; Döppner, T.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Grim, G.; Hatchett, S.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O.; LePape, S.; Li, C. K.; Lindl, J.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Meyerhofer, D.; Moody, J.; Moses, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M.; Ross, J. S.; Sangster, T. C.; Sepke, S.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.; Zacharias, R.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2× higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (ρR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed ρR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ("short-coast"), while longer-coasting implosions have lower ρR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (˜800 ps) than in the short-coast (˜400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700-800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel ρR.

  4. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B. Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; and others

    2014-11-15

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D{sup 3}He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D{sup 3}He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2× higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (ρR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (R{sub cm}) from the downshift of the shock-produced D{sup 3}He protons. The observed ρR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time (“short-coast”), while longer-coasting implosions have lower ρR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (∼800 ps) than in the short-coast (∼400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel ρR.

  5. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Olson, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; Bell, P.; Benedetti, R.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Betti, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Collins, G.; Dixit, S.; Döppner, T.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Grim, G.; Hatchett, S.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O.; LePape, S.; Li, C. K.; Lindl, J.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Meyerhofer, D.; Moody, J.; Moses, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M.; Ross, J. S.; Sangster, T. C.; Sepke, S.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.; Zacharias, R.

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.

  6. Indirect-Drive Noncryogenic Double-Shell Ignition Targets for the National Ignition Facility: Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P.; Colvin, J.; Tipton, R.E.; Hinkel, D.; Edwards, J.J.; Landen, O.I.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Suter, L.J.; Watt, W.G.

    2001-10-15

    The central goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is demonstration of controlled thermonuclear ignition. The mainline ignition target is a low-Z, single-shell cryogenic capsule designed to have weakly nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor growth of surface perturbations. Double-shell targets are an alternative design concept that avoids the complexity of cryogenic preparation but has greater physics uncertainties associated with performance-degrading mix. A typical double-shell design involves a high-Z inner capsule filled with DT gas and supported within a low-Z ablator shell. The largest source of uncertainty for this target is the degree of highly evolved nonlinear mix on the inner surface of the high-Z shell. High Atwood numbers and feed-through of strong outer surface perturbation growth to the inner surface promote high levels of instability. The main challenge of the double-shell target designs is controlling the resulting nonlinear mix to levels that allow ignition to occur. Design and analysis of a suite of indirect-drive NIF double-shell targets with hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV and 250 eV are presented. Analysis of these targets includes assessment of two-dimensional radiation asymmetry as well as nonlinear mix. Two-dimensional integrated hohlraum simulations indicate that the x-ray illumination can be adjusted to provide adequate symmetry control in hohlraums specially designed to have high laser-coupling efficiency [Suter et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2092 (2000)]. These simulations also reveal the need to diagnose and control localized 10-15 keV x-ray emission from the high-Z hohlraum wall because of strong absorption by the high-Z inner shell. Preliminary estimates of the degree of laser backscatter from an assortment of laser-plasma interactions suggest comparatively benign hohlraum conditions. Application of a variety of nonlinear mix models and phenomenological tools, including buoyancy-drag models, multimode simulations and fall-line optimization

  7. Response to Comment on "The National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status"

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C A; Sacks, R A; Moses, E I; Manes, K; Haan, S; Spaeth, M L

    2007-12-11

    We appreciate Stephen Bodner's continuing interest in the performance of the NIF laser system. However, we find it necessary to disagree with the conclusions he reached in his comments [Appl. Opt. 47, XXX (2008)] on 'National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status' [Appl. Opt. 46, 3276 (2007)]. In fact, repeated and ongoing tests of the NIF beamlines have demonstrated that NIF can be expected not only to meet or exceed its requirements as established in the mid-1990s in the document National Ignition Facility Functional Requirements and Primary Criteria [Revision 1.3, Report NIF-LLNL-93-058 (1994)], but also to have the flexibility that provides for successfully meeting an ever expanding range of mission goals, including those of ignition.

  8. Wavefront control of high power laser beams for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E; Feldman, M; Grey, A; Koch, J; Lund, L; Sacks, R; Smith, D; Stolz, C; Van Atta, L; Winters, S; Woods, B; Zacharias, R

    1999-09-22

    The use of lasers as the driver for inertial confinement fusion and weapons physics experiments is based on their ability to produce high-energy short pulses in a beam with low divergence. Indeed, the focus ability of high quality laser beams far exceeds alternate technologies and is a major factor in the rationale for building high power lasers for such applications. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large, 192-beam, high-power laser facility under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and weapons physics experiments. Its uncorrected minimum focal spot size is limited by laser system aberrations. The NIF includes a Wavefront Control System to correct these aberrations to yield a focal spot small enough for its applications. Sources of aberrations to be corrected include prompt pump-induced distortions in the laser amplifiers, previous-shot thermal distortions, beam off-axis effects, and gravity, mounting, and coating-induced optic distortions. Aberrations from gas density variations and optic manufacturing figure errors are also partially corrected. This paper provides an overview of the NIF Wavefront Control System and describes the target spot size performance improvement it affords. It describes provisions made to accommodate the NIF's high fluence (laser beam and flashlamp), large wavefront correction range, wavefront temporal bandwidth, temperature and humidity variations, cleanliness requirements, and exception handling requirements (e.g. wavefront out-of-limits conditions).

  9. Wavefront control of high-power laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Richard A.; Bliss, Erlan S.; Winters, Scott; Sacks, Richard A.; Feldman, Mark; Grey, Andrew; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Stolz, Christopher J.; Toeppen, John S.; Van Atta, Lewis; Woods, Bruce W.

    2000-04-01

    The use of lasers as the driver for inertial confinement fusion and weapons physics experiments is based on their ability to produce high-energy short pulses in a beam with low divergence. Indeed, the focusability of high quality laser beams far exceeds alternate technologies and is a major factor in the rationale for building high power lasers for such applications. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large, 192-beam, high-power laser facility under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and weapons physics experiments. Its uncorrected minimum focal spot size is limited by laser system aberrations. The NIF includes a Wavefront Control System to correct these aberrations to yield a focal spot small enough for its applications. Sources of aberrations to be corrected include prompt pump-induced distortions in the laser amplifiers, previous-shot thermal distortions, beam off-axis effects, and gravity, mounting, and coating-induced optic distortions. Aberrations from gas density variations and optic-manufacturing figure errors are also partially corrected. This paper provides an overview of the NIF Wavefront Control System and describes the target spot size performance improvement it affords. It describes provisions made to accommodate the NIF's high fluence (laser beam and flashlamp), large wavefront correction range, wavefront temporal bandwidth, temperature and humidity variations, cleanliness requirements, and exception handling requirements (e.g. wavefront out-of-limits conditions).

  10. Implementation of ISO 10110 optics drawing standards for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E. Jr.; Aikens, D.M.; Whistler, W.T.

    1995-07-07

    LLNL plans to specify optical components for the National Ignition Facility according to ISO 10110, the new international standard for preparation of optics drawings. The standards have been approved by the international optics community and represent a fairly comprehensive language for describing optical components. We will describe our plan for implementation and experience to date in doing so.

  11. CVD Diamond Detector Stability Issues for Operation at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Izumi, N; Phillips, T W; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2003-08-22

    Synthetic diamond crystals produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique can serve as fast, radiation hard, neutron sensors for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here we explore the stability issues, such as charge trapping and high-flux saturation, that will be relevant to operation at the NIF.

  12. The Saturn Target for Polar Direct Drive on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R.S.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.W.

    2005-03-11

    A new target design concept is proposed for direct-drive implosions while the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is in its initial, indirect-drive configuration. It differs from earlier polar-direct-drive designs by adding a low-Z ring around the capsule equator.

  13. Application of the National Ignition Facility distinguishable-from-background program to accelerator facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Packard, Eric D; Mac Kenzie, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory must control potentially activated materials and equipment in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, which requires DOE approval of the process used to release volumetrically contaminated personal property and establishes a dose constraint of 10 µSv y(-1) (1 mrem y(-1)) for clearance of such property. The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a technical basis document and protocol for determining the radiological status of property that is potentially activated from exposure to neutron radiation produced via fusion of tritium and deuterium. The technical basis included assessment of the neutron energy, the type of materials potentially exposed and the likely activation products, and the sensitivity of radiation detectors used to survey the property. This paper evaluates the National Ignition Facility technical basis document for applicability to the release of property from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's various accelerator facilities considering the different types of particles accelerated, radiations produced, and resultant activation products. Extensive process knowledge regarding the accelerators' operations, accompanied by years of routine surveys, provides an excellent characterization of these facilities. Activation studies conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan corroborate that the long-lived radionuclides produced at accelerator facilities are of the same variety produced at the National Ignition Facility. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concludes that the release protocol developed for the National Ignition Facility can be used appropriately at all its accelerator facilities. PMID:23629069

  14. Concept of operations for channel characterization and simulation of coaxial transmission channels at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., Charles G.

    2015-03-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) executes experiments for inertial con nement fusion (ICF), world-class high energy density physics (HEDP), and critical national security missions. While the laser systems, target positioners, alignment systems, control systems, etc. enable the execution of such experiments, NIF’s utility would be greatly reduced without its suite of diagnostics. It would be e ectively “blind” to the incredible physics unleashed in its target chamber. Since NIF diagnostics are such an important part of its mission, the quality and reliability of the diagnostics, and of the data recorded from them, is crucial.

  15. X-ray emission from National Ignition Facility indirect drive targets

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.T.; Managan, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Peterson, P.F.

    1996-06-04

    We have performed a series of 1-D numerical simulations of the x-ray emission from National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets. Results are presented in terms of total x-ray energy, pulse length, and spectrum. Scaling of x-ray emissions is presented for variations in both target yield and hohlraum thickness. Experiments conducted on the Nova facility provide some validation of the computational tools and methods.

  16. Design, Assembly, and Testing of the Neutron Imaging Lens for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R. M., Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world’s largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density science. Neutron imaging of ICF targets provides a powerful tool for understanding the implosion conditions of deuterium and tritium (DT) filled targets. The primary purpose of imaging ICF targets at NIF is to determine the symmetry of the fuel in an imploded ICF target. The image data are then combined with other nuclear information to gain insight into the drive laser and radiation conditions required to drive the targets to ignition.

  17. The National Ignition Facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Christopher J

    2012-08-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centres on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality. PMID:22802504

  18. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  19. Radiation-driven hydrodynamics of high- hohlraums on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Dewald, E L; Suter, L J; Landen, O L; Holder, J P; Schein, J; Lee, F D; Campbell, K M; Weber, F A; Pellinen, D G; Schneider, M B; Celeste, J R; McDonald, J W; Foster, J M; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J; Glenzer, S H; Young, B K; Haynam, C A; Shaw, M J; Turner, R E; Froula, D; Kauffman, R L; Thomas, B R; Atherton, L J; Bonanno, R E; Dixit, S N; Eder, D C; Holtmeier, G; Kalantar, D H; Koniges, A E; Macgowan, B J; Manes, K R; Munro, D H; Murray, J R; Parham, T G; Piston, K; Van Wonterghem, B M; Wallace, R J; Wegner, P J; Whitman, P K; Hammel, B A; Moses, E I

    2005-11-18

    The first hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the initial four laser beams tested radiation temperature limits imposed by plasma filling. For a variety of hohlraum sizes and pulse lengths, the measured x-ray flux shows signatures of filling that coincide with hard x-ray emission from plasma streaming out of the hohlraum. These observations agree with hydrodynamic simulations and with an analytical model that includes hydrodynamic and coronal radiative losses. The modeling predicts radiation temperature limits with full NIF (1.8 MJ), greater, and of longer duration than required for ignition hohlraums. PMID:16384150

  20. Reduced instability growth with high-adiabat high-foot implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Smalyuk, V A; Raman, K S; Peterson, J L; Berzak Hopkins, L; Callahan, D A; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Hoover, D; Hurricane, O A; Kroll, J J; Landen, O L; Moore, A S; Nikroo, A; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Rygg, J R; Salmonson, J D; Tommasini, R; Widmann, K

    2014-07-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause preexisting capsule defects to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Unstable growth at the ablation front has been dramatically reduced in implosions with "high-foot" drives as measured using x-ray radiography of modulations at the most dangerous wavelengths (Legendre mode numbers of 30-90). These growth reductions have helped to improve the performance of layered DT implosions reported by O. A. Hurricane et al. [Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)], when compared to previous "low-foot" experiments, demonstrating the value of stabilizing ablation-front growth and providing directions for future ignition designs. PMID:25122242

  1. Direct-drive implosion physics: Results from OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hohenberger, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Froula, D. H.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Hu, S. X.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments from both OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are critical to gain confidence in ignition predictions on the NIF. Adequate performance of hydrodynamically scaled 1.8-MJ ignition designs must be obtained on OMEGA at 26 kJ. Implosions on the NIF must be used to identify and mitigate the effect of laser-plasma interactions (LPI's) on hydrodynamic parameters at the NIF scale. Results from spherically driven OMEGA cryogenic implosion experiments are described. Mitigation of nonuniformity sources and cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is important for improving target performance on OMEGA. Initial polar-driven implosion experiments on the NIF have provided valuable measurements of trajectory and symmetry. Simulations that include the effect of CBET more closely reproduce the observed velocity.

  2. Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abend, Allen; Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Baltas, Emmanuel; de la Garza, Jaime; Watson, Chris; Lange, Kurt; von Ahlefeld, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the OECD Programme on Educational Building (PEB) organised two international experts' group meetings to discuss how countries define and evaluate quality in educational facilities. The research and experiences of six experts are presented in this article, in addition to the lessons learned from the experts' group meetings. The director of…

  3. Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): An Alternative for Characterizing the Combustion Kinetics of Low Volatility Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Osecky, E.; Bogin, G.; Ratcliff, M.; Luecke, J.; Chen, J. Y.; Zigler, B. T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) is a constant volume spray combustion system that can be heated and pressurized to conditions that are similar to a diesel engine at top dead center. With no moving parts and the ability to handle low volatility fuels, the IQT can be a bridge between engines and traditional methods for studying chemical kinetics. By comparing experimental data with model predictions, the IQT has been used to validate skeletal kinetic models of ignition. CFD modeling of the IQT using KIVA-3V was used to predict ignition of n-heptane accurately. Operating the IQT in a regime where chemical kinetics dominates (long ignition delays) allowed NTC behavior to be observed for some isomers of heptane. Experimental results with the low volatility fuel heptamethylnonane also show NTC behavior. At long ignition delays, experimental results can be compared with 0-D detailed chemical mechanisms.

  4. Clean Construction Protocol for the National Ignition Facility Beampath and Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Predmore, R A; VanDoren, D E; Stowers, I F; Stephenson, S A

    2002-01-04

    When the stadium-size, National Ignition Facility (NIF) is fully operational at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), its 192 laser beams will deliver 1.8 megajoules (500 terawatts) of energy onto a target to create extremely high temperatures and pressures for inertial confinement fusion research. Due to the high-energy-physics requirements of the NIF optical components, the optics and their surrounding beampath as well as the supporting utility systems must be fabricated, cleaned, assembled, and commissioned for precision cleanliness. This paper will provide an overview of the NIF cleanliness requirements, the clean construction protocol (CCP) specifications for the beampath and clean utilities, and techniques for verifying the CCP specifications. The NIF cleanliness requirements define limits for molecular and particulate contamination; the goal of these limits is to prevent contamination of the optical components. To prevent laser-induced damage and poor laser quality in the optical components, requirements for cleaning, assembly, installation, and commissioning in terms of particle and nonvolatile residue (NVR) levels are defined. The requirements in the interior of the beampath are parts-per-billion airborne molecular contamination (AMC) and Class 1 particulate levels. To achieve the cleanliness requirements for the beampath interior, a graded CCP approach is used as the NIF beampath and utilities are being constructed by a partnership between LLNL and the construction contractor, Jacobs Facilities, Inc. in a stadium-size Class 100,000 building. Installation of the beampath components utilizes localized mini-environments of Class 100 or better, with budgets of cleanliness exposure or ''class-hours'' for each clean connection. Garment, equipment, and operational considerations are evaluated with process verification. Verification of the beampath and utility cleanliness is performed with cleanliness exposure monitoring, evaluating particulates with

  5. Radiation hardening of gated x-ray imagers for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Conder, A.; Cerjan, C.; Hagmann, C.; Hey, D.; Izumi, N.; Moody, J.; Teruya, A.; Celeste, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Khater, H.; Eckart, M. J.; Ayers, J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2010-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility will soon be producing x-ray flux and neutron yields higher than any produced in laser driven implosion experiments in the past. Even a non-igniting capsule will require x-ray imaging of near burning plasmas at 10{sup 17} neutrons, requiring x-ray recording systems to work in more hostile conditions than we have encountered in past laser facilities. We will present modeling, experimental data and design concepts for x-ray imaging with electronic recording systems for this environment (ARIANE). A novel instrument, active readout in a nuclear environment, is described which uses the time-of-flight difference between the gated x-ray signal and the neutron which induces a background signal to increase the yield at which gated cameras can be used.

  6. Implementation of a near backscattering imaging system on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackinnon, A. J.; McCarville, T.; Piston, K.; Niemann, C.; Jones, G.; Reinbachs, I.; Costa, R.; Celeste, J.; Holtmeier, G.; Griffith, R.; Kirkwood, R.; MacGowan, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Latta, M. R.

    2004-10-01

    A near backscattering imaging diagnostic system is being implemented on the first quad of beams on the National Ignition Facility. This diagnostic images diffusing scatter plates, placed around the final focus lenses on the National Ignition Facility target chamber, to quantitatively measure the fraction of light backscattered outside of the focusing cone angle of incident laser beam. A wide-angle imaging system relays an image of light scattered outside the lens onto a gated charge coupled device camera, providing 3 mm resolution over a 2 m field of view. To account for changes of the system throughput due to exposure to target debris the system will be routinely calibrated in situ at 532 and 355 nm using a dedicated pulsed laser source.

  7. National Ignition Facility computational fluid dynamics modeling and light fixture case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Bernardin, J.; Parietti, L.; Dennison, B.

    1998-02-01

    This report serves as a guide to the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a design tool for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) program Title I and Title II design phases at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In particular, this report provides general guidelines on the technical approach to performing and interpreting any and all CFD calculations. In addition, a complete CFD analysis is presented to illustrate these guidelines on a NIF-related thermal problem.

  8. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J; Betti, R; Schurtz, G P; Craxton, R S; Dunne, A M; LaFortune, K N; Schmitt, A J; McKenty, P W; Bailey, D S; Lambert, M A; Ribeyre, X; Theobald, W R; Strozzi, D J; Harding, D R; Casner, A; Atzemi, S; Erbert, G V; Andersen, K S; Murakami, M; Comley, A J; Cook, R C; Stephens, R B

    2010-04-12

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term ({approx}3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of {approx}60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around {approx}0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R&D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  9. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diazdelarubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, Robert E.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a (ge) 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of approximately 50 separated in time by approximately 0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments.

  10. The role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have completed a conceptual design for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{mu}m solid-state laser system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security, energy, and science applications. The technical goal of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program as stated in the current ICF Five-Year Program Plan is {open_quotes}to produce pure fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 MJ, in support of three missions: (1) to play an essential role in accessing physics regimes of interest in nuclear weapon design...; (2) to provide an above-ground simulation capability for nuclear weapon effects...; and (3) to develop inertial fusion energy for civilian power production.{close_quotes} This article addresses the third goal-- the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE). This article reports a variety of potential contributions the NIF could make to the development of IFE, drawn from a nationally attended workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in Feb, 1994. In addition to demonstrating fusion ignition as a fundamental basis for IFE, the findings of the workshop, are that the NIF could also provide important data for target physics and fabrication technology, for IFE target chamber phenomena such as materials responses to target emissions, and for fusion power technology-relevant tests.

  11. Symmetry tuning with megajoule laser pulses at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kyrala, G. A.; Dixit, S. N.; Town, R. P. J.; Benedetti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bond, E.; Di Nicola, P.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenn, S.; Haynam, C.; Heeter, R. F.; Hinkel, D. E.; Izumi, N.; Jancaitis, K.; Jones, O. S.; Kalantar, D.; Kilkenny, J.; LaFortune, K. N.; Landen, O.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M.; Parham, T.; Prasad, R. R.; Radousky, H. B.; Ralph, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Thomas, C. A.; Weber, S.; Widmann, K.; Widmayer, C.; Williams, E. A.; Van Wontergheman, B.; Edwards, M. J.; Suter, L. J.; Atherton, L. J.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    Experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility using shaped laser pulses with more than 1 MJ of energy have demonstrated the ability to control the implosion symmetry under ignition conditions. To achieve thermonuclear ignition, the low mode asymmetries must be small to minimize the size of the hotspot. The symmetry tuning experiments use symmetry capsules, "symcaps", which replace the DT fuel with an equivalent mass of CH to emulate the hydrodynamic behavior of an ignition capsule. The x-ray self-emission signature from gas inside the capsule during the peak compression correlates with the surrounding hotspot shape. By tuning the shape of the self-emission, the capsule implosion symmetry can be made to be "round." In the experimental results presented here, we utilized crossbeam energy transfer [S. H. Glenzer, et al., Science 327, 1228 (2010)] to change the ratio of the inner to outer cone power inside the hohlraum targets on the NIF. Variations in the ratio of the inner cone to outer cone power affect the radiation pattern incident on the capsule modifying the implosion symmetry.

  12. National Ignition Facility Quarterly Status Report Second Quarter 2000, Jan-Mar 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E.

    2000-04-30

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.

  13. National Ignition Facility Quarterly Status Report - First Quarter 2000, Dec 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Yatabe, J.

    2000-01-30

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SSM PEIS).

  14. In-Situ Diffraction on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon; Braun, Dave; Rygg, Ryan; Lazicki, Amy; Fratanduono, Dayne; Smith, Ray; Coppari, Federica; Kraus, Rick; Swift, Damian; McNaney, Jim; Ping, Yuan; Blobaum, Kerri; Wilson, Mike; Ahmed, Marium; Collins, Gilbert; Arsenlis, Tom; LLNL-Shock Physics Group Team

    2015-06-01

    Ramp compression experiments have opened a path toward the measurement of extreme states of compression for solid-state materials on lasers, pulsed power, and gas guns. While most experiments have measured wave profiles as an integrated probe of the material state, there is a trend toward making direct measurements of the material state in situ using diffraction, phase-contrast imaging, EXAFS, and XANES. This past year we succeeded in obtaining high-quality diffraction on the NIF using the TARget Diffraction In Situ (TARDIS) diagnostic. I will present some of our NIF results on lead and tantalum, including the prospects for determining not only structure, density, and stress, but also temperature and grain size in these experiments. I will close with future plans for further improving TARDIS.

  15. Alignment and diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E S; Boege, S J; Boyd, B; Demaret, R D; Feldman, M; Gates, A J; Holdener, F R; Hollis, J; Knopp, C F; McCarville, T J; Miller-Kamm; Rivera, W E; Salmon, J T; Severyn, J R; Thompson, C E; V J; Wang, D Y; Zacharias, R A

    1999-07-01

    The NIF laser system will be capable of delivering 1.8MJ of 351nm energy in 192 beams. Diagnostics instruments must measure beam energy, power vs. time, wavefront quality, and beam intensity profile to characterize laser performance. Alignment and beam diagnostics are also used to set the laser up for the high power shots and to isolate problems when performance is less than expected. Alignment and beam diagnostics are multiplexed to keep the costs under control. At the front-end the beam is aligned and diagnosed in an input sensor package. The output 1053nm beam is sampled by collecting a 0.1% reflection from an output beam sampler and directing it to the output sensor package (OSP). The OSP also gets samples from final focus lens reflection and samples from the transport spatial filter pinhole plane. The output 351nm energy is measured by a calorimeter collecting the signal from an off-axis diffractive beam-sampler. Detailed information on the focused beam in the high-energy target focal plane region is gathered in the precision diagnostics. This paper describes the design of the alignment and diagnostics on the NIF laser system.

  16. Overview of Progress and Future Prospects in Indirect Drive Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; ">ICF Program, ignite. For the first time in the laboratory, significant alpha-heating in a fusion plasma was inferred in experiments and fusion fuel gain was demonstrated on the U.S. National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experiments on the NIF have achieved the highest yet recorded stagnation pressures (Pstagnation > 150-230 Gigabar) of any facility based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, albeit they are still short of the pressures required for ignition on the NIF (i.e. ∼ 300 - 400 Gbar), and have exhibited undesirable shape distortions that waste kinetic energy. We review the issues that have been uncovered and discuss the program strategy and plan that we are following to systematically address the known issues as we press on.

  17. Diagnosing implosions at the national ignition facility with X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenzer, S. H.; Golovkin, I. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacFarlane, J. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Mancini, R. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Springer, P.; Town, R. P. J.

    2012-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to diagnose plasma conditions in the hot spot and the compressed shell of ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Ignition of an ICF target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. The concentric spherical layers of current NIF ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume. A fraction of the ablator has a Ge dopant to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive. This paper concentrates on three spectral features of the implosion: Ge Heα emission, Ge Kα emission, and the Ge K edge. Hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by highmode (50 < ℓ < 200) ablator-surface perturbations on ignition-scale targets can cause mixing of Ge-doped ablator into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The amount of hot-spot mix mass is estimated from the brightness and spectral line shape of the Ge Heα and satellite emission using a detailed atomic physics code. X-ray continuum from the hot spot is attenuated by the compressed shell, and the photoexcitation causes the shell to fluoresce in Ge Kα emission. The contrast at the Ge K edge and the brightness of Ge Kα emission are used to diagnose the shell areal density. The highlighted spectral features are presented.

  18. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  19. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R.P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-06

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  20. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-04-10

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating. PMID:25910132

  1. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μ m in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1 /2 the neutron yield coming from α -particle self-heating.

  2. Thin Shell, High Velocity, High-Foot ICF Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doeppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Macphee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing ICF capsule ablators that are 175 μm in thickness, 10% thinner than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the High-Foot and most of the National Ignition Campaigns. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Early results have shown good repeatability, with little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot-spot, and >1/2 the yield coming from α-particle self-heating. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  4. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: the first precision tuning series

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H F; Celliers, P M; Kline, J L; Mackinnon, A J

    2011-10-27

    Ignition implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] are driven with a very carefully tailored sequence of four shock waves that must be timed to very high precision in order to keep the fuel on a low adiabat. The first series of precision tuning experiments on NIF have been performed. These experiments use optical diagnostics to directly measure the strength and timing of all four shocks inside the hohlraum-driven, cryogenic deuterium-filled capsule interior. The results of these experiments are presented demonstrating a significant decrease in the fuel adiabat over previously un-tuned implosions. The impact of the improved adiabat on fuel compression is confirmed in related deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions by measurement of fuel areal density (rR), which show the highest fuel compression (rR {approx} 1.0 g/cm{sup 2}) measured to date.

  5. Summary of the first neutron image data collected at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, G P; Archuleta, T N; Aragonez, R J; Atkinson, D P; Batha, S H; Barrios, M A; Bower, D E; Bradley, D K; Buckles, R A; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Cradick, J R; Danly, C; Drury, O B; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Glenn, S M; Hsu, A H; Izumi, N; Jaramillo, S A; Kyrala, G A; Pape, S L; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tommasini, T; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Fittinghoff, D N; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Kauffman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-11-01

    A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of the data collected and measurements made to date. Data form directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as, indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data presented show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 {+-} 3 {mu}m, as indirect cores 25 {+-} 4 and 29 {+-} 4 {mu}m and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. -14% and 7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion.

  6. Preparing for Polar-Drive Imprint Experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvydky, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Control of laser-induced nonuniformities is critical for the success of polar-drive-ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Laser-imprint studies in laser-driven spherical shell targets will be performed at the NIF in Q1 and Q2 of FY15. Corrugated spherical, cone-in-shell targets with sinusoidal surface modulations will provide a reference for calculating the equivalent surface roughness of the imprint using the current NIF phase plates and beam smoothing. DRACO simulations are used to design the spherical-imprint experiments and set the initial shell thickness, cone geometry, laser pulse, and laser beam pointings. Results of DRACO simulations will be presented, evaluating the expected experimental x-ray radiographs. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Asymmetric directly driven capsule implosions: Modeling and experiments--A requirement for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Krashenninikova, N. S.; Obrey, K. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Magelssen, G. R.; Wysocki, F. J.; Batha, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    Direct-drive experiments at the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 35 (1999)] have been performed to prototype eventual campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses and C. R. Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 43, 420 (2003)] to investigate the mixing of target materials. Spherical-implosion targets with equatorial defects have been irradiated with polar direct drive, a requirement for direct-drive experiments at NIF. The physics question addressed by these results is whether simulations can match data on 0th-order hydrodynamics and implosion symmetry, the most basic implosion features, with and without the defect. The successful testing of hydrodynamic simulations leads to better designs for experiments and guides accurate planning for polar-direct-drive-ignition studies on the NIF platform.

  8. Extracting core shape from x-ray images at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Glenn, S M; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Hammel, B A; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Kyrala, G A; Ma, T; Milovich, J L; Pak, A E; Smalyuk, V A; Tommasini, R; Town, R P

    2012-10-01

    Measuring the shape of implosions is critical to inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We have developed techniques that have proven successful for extracting shape information from images of x-ray self-emission recorded by a variety of diagnostic instruments for both DT-filled targets and low-yield surrogates. These key results help determine optimal laser and target parameters leading to ignition. We have compensated for instrumental response and have employed a variety of image processing methods to remove artifacts from the images while retaining salient features. The implosion shape has been characterized by decomposing intensity contours into Fourier and Legendre modes for different lines of sight. We also describe procedures we have developed for estimating uncertainties in these measurements. PMID:23127026

  9. Summary of the first neutron image data collected at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Gary P.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Aragonez, Robert J.; Atkinson, Dennis P.; Batha, Steven H.; Barrios, Maria A.; Bower, Dan E.; Bradley, David K.; Buckles, Robert A.; Clark, David D.; Clark, Deborah J.; Cradick, Jerry R.; Danly, Chris; Drury, Owen B.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Garcia, Felix P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Guler, Nevzat; Glenn, Steven M.; Hsu, Albert H.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Kyrala, George A.; Le Pape, Sebastien; Loomis, Eric N.; Mares, Danielle; Martinson, Drew D.; Ma, Tammy; Mackinnon, Andrew J.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Munson, Carter; Murphy, Thomas J.; Polk, Paul J.; Schmidt, Derek W.; Tommasini, Riccardo; Tregillis, Ian L.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Volegov, Petr L.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Wilde, Carl H.; Wilke, Mark D.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Dzenitis, John M.; Felker, Brian; Fittinghoff, David N.; Frank, Matthias; Liddick, Sean N.; Moran, Michael J.; Roberson, George P.; Weiss, Paul; Kauffman, Morris I.; Lutz, Steve S.; Malone, Robert M.; Traille, Albert

    2013-11-01

    A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of data and measurements made to date. Data from directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 ± 3 μm, as indirectly driven cores, 25 ± 4 and 29 ± 4 μm and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. - 14% and 7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion.

  10. Extracting core shape from x-ray images at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, S. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2012-10-15

    Measuring the shape of implosions is critical to inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We have developed techniques that have proven successful for extracting shape information from images of x-ray self-emission recorded by a variety of diagnostic instruments for both DT-filled targets and low-yield surrogates. These key results help determine optimal laser and target parameters leading to ignition. We have compensated for instrumental response and have employed a variety of image processing methods to remove artifacts from the images while retaining salient features. The implosion shape has been characterized by decomposing intensity contours into Fourier and Legendre modes for different lines of sight. We also describe procedures we have developed for estimating uncertainties in these measurements.