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Sample records for ii axillary lymph

  1. Axillary lymph node dose with tangential breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel R. . E-mail: drreed@u.washington.edu; Lindsley, Skyler Karen; Mann, Gary N.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Korssjoen, Tammy; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Moe, Roger

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: The advent of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in the staging of breast cancer has resulted in a significant decrease in the extent of axillary nodal surgery. As the extent of axillary surgery decreases, the radiation dose and distribution within the axilla becomes increasingly important for current therapy planning and future analysis of results. This analysis examined the radiation dose distribution delivered to the anatomically defined axillary level I and II lymph node volume and surgically placed axillary clips with conventional tangential breast fields and CT-based three-dimensional (3D) planning. Methods and materials: Fifty consecutive patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy were evaluated. All patients underwent 3D CT-based planning with conventional breast tangential fields designed to encompass the entire breast parenchyma. Using CT-based 3D planning, the dose distribution of the standard tangential breast irradiation fields was examined in relationship to the axillary level I and II lymph node volumes. Axillary level I and II lymph node anatomic volumes were defined by CT and surgical clips placed during complete level I-II lymph node dissection. Axillary level I-II lymph node volume doses were examined on the basis of the prescribed breast radiation dose and 3D dose distribution. Results: All defined breast volumes received {>=}95% of the prescribed dose. By contrast, the 95% isodose line encompassed only an average of 55% (range, 23-87%) of the axillary level I-II lymph node anatomic volume. No patient had complete coverage of the axillary level I-II lymph node region by the 95% isodose line. The mean anatomic axillary level I-II volume was 146.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 83.1-313.0 cm{sup 3}). The mean anatomic axillary level I-II volume encompassed by the 95% isodose line was 84.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 25.1-219.0 cm{sup 3}). The mean 95% isodose coverage of the surgical clip volume was 80%, and the median value was 81% (range, 58-98%). The mean volume deficit between the axillary level I-II volume and the surgical clip volume was 41.7 cm{sup 3} (median, 30.0 cc). Conclusion: In this study, standard tangential breast radiation fields failed to deliver a therapeutic dose adequately to the axillary level I-II lymph node anatomic volume. No patient received complete coverage of the axillary level I-II lymph node volume. Surgically placed axillary clips also failed to delineate the level I-II axilla adequately. Definitive irradiation of the level I and II axillary lymph node region requires significant modification of standard tangential fields, best accomplished with 3D treatment planning, with specific targeting of anatomically defined axillary lymph node volumes as described, in addition to the breast parenchymal volumes.

  2. Virtual lymph node analysis to evaluate axillary lymph node coverage provided by tangential breast irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the coverage of axillary lymph node with tangential breast irradiation fields by using virtual lymph node (LN) analysis. Materials and Methods Forty-eight women who were treated with whole breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were analyzed. The axillary and breast volumes were delineated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) contouring atlas. To generate virtual LN contours, preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans with identifiable LN were fused with the CT scans, and the virtual LN contour were delineated on the CT. Results The median level I and II axillary volume coverage percentages at the VD95% line were 33.5% (range, 5.3% to 90.4%) and 0.6% (range, 0.0% to 14.6%), respectively. Thirty-one LNs in 18 patients were delineated (26 in level I and 5 in level II). In the level I axilla, 84.6% of virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose line. In the level II axilla, by contrast, none of the virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose volumes. There was a substantial discrepancy between the RTOG contouring atlas-based axillary volume analysis and the virtual LN analysis, especially for the level I axillary coverage. The axillary volume coverage was associated with the body mass index (BMI) and breast volume. Conclusion The tangential breast irradiation did not deliver adequate therapeutic doses to the axillary region, particularly those in the level II axilla. Patients with small breast volumes or lower BMI showed reduced axillary coverage from the tangential breast fields. For axillary LN irradiation, individualized anatomy-based radiation fields for patients would be necessary. PMID:25874178

  3. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)?/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)? subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR?/HER2? subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2? (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3492.021, P?axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR?/HER2? is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  4. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  5. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  6. An optimized posterior axillary boost technique in radiation therapy to supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Victor; Arenas, Meritxell; Müller, Katrin; Gomez, David; Bonet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To assess the advantages of an optimized posterior axillary (AX) boost technique for the irradiation of supraclavicular (SC) and AX lymph nodes. Five techniques for the treatment of SC and levels I, II, and III AX lymph nodes were evaluated for 10 patients selected at random: a direct anterior field (AP); an anterior to posterior parallel pair (AP-PA); an anterior field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB); an anterior field with an anterior axillary boost (AAB); and an optimized PAB technique (OptPAB). The target coverage, hot spots, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk were evaluated and a statistical analysis comparison was performed. The AP technique delivered insufficient dose to the deeper AX nodes. The AP-PA technique produced larger irradiated volumes and higher mean lung doses than the other techniques. The PAB and AAB techniques originated excessive hot spots in most of the cases. The OptPAB technique produced moderate hot spots while maintaining a similar planning target volume (PTV) coverage, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk. This optimized technique combines the advantages of the PAB and AP-PA techniques, with moderate hot spots, sufficient target coverage, and adequate sparing of normal tissues. The presented technique is simple, fast, and easy to implement in routine clinical practice and is superior to the techniques historically used for the treatment of SC and AX lymph nodes.

  7. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urba?ska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefa?ski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.81 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  8. Endocervicosis involving axillary lymph nodes: first case report.

    PubMed

    Mukonoweshuro, Pinias; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2014-11-01

    The occurence of Mullerian epithelial inclusions, especially endosalpingiosis, in pelvic and other subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes is well known. In contrast, Mullerian inclusions involving lymph nodes above the diaphragm is uncommon, although occasional cases of endosalpingiosis have been reported. We report a case of benign Mullerian inclusions of mucinous endocervical type (endocervicosis) coexistent with metastatic breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 2 axillary lymph nodes. The inclusions exhibited diffuse positive staining with CK7, PAX8, CA125, and estrogen receptor and were WT1 negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endocervicosis involving supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes. Close morphologic examination and immunohistochemistry assists in distinguishing Mullerian inclusions from metastatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25272302

  9. Axillary lymph node dissection in early-stage invasive breast cancer: is it still standard today?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernd; Heintze, Kristin; Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Hartmann, Steffi; Stachs, Angrit; Reimer, Toralf

    2011-08-01

    Evaluation of axillary lymph node status by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) are an inherent part of breast cancer treatment. Increased understanding of tumor biology has changed the prognostic and therapeutic impact of lymph node status. Non-invasive imaging techniques like axillary ultrasound, FDG-PET, or MRI revealed moderate sensitivity and high specificity in evaluation of lymph node status. Therefore, they are not sufficient for lymph node staging. Otherwise, the impact of remaining micrometastases and even macrometastases for prognosis and treatment decisions is overestimated. Considering tumor biology, the distinction of axillary metastases in isolated tumor cells (ITC, pN0(i+)); micrometastases (pN1mi), and macrometastases (pN1a) is not comprehensible. Increasing data support the thesis that remaining axillary metastases neither increase the axillary recurrence rate nor decrease overall survival. It is doubtful that axillary tumor cells are capable to complete the complex multistep metastatic process. If applied, axillary metastases are sensitive to systemic treatment and are targeted by postoperative tangential breast irradiation. Therefore, the controversy about the clinical relevance of tumor cell clusters or micrometastases in SLN is a sophisticated but not contemporary discussion. Currently, there is no indication for axillary surgery in elderly patients with favorable tumors and clinically tumor-free lymph nodes. Nonetheless, a rational and evidence-based approach to the management of clinically and sonographically N0 patients with planned breast-conserving surgery and limited tumor size is needed now. PMID:21523451

  10. Feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients clinically suspected of axillary lymph node metastasis on preoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Generally, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is performed in patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node (LN). This study was to assess imaging techniques in axillary LN staging and to evaluate the feasibility of SLNB in patients clinically suspected of axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging techniques (SI). Methods A prospectively maintained database of 767 breast cancer patients enrolled between January 2006 and December 2009 was reviewed. All patients were offered preoperative breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scanning. SI patients were regarded as those for whom preoperative imaging was suspicious for axillary LN metastasis and NSI as non-suspicious for axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging techniques. Patients were subgrouped by presence of SI and types of axillary operation, and analyzed. Results For 323 patients who received SLNB, there was no statistically significant difference in axillary recurrence (P=0.119) between SI and NSI groups. There also was no significant difference in axillary recurrence between SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) groups in 356 SI patients (P=0.420). The presence of axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging carried 82.1% sensitivity and 45.9% specificity for determining axillary LN metastasis on the final pathology. Conclusions SLNB in SI patents is safe and feasible. Complications might be avoided by not performing ALND. Therefore, we recommend SLNB, instead of a direct ALND, even in SI patients, for interpreting the exact nodal status and avoiding unnecessary morbidity by performing ALND. PMID:23693028

  11. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage optimizes sentinel lymph node localisation using blue dye

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Robert M; Basit, Abdul; Nguyen, Quang T; Jaipersad, Anthony; Billingham, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Aims This paper describes a simple technique of axillary and breast massage which improves the successful identification of blue sentinel nodes using patent blue dye alone. Methods Patent blue dye was injected in the subdermal part of the retroaroelar area in 167 patients having surgical treatment for invasive breast cancer. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage was performed prior to making the axillary incision for sentinel lymph node biopsy. All patients had completion axillary sampling or clearance. Results A blue lymphatic duct leading to lymph nodes of the first drainage was identified in 163 (97%) of the patients. Results are compared with 168 patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy using blue dye without axillary massage. Allergic reactions were observed in four patients (1.2%). Conclusion Three stage axillary lymphatic massage improves the successful identification of a blue sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients. PMID:18154682

  12. Three-Dimensional Sonography of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koenigsberg, Tova C; Reig, Beatriu; Frank, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Sonography is useful in the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. In this pictorial essay, we review the range of grayscale and Doppler appearances of abnormal axillary lymph nodes on 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging. PMID:26887449

  13. Axillary lymph node tuberculosis masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma in an immune-compromised patient.

    PubMed

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Vani, B R; Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-02-01

    While tuberculosis is still the leading opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is more common than pulmonary tuberculosis, with lymph nodes being a common site. Axillary lymph node pathology such as tuberculosis and lymphoma rarely mimics inflammatory breast carcinoma by producing lymphatic obstruction. We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a 40-year-old immune-compromised woman, clinically presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. PMID:25681261

  14. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy should still be performed, especially in the patient with clinically positive axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-fei; Zhao, Rong-rong; Liu, Yan-bing; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2013-10-01

    Current studies suggest that the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) should not be performed routinely, for it did not alter clinical management of breast cancer patients in terms of adjuvant treatment. However, consideration should be given to the fact, the study population in all current research relate to IM-SLNB is the patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. As internal mammary lymph nodes metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary metastases, clinical trials currently fail to evaluate the status of internal mammary lymph nodes who really in need. In consideration of the impact to staging and accurate indication of radiation to the internal mammary area, we recommend that research on IM-SLNB should still be encouraged, especially in patients with clinically positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:23838319

  15. Breast Cancer Regional Radiation Fields for Supraclavicular and Axillary Lymph Node Treatment: Is a Posterior Axillary Boost Field Technique Optimal?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Yu, T.K.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Zhang, Sean X.; Sun, T.L.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To assess whether using an anterior oblique supraclavicular (SCV) field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB) field is an optimal technique for targeting axillary (AX) lymph nodes compared with two computed tomography (CT)-based techniques: (1) an SCV field with an anterior boost field and (2) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients with CT simulation data treated with postmastectomy radiation that included an SCV field were selected for the study. Supraclavicular nodes and AX Level I-III nodes within the SCV field were contoured and defined as the treatment target. Plans using the three techniques were generated and evaluated for each patient. Results: The anterior axillary boost field and IMRT resulted in superior dose coverage compared with PAB. Namely, treatment volumes that received 105%, 80%, and 30% of prescribed dose for IMRT plans were significantly less than those for the anterior axillary boost plans, which were significantly less than PAB. For PAB and anterior axillary boost plans, there was a linear correlation between treatment volume receiving 105% of prescribed dose and maximum target depth. Furthermore, the IMRT technique resulted in better lung sparing and dose conformity to the target than anterior axillary boost, which again was significantly better than PAB. The maximum cord dose for IMRT was small, but higher than for the other two techniques. More monitor units were required to deliver the IMRT plan than the PAB plan, which was more than the anterior axillary boost plan. Conclusions: The PAB technique is not optimal for treatment of AX lymph nodes in an SCV field. We conclude that CT treatment planning with dose optimization around delineated target volumes should become standard for radiation treatments of supraclavicular and AX lymph nodes.

  16. Toward nodal staging of axillary lymph node basins through intradermal administration of fluorescent imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Rasmussen, John C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proof-of-concept study for future delivery of targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracers, we sought to assess the delivery of micrograms of indocyanine green to all the axillary lymph nodes following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injections in 20 subjects with advanced breast carcinoma and undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Lymphatic vessels and nodes were assessed in vivo. Ex vivo images demonstrated that 87% of excised lymph nodes, including 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes, were fluorescent. Future clinical studies using microdose amounts of tumor-targeting NIRF contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical intervention with reduced morbidity. PMID:24466486

  17. Florid, papillary endosalpingiosis of the axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Stolnicu, Simona; Preda, Ovidiu; Kinga, Szabo; Marian, Cristina; Nicolau, Romeo; Andrei, Sorin; Nicolae, Alina; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman underwent radical mastectomy and axillary node dissection because of an invasive ductal carcinoma with neuroendocrine features. Histologically, all 22 sampled lymph nodes had widespread cystic inclusions lined by a regular, serous-type epithelium positive for cytokeratin-7, WT-1, CA125, and estrogen receptors. Papillary projections were found in the lumen of some cysts. The lesions were consistent with florid, papillary endosalpingiosis (FPE), a hitherto unreported condition in a supradiaphragmatic location. Metastases from papillary carcinomas of ovary, breast, or thyroid were excluded considering the lesion's immunophenotype (negative for mammaglobin and TTF-1) and the absence of both atypical features and a concurrent abdominal serous tumor. In only one node, lesions co-existed with a metastasis of breast carcinoma. Supradiaphragmatic FPE represents a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of metastases, especially in sentinel nodes, since it may increase their size and reveal an unusual ultrasonographic image. Clinicopathologic findings and a focused immunohistochemical study led to the correct diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:21477174

  18. Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in preoperative staging of axillary lymph nodes in patients with invasive breast cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafael Dahmer; Girardi, Andr Ricardo; Pinto, Renata Reis; de Freitas, Viviane Aguilera Rolim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose an algorithm to determine the necessity for ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in preoperative axillary lymph node staging of patients with invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods Prospective study developed at National Cancer Institute. The study sample included 100 female patients with breast cancer referred for axillary staging by US-FNA. Results The overall US-FNA sensitivity was set at 79.4%. The positive predictive value was calculated to be 100%, and the negative predictive value, 69.5%. The US-FNA sensitivity for lymph nodes with normal sonographic features was 0%, while for indeterminate lymph nodes it was 80% and, for suspicious lymph nodes, 90.5%. In the assessment of invasive breast tumors stages T1, T2 and T3, the sensitivity was respectively 69.6%, 83.7% and 100%. US-FNA could avoid sentinel node biopsy in 54% of cases. Conclusion Axillary ultrasonography should be included in the preoperative staging of all patients with invasive breast cancer. The addition of US-FNA in cases of lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy may prevent more than 50% of sentinel lymphadenectomies, significantly shortening the time interval to definitive therapy. PMID:26811550

  19. Contribution of Kinetic Characteristics of Axillary Lymph Nodes to the Diagnosis in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    rg, ?ebnem; Ba?ara, I??l; Pekindil, Gkhan; Co?kun, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of kinetic characteristics in the discrimination of malignant-benign axillary lymph nodes. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-five female patients were included in the study. Following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations postprocessing applications were applied, dynamic curves were obtained from subtracted images. Types of dynamic curves were correlated with histopathological results in malignant cases or final clinical results in patients with no evidence of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likehood ratio (+LHR), negative (?LHR) of dynamic curves characterizing the axillary lymph nodes were calculated. Results: A total of 178 lymph nodes greater than 8 mm were evaluated in 113 patients. Forty-six lymph nodes in 24 cases had malignant axillary involvement. 132 lymph nodes in 89 patients with benign diagnosis were included in the study. The sensitivity of type 3 curve as an indicator of malignancy was calculated as 89%. However the specificity, +LHR, ?LHR were calculated as 14%, 1.04, 0.76 respectively. Conclusion: Since kinetic analysis of both benign and malignant axillary lymph nodes, rapid enhancement and washout (type 3) they cannot be used as a discriminator, unlike breast lesions. MRI, depending on the kinetic features of the axillary lymph nodes, is not high enough to be used in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. PMID:25207016

  20. Elective hand surgery after axillary lymph node dissection for cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, R Jay; LaPorte, Dawn M; Brooks, Jaysson T; Schubert, Cornelius D; Deune, E Gene

    2015-05-01

    After axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), patients are cautioned against ipsilateral interventional procedures to avoid the theoretical increased risk of postoperative complications, particularly lymphedema. The authors' goal was to evaluate the complications of elective hand surgery after ALND. The authors reviewed patients presenting to their hand clinic from 1998 to 2011, selecting those with a diagnosis of breast cancer or melanoma and a history of previous ALND; the authors excluded those treated nonoperatively and those treated with elective surgery in the contralateral hand. Average age of the 22 patients meeting the criteria (20 with a history of breast cancer, 6 with preexisting lymphedema) was 53.9 years (range, 26.7 to 73.6 years) at the time of ALND and 63.1 years (range, 31.7 to 83.5 years) at the time of hand surgery. Average interval between surgeries was 9.2 years (range, 8 days to 37.3 years). Follow-up averaged 9.2 months (range, 8 days to 41.7 months). Fifteen patients were surveyed for long-term postoperative results (average surgery-to-survey interval, 4.3 years [range, 1 to 11.9 years]). Fifteen patients had uneventful postoperative recoveries, 4 had peri-incisional erythema requiring oral antibiotics, 1 had incisional pain and scarring, 1 had chronic wound-healing issues, and 1 had a dehiscence requiring a return to the operating room. In the 15 patients who completed the follow-up survey, there was no disease exacerbation in the 3 patients with preexisting lymphedema, and there were no new cases of lymphedema. Routine minor hand surgery did not result in lymphedema and did not increase existing lymphedema in these patients with previous ipsilateral ALND, but almost one-third of them had short-term complications in the postoperative recovery period. PMID:25970362

  1. Diagnostic value of preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound assessment in patients with breast cancer qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adam; Wiśniewska, Magdalena; Wiśniewski, Michał; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in the therapeutic management of patients with non-advanced breast cancer. Aim To analyse the utility of ultrasound scan (USS) examination in the process of patient qualification for SLNB and to estimate the optimal time to perform USS in the clinical preoperational assessment of axillary lymph nodes. Material and methods A prospective analysis of 702 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with SLNB between 7.03.2012 and 27.05.2013 was performed. The patients were divided into three groups: I (USS < 8 weeks before SLNB), II (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB and another one on the day before SLNB) and III (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB without perioperative USS). In these patients the percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node and the clinical factors influencing the diagnostic value of preoperative ultrasound scan were assessed. Results Metastatic lesions in sentinel lymph nodes were found in 154 (21.9%) patients. The highest percentage of metastases was noted in patients operated on in the second and third month from the beginning of preoperative diagnostics. None of the factors tested (size of the original tumour, histological malignancy grading, kind of preoperative diagnostics, Ki-67 value, biological type of the tumour, age) had a statistically significant influence on the diagnostic value of perioperative USS examination in the analysed time span. Conclusions The lowest percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node was noted in the patients qualified for SLNB who had the ultrasound performed directly before the surgical procedure (not more than 4 weeks before the surgery). PMID:26240616

  2. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses.A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR-/HER2- subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2- (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.349-2.021, P?axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR-/HER2- is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy does not apply to all axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wen-kai; Yang, Ben; Zuo, Wen-shu; Zheng, Gang; Dai, Ying-qi; Han, Chao; Yang, Li; Zheng, Mei-zhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients with confirmed axillary nodal metastases. Methods We enrolled 51 patients with breast cancer who received NAC. All patients were proven to have axillary nodal metastases by histopathology biopsy prior to NAC. They all underwent SLNB before breast surgery, and complete axillary lymph node dissection immediately followed. Results The identification rate for SLNB was 87.5% (84/96); the false negative rate was 24.5% (12/49). The clinicopathological factors were not significantly correlated with the identification and false negative rate of the SLNB. Lymphatic mapping, blue dye or radionuclide methods tended to decrease the identification rate of SLNB (P = 0.073). Clinical nodal status before NAC has a trend to increase the false-negative rates of the SLNB (P = 0.059). For patients with N1 clinical axillary lymph nodal status, the identification rate was 93.9%, and the false negative rate was 5.9%, compared with N2-3 patients with 73.9% and 38.9%, respectively. Conclusions SLNB is feasible for the patients whose axillary lymph nodal status before NAC is N1. However, for N2-3 patients, SLNB cannot be used as an infallible indicator of non-SLN status.

  4. Intercostobrachial Nerves as a Novel Anatomic Landmark for Dividing the Axillary Space in Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Wenhai; Jia, Shi; Gu, Xi; Ma, Yan; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of using the intercostobrachial nerves (ICBNs) as a possible new anatomic landmark for axillaries lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients. Background Data Summary. The preservation of ICBN is now an accepted procedure in this type of dissection; however, it could be improved further to reduce the number of postoperative complications. The axillary space is divided into lower and upper parts by the ICBNa thorough investigation of the metastasis patterns in lymph nodes found in this area could supply new information leading to such improvements. Methods. Seventy-two breast cancer patients, all about to undergo lymph node dissection and with sentinel lymph nodes identified, were included in this trial. The lymph nodes were collected in two groups, from lower and upper axillary spaces, relative to the intercostobrachial nerves. The first group was further subdivided into sentinel (SLN) and nonsentinel (non-SLN) nodes. All lymph nodes were tested to detect macro- and micrometastasis. Results. All the sentinel lymph nodes were found under the intercostobrachial nerves; more than 10 lymph nodes were located in that space. Moreover, when lymph nodes macrometastasize or micrometastasize above the intercostobrachial nerves, we also observe metastasis-positive nodes under the nerves; when the lower group nodes show no metastasis, the upper group is also metastasis free. Conclusions. Our results show that the intercostobrachial nerves are good candidates for a new anatomic landmark to be used in lymph node dissection procedure. PMID:23401796

  5. A nomogram to predict the probability of axillary lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Si-Qi; Zeng, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Cong; Huang, Wen-He; Pleijhuis, Rick G; Wu, Jun-Dong; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with a preoperative positive axillary ultrasound, around 40% of them are pathologically proved to be free from axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis. We aimed to develop and validate a model to predict the probability of ALN metastasis as a preoperative tool to support clinical decision-making. Clinicopathological features of 322 early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound findings were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ALN metastasis. A model was created from the logistic regression analysis, comprising lymph node transverse diameter, cortex thickness, hilum status, clinical tumour size, histological grade and estrogen receptor, and it was subsequently validated in another 234 patients. Coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to be 0.9375 and 0.864, showing good calibration and discrimination of the model, respectively. The false-negative rates of the model were 0% and 5.3% for the predicted probability cut-off points of 7.1% and 13.8%, respectively. This means that omission of axillary surgery may be safe for patients with a predictive probability of less than 13.8%. After further validation in clinical practice, this model may support increasingly limited surgical approaches to the axilla in breast cancer. PMID:26875677

  6. A nomogram to predict the probability of axillary lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Si-Qi; Zeng, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Cong; Huang, Wen-He; Pleijhuis, Rick G.; Wu, Jun-Dong; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with a preoperative positive axillary ultrasound, around 40% of them are pathologically proved to be free from axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis. We aimed to develop and validate a model to predict the probability of ALN metastasis as a preoperative tool to support clinical decision-making. Clinicopathological features of 322 early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound findings were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ALN metastasis. A model was created from the logistic regression analysis, comprising lymph node transverse diameter, cortex thickness, hilum status, clinical tumour size, histological grade and estrogen receptor, and it was subsequently validated in another 234 patients. Coefficient of determination (R2) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to be 0.9375 and 0.864, showing good calibration and discrimination of the model, respectively. The false-negative rates of the model were 0% and 5.3% for the predicted probability cut-off points of 7.1% and 13.8%, respectively. This means that omission of axillary surgery may be safe for patients with a predictive probability of less than 13.8%. After further validation in clinical practice, this model may support increasingly limited surgical approaches to the axilla in breast cancer. PMID:26875677

  7. Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Corben, Adriana D; Nehhozina, Tatjana; Garg, Karuna; Vallejo, Christina E; Brogi, Edi

    2010-08-01

    The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma. Benign mllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event. We report our experience with 3 patients found to have endosalpingiosis in axillary sentinel lymph nodes obtained for staging of breast carcinoma. All patients were postmenopausal women, with age ranging between 65 and 75 years. Endosalpingiosis involved a single lymph node in 1 patient, and 2 nodes in each of the other 2; it was present in the lymph node capsule in all the 3 cases, with few glands scattered within the lymph node parenchyma in 2 of the patients. The glands contained ciliated and intercalated peg cells, had no periglandular endometrial-type stroma, and showed no atypia or mitotic activity. The epithelium demonstrated positive nuclear immunoreactivity for WT1 and PAX8, and was devoid of myoepithelium or basement membrane. Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes. We conclude that endosalpingiosis can involve axillary lymph nodes and closely simulate metastatic mammary carcinoma. Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis. PMID:20631604

  8. Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

  9. Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes simulating metastatic breast carcinoma: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Amir H; Omeroglu, Gulbeyaz; Kanber, Yonca; Omeroglu, Atilla

    2013-12-01

    Intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph nodes at time of surgical excision of primary breast carcinoma is a crucial step in the determination of cancer extent and the need for further axillary dissection. Benign epithelial inclusions in axillary lymph nodes can mimic metastatic carcinoma and are a well-known pitfall during examination of these nodes in frozen or permanent sections. Most often, these inclusions consists of heterotopic mammary glands and are familiar to the practicing pathologist. Here, however, we present a rare case of endosalpingiosis in the axillary lymph nodes of a breast cancer patient and describe our experience and effort to characterize the lesion. Simulating a metastatic focus of invasive ductal carcinoma, the glandular inclusions lacked myoepithelial cells and failed to stain with myoepithelial markers. However, consistent with a Mullerian origin, the inclusions demonstrated strong staining with PAX-8 and WT-1. Although endosalpingiotic inclusions are not uncommonly encountered in subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes, they are an extremely rare finding above the diaphragm. Pathologists must be aware of these lesions and their ability to imitate metastatic gland-forming carcinoma during frozen section or permanent examination of axillary lymph nodes. PMID:24021901

  10. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Postac?, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararba?, lkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatk?n, Nuket; Akp?nar, Gksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.5431.21 vs. 1.9741.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

  11. [Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastases from Occult Breast Cancer Recurrence at Ten Years after Resection-Case Report].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakagami, Masashi; Adachi, Keita; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    We encountered a case of axillary lymph nodes metastases from occult breast cancer recurrence at 10 years after resection. Ten years previously, a 71-year-old woman had undergone surgery (dermabrasion+full thickness skin graft+axillary lymph node dissection) for axillary lymph nodes metastases from occult breast cancer. After the operation, she had received chemotherapy and hormone therapy for 5 years. Then, in the recent 5 years, she had stopped attending our hospital. Ten years after the first operation, she came back to our hospital with a lump in her axillary region. She underwent resection for the subcutaneous mass and the axillary lymph nodes. The pathological diagnosis implied metastases from breast carcinoma. We checked upa hole her body. However, we could not detect the original lesion. PMID:26805169

  12. A Subset of Nondescript Axillary Lymph Node Inclusions Have the Immunophenotype of Endosalpingiosis

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Erin; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Cynthia; Kronz, Joseph; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    We report 2 cases of bland, otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions that have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis in patients with concurrent invasive breast carcinomas. Neither inclusion demonstrated the classic morphology of endosalpingiosis with admixed ciliated and secretory cells. Rather, both cases were composed of nondescript cuboidal to columnar bland epithelial cells situated within the lymph node capsule. Whereas both inclusions labeled diffusely for estrogen receptor and lacked evidence of a myoepithelial component, both labeled diffusely for PAX8 and WT-1, which distinguished them from their corresponding concurrent primary mammary carcinomas. These findings suggest that a subset of otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions represent endosalpingiosis and highlight the utility of PAX8 and WT-1 immunohistochemistry in distinguishing these from metastatic well-differentiated ductal carcinoma. PMID:24921637

  13. A subset of nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis.

    PubMed

    Carney, Erin; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Cynthia; Kronz, Joseph; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of bland, otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions that have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis in patients with concurrent invasive breast carcinomas. Neither inclusion demonstrated the classic morphology of endosalpingiosis with admixed ciliated and secretory cells. Rather, both cases were composed of nondescript cuboidal to columnar bland epithelial cells situated within the lymph node capsule. Whereas both inclusions labeled diffusely for estrogen receptor and lacked evidence of a myoepithelial component, both labeled diffusely for PAX8 and WT-1, which distinguished them from their corresponding concurrent primary mammary carcinomas. These findings suggest that a subset of otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions represent endosalpingiosis and highlight the utility of PAX8 and WT-1 immunohistochemistry in distinguishing these from metastatic well-differentiated ductal carcinoma. PMID:24921637

  14. Implication of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake of Affected Axillary Lymph Nodes in Cases with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Oosone, Katsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate affected axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer by positron-emission tomography using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET), an understanding of FDG avidity is important. In the present study, we examined whether certain factors, including lymphatic spread and size of metastatic lymph nodes, were associated with FDG avidity in order to evaluate the benefits of a FDG-PET assessment of axillary node metastases. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 179 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively. Among the 179 patients, 48 (26.8%) had axillary lymph node metastases. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, and false-negative rates in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node status by FDG-PET were 47.9%, 98.5%, 84.9%, and 52.1%, respectively. The 48 cases with lymph node metastases were divided into two groups based on the presence or not of FDG uptake in the axillary lesions. Clinicopathological features of the primary tumor, including tumor size, standardized uptake value (SUVmax and biomarkers, were not statistically significant factors; only the clinicopathological features of metastatic lymph nodes, including the size of node metastasis, were significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lymph nodes. Among the eight cases of micrometastasis, seven were not detected by FDG-PET. The number of cases with only one affected node was significantly higher in the group without FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. Although the number of lymph node metastases was relatively higher in the FDG-PET-positive patients, the difference was not statistically significant. FDG-PET may help identify patients with high axillary lymph node burden. Our findings imply that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of lymph nodes is not sufficient to predict lymphatic spread or micrometastasis because FDG avidity is mainly influenced by the size of the tumor. PMID:26722071

  15. Morbidity of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLN) Alone Versus SLN and Completion Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Igor; Guller, Ulrich; Berclaz, Gilles; Koechli, Ossi R.; Schaer, Gabriel; Fehr, Mathias K.; Hess, Thomas; Oertli, Daniel; Bronz, Lucio; Schnarwyler, Beate; Wight, Edward; Uehlinger, Urs; Infanger, Eduard; Burger, Daniel; Zuber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the morbidity after sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy compared with SLN and completion level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in a prospective multicenter study. Summary Background Data: ALND after breast cancer surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. We hypothesized: 1) that the morbidity in patients undergoing SLN biopsy only is significantly lower compared with those after SLN and completion ALND level I and II; and 2) that SLN biopsy can be performed with similar intermediate term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. Methods: Patients with early stage breast cancer (pT1 and pT2 ? 3 cm, cN0) were included between January 2000 and December 2003 in this prospective Swiss multicenter study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy. In all patients with SLN macrometastases and most patients with SLN micrometastases (43 of 68) or isolated tumor cells (11 of 19), a completion ALND was performed. Postoperative morbidity was assessed based on a standardized protocol. Results: SLN biopsy alone was performed in 449 patients, whereas 210 patients underwent SLN and completion ALND. The median follow-ups were 31.0 and 29.5 months for the SLN and SLN and completion ALND groups, respectively. Intermediate-term follow-up information was available from 635 of 659 patients (96.4%) of enrolled patients. The following results were found in the SLN versus SLN and completion ALND group: presence of lymphedema (3.5% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.0001), impaired shoulder range of motion (3.5% vs. 11.3%, P < 0.0001), shoulder/arm pain (8.1% vs. 21.1%, P < 0.0001), and numbness (10.9% vs. 37.7%, P < 0.0001). No significant differences regarding postoperative morbidity after SLN biopsy were noticed between academic and nonacademic hospitals (P = 0.921). Conclusions: The morbidity after SLN biopsy alone is not negligible but significantly lower compared with level I and II ALND. SLN biopsy can be performed with similar short- and intermediate-term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. PMID:17435553

  16. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  17. A Rapidly Enlarging Squamous Inclusion Cyst in an Axillary Lymph Node following Core Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cunxian; Xiong, Jinjun; Quddus, M. Ruhul; Ou, Joyce J.; Hansen, Katrine; Sung, C. James

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was found to have a 1.7?cm axillary mass, for which a core needle biopsy was performed. The specimen revealed fragmented squamous epithelium surrounded by lymphoid tissue consistent with a squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node, but a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma could not be excluded. Within one month, the lesion enlarged to 5?cm and was excised. Touch preparation cytology during intraoperative consultation displayed numerous single and sheets of atypical epithelioid cells with enlarged nuclei and occasional mitoses, suggesting a carcinoma. However, multinucleated giant cells and neutrophils in the background indicated reactive changes. We interpreted the touch preparation as atypical and recommended conservative surgical management. Permanent sections revealed a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node with extensive reactive changes. Retrospectively, the atypical epithelioid cells on touch preparation corresponded to reactive histiocytes. This is the first case report of a rapidly enlarging ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in an axillary lymph node following core needle biopsy. Our case demonstrates the diagnostic challenges related to a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst and serves to inform the readers to consider this lesion in the differential diagnosis for similar situations. PMID:22953131

  18. Tattoo pigment in axillary lymph node mimicking calcification of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsika, Admire; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Gray, Janet Meryl; Galbraith, Christine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A tattoo is defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. The phenomenon of skin tattooing is on the rise worldwide and complications of tattooing are increasingly being recognised in diagnostic and clinical medicine. We describe a case of calcification-like changes on mammography resembling that of breast malignancy as a result of tattoo pigment deposition in an axillary lymph node. Recognition of such changes in routine breast screening is crucial to avoid further unnecessary invasive investigations and surgery in such patients. PMID:23929611

  19. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be “secretary breast carcinoma”, and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26045861

  20. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  1. Contouring Guidelines for the Axillary Lymph Nodes for the Delivery of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer: Evaluation of the RTOG Breast Cancer Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Michelle S.; Usman, Asad A.; Neuschler, Erin I.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Hayes, John P.; Small, William

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the axillary lymph nodes on pretreatment diagnostic computed tomography (CT) of the chest to determine their position relative to the anatomic axillary borders as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans available for 30 breast cancer patients with clinically involved lymph nodes were fused with simulation CT. Contouring of axillary levels I, II, and III according to the RTOG guidelines was performed. Measurements were made from the area of distal tumor to the anatomic borders in 6 dimensions for each level. Results: Of the 30 patients, 100%, 93%, and 37% had clinical involvement of levels I, II, and III, respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 13.6. The mean size of the largest lymph node was 2.4 cm. Extracapsular extension was seen in 23% of patients. In 97% of patients, an aspect of the involved lymph node lay outside of the anatomic border of a level. In 80% and 83% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the cranial (1.78 ± 1.0 cm; range, 0.28-3.58 cm) and anterior (1.27 ± 0.92 cm; range, 0.24-3.58 cm) borders of level I, respectively. In 80% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the caudal border of level II (1.36 ± 1.0 cm, range, 0.27-3.86 cm), and 0% to 33% of patients had tumor extension outside the remaining borders of all levels. Conclusions: To cover 95% of lymph nodes at the cranial and anterior borders of level I, an additional clinical target volume margin of 3.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively, is necessary. The RTOG guidelines may be insufficient for coverage of axillary disease in patients with clinical nodal involvement who are undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, incomplete axillary dissection, or treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy. In patients with pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans, fusion with simulation CT should be considered for tumor delineation.

  2. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case. PMID:26124669

  3. Axillary lymph node micrometastases in invasive breast cancer: national figures on incidence and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Grabau, D; Jensen, M B; Rank, F; Blichert-Toft, M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic value of axillary lymph node micrometastases (Nmic) of 2 mm or less in breast carcinomas. Results are based on data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). The study was carried out as a nationwide, population-based trial with a study series consisting of 6,959 women under 75 years of age registered in the national DBCG data base from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. All patients had contracted operable primary breast carcinoma, stage I-III, classified according to the TNM system as T1-T3, N0-N1, M0. Women with four or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes were excluded. All patients were treated systematically according to approved national guidelines and treatment protocols. Metastases were recognized microscopically on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In case of doubt immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin was performed. There was no serial sectioning. Micrometastases were tumour deposits of 2 mm or smaller, and accordingly included deposits of 0.2 mm and smaller. With a median observation time of 10 years and 2 months, women with Nmic (N=427) experienced a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with node-negative (Nneg) women (N=4,767) (relative risk (RR)=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43), irrespective of menopausal status. Women with macrometastases (Nmac) (N=1,765) had significantly worse final outcome than women with Nmic (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.85), irrespective of menopausal status. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient-, histopathologic-, and loco-regional therapeutic variables showed that cases with Nmic had a significantly higher risk of death relative to Nneg cases (adjusted RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.90). Interaction analysis showed that the number of nodes examined had a significant impact on adjusted relative risk of death according to axillary status. Furthermore, the number of nodes involved significantly influenced adjusted risk of death in the Nmic compared to the Nmac series. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed worse final outcome in women with Nmic compared with Nneg, where all Nmic cases received adjuvant systemic treatment. Interaction analysis showed that the number of retrieved axillary nodes and the number of affected nodes had a different influence on survival related to axillary status. The different risk pattern in Nmic vs Nmac patients indicates that Nmic cases do not show the traditional risk pattern as revealed by the Nmac cases, in which increasing number of positive nodes is associated with an orderly increasing adjusted RR. PMID:17614850

  4. Axillary lymph node metastases in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A rare finding

    PubMed Central

    SPILIOPOULOS, D.; MITSOPOULOS, G.; KAPTANIS, S.; HALKIAS, C.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm that has a good prognosis and represents less than 1% of all breast cancers. It is a triple negative carcinoma that presents as a painful mass. The mean age at the time of diagnosis is 5060 years old. The solid variant of this type of tumour with basaloid features and presence of nodal metastases is very rare and considered to have a more aggressive clinical course. We present a case with presence of axillary lymph node metastases that was successfully treated with no evidence of recurrence one year after the diagnosis and review the literature. PMID:26712257

  5. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a negative FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to upstaging in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  6. Raman spectroscopy--a potential new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Horsnell, Jonathan D; Smith, Jenny A; Sattlecker, Martina; Sammon, Alistair; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy has become the standard surgical procedure for the sampling of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer. Intra-operative node assessment of these nodes would allow definitive axillary surgery to take place immediately with associated benefits for patient management. Our experimental study aims to demonstrate that a Raman spectroscopy probe system could overcome many of the disadvantages of current intra-operative methods. 59 axillary lymph nodes, 43 negative and 16 positive from 58 patients undergoing breast surgery at our district general hospital were mapped using Raman micro-spectroscopy. These maps were then used to model the effect of using a Raman spectroscopic probe by selecting 5 and 10 probe points across the mapped images and evaluating the impact on disease detection. Results demonstrated sensitivities of up to 81% and specificities of up to 97% when differentiating between positive and negative lymph nodes, dependent on the number of probe points included. The results would have concurred with histopathology assessment in 89% and 91% of cases in the 5 and 10 point models respectively. Using Raman spectroscopy in this way could allow lymph node assessment within a time-frame suitable for intra-operative use. PMID:22525413

  7. Prognostic factors in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or inguinal lymph nodes. A multivariate analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Coit, D G; Rogatko, A; Brennan, M F

    1991-01-01

    Although pathologic nodal status is a major determinant of outcome in melanoma, there is substantial prognostic heterogeneity among node-positive patients. This study was undertaken to further clarify significant variables predicting survival in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or groin nodes. From 1019 patients with melanoma undergoing axillary or groin dissection between 1974 and 1984, the authors identified 449 patients with histologically positive nodes. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox model of proportional hazard regression. The major determinant of survival was pathologic stage (PS) according to the 1983 AJCC staging system. Three hundred fifty patients (78%) were classified PS-III (one nodal group involved), with a survival of 39% at 5 years and 32% at 10 years. Factors independently predictive of a favorable outcome in these patients were nontruncal primary site (p = 0.0002), microscopic nodal involvement (p = 0.001), number of positive nodes less than three (p = 0.003), and absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.01). Ninety-nine patients (22%) were classified PS-IV, 51 with two nodal stations involved (N2), 25 with intransit disease and one nodal station involved (N2), 7 with extraregional soft tissue metastases (M1), and 16 with visceral metastases (M2). Survival for PS-IV patients was 9% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Within PS-IV, factors independently predictive of a more favorable outcome were the absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.0001), female sex (p = 0.03), and a long interval from diagnosis to lymph node dissection (p = 0.04). These factors were incorporated into a model predicting relative risk of death from disease for both PS-III and PS-IV patients, separating patients into groups at high, intermediate, and low risk of recurrence after lymphadenectomy. PMID:1953117

  8. Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

  9. Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Eriko; Okano, Shinji; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Nami; Tanaka, Kimihiro; Akiyoshi, Sauri; Taketani, Kenji; Shirouzu, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of cancer is a rare but well-documented biological phenomenon. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein report a case of the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node with spontaneously-induced T cell-mediated immunological responses. A 52-year-old female with a lump in the left axilla was diagnosed to have a small breast carcinoma with a distinct axillary lymph node metastasis. During the preoperative systemic examination, she was diagnosed to have severe type 2 diabetes mellitus, was treated with insulin, and the hyperglycemia was normalized after one month. Surgery for left breast cancer was then performed. The postoperative histopathological examination revealed the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that estrogen receptor positive, AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma completely underwent necrosis associated with extensive infiltration of CD3-positive T cells in the tumor nodule in the lymph node. In addition, primary ductal carcinoma cells also underwent single cell necrosis with infiltration of T cells with lymph follicle-like organization of B cells in the mammary gland. The features were suggestive that the tumor eradication in the metastatic lymph node and regression of the primary ductal carcinoma could be due to host T cell response to the ductal carcinoma. As far as we know it is the first report that shows the spontaneous regression of breast cancer, probably due to the spontaneously-induced T cell response. PMID:25120822

  10. The use of Raman spectroscopy for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsnell, Jonathan

    Breast cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is part of the staging of the disease. Advances in surgical management of breast cancer have seen a move towards intra-operative lymph node assessment that facilitates an immediate axillary clearance if it is indicated. Raman spectroscopy, a technique based on the inelastic scattering of light, has previously been shown to be capable of differentiating between normal and malignant tissue. These results, based on the biochemical composition of the tissue, potentially allow for this technique to be utilised in this clinical context. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facility of Raman spectroscopy to both assess axillary lymph node tissue within the theatre setting and to achieve results that were comparable to other intra-operative techniques within a clinically relevant time frame. Initial experiments demonstrated that these aims were feasible within the context of both the theatre environment and current surgical techniques. A laboratory based feasibility study involving 17 patients and 38 lymph node samples achieved sensivities and specificities of >90% in unsupervised testing. 339 lymph node samples from 66 patients were subsequently assessed within the theatre environment. Chemometric analysis of this data demonstrated sensitivities of up to 94% and specificities of up to 99% in unsupervised testing. The best results were achieved when comparing negative nodes from N0 patients and nodes containing macrometastases. Spectral analysis revealed increased levels of lipid in the negative nodes and increased DNA and protein levels in the positive nodes. Further studies highlighted the reproducibility of these results using different equipment, users and time from excision. This study uses Raman spectroscopy for the first time in an operating theatre and demonstrates that the results obtained, in real-time, are comparable, if not superior, to current intra-operative techniques of lymph nodes assessment.

  11. Wound complications after modified radical mastectomy compared with tylectomy with axillary lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Vinton, A L; Traverso, L W; Jolly, P C

    1991-05-01

    Tylectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and radiotherapy (TAD) has become an accepted treatment for early breast cancer and has been shown to result in equal 5- and 8-year survival when compared with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). In order to determine the safety of TAD with respect to wound complications and to identify potential risk factors, we reviewed the charts of 560 patients undergoing MRM (n = 387) and TAD (n = 173) at Virginia Mason Medical Center from 1983 through 1989. The incidence of infection, seroma, hematoma, and epidermolysis were compared, and obesity, age 60 years or older, smoking, antibiotics, and wound drainage were examined as possible risk factors. There were more wound complications in the MRM group versus the TAD group (49% versus 35%; p less than 0.01), specifically more seromas (29% versus 18%; p less than 0.01) and epidermolysis (18% versus 0%). In the MRM group, age 60 years or older was associated with seroma (p less than 0.01) and smoking was associated with epidermolysis (p less than 0.01). In the TAD group, obesity was associated with infection. In both groups, volume of drainage from closed suction wound drains greater than 30 mL in the 24 hours prior to removal of the last drain was associated with seroma (p less than 0.05). PMID:2031542

  12. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ?250?5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p?=?0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  13. Rare case of axillary lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma detected using Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mohanan, Vyshak; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is, usually, associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual. Only few cases of papillary carcinoma with axillary nodal metastasis were previously reported in the literature. We present a 38-year-old female who underwent Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy, after total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid, showed intense uptake in the remnant thyroid, lung metastasis, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes. Excision of left axillary lymph nodes confirmed metastatic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25829741

  14. Rare case of axillary lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma detected using Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mohanan, Vyshak; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is, usually, associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual. Only few cases of papillary carcinoma with axillary nodal metastasis were previously reported in the literature. We present a 38-year-old female who underwent Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy, after total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid, showed intense uptake in the remnant thyroid, lung metastasis, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes. Excision of left axillary lymph nodes confirmed metastatic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25829741

  15. Axillary Lymph Node Status, But Not Tumor Size, Predicts Locoregional Recurrence and Overall Survival After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beenken, Samuel W.; Urist, Marshall M.; Zhang, Yuting; Desmond, Renee; Krontiras, Helen; Medina, Heriberto; Bland, Kirby I.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the significance of axillary lymph node status and tumor size for predicting locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival after mastectomy for breast cancer and to discuss the utility of postmastectomy radiation therapy. Summary Background Data Patients with locally advanced breast cancer require multimodality treatment combining chemotherapy (and/or hormonal therapy), surgery, and radiation. Randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiation reduces LRR, but no overall survival benefit has been established. Methods Criteria for accrual to the Alabama Breast Cancer Project (19751978) were female gender and T23 breast cancer with M0 status. Patients underwent a radical or a modified radical mastectomy. Node-positive patients received adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy or adjuvant melphalan. Patients were evaluated for LRR and overall survival based on the number of positive axillary lymph nodes and (in N0 patients) pathologic tumor size. Significance was determined using chi-square analysis. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by log-rank analysis. Results After median follow-up of 15 years, neither type of surgery nor chemotherapy was shown to affect locoregional disease-free or overall survival. LRR rates were higher and overall survival rates were lower in patients with nodal involvement, while tumor size was not shown to significantly affect these rates. Conclusions Patients with axillary lymph node metastases may benefit from postmastectomy radiation, but the use of postmastectomy radiation in N0 patients is not supported when it is based on tumor size alone. PMID:12724640

  16. Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Geara, Fady B. . E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie; Tucker, Susan L.; Charafeddine, Maya; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Eid, Toufic; Abbas, Jaber; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; Issa, Philip; El Saghir, Nagi

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

  17. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  18. Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 2 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

  19. Axillary lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma detected by FDG PET/CT in a thyroglobulin-positive patient with negative whole-body 131I scan.

    PubMed

    Elboga, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Celen, Y Zeki; Aktolun, Cumali

    2012-11-01

    Axillary metastasis is not a common finding in papillary carcinoma. 18F-FDG can detect foci of metastasis in patients with negative 131I scan. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who had undergone thyroidectomy and 131I ablation due to classic type of papillary carcinoma 14 years ago. Follow-up examination revealed high serum thyroglobulin and negative whole body 131I scan. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed focally increased uptake in right axillary as well as supraclavicular and bilateral cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination of the surgically removed lymph nodes confirmed the metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:22996245

  20. Comparison of the expression of prognostic biomarkers between primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Xu, Lanwei; Liu, Wenjun; Lv, Cuixia; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and prediction of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases in breast cancer is traditionally based upon the biomarkers status of the primary tumor. Some retrospective studies showed significant discordance in receptor expression between primary and metastatic tumors. We aim to prospectively assess the incidence of discordant biomarkers status in primary tumor and ALN metastases and to evaluate the role of ALN biopsies for the reassessment of receptor status. Tissue arrays were constructed from 54 breast cancer patients with ALN metastases diagnosed. Arrays were immuno-stained to compare protein expression of four biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry. The kappa value of consistency in the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes were 0.465 for ER, 0.445 for PR, and 0.706 for HER2. Good consistency was shown for Ki67 expression in primary and metastases regions with T test. No significant difference is existed between primary tumor and ALN metastases. It is concluded that the good consistency is present for ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 between the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes, suggesting that ER, PR, HER2, or Ki67 status in primary tumors could reflect their status in ALN metastases. PMID:26191291

  1. Langerhans Cell Sarcoma of the Axillary Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Orgen Çallı, Aylin; Morgül, Yelda; Alacacıoğlu, İnci; Bener, Sadi; Payzin, Bahriye

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma is a rare, high-grade neoplasm with overtly malignant cytological features and the Langerhans phenotype. Herein, we present a rare case of Langerhans cell sarcoma in a 65-year-old female that presented with a painless enlarging mass in her right axillary region, along with the histopathological features and diagnostic characteristics in the light of literature on Langerhans cell sarcoma. PMID:26923635

  2. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay for intraoperative prediction of advanced axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    KUBOTA, MICHIYO; KOMOIKE, YOSHIFUMI; HAMADA, MIKA; SHINZAKI, WATARU; AZUMI, TATSUYA; HASHIMOTO, YUKIHIKO; IMOTO, SHIGERU; TAKEYAMA, YOSHIFUMI; OKUNO, KIYOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is used to semiquantitatively measure the cytokeratin (CK)19 mRNA copy numbers of each sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the diagnosis of ?4 LN metastases is possible using the OSNA assay intraoperatively. Between May, 2010 and December, 2014, a total of 134 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) of positive SLNs were analyzed. The total tumor load (TTL) was defined as the total CK19 mRNA copies of all positive SLNs. The correlation between TTL and ?4 LN metastases was evaluated. Of the 134 patients, 31 (23.1%) had ?4 LN metastases. TTL ?5.4104 copies/l evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was examined along with other clinicopathological variables. In the multivariate analysis, only TTL ?5.4104 copies/l was correlated with ?4 LN metastases (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.177.97, P=0.022). Therefore, TTL assessed by the OSNA assay has the potential to be a predictor of ?4 LN metastases and it may be useful for the selection of patients with positive SLNs in whom ALND may be safely omitted.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    de Felice, C; Cipolla, V; Stagnitti, A; Porfiri, L M; Guerrieri, D; Musella, A; Santucci, D; Meggiorini, M L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T MRI) in the preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in patients with invasive breast cancer. The authors retrospectively analyzed 26 patients with invasive breast cancer who had undergone sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). All patients had been submitted to preoperative contrast enhanced breast 1.5T MRI. On the basis of lymph nodes morphological and dynamic characteristics, lymph nodes were classified as "negative" (short axis < 5 mm), "borderline" (short axis > 5 mm, absence of a hilum) or "positive" (short axis > 5 mm, absence of a hilum and also other suspicious features). The authors compared 1.5T MRI results with the outcome of histological analysis performed according to the TNM criteria; sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 1.5T MRI were evaluated. Considering only the lymph nodes "positive", 1.5 T MRI showed: SE 37.8%, SP 99.3%, FP 0.7%, PPV 92.5%, and NPV 88.1%. However, considering also "borderline", 1.5T MRI achieved: SE 75.7%, SP 99.3%, FP 0.7%, PPV 96.1%, and NPV was 95%. Contrast enhanced breast 1.5T MRI is not yet a valid alternative to histological analysis but it is a valid tool for a preoperative study of the topography of axillary lymph nodes and has the potential to become a routine method for evaluating the metastatic lymph nodes before submission to ALND. PMID:26390701

  4. The natural history of human breast cancer. The relationship between involvement of axillary lymph nodes and the initiation of distant metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, S.; Le, M. G.; Tubiana, M.

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the mean volume of breast cancer in women at the time of the involvement of the first, second, third,... nth axillary lymph nodes. It has been found that the proportion of patients with axillary involvement as well as the number of involved nodes increase progressively with tumour size. This orderly involvement of axillary nodes is observed in all patient subsets despite a wide spread of tumour volume at the time of invasion of the axillary nodes. This makes it possible to compute for each patient or subset of patients the size of the tumour at the time of the first node involvement, a parameter which characterises the propensity for nodal involvement. A strong correlation was demonstrated between the propensity to lymphatic involvement and the probability of distant dissemination. During tumour progression the capacity for lymphatic spread is on average acquired much earlier than the capacity for haematogenous spread. For tumours of the outer quadrants, the volume at first axillary involvement is smaller than for tumours located in the inner quadrants, whereas the tumour volumes at the time of distant metastatic initiation are equal for the two tumour sites. The discrepancy between these two observations shows that axillary involvement, while being a good index of the propensity of the tumour cells to acquire the capacity for distant spread, is not the cause of this spread. From a clinical point of view, these data show that the prognostic significance of axillary involvement can be further increased by taking into account the size of the tumour. The data suggest that there is a continuum from slow growing disease with late axillary involvement and late distant dissemination to the most aggressive subtype. PMID:2736212

  5. Real-time ultrasound elastography in 180 axillary lymph nodes: elasticity distribution in healthy lymph nodes and prediction of breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the general appearance of normal axillary lymph nodes (LNs) in real-time tissue sonoelastography and to explore the method′s potential value in the prediction of LN metastases. Methods Axillary LNs in healthy probands (n=165) and metastatic LNs in breast cancer patients (n=15) were examined with palpation, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler and sonoelastography (assessment of the elasticity of the cortex and the medulla). The elasticity distributions were compared and sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) were calculated. In an exploratory analysis, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated based upon the estimated prevalence of LN metastases in different risk groups. Results In the elastogram, the LN cortex was significantly harder than the medulla in both healthy (p=0.004) and metastatic LNs (p=0.005). Comparing healthy and metastatic LNs, there was no difference in the elasticity distribution of the medulla (p=0.281), but we found a significantly harder cortex in metastatic LNs (p=0.006). The SE of clinical examination, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and sonoelastography was revealed to be 13.3%, 40.0%, 14.3% and 60.0%, respectively, and SP was 88.4%, 96.8%, 95.6% and 79.6%, respectively. The highest SE was achieved by the disjunctive combination of B-mode and elastographic features (cortex >3mm in B-mode or blue cortex in the elastogram, SE=73.3%). The highest SP was achieved by the conjunctive combination of B-mode ultrasound and elastography (cortex >3mm in B-mode and blue cortex in the elastogram, SP=99.3%). Conclusions Sonoelastography is a feasible method to visualize the elasticity distribution of LNs. Moreover, sonoelastography is capable of detecting elasticity differences between the cortex and medulla, and between metastatic and healthy LNs. Therefore, sonoelastography yields additional information about axillary LN status and can improve the PPV, although this method is still experimental. PMID:23253859

  6. Use of CEA and CA15-3 to Predict Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Ren, Hong-Yue; Yang, Li-Chao; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of preoperative serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 on the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 1148 breast cancer patients whose preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were measured. The association of these tumor markers and clinicopathologic parameters with ALNM was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A median of 15 lymph nodes were removed. Seven hundred seventy-eight (67.8%) patients had node-negative disease and 370 (32.2%) had ALNM. Univariate analysis showed that tumor location (P = 0.024), stage (P = 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P < 0.001), CEA level (P < 0.001), CA15-3 level (P < 0.001), and breast cancer subtype (BCS) (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ALNM. ALNM was present in 4.5% of patients with normal CEA and 11.6% of patients with elevated CEA. ALNM was present in 8.0% of patients with normal CA15-3 and 17.0% of patients with high CA15-3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location, stage, grade, LVI, CEA, CA15-3, and BCS were significantly and independently associated with ALNM (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The probability of ALNM was greater in patients with elevated preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. CEA and CA15-3 appear to be independent predictors of ALNM in breast cancer. PMID:26722358

  7. Molecular Detection of Micrometastatic Breast Cancer in Histopathology-Negative Axillary Lymph Nodes Correlates With Traditional Predictors of Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gillanders, William E.; Mikhitarian, Kaidi; Hebert, Renee; Mauldin, Patrick D.; Palesch, Yuko; Walters, Christian; Urist, Marshall M.; Mann, G Bruce; Doherty, Gerard; Herrmann, Virginia M.; Hill, Arnold D.; Eremin, Oleg; El-Sheemy, Mohamed; Orr, Richard K.; Valle, Alvaro A.; Henderson, Michael A.; Dewitty, Robert L.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Frykberg, Eric; Yeh, Karen; Bell, Richard M.; Metcalf, John S.; Elliott, Bruce M.; Brothers, Thomas; Robison, Jay; Mitas, Michael; Cole, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We sought to establish the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) of breast cancer patients. Background: The presence of ALN metastases remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in women with breast cancer. However, the clinical relevance of molecular detection of micrometastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) and nonsentinel ALN has not been established. Methods: Four hundred eighty-nine patients with T1T3 primary breast cancers were analyzed in a prospective, multi-institutional cohort study. ALN were analyzed by standard histopathology (H&E staining) and by multimarker, real-time RT-PCR analysis (mam, mamB, muc1, CEA, PSE, CK19, and PIP) designed to detect breast cancer micrometastases. Results: A positive marker signal was observed in 126 (87%) of 145 subjects with pathology-positive ALN, and in 112 (33%) of 344 subjects with pathology-negative ALN. In subjects with pathology-negative ALN, a positive marker signal was significantly associated with traditional indicators of prognosis, such as histologic grade (P = 0.0255) and St. Gallen risk category (P = 0.022). Mammaglobin was the most informative marker in the panel. Conclusion: This is the first report to show that overexpression of breast cancerassociated genes in breast cancer subjects with pathology-negative ALN correlates with traditional indicators of disease prognosis. These interim results provide strong evidence that molecular markers could serve as valid surrogates for the detection of occult micrometastases in ALN. Correlation of real-time RT-PCR analyses with disease-free survival in this patient cohort will help to define the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease in this patient population. PMID:15166962

  8. Prevalence of Lymphedema in Women With Breast Cancer 5 Years After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Dissection: Objective Measurements

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Wright, Mary J.; Morris, Katherine T.; Giron, Gladys L.; Sampson, Michelle R.; Brockway, Julia P.; Hurley, Karen E.; Riedel, Elyn R.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy was adopted for the staging of the axilla with the assumption that it would reduce the risk of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of lymphedema after SLN biopsy (SLNB) alone and after SLNB followed by axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND). Patients and Methods At median follow-up of 5 years, lymphedema was assessed in 936 women with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB alone or SLNB/ALND. Standardized ipsilateral and contralateral measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to determine change in ipsilateral upper extremity circumference and to control for baseline asymmetry and weight change. Associations between lymphedema and potential risk factors were examined. Results Of the 936 women, 600 women (64%) underwent SLNB alone and 336 women (36%) underwent SLNB/ALND. Patients having SLNB alone were older than those having SLNB/ALND (56 v 52 years; P < .0001). Baseline body mass index (BMI) was similar in both groups. Arm circumference measurements documented lymphedema in 5% of SLNB alone patients, compared with 16% of SLNB/ALND patients (P < .0001). Risk factors associated with measured lymphedema were greater body weight (P < .0001), higher BMI (P < .0001), and infection (P < .0001) or injury (P = .02) in the ipsilateral arm since surgery. Conclusion When compared with SLNB/ALND, SLNB alone results in a significantly lower rate of lymphedema 5 years postoperatively. However, even after SLNB alone, there remains a clinically relevant risk of lymphedema. Higher body weight, infection, and injury are significant risk factors for developing lymphedema. PMID:18838709

  9. In-vivo detection of tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes with a handheld beta-sensitive probe: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Derakhshan, Jamal

    2001-05-01

    Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in the organs of a patient was simulated with an anthropomorphic torso phantom. Following examination by the handheld probe, a PET image of the phantom was acquired. The results demonstrated that the probe was capable of identifying lymph nodes containing as little as 10 (mu) l of tumor. This amount of simulated tumor was too small to be detected by the PET scanner. This method, therefore, may be useful in intraoperatively identifying some tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes not detected with PET; potentially increasing the efficiency of axillary dissection. Future clinical trials must be performed to assess the utility of this new technique.

  10. A Declining Rate of Completion Axillary Dissection in Sentinel Lymph Node-positive Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated With the Use of a Multivariate Nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julia; Fey, Jane V.; Naik, Arpana M.; Borgen, Patrick I.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Cody, Hiram S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients who had completion axillary dissection (ALND) with those who did not, with particular attention to clinicopathologic features, nomogram scores, rates of axillary local recurrence (LR), and changes in treatment pattern over time. Background: While conventional treatment of SLN-positive patients is to perform ALND, there may be a low-risk subgroup of SLN-positive patients in whom ALND is not required. A multivariate nomogram that predicts the likelihood of residual axillary disease may assist in identifying this group. Methods: Among 1960 consecutive SLN-positive patients (1997–2004), 1673 (85%) had ALND (“SLN+/ALND”) and 287 (15%) did not (“SLN+/no ALND”). We compare in detail the clinicopathologic features, nomogram scores, and rates of axillary LR between groups. Results: Compared with the SLN+/ALND group, patients with SLN+/no ALND were older, had more favorable tumors, were more likely to have breast conservation, had a lower median predicted risk of residual axillary node metastases (9% vs. 37%, P < 0.001), and had a marginally higher rate of axillary LR (2% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.004) at 23 to 30 months’ follow-up; half of all axillary LR in SLN+/no ALND patients were coincident with other local or distant sites. For patients in whom intraoperative frozen section was either negative or not done, the rate of completion ALND declined from 79% in 1997 to 62% in 2003 to 2004 but varied widely by surgeon, ranging from 37% to 100%. For 10 of 10 evaluable surgeons, the median nomogram scores in the SLN+/no ALND group were ≤10.5. Conclusions: SLN+/no ALND breast cancer patients, a selected group with relatively favorable disease characteristics, had a 9% predicted likelihood of residual axillary disease by nomogram but an observed axillary LR of 2%. A gradual and significant decline over time in the rate of completion ALND is associated with, but not entirely explained by, the institution of a predictive nomogram. It is reasonable to omit ALND for a low-risk subset of SLN-positive patients. PMID:17435554

  11. The prognostic relevance of the mitotic activity index in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, Jan J; van der Palen, Job; Brinkhuis, Maril; Nortier, Johan W R; Struikmans, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to look at the mitotic activity index (MAI) as a prognostic factor in a prospective population-based cohort of lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer patients. Analyses were based on 2,048 breast-conserving therapies in 1,971 patients, node-negative, and without any form of adjuvant systemic therapy with long-term follow-up. The 15-year distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for women ?55 years was 88.3 % for low MAI values (?12) versus 73.4 % for high MAI values (>12); (HR 2.8; 95 % CI 1.8-4.4; p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses for DMFS showed significance for MAI. For MAI and Bloom-Richardson grading, by performing a likelihood ratio test, we showed the statistical significance for both. For women >55-years, the MAI was not an independent significant factor. We also confirmed the above findings for disease-specific survival. When multi-gene assays are not available, the MAI remains a robust prognostic marker in women younger than 55 years of age with early node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25526926

  12. Can internal mammary chain treatment decrease the risk of death for patients with medial breast cancers and positive axillary lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Le, M.G.; Arriagada, R.; de Vathaire, F.; Dewar, J.; Fontaine, F.; Lacour, J.; Contesso, G.; Tubiana, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant death-related event was analyzed in 1195 patients with operable breast cancer and histologically involved axillary lymph nodes. A group of 135 patients who had no internal mammary chain treatment was compared with a control group of 1060 patients who were treated by surgery and/or postoperative radiation therapy. In a multivariate analysis taking into account age, clinical size of the tumor, histoprognostic grading, and the number of positive axillary lymph nodes, quantitative interaction tests were used to determine whether the effects of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant event were significantly different for patients with a lateral tumor compared with those with a medial tumor. The authors found that the effects of this treatment on the risks of distant metastases and of secondary breast cancer were not the same for the patients with a medial tumor as for those with a lateral tumor. For the untreated patients with a medial tumor, the risks of distant metastases and second breast cancer were, respectively, 1.6 (P = 0.02) and 2.9 (P = 0.02), compared with the treated patients. Conversely, for women with lateral tumor, no difference between the two treatment groups was observed. Thus, internal mammary chain treatment may improve long-term survival rate in patients with a medial tumor and positive axillary lymph nodes essentially by decreasing the risk of development of distant metastases (mainly brain, distant lymph nodes, multiple simultaneous metastases) and/or a secondary breast cancer.

  13. Histologic Grade and Decrease in Tumor Dimensions Affect Axillary Lymph Node Status after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Ji Young; Han, Sehwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purposes our study was to find out any histologic factors associated with negative conversion of axillary lymph node (ALN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We also evaluated the association between the decrease in size of primary breast tumor and negative conversion of ALN. Methods From January 2012 to November 2014, we included 133 breast cancer patients who underwent NAC and who had ALN metastases which were confirmed on fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy at initial diagnosis. All 133 patients underwent initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of diagnosis and preoperative MRI after completion of NAC. We measured the longest dimension of primary breast cancer on MRI. Results Of 133 patients, 39 patients (29%) showed negative conversion of ALN and of these 39 patients, 25 patients (64%) showed pathologic complete remission of primary breast. On univariate analysis, mean percent decrease in longest dimension, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and histologic grade were significantly associated with the ALN status after NAC (p<0.001, p=0.001, p< 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, percent decrease in longest dimension (odds ratio, 1.026; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.044) and histologic grade (odds ratio, 3.964; 95% CI, 1.151-13.657) were identified as being independently associated with the ALN status after NAC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.835 with the best cutoff value of 80% decrease in longest dimension. Combination of high histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in longest dimension showed 64% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusion High histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in primary tumor dimension were associated with negative conversion of ALN after NAC. PMID:26770247

  14. A Case Report of Male Occult Breast Cancer First Manifesting as Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis With Part of Metastatic Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengna; Liu, He; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Occult breast cancer (OBC) is a type of breast cancer without any symptoms in the breast (no primary cancer lesion is found in either breast on a physical examination or imaging examination such as ultrasound and mammography). The incidence of OBC is rare in females, whereas in males, there are few cases of breast cancer, and the rate of OBC is very low. This is the first time report a case of male OBC first manifested as axillary metastasis, of which the pathological results showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. A 40-year-old male patient presenting palpable masses in his left axillary on physical and imaging examination revealed unremarkable despite of multiple swollen lymph nodes in the left axillary, and the resected sample showed metastatic adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, positive of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal receptor 2 (Her-2), it was identified as an OBC. This is the fourth case report of male OBC in the literature; 1 case was reported in China in 2008, and it was metastatic infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and 2 cases were reported in Korea in 2012, one of which was reported as metastatic carcinoma and the other was metastatic adenocarcinoma; however, our case was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of mucinous carcinoma. Our case of male OBC could metastasize to supraclavicular region and lung in addition to axillary lymph nodes, and the prognosis was relatively poor compared to the 3 cases reported before. The aim of this case report is to introduce the imaging, pathological features, and management of a rare male OBC. PMID:26107674

  15. Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

    2014-08-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR. PMID:24726837

  16. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah; Mousa, WF

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB), which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients) or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients) for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection. PMID:26955304

  17. Can clinically relevant prognostic subsets of breast cancer patients with four or more involved axillary lymph nodes be identified through immunohistochemical biomarkers? A tissue microarray feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, Simon J; Bajdik, Chris D; Leung, Samuel; Speers, Caroline H; Kennecke, Hagen; Huntsman, David G; Gelmon, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Primary breast cancer involving four or more axillary lymph nodes carries a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that use of an immunohistochemical biomarker scoring system could allow for identification of variable risk subgroups. Methods Patients with four or more positive axillary nodes were identified from a clinically annotated tissue microarray of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers and randomized into a 'test set' and a 'validation set'. A prospectively defined prognostic scoring model was developed in the test set and was further assessed in the validation set combining expression for eight biomarkers by immunohistochemistry, including estrogen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2, carbonic anhydrase IX, cytokeratin 5/6, progesterone receptor, p53 and Ki-67. Survival outcomes were analyzed by the KaplanMeier method, log rank tests and Cox proportional-hazards models. Results A total of 313 eligible patients were identified in the test set for whom 10-year relapse-free survival was 38.3% (SEM 2.9%), with complete immunohistochemical data available for 227. Tumor size, percentage of positive axillary nodes and expression status for the progesterone receptor, Ki-67 and carbonic anhydrase IX demonstrated independent prognostic significance with respect to relapse-free survival. Our combined biomarker scoring system defined three subgroups in the test set with mean 10-year relapse-free survivals of 75.4% (SEM 7.0%), 35.3% (SEM 4.1%) and 19.3% (SEM 7.0%). In the validation set, differences in relapse-free survival for these subgroups remained statistically significant but less marked. Conclusion Biomarkers assessed here carry independent prognostic value for breast cancer with four or more positive axillary nodes and identified clinically relevant prognostic subgroups. This approach requires refinement and validation of methodology. PMID:18194560

  18. Prevalence of Lymphedema in Women With Breast Cancer 5 Years After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Dissection: Patient Perceptions and Precautionary Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Wright, Mary J.; Morris, Katherine T.; Sampson, Michelle R.; Brockway, Julia P.; Hurley, Karen E.; Riedel, Elyn R.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was adopted for the staging of the axilla with the assumption that it would reduce the risk of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. This study was undertaken to examine patient perceptions of lymphedema and use of precautionary behaviors several years after axillary surgery. Patients and Methods Nine hundred thirty-six women who underwent SLN biopsy (SLNB) alone or SLNB followed by axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND) between June 1, 1999, and May 30, 2003, were evaluated at a median of 5 years after surgery. Patient-perceived lymphedema and avoidant behaviors were assessed through interview and administered a validated instrument, and compared with arm measurements. Results Current arm swelling was reported in 3% of patients who received SLNB alone versus 27% of patients who received SLNB/ALND (P < .0001), as compared with 5% and 16%, respectively, with measured lymphedema. Only 41% of patients reporting arm swelling had measured lymphedema, and 5% of patients reporting no arm swelling had measured lymphedema. Risk factors associated with reported arm swelling were greater body weight (P < .0001), higher body mass index (P < .0001), infection (P < .0001), and injury (P = .007) in the ipsilateral arm since surgery. Patients followed more precautions if they had measured or perceived lymphedema. Conclusion Body weight, infection, and injury are significant risk factors for perceiving lymphedema. There is significant discordance between the presence of measured and patient-perceived lymphedema. When compared to SLNB/ALND, SLNB-alone results in a significantly lower rate of patient-perceived arm swelling 5 years postoperatively, and is perceived by fewer women than are measured to have it. PMID:18838708

  19. Beyond Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis, BMI and Menopausal Status Are Prognostic Determinants for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonsang-Kitzis, Hélène; Chaltier, Léonor; Belin, Lisa; Savignoni, Alexia; Rouzier, Roman; Sablin, Marie-Paule; Lerebours, Florence; Bidard, François-Clément; Cottu, Paul; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Laé, Marick; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Reyal, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are a specific subtype of breast cancers with a particularly poor prognosis. However, it is a very heterogeneous subgroup in terms of clinical behavior and sensitivity to systemic treatments. Thus, the identification of risk factors specifically associated with those tumors still represents a major challenge. A therapeutic strategy increasingly used for TNBC patients is neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Only a subset of patients achieves a pathologic complete response (pCR) after NAC and have a better outcome than patients with residual disease. Purpose The aim of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with the metastatic-free survival in TNBC patients who received NAC. Methods We analyzed 326 cT1-3N1-3M0 patients with ductal infiltrating TNBC treated by NAC. The survival analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to determine clinical features associated with prognosis on the whole TNBC dataset. In addition, we built a recursive partitioning tree in order to identify additional clinical features associated with prognosis in specific subgroups of TNBC patients. Results We identified the lymph node involvement after NAC as the only clinical feature significantly associated with a poor prognosis using a Cox multivariate model (HR = 3.89 [2.42–6.25], p<0.0001). Using our recursive partitioning tree, we were able to distinguish 5 subgroups of TNBC patients with different prognosis. For patients without lymph node involvement after NAC, obesity was significantly associated with a poor prognosis (HR = 2.64 [1.28–5.55]). As for patients with lymph node involvement after NAC, the pre-menopausal status in grade III tumors was associated with poor prognosis (HR = 9.68 [5.71–18.31]). Conclusion This study demonstrates that axillary lymph node status after NAC is the major prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancers. Moreover, we identified body mass index and menopausal status as two other promising prognostic factors in this breast cancer subgroup. Using these clinical factors, we were able to classify TNBC patients in 5 subgroups, for which pre-menopausal patients with grade III tumors and lymph node involvement after NAC have the worse prognosis. PMID:26684197

  20. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  1. Cost comparison of axillary sentinel lymph node detection and axillary lymphadenectomy in early breast cancer. A national study based on a prospective multi-institutional series of 985 patients on behalf of the Group of Surgeons from the French Unicancer Federation

    PubMed Central

    Classe, J. M.; Baffert, S.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Fall, M.; Rousseau, C.; Alran, S.; Rouanet, P.; Belichard, C.; Mignotte, H.; Ferron, G.; Marchal, F.; Giard, S.; Tunon de Lara, C.; Le Bouedec, G.; Cuisenier, J.; Werner, R.; Raoust, I.; Rodier, J.-F.; Laki, F.; Colombo, P.-E.; Lasry, S.; Faure, C.; Charitansky, H.; Olivier, J.-B.; Chauvet, M.-P.; Bussires, E.; Gimbergues, P.; Flipo, B.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Dravet, F.; Livartowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to assess the global cost of the sentinel lymph node detection [axillary sentinel lymph node detection (ASLND)] compared with standard axillary lymphadenectomy [axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)] for early breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional, observational, cost comparative analysis. Cost calculations were realized with the micro-costing method from the diagnosis until 1 month after the last surgery. Results: Eight hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the ASLND group and 146 in the ALND group. The cost generated for a patient with an ASLND, with one preoperative scintigraphy, a combined method for sentinel node detection, an intraoperative pathological analysis without lymphadenectomy, was lower than the cost generated for a patient with lymphadenectomy [2947 (? = 580) versus 3331 (? = 902); P = 0.0001]. Conclusion: ASLND, involving expensive techniques, was finally less expensive than ALND. The length of hospital stay was the cost driver of these procedures. The current observational study points the heterogeneous practices for this validated and largely diffused technique. Several technical choices have an impact on the cost of ASLND, as intraoperative analysis allowing to reduce rehospitalization rate for secondary lymphadenectomy or preoperative scintigraphy, suggesting possible savings on hospital resources. PMID:21896543

  2. Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, K L; Meng, Y; Harnan, S; Ward, S E; Fitzgerald, P; Papaioannou, D; Wyld, L; Ingram, C; Wilkinson, I D; Lorenz, E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases is important for breast cancer staging and treatment planning. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. DATA SOURCES A systematic review of literature and an economic evaluation were carried out. Key databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and nine others) plus research registers and conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies up to April 2009. A decision-analytical model was developed to determine cost-effectiveness in the UK. REVIEW METHODS One reviewer assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy, obtained the full text of relevant papers and screened them against inclusion criteria. Data from included studies were extracted by one reviewer using a standardised data extraction form and checked by a second reviewer. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Quality of included studies was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) checklist, applied by one reviewer and checked by a second. RESULTS Forty-five citations relating to 35 studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review: 26 studies of PET and nine studies of MRI. Two studies were included in the cost-effectiveness review: one of PET and one of MRI. Of the seven studies evaluating PET/CT (n = 862), the mean sensitivity was 56% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 67%] and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 90% to 99%). Of the 19 studies evaluating PET only (n = 1729), the mean sensitivity was 66% (95% CI 50% to 79%) and mean specificity 93% (95% CI 89% to 96%). PET performed less well for small metastases; the mean sensitivity was 11% (95% CI 5% to 22%) for micrometastases (≤ 2 mm; five studies; n = 63), and 57% (95% CI 47% to 66%) for macrometastases (> 2 mm; four studies; n = 111). The smallest metastatic nodes detected by PET measured 3 mm, while PET failed to detect some nodes measuring > 15 mm. Studies in which all patients were clinically node negative showed a trend towards lower sensitivity of PET compared with studies with a mixed population. Across five studies evaluating ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI (n = 93), the mean sensitivity was 98% (95% CI 61% to 100%) and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 72% to 100%). Across three studies of gadolinium-enhanced MRI (n = 187), the mean sensitivity was 88% (95% CI 78% to 94%) and mean specificity 73% (95% CI 63% to 81%). In the single study of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 27), the sensitivity was 65% (95% CI 38% to 86%) and specificity 100% (95% CI 69% to 100%). USPIO-enhanced MRI showed a trend towards higher sensitivity and specificity than gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Results of the decision modelling suggest that the MRI replacement strategy is the most cost-effective strategy and dominates the baseline 4-node sampling (4-NS) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) strategies in most sensitivity analyses undertaken. The PET replacement strategy is not as robust as the MRI replacement strategy, as its cost-effectiveness is significantly affected by the utility decrement for lymphoedema and the probability of relapse for false-negative (FN) patients. LIMITATIONS No included studies directly compared PET and MRI. CONCLUSIONS Studies demonstrated that PET and MRI have lower sensitivity and specificity than SLNB and 4-NS but are associated with fewer adverse events. Included studies indicated a significantly higher mean sensitivity for MRI than for PET, with USPIO-enhanced MRI providing the highest sensitivity. However, sensitivity and specificity of PET and MRI varied widely between studies, and MRI studies were relatively small and varied in their methods; therefore, results should be interpreted with caution. Decision modelling based on these results suggests that the most cost-effective strategy may be MRI rather than SLNB or 4-NS. This strategy reduces costs and increases quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) because there are fewer adverse events for the majority of patients. However, this strategy leads to more FN cases at higher risk of cancer recurrence and more false- positive (FP) cases who would undergo unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. Adding MRI prior to SLNB or 4-NS has little effect on QALYs, though this analysis is limited by lack of available data. Future research should include large, well-conducted studies of MRI, particularly using USPIO; data on the long-term impacts of lymphoedema on cost and patient utility; studies of the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SLNB and 4-NS; and more robust UK cost data for 4-NS and SLNB as well as the cost of MRI and PET techniques. FUNDING This study was funded by the Health Technology Assessment programme of the National Institute of Health Research. PMID:21276372

  4. Impella 5.0 Support in INTERMACS II Cardiogenic Shock Patients Using Right and Left Axillary Artery Access.

    PubMed

    Schibilsky, David; Lausberg, Henning; Haller, Christoph; Lenglinger, Matthias; Woernle, Barbara; Haeberle, Helene; Rosenberger, Peter; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The catheter-based Impella 5.0 left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a powerful and less invasive alternative for patients in cardiogenic shock. The use of this device as a primary mechanical circulatory support strategy in INTERMACS II patients should be evaluated. From April 2014 to August 2014, eight Impella 5.0 devices were implanted in seven patients via the axillary artery access (six right and two left). We analyzed the outcome of the four patients in whom the Impella 5.0 device was implanted for the purpose of primary stabilization of cardiogenic shock (INTERMACS II). The remaining three patients had a contraindication for a permanent LVAD and received the device for prolonged weaning from extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The implantation of the Impella 5.0 was technically successful in all patients and resulted in the stabilization of the clinical situation. All four patients could be bridged to a long-term device (n = 3) or to cardiac recovery (n = 1). In one patient, 2 days of ECLS support was necessary because of pump thrombosis after 31 days of Impella 5.0 support. One patient with bronchopneumonia had the Impella 5.0 exchanged from the right to the left axillary artery after 22 days of support because of the progressive loss of purge flow and the need for longer bridging to a permanent LVAD. The last patient was supported for giant-cell myocarditis for 22 days and bridged to cardiac recovery. All patients were transferred to the intensive care unit with the Impella device in place. In INTERMACS II situations, the implantation of the Impella 5.0 via the right or left axillary access allowed additional time for decision making. Early patient mobilization, including walking with the Impella device in place, optimized the conditions for either weaning or the implantation of a permanent LVAD. This novel technique of left axillary approach leads to more flexibility in the case of anatomical- or device-related contraindications to right-side access, or when the device needs to be exchanged while continuous support is necessary. PMID:26147682

  5. [Risk factors influencing lymph nodes metastasis in lung cancer with stage I, II or IIIA].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T; Kaneda, Y; Nawata, S; Tanaka, S; Esato, K

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors involved in the intrapulmonary, hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in seventy-eight patients with stage I, II or IIIA lung cancer postoperatively, which were resected from 1978 to 1988. In the histological type, the incidence of the mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in adenocarcinoma was higher than that in other types, such as squamous cell carcinoma and large cel carcinoma. In addition, the incidence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in the papillary type was significantly higher than that in the tubular type (p less than 0.05). The incidence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases increased as invasion into the lymphatic duct and/or vessel was demonstrated (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05). The proximal type, in which the cancer spread to the secondary segmental bronchus, metastasized to the hilar lymph nodes more frequently than the distal type, in which the cancer was located in the bronchus distal to the third segmental one. Although there was no significant relationship between the site of the cancer and the incidence of the metastatic lymph nodes, the hilar and superior mediastinal lymph nodes (#1-4, 3a, 3p) metastases were demonstrated regardless of the lobe in which the cancer was located. The primary tumor located in the left lower lobe of the lung tended to metastasize to the inferior mediastinal lymph nodes (#8, 9). Twenty-five out of 33 patients with the lymph nodes metastases had hilar metastatic lymph nodes. However, the mediastinal lymph nodes metastases were proved in 5 patients without any intrapulmonary and hilar lymph nodes metastases. No relationship between the histological differentiation, size of tumor, pT factor and the incidence of lymph nodes metastases was found. PMID:2176232

  6. Videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection

    PubMed Central

    Uras, Cihan; Aytac, Erman; Aydogan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Videoendoscopy is newly used in breast and axillary surgery. Single-port surgery is one of the newest methods of minimally invasive surgery. This report describes the first case of videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection. In histopathological evaluation, 24 lymph nodes were identified and one node was infiltrated by the cancer cells. Videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection is a precise and improvable technique. Single-port videoendoscopic axillary dissection could be more feasible with individual tools that will be designed for minimally invasive breast surgery. PMID:22022116

  7. The Evolution of Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roshni

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment has a long, fascinating history. Multimodality therapy utilizes surgery, systemic therapy and radiation. The role of surgical axillary staging in breast cancer continues to evolve. Secondary to randomized, controlled trials, sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard for surgical staging in patients with a clinically negative axilla. Traditionally, when sentinel nodes revealed metastases, a complete axillary lymph node dissection was performed. Recently however, the value of complete axillary dissection is being challenged. PMID:26606821

  8. West Midlands Oncology Association trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer: results after a median follow-up of 7 years. I. Patients with involved axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. M.; Howell, A.; Kelly, K. A.; Grieve, R. J.; Monypenny, I. J.; Walker, R. A.; Waterhouse, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a regimen of combination chemotherapy known to be active in advanced breast cancer when given as an adjuvant treatment after mastectomy. A total of 569 patients with cancer of the breast and involvement of axillary lymph nodes were randomised, after simple mastectomy with axillary sampling, to receive either no adjuvant treatment or intravenous adriamycin 50 mg, vincristine 1 mg, cyclophosphamide 250 mg, methotrexate 150 mg and fluorouracil 250 mg (AVCMF) every 21 days for eight cycles. Randomisation was stratified according to menopausal status and tumour size. Treatment was started within 14 days of surgery in 94% of patients. Eighty-eight per cent of patients received at least seven cycles of chemotherapy with no dose reduction. The median relapse-free survival was prolonged by 14 months in patients treated with AVCMF (chi2 1 = 11.7; P = 0.0006). In the premenopausal group this period was 17 months (chi2 1 = 8.8; P = 0.003) compared with 8 months in the post-menopausal group (chi2 1 = 3.3; P = 0.07). Neither overall survival nor survival in these subgroups was significantly influenced by treatment. PMID:2690913

  9. Intraductal papilloma of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph node of a patient with a previous intraductal papilloma of ipsilateral breast: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The presence of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a benign condition that must be differentiated from primary or metastatic carcinoma. Here we report a patient who underwent excision of enlarged ALN 10 years after she had received surgical treatment of ipsilateral breast for an intracystic intraductal papilloma (IDP). Histological examination of the removed ALN revealed that the proliferative lesion consisted of papillary and tubular structures lined by luminal cuboidal cells and a distinct outer layer of myoepithelial cells resembling IDP of the breast. Immunostaining with a set of immunohistochemical markers including AE/AE3, alpha-smooth muscle actin and p63 in combination with estrogen and progesterone receptors confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic IDP. This case shows that even though benign proliferative change in ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon, this possibility should be taken into account for correct diagnosis. PMID:20222992

  10. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch,

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  11. Inhaled cisplatin deposition and distribution in lymph nodes in stage II lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Krauss, Leslie; Huang, Haidong; Zachariadis, George A; Katsavou, Anna; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Vogl, Thomas J; Freitag, Lutz; Stamatis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer therapies during the last decade have focused on targeting the genome of cancer cells, and novel routes for administering lung cancer therapies have been investigated for decades. Aerosol therapies for several systematic diseases and systemic infections were introduced into the market a decade ago. One of the main issues of aerosol therapies has been the ability to investigate the deposition of a drug compound throughout the systematic circulation and lymph node circulation. Until now, none of the published studies have efficiently shown the deposition of a chemotherapy pharmaceutical within the lymph node tissue. In our current work we present, for the first time, with the novel CytoViva() (AL, USA) technique, the deposition of cisplatin aerosol therapy in surgically resected stage II lymph nodes from lung cancer patients. Finally, we present the distribution of cisplatin in correlation with the cisplatin concentration in different lymph stations and comment on the possible mechanisms of distribution. PMID:23980678

  12. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms. PMID:26552923

  13. [Examination of the courses of the arteries in the axillary region. II. The course of the axillary artery in the case of Adachi's C-type brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Y; Ohtsuka, K; Kumaki, K

    1996-04-01

    Müller (1904) stated that the axillary artery in the case of Adachi's C-type brachial plexus (AxC) might be derived from the 9th segmental artery. Yamada (1967) named a type of the subscapular artery (Sbs) "the superficial subscapular artery" which arose from the normal axillary artery (Ax), crossed over the medial cord of the brachial plexus and then gave off the lateral thoracic artery (TL). He considered that it might be derived from TL and develop to form AxC by compensating the less developed normal Ax. We reexamined the courses of Sbs and Ax and distinguished three types (S-, I-, and P-type) of Sbs according to their origin and course. Then we stated that the mechanism of formation of Sbs variations could be explained by the combination between the three stem parts and the common peripheral arterial network (Sbs system) (Aizawa et al. 1995). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to justify the validity of Müller (1904) and Yamada (1967) and to clarify the origin of AxC by applying the concept of Sbs system. The materials were 15 cases of AxC and 7 cases of incomplete AxC (AxC). The results were as follows. 1) The course of AxC was divided into four parts. 2) Two types of AxC were discerned according to the course against the nerve bundle communicating from the medial cord to the radial nerve (FM-R). They are the type-1 AxC which does not pass between the FM-R and the radial nerve, and the type-2 AxC which dose pass between them. 3) The first part included the branching points of the thoracoacromial artery in all cases and the superior superficial brachial artery (BSS) in 8 cases. The BSS passed between C7 and C8 of the roots of Ansa pectoralis (50%) in about the same manner as BSS from the normal axillary artery (Ax). On the other hand, the point where Ax or AxC penetrated the ventral stratum of the brachial plexus was examined in 156 cases. The data except those of the AxC cases displayed a symmetrical distribution having a sharp peak in C7-C8 (79.5%) and were not compatible with the incidence of AxC penetrating lower than Th1 (7.7%). Therefore, it was difficult to conclude that the first part of AxC was derived from the 9th segmental artery. 4) The second part crossed over the medial cord and gave off TL in almost all the cases. Therefore, this part was considered to include the S-point where the S-type Sbs system (Yamada's superficial subscapular artery) arose and to be derived from TL. 5) From the S-point, while the S-type Sbs system immediately ran down to the deep region of the axilla, AxC traversed the axilla passing in front of the thoracodorsal nerve to reach the point where AxC was sandwiched between the ventral and the dorsal stratum of the brachial plexus. Therefore, the following course from the S-point of AxC (the third part) was different from that of the S-type Sbs system. From the third part of AxC, the I-type Sbs system arose in 15 cases, and both the subscapular branch (RS: *) and the branch to the coracobrachial muscle (CB) were often given off. They were the same branches as those which arose from the I-point of normal Ax, and type-2 AxC passed between FM-R and the radial nerve in this part. Therefore, it was considered that the third part included the I-point of the normal Ax and, moreover, AxC recovered the normal course of Ax at the I-point. 6) The fourth part of AxC included the P-point where the P-type Sbs system branched off from AxC in 7 cases. The course of the fourth part of AxC had exactly the same course as that of normal Ax. 7) It was elucidated that the first part, the distal half of the third part, and the fourth part of AxC were exactly the same as normal Ax, the second part was derived from TL, and the proximal half of the third part from the S-point to the I-point was unique in AxC. Recently, however, the reverse course of the unique part of AxC has appeared as the deep lateral thoracic artery (TLp) (Aizawa et al. 1995) in rare cases. 8) In co PMID:8741278

  14. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valds Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 705710. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600359 www.bjcancer.com 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232750

  15. Chylous Fistula following Axillary Lymphadenectomy: Benefit of Octreotide Treatment

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Aguilar-Jiménez, José; García-Marín, José Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chyle leak following axillary lymph node clearance is a rare yet important complication. The treatment of postoperative chyle fistula still remains unclear. Conservative management is the first line of treatment. It includes axillary drains on continuous suction, pressure dressings, bed rest, and nutritional modifications. The use of somatostatin analogue is well documented as a treatment for chylous fistulas after neck surgery. We present a case of chylous fistula after axillary surgery resolved with the use of octreotide. PMID:26925285

  16. Axillary Web Syndrome after Sentinel Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Fatih; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Baghaki, Semih; Karabulut, Kagan; Tahan, Gulgun; Uras, Cihan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a self-limiting cause of morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery, but it is encountered also after sentinel lymph node biopsy. The syndrome is characterized by cords of subcutaneous tissue extending from the axilla into the medial arm. Case Report Here, we report a patient presenting with AWS several weeks after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion AWS has been reported to be resolved spontaneously in all patients 816 weeks after axillary surgery, and shoulder movements improve in this period. There is no definitive treatment modality for AWS. Patients should be reassured and informed that this condition will improve even without treatment. PMID:21076609

  17. In stage II/III lymph node-positive breast cancer patients less than 55 years of age, keratin 8 expression in lymph node metastases but not in the primary tumour is an indicator of better survival.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Pracella, Danae; Barbazza, Renzo; Sulfaro, Sandro; Stanta, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Axillary lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic variables for breast cancer (BC). To investigate and understand the clinical, histopathological and biological factors that affect prognosis in node-positive young breast cancer patients, we compared the phenotype of 100 primary tumours with their corresponding loco-regional lymph node (LN) metastases using conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers currently in use for molecular classification of breast cancer. By comparing the expression of ER, PR, HER-2, Ki67, K8, K5/6 and vimentin, we found that expression of HER-2, Ki67, K8 and vimentin is frequently lost in lymph node metastases. Between the primary tumour and corresponding lymph node metastases, expression of keratins K8 and K5/6 significantly changed. Expression of K8 in lymph node metastases, but not in primary tumours, segregates patients in two sub-groups with different outcomes. Survival of patients with K8-positive LN metastases at 5 years in comparison with patients with K8-negative LN metastases was 75 vs 48 %, at 10 years 62 vs 22 % and at 20 years 53 vs 14 % (p?lymph node metastasis allows defining a sub-group of lymph node-positive BC patients with a highly unfavourable outcome, for whom therapeutic options might have to be reconsidered. PMID:25724181

  18. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:26716604

  19. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  20. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  1. Prognostic value of axillary lymphoscintigraphy in breast carcinoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

    1986-07-01

    Axillary lymphoscintigraphy (AxLS) with bilateral interdigital injection of (99mTc)antimony sulfide colloid carried out concurrently with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy in 488 patients with breast carcinoma was evaluated. Patterns of radiocolloid distribution within the ipsilateral axilla and supraclavicular fossa were compared with similar features on the contralateral side to determine whether image characteristics are significantly disrupted by prior surgery, reflect the presence of metastases, and can predict treatment failure. Interpretive criteria for AxLS were refined after correlation of the identified image components with clinical parameters including axillary surgery, lymph node histology and relapse within a follow-up period of 2 years from the study. Results indicate that AxLS is at least as accurate as clinical assessment and provides data predictive of relapse to complement axillary lymph node status although the technique cannot presently replace lymph node sampling for patient staging.

  2. Isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in regional lymph nodes in stage I to II endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minobe, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of isolated tumor cells (ITCs) or micrometastasis (MM) in regional lymph nodes in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to II endometrial cancer. Methods In this study, a series of 63 patients with FIGO stage I to II were included, who had at least one of the following risk factors for recurrence: G3 endometrioid/serous/clear cell adenocarcinomas, deep myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, lympho-vascular space invasion, and positive peritoneal cytology. These cases were classified as intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. Ultrastaging by multiple slicing, staining with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin, and microscopic examination was performed on regional lymph nodes that had been diagnosed as negative for metastases. Results Among 61 patients in whom paraffin-embedded block was available, ITC/MM was identified in nine patients (14.8%). Deep myometrial invasion was significantly associated with ITC/MM (p=0.028). ITC/MM was an independent risk factor for extrapelvic recurrence (hazard ratio, 17.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 232.2). The 8-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were more than 20% lower in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (OS, 71.4% vs. 91.9%; RFS, 55.6% vs. 84.0%), which were statistically not significant (OS, p=0.074; RFS, p=0.066). Time to recurrence tended to be longer in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (median, 49 months vs. 16.5 months; p=0.080). Conclusions It remains unclear whether ITC/MM have an adverse influence on prognosis of intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. A multicenter cooperative study is needed to clarify the clinical significance of ITC/MM. PMID:25925293

  3. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle of the shoulder may show signs of muscle atrophy . Tests that may be used to check axillary nerve dysfunction include: EMG and nerve conduction tests, will be ... the injury or symptoms start MRI or x-rays of the shoulder

  4. Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer Patients with Exclusive Lymphoscintigraphic Drainage to the Internal Mammary Chain

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Eva V. E.; van Dalen, Thijs; Koelemij, Ron; van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Witkamp, Arjen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the need of axillary staging in breast cancer patients showing exclusive lymphatic drainage to the internal mammary chain (IMC). Methods A total of 2203 patients treated for breast carcinoma in three participating hospitals between July 2001 and July 2008 were analyzed. Only patients showing drainage to the IMC on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy were included. The number of harvested IMC sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), axillary SLNs, and metastases were recorded. Finally, the follow-up of this group of patients was analyzed. Results In 25/426 patients, drainage was exclusively to the IMC. Exploration of the axilla resulted in the harvesting of blue SLNs in 9 patients (36%) and the retrieval of an enlarged lymph node in 1 patient. In 4 of the remaining 15 patients, an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was done. Lymph node metastases were found in 3 patients who had blue axillary SLNs and in 1 patient who underwent ALND. In the 11 patients who had no blue SLNs and no ALND, no axillary recurrences were observed during follow-up (median = 26 months). Conclusions Proper staging of the axilla remains crucial in patients showing exclusive drainage to the IMC. When no axillary node can be retrieved, ALND remains subject to discussion. PMID:20936283

  5. Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Ashish R.; Coventry, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The axillary approach to brachial plexus blockade provides satisfactory anaesthesia for elbow, forearm, and hand surgery and also provides reliable cutaneous anaesthesia of the inner upper arm including the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and intercostobrachial nerve, areas often missed with other approaches. In addition, the axillary approach remains the safest of the four main options, as it does not risk blockade of the phrenic nerve, nor does it have the potential to cause pneumothorax, making it an ideal option for day case surgery. Historically, single-injection techniques have not provided reliable blockade in the musculocutaneous and radial nerve territories, but success rates have greatly improved with multiple-injection techniques whether using nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance. Complete, reliable, rapid, and safe blockade of the arm is now achievable, and the paper summarizes the current position with particular reference to ultrasound guidance. PMID:21716725

  6. Bilateral axillary arterial obstruction

    PubMed Central

    van der Matten, Beatrice; Zandbergen, Adrienne Anne Marie; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old patient with longstanding diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with obstruction in both axillary arteries. Although atherosclerotic obstructive disease would have been the most likely diagnosis in this patient, clinical findings were highly suggestive of extracranial giant-cell arteritis. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in an excellent clinical response, avoiding the risks of endovascular or surgical intervention. PMID:24451232

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  8. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (≥53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ≥53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

  9. Axillary granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Mehregan, D A; Vandersteen, P; Sikorski, L; Mehregan, D R

    1995-08-01

    We report two cases of axillary granular parakeratosis, which is a unique eruption involving the axilla that has distinctive histopathologic features. Both of our patients had slightly pruritic, hyperpigmented patches in the axilla. The biopsy specimens revealed severe compact parakeratosis with maintenance of the stratum granulosum and retention of keratohyalin granules throughout the stratum corneum, which was markedly thickened and measured between 90 to 185 microns. The exact etiology is not known, but this conditions is believed to represent a contact reaction to an antiperspirant or deodorant. PMID:7615889

  10. [Axillary granular parakeratosis].

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Gerzan

    2002-12-01

    Axillary granular parakeratosis is an alteration of keratin characterized by a thick parakeratotic horny layer with abundant intracellular keratohyalin granules. It was first described in 1991 and since then 32 cases have been reported from USA, Europe and Australia. Lesions may affect intertriginous areas other than the axilla. The disease has apparently not been previously described in Latin America. Three overweight Colombian women were diagnosed with axillary granular parakeratosis. They presented encrusted, hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented and pruriginous papules and plaques which affected both axillae in two women and only one in the other. Lesions had persisted for two and four months in two patients and for one year in the third. Clinical diagnoses were benign familiar pemphigus and tinea nigra. Skin biopsies showed a thick parakeratotic basophilic horny layer. Electron microscopy demonstrated a high content of keratohyalin granules. No Langerhans cells were demonstrated in the lesions using IHC for S-100 protein. No fungi were seen with the PAS stain. Infundibula showed thick horny plugs with changes similar to those seen in the epidermis. Dermal tissue showed few perivascular lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the disease has an irritative pathogenesis. Clinical histories indicated that the three women were overweight and used several types of antiperspirants. These factors plus local irritation and humidity apparently triggered the keratinization response. PMID:12596449

  11. Breast cancer recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look into the pattern of breast cancer recurrence following mastectomy, breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy after SLNB at our institution. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2014, all patients diagnosed with breast cancer with clinically negative axilla, underwent SLNB. We reviewed their medical records to identify pattern of cancer recurrence. Results: The median follow-up was 35.5 months. Eighty five patients (70.8%) had a negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequently had no further axillary treatment, one of them (1.2%) developed axillary recurrence 25 months postoperatively. Twenty five patients (20.8%) had a positive SLN (macrometastases) and subsequently had immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (8.3%) had a positive SLN (micrometastases). In the positive SLN patients (macrometastases and micrometastases), there were two ipsilateral breast recurrences (5.7%), seen three and four years postoperatively. Also in this group, there was one (2.9%) distant metastasis to bone three years postoperatively. Conclusion: In this series, the clinical axillary false negative rate for SLNB was 1.2% which is in accordance with the published literature. This supports the use of SLNB as the sole axillary staging procedure in breast cancer patients with negative SLNB. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node(s). PMID:26870109

  12. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

  13. Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Ma Qingyong . E-mail: sage2001china@yahoo.com.cn; Dang Chengxue; Moureau-Zabotto, M.; Chen Wuke

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: A quantitative multiple-marker reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sensitive detection of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid was developed to examine whether the presence of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid can be used as a predictor of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with breast cancer who had T1/2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with modified radical mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Axillary drainage fluid was collected from 126 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and were found to have one to three positive axillary nodes. Cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid were detected by RT-PCR assay using primers specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) together with numerous clinicopathologic and treatment-related factors and were analyzed for their impact on LRR. Results: A total of 38 patients suffered LRR during follow-up and the multimarker RT-PCR assays for CEA and CK-19 in the axillary drainage fluid both were positive in 34 patients (27.0%), of which 29 patients had LRR. In univariate analysis, the 5-year LRR-free survival showed higher rates in patients with PCR-negative findings in axillary drainage fluid (p < 0.0001), age {>=}40 years old (p < 0.0001), tumor size <2.5 cm (p < 0.0001), negative lymph-vascular space invasion (p = 0.026), and T1 status (< 0.0001); in multivariate analysis, PCR-positive findings together with age and tumor size were found to be independent predictors of LRR (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Multiplex RT-PCR assay for CEA and CK-19 was highly sensitive for detection and might be useful for prediction of LRR in such subgroup breast cancer patients.

  14. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... a complex network of thin vessels, valves, ducts, nodes, and organs. It helps to protect and maintain ... lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the body's defense ...

  15. Radiation Therapy Field Extent for Adjuvant Treatment of Axillary Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Ballo, Matthew T.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Cormier, Janice N.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Ross, Merrick I.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment-related outcomes and toxicity for patients with axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to either the axilla only or both the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (extended field [EF]). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 200 consecutive patients treated with postoperative RT for axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received postoperative hypofractionated RT for high-risk features; 95 patients (48%) received RT to the axilla only and 105 patients (52%) to the EF. Results: At a median follow-up of 59 months, 111 patients (56%) had sustained relapse, and 99 patients (50%) had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 51%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. The 5-year axillary control rate was 88%. There was no difference in axillary control rates on the basis of the treated field (89% for axilla only vs. 86% for EF; p = 0.4). Forty-seven patients (24%) developed treatment-related complications. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, only treatment with EF irradiation was significantly associated with increased treatment-related complications. Conclusions: Adjuvant hypofractionated RT to the axilla only for metastatic malignant melanoma with high-risk features is an effective method to control axillary disease. Limiting the radiation field to the axilla only produced equivalent axillary control rates to EF and resulted in lower treatment-related complication rates.

  16. Ultrasound in dermatology. Part II. Ultrasound of regional lymph node basins and subcutaneous tumours.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, J; Voit, C

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound in dermatology is a non-invasive tool for the detection and verification of tumours in skin, subcutaneous tissues and in lymph node basins. Since the introduction of ultrasound examination in the routine practice of dermatology in the late seventies [1], ultrasound has evolved to become a standard diagnostic method, at least in Europe. Subcutaneous or regional nodal metastases or benign tumours or tissue accumulation may not be palpable due to small size, distance from the skin surface or location in an area of postoperative or radiation fibrosis, which renders a physical examination on its own difficult. Palpation even by an experienced physician is also known to be an inaccurate technique for the assessment of lesions in head and neck cancer [2] as well as in scar tissue. Ultrasound, on the contrary is able to give additional and reliable information about the exact position of a tumour, surrounding anatomical structures, the dimension of the lesion in two perpendicular diameters in mm, its echo pattern as well as the distance from the skin surface. High resolution ultrasound technique is not only able to detect small targets (< 3 mm), but also to predict difficulties in the surgical search for metastases due to a deep subcutaneous or intramuscular position, or a localization near structures (e.g. vessels) which could easily be traumatized. Several invasive and non-invasive staging tools have been developed for the detection of regional disease or tumours in the soft tissue to support the often ineffective physical examination on its own. Among these techniques, ultrasound has been proven to have superior sensitivity to physical examination in the detection of regional metastases in melanoma patients [3-6] as well as in hematology and oncology patients [7] and it even facilitates the surgical management of such patients [8-10]. Based on technical equipment and clinical requirements, ultrasound used in dermatology is performed using frequencies between 7.5 and 15 MHz. Additionally duplex and colour flow analysis may complement grey-scale ultrasound by demonstrating tumour vascularity and characterising masses [11, 12]. In this part of the two CME articles on ultrasound we want to illustrate the most important technical details, procedural steps and the clinical use of high-frequency ultrasound in dermatology. PMID:11174146

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanin green guidance: Initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğan, Fatih; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Aytaç, Erman; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Sager, Muhammet Sait; Çelik, Varol; Uras, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be applied by using either blue dye or radionuclide method or both in breast cancer. Fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green is a new defined method. This study evaluates the applicability of sentinel lymph node biopsy via fluorescent indocyanine green. Material and Methods: IC-VIEW (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany) infrared visualization system was used for imaging. Two mL of indocyanine green was injected to visualize sentinel lymph nodes. After injection, subcutaneous lymphatics were traced and sentinel lymph nodes were found with simultaneous imaging. Sentinel lymph nodes were excised under fluorescent light guidance, and excised lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases underwent axillary dissection. Results: Four patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to breast cancer were included in the study. Sentinel lymph nodes were visualized with indocyanine green in all patients. The median number of excised sentinel lymph node was 2 (2–3). Two patients with lymph node metastasis underwent axillary dissection. No metastasis was detected in lymph nodes other than the sentinel nodes in patients with axillary dissection. There was no complication during and after the operation related to the method. Conclusion: According to our limited experience, sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanine green guidance, which has an advantage of simultaneous visualization, is technically feasible. PMID:26985159

  18. [Axillary web syndrome--a variant of Mondor's disease, following excision of an accessory breast].

    PubMed

    Shoham, Yaron; Rosenberg, Nir; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad; Arnon, Ofer; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Cording, an unusual form of superficial thrombophlebitis, is a variant of the disease first described by Fage in 1870 and subsequently characterized by Henry Mondor in 1939 as sclerosing thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous veins of the anterior chest wall. Similar lesions have also been found in the penis, groin, abdomen, arm, and axilla and have been reported under a variety of names. In the axilla the condition is termed axillary web syndrome (AWS) and is seen after axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy. A recent report suggests that pathophysiology of AWS is lymphatic in origin rather than venous. We report a unique case of unilateral AWS after excision of an axillary accessory breast and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:22352279

  19. Axillary lymphadenopathy 17 years after digital silicone implants: study with x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paplanus, S.H.; Payne, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    Axillary lymphadenopathy developed in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis 17 years after the placing of Swanson implants in the hand. Foreign material in the lymph nodes was identified as silicone by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. This emphasizes the long latent period that may be associated with this clinical phenomenon which may mimic other, more serious, diseases.

  20. Do all patients with sentinel node metastasis from breast carcinoma need complete axillary node dissection?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K U; Turner, R R; Hansen, N M; Brennan, M B; Bilchik, A; Giuliano, A E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the likelihood of nonsentinel axillary metastasis in the presence of sentinel node metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a highly accurate technique for identifying axillary metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Our group has shown that nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes are unlikely to contain tumor cells if the axillary sentinel node is tumor-free, but as yet no study has examined the risk of nonsentinel nodal involvement when the sentinel node contains tumor cells. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1997, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in 157 women with a tumor-involved sentinel node. Fifty-three axillae (33.5%) had at least one tumor-involved nonsentinel node. The authors analyzed the incidence of nonsentinel node involvement according to clinical and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Only two variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of nonsentinel node metastasis: the size of the sentinel node metastasis and the size of the primary tumor. The rate of nonsentinel node involvement was 7% when the sentinel node had a micrometastasis (< or =2 mm), compared with 55% when the sentinel node had a macrometastasis (>2 mm). In addition, the rate of nonsentinel node tumor involvement increased with the size of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: If a primary breast tumor is small and if sentinel node involvement is micrometastatic, then tumor cells are unlikely to be found in other axillary lymph nodes. This suggests that axillary lymph node dissection may not be necessary in patients with sentinel node micrometastases from T1/T2 lesions, or in patients with sentinel node metastases from T1a lesions. PMID:10203087

  1. A randomized control study of treating secondary stage II breast cancer-related lymphoedema with free lymph node transfer.

    PubMed

    Dionyssiou, Dimitrios; Demiri, Efterpi; Tsimponis, Antonis; Sarafis, Alexandros; Mpalaris, Vasillios; Tatsidou, Georgia; Arsos, Georgios

    2016-02-01

    Microsurgical techniques are increasingly used for treating severe lymphoedema cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free vascularized lymph node transfer (LNT) in stage II breast cancer-related lymphoedema patients in comparison with non-surgical management. During the last 3 years, 83 female patients were examined at our lymphoedema clinic. Finally, 36 cases were included in this study and randomly divided in two groups: group A patients (n = 18, mean age 47 years) underwent microsurgical LNT; followed by 6 months of physiotherapy and compression, while group B patients (n = 18, mean age 49 years) were managed by physiotherapy and compression alone for 6 months. Patients of both groups removed their elastic garments after 6 months and were re-examined 1 year later. All the 36 patients had detailed evaluation of the affected extremity including limb volume measurement, infection episodes and scale scoring of pain, feeling of heaviness and functional status both at baseline and 18 month. Limb volume reduction was observed in both groups; mean reduction was greater in group A (57 %) than in group B (18 %). Infection episodes in group A were significantly reduced compared to those in group B patients. All group A patients reported painless and feeling of heaviness-free extremities with overall functional improvement, while the corresponding changes in group B patients were no more than marginal. Moreover, the LNT procedure was estimated as cost effective compared to conservative treatment alone. LNT represents an effective therapeutic approach for stage II lymphoedema patients; it significantly reduces limb volume, decreases recurrent infections and improves the overall function. PMID:26895326

  2. The Breast Imager's Approach to Nonmammary Masses at Breast and Axillary US: Imaging Technique, Clues to Origin, and Management.

    PubMed

    Oliff, Matthew C; Birdwell, Robyn L; Raza, Sughra; Giess, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) of the breast and axilla is primarily used to evaluate a symptomatic patient or to further investigate findings identified with other imaging modalities. Breast imagers are generally familiar with US evaluation of level I, II, and III axillary lymph nodes in the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. However, the axilla contains nonlymphatic tissue as well, including muscle, fat, and vascular and neurologic structures, and anatomically the breast lies on the chest wall. Therefore, lesions of nonmammary and non-lymph node origin in the axilla or chest wall are not infrequently encountered during US evaluation of the breast or axilla. In fact, such lesions may be the reason that the patient presents to the breast imaging department for evaluation. Understanding the anatomy of the chest wall and axilla and using a systematic US approach will help radiologists expedite accurate diagnosis, suggest optimal additional imaging, and streamline appropriate clinical referral. Key imaging features of nonmammary non-lymph node masses are highlighted, and case examples are provided to illustrate these features. Appropriate patient management is critical in these cases because referral to a breast surgeon may not be the best next step. Depending on institutional referral patterns, other subspecialty surgeons will be involved. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761528

  3. Coexistent Isolated Tumor Cell Clusters of Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma and Benign Glandular Inclusions of Mllerian (Endosalpingiosis) Type in an Axillary Sentinel Node: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Groth, John V; Prabhu, Sanjiv; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    The presence of benign epithelial inclusions in axillary lymph nodes coexistant with breast disease is a rare event; however, their presence makes the assessment of nodal disease diagnostically challenging. Broadly, these inclusions can be classified as glandular (mllerian type or nonmllerian type), mixed glandular-squamous, and squamous. Among these the presence of benign mllerian-type glandular inclusions with concurrent breast parenchymal disease is an exceedingly rare event, with 10 previous cases reported in the literature, 2 coexisting with infiltrating ductal-type mammary carcinoma in axillary lymph nodes. Here, we report the first case of coexistent invasive lobular carcinoma and endosalpingiosis in an axillary lymph node. PMID:25203429

  4. Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Le Scodan, Romuald; Selz, Jessica; Stevens, Denise; Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline; Lerebours, Florence; Labib, Alain; Bruant, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

  5. Predicting axillary sentinel node status in patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, D; Pecha, V; Skovajsova, M; Zahumensky, J; Trnkova, M; Petruzelka, L; Halaska, M; Sottner, O; Otcenasek, M; Kolarova, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the combination of characteristics in early breast cancer that could estimate the risk of occurrence of metastatic cells in axillary sentinel lymph node(s). If we were able to reliably predict the presence or absence of axillary sentinel involvement, we could spare a considerable proportion of patients from axillary surgery without compromising therapeutic outcomes of their disease. The study is based on retrospective analysis of medical records of 170 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer. These women underwent primary surgery of the breast and axilla in which at least one sentinel lymph node was obtained. Logistic regression has been employed to construct a model predicting axillary sentinel lymph node involvement using preoperative and postoperative tumor characteristics. Postoperative model uses tumor features obtained from definitive histology samples. Its predictive capability expressed by receiver operating characteristic curve is good, area under curve (AUC) equals to 0.78. The comparison between preoperative and postoperative results showed the only significant differences in values of histopathological grading; we have considered grading not reliably stated before surgery. In preoperative model only the characteristics available and reliably stated at the time of diagnoses were used. The predictive capability of this model is only fair when using the data available at the time of diagnosis (AUC = 0.66). We conclude, that predictive models based on postoperative values enable to reliably estimate the likelihood of occurrence of axillary sentinel node(s) metastases. This can be used in clinical practice in case surgical procedure is divided into two steps, breast surgery first and axillary surgery thereafter. Even if preoperative values were not significantly different from postoperative ones (except for grading), the preoperative model predictive capability is lower compared to postoperative values. The reason for this worse prediction was identified in imperfect preoperative diagnostic. PMID:23374005

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Summary The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer. PMID:21779223

  7. Lung ventilation contributes to vertical lymph movement in anurans.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Hillman, Stanley S; Withers, Philip C

    2007-11-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) generate lymphatic fluid at 10 times the rate in mammals, largely as a consequence of their very 'leaky' vasculature and high interstitial compliance. Lymph is ultimately pumped into the venous system by paired, dorsally located lymph hearts. At present, it is unclear how lymphatic fluid that accumulates in central body subcutaneous lymph sacs is moved to the anterior and posterior lymph hearts in the axillary regions and how lymph is moved, against gravity, to the dorsally located lymph hearts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lung ventilation, through its consequent effects on lymph sac pressure, contributes to the vertical movement of lymphatic fluid in the cane toad (Chaunus marinus) and the North American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana). We measured pressure in the dorsal, lateral and subvertebral lymph sacs of anesthetized cane toads and bullfrogs during artificial lung inflation and deflation. We also measured pressure in the subvertebral lymph sac, which adheres to the dorsal surface of the lungs, simultaneously with brachial (forelimb) and pubic (posterior) sac pressure during ventilation in freely behaving animals. There were highly significant (P<0.001) relationships between lung pressure and lymph sac pressures (r(2)=0.19-0.72), indicating that pulmonary pressure is transmitted to the highly compliant lymph sacs that surround the lungs. Subvertebral sac pressure of resting animals was not significantly different between L. catesbeiana (518+/-282 Pa) and C. marinus (459+/-111 Pa). Brachial sac compliance (ml kPa(-1) kg(-1)) also did not differ between the two species (33.6+/-5.0 in L. catesbeiana and 37.0+/-9.4 in C. marinus). During expiration (lung deflation), reductions in expanding subvertebral sac pressure are communicated to the brachial lymph sac. Changes in brachial and pubic lymph sac pressures were correlated almost entirely during expiration rather than inspiration. The change in brachial sac pressure during expiration was 235+/-43 Pa for C. marinus and 215+/-50 Pa for L. catesbeiana, which is of sufficient magnitude to move lymph the estimated 0.5-1.0 cm vertical distance from the forelimb to the vicinity of the anterior lymph hearts. We suggest that lymph is moved during expiration to the subvertebral sac from anterior and posterior lymph sacs. During lung inflation, increased lymph sac pressure moves lymph to axillary regions, where lymph hearts can return lymph to the vascular space. Consequently, pulmonary ventilation has an important role for lymph movement and, hence, blood volume regulation in anurans. PMID:17981861

  8. Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J.; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans. PMID:20799812

  9. Predictive Value of Tumor Load in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Second Echelon Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    van Deurzen, C. H. M.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Hobbelink, M. G. G.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Koelemij, R.; van Diest, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The need for routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with invasive breast cancer and low-volume sentinel node (SN) involvement is questionable. Accurate prediction of second echelon lymph node involvement could identify those patients most likely to benefit from ALND. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 patients with invasive breast cancer and a tumor positive axillary SN followed by ALND was reviewed. Clinicopathologic features of the primary tumor and the SN were assessed as possible predictors of second echelon lymph node involvement. Results: Second echelon metastases were found in 116/317 cases (36.6%). Frequency of second echelon lymph node involvement in patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC, N = 23), micro- (N = 101) and macrometastases (N = 193) was 13%, 20% and 48%, respectively (p < 0.001). Based on the area % of SN occupied by tumor no subgroup of patients could be selected with less than 20% second echelon lymph node involvement. However, none of the patients with SN ITC or micrometastases and a primary tumor size ?1 cm (N = 12, 3.8%) had second echelon lymph node involvement. Conclusions: Accurately measured SN tumor load predicts second echelon lymph node involvement. However, even in patients with ITC, the second echelon lymph nodes are involved in 13% justifying ALND. PMID:18032826

  10. Intraoperative Frozen Section Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Carcinoma: Single-Institution Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed; Zaveri, Shabber S; Holla, Soumya; Chandra, Suresh; Mishra, Suniti; Parameswaran, R V

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established way of predicting axillary nodal metastasis in early breast cancer. Intraoperative frozen sections (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be used to detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections in evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in cases of breast cancer. Between March 2006 and August 2010, a total of 164 patients with clinically node-negative operable breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy of axillary lymph nodes using preoperative peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid and methylene blue. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes was done using a handheld gamma probe and identification of blue-stained nodes. The nodes were sent for frozen section examination. The results of frozen section were compared with the final histopathology. Out of the 164 cases, metastases were detected in SLN by frozen section in 38 cases. There were three false-negative cases (all showing micrometastasis on final histopathology). FS had sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 98.1%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 97.6%. FS for diagnosis of metastasis of SLNs is reliable. Patients with negative SLNs by the FS diagnosis can avoid reoperation for axillary lymph node dissection. However, FS may fail to detect micrometastases, especially in cases with small tumors. PMID:26730021

  11. Axillary breast: Navigating uncharted terrain

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Medha A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Axillary breast is a common condition that leads to discomfort and cosmetic problems. Liposuction alone and open excision are two techniques used for treatment. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the results of treatment in 24 consecutive patients, operated between 2005 and 2015. All patients had Kajava class IV masses. Three were treated by liposuction alone, while 21 were treated by open axillaplasty with limited liposuction. Results: One patient treated by liposuction alone had to be re-operated for a residual lump, while with axillaplasty, no major complications were observed and the results were uniformly good. Discussion: Certain points of technique emerged as major determinants in obtaining the best results. In brief, these are: a) limited skin excision; b) placing elliptical incisions within the most lax, apical axillary skin, irrespective of the location of the lump; c) raising skin flaps at the level of superficial fascia; d)meticulous dissection and preservation of the nerves, especially the second intercostobrachial; f) judicious liposuction for eliminating dog ears and axillary sculpting only; g) avoiding drains. Conclusion: Open axillaplasty with limited liposuction is the best way to minimise complications and produce good results.

  12. Preoperative Axillary Staging with 3.0-T Breast MRI: Clinical Value of Diffusion Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Rautiainen, Suvi; Könönen, Mervi; Sironen, Reijo; Masarwah, Amro; Sudah, Mazen; Hakumäki, Juhana; Vanninen, Ritva; Sutela, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The axillary staging in newly diagnosed breast cancer is under major evolution. The aims of this study were to define the diagnostic performance of 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of axillary metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer, to assess apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for histopathologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes in a clinical setting. Altogether 52 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and DWI in addition to axillary ultrasound. ADCs of axillary lymph nodes were analysed by two breast radiologists and ultrasound-guided core biopsies were taken. In a separate reading by one radiologist two types of region of interests were used for a smaller group of patients. Altogether 56 axillae (121 lymph nodes) were included in the statistical analysis. Metastatic axillae (51.8%) had significantly lower ADCs (p<0.001). Mean ADCs were 0.663–0.676 x 10-3 mm2/s for the histologically confirmed metastatic LNs and 1.100–1.225 x 10-3 mm2/s for the benign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DWI were 72.4%, 79.6%, and 75.9%, respectively with threshold ADC 0.812 x 10-3 mm2/s. Region of interest with information on the minimum value increased the diagnostic performance (area under the curve 0.794 vs. 0.619). Even though ADCs are significantly associated with histopathologically confirmed axillary metastases the diagnostic performance of axillary DWI remains moderate and ultrasound-guided core biopsies or sentinel lymph node biopsies cannot be omitted. PMID:25823016

  13. Effect of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Groheux, David Moretti, Jean-Luc; Baillet, Georges; Espie, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Hindie, Elif; Hennequin, Christophe; Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert; Cuvier, Caroline; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel; Sarandi, Farid; Misset, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in this study. PET/CT was performed in addition to the initial assessment. Results: In 3 cases, PET/CT showed extra-axillary lymph node involvement that had not been demonstrated with conventional techniques. Two of these patients had hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the subpectoral and infraclavicular regions, and the third had a hypermetabolic internal mammary node. PET/CT showed distant uptake in 4 women. Of these 4 women, 1 had pleural involvement and 3 had bone metastasis. Overall, of the 39 women, the PET/CT results modified the initial stage in 7 (18%). The modified staging altered the treatment plan for 5 patients (13%). It led to radiotherapy in 4 patients (bone metastasis, pleural lesion, subpectoral lymph nodes, and internal mammary nodes) and excision of, and radiotherapy to, the infraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 patient. Conclusions: PET/CT can provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement and can uncover occult distant metastases in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, initial PET/CT could enable better treatment planning for patients with Stage II and III breast cancer.

  14. Long-term clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gangi, A; Essner, R; Giuliano, A E

    2014-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is based on the hypothesis that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) reflects the lymph-node status and a negative SLN might allow complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to be avoided. Past and current sentinel lymph node clinical trials for breast carcinoma and melanoma address the prognostic and therapeutic utility of SLN dissection (SLND). This technique has already become a standard of care for breast cancer patients and select patients with melanoma. However, it is still important to discuss current techniques and some controversies. This article reviews these issues as well as current guidelines for treatment and management of patients with various findings on SLNB. PMID:24835286

  15. Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy to select patients for local–regional therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Erdahl, Lillian M.; Boughey, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for axillary staging of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely debated. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in axillary staging for these patients and its use to determine further local–regional therapy, including surgery and radiation therapy. For patients who are clinically node-negative at presentation, sentinel lymph node biopsy enables accurate staging of the axilla after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and determination of which patients should go on to further axillary surgery and regional nodal radiation therapy. Importantly, performing axillary staging after completion of chemotherapy, rather than before chemotherapy, enables assessment of response to chemotherapy and the extent of residual disease. This information can assist the planning of adjuvant treatment. Recent data indicate that sentinel node biopsy can also be used to assess disease response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with clinical N1 disease at presentation. PMID:24683440

  16. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical ...

  17. Predictors and Outcomes of Completion Axillary Node Dissection Among Older Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Sara H.; He, Hao; Korde, Larissa A.; Flum, David R.; Anderson, Benjamin O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for older women who had sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) invasive breast cancer is unclear. We examined factors predictive of ALND and the association between ALND, adjuvant chemotherapy administration, and survival. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we reviewed records of women age >65 diagnosed with stage I/II breast cancer from 1998–2005. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify patient and disease variables associated with ALND, and assess association between ALND and all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival. Results Among SLN+ patients, 88 % underwent ALND. Earlier diagnosis year, greater nodal involvement, younger age, registry location, and larger tumor size were all associated with a significantly higher likelihood of ALND. The ALND in SLN+ patients was not significantly associated with 5-year breast cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.96). The SLN+ patients who underwent ALND were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95 % CI 1.45–2.24). However, younger age (OR 18.0, 95 % CI 14.4–23.9), estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) status (OR 4.2, 95 % CI 3.4–5.3), and fewer comorbidities (OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.7–4.0) were all more strongly linked to receipt of chemotherapy. Conclusions ALND for older patients with SLN+ breast cancer is not associated with improved 5-year all-cause or breast cancer-specific survival. Younger age, fewer comorbidities, and estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) status were more strongly associated with receipt of chemotherapy than ALND. Consideration should be given to omitting ALND in older patients, particularly if findings of ALND will not influence adjuvant therapy decisions. PMID:24585407

  18. Recognition on Maternal Axillary Odors by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernoch, Jennifer M.; Porter, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Displaying no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their fathers, breastfed infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. Bottle-fed infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or

  19. Contemporary management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary to the neck: II. a review of therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Strojan, Primo; Ferlito, Alfio; Langendijk, Johannes A; Corry, June; Woolgar, Julia A; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Silver, Carl E; Paleri, Vinidh; Fagan, Johannes J; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Haigentz, Missak; Surez, Carlos; Robbins, K Thomas; Rodrigo, Juan P; Olsen, Kerry D; Hinni, Michael L; Werner, Jochen A; Mondin, Vanni; Kowalski, Luiz P; Devaney, Kenneth O; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Wolf, Gregory T; Shaha, Ashok R; Genden, Eric M; Barnes, Leon

    2013-02-01

    Although uncommon, cancer of an unknown primary (CUP) metastatic to cervical lymph nodes poses a range of dilemmas relating to optimal treatment. The ideal resolution would be a properly designed prospective randomized trial, but it is unlikely that this will ever be conducted in this group of patients. Accordingly, knowledge gained from retrospective studies and experience from treating patients with known head and neck primary tumors form the basis of therapeutic strategies in CUP. This review provides a critical appraisal of various treatment approaches described in the literature. Emerging treatment options for CUP with metastases to cervical lymph nodes are discussed in view of recent innovations in the field of head and neck oncology and suitable therapeutic strategies for particular clinical scenarios are presented. For pN1 or cN1 disease without extracapsular extension (ECE), selective neck dissection or radiotherapy offer high rates of regional control. For more advanced neck disease, intensive combined treatment is required, either a combination of neck dissection and radiotherapy, or initial (chemo)radiotherapy followed by neck dissection if a complete response is not recorded on imaging. Each of these approaches seems to be equally effective. Use of extensive bilateral neck/mucosal irradiation must be weighed against toxicity, availability of close follow-up with elective neck imaging and guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) when appropriate, the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor, and particularly against the distribution pattern (oropharynx in the majority of cases) and the emergence rate of hidden primary lesions (<10% after comprehensive workup). The addition of systemic agents is expected to yield similar improvement in outcome as has been observed for known head and neck primary tumors. PMID:22034062

  20. Feasibility study of axillary reverse mapping lymphoscintigraphy in carcinoma breast: A concept toward preventing lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Satish, C.; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Subramanyam, Padma; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the surgery of breast cancer, axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is the identification and preservation of arm draining lymph node (ARM node) during an axillary dissection. The assumption is that the ARM node is different from node draining breast and is unlikely to be involved even in the patients with axillary nodal metastases. If we can identify and preserve ARM node using lymphoscintigraphy; morbidity of lymphedema, as seen with axillary dissection, may be avoided. Materials and Methods: Pathologically proven 50 breast cancer patients undergoing initial surgery (cTx-4, cN0-2, and Mx-0) were included in this study. Less than 37 MBq, 0.5 ml in equally divided doses of filtered 99mTc sulfur colloid was injected intradermally into the second and third web spaces. ARM nodes in the axilla were identified with the help of Gamma Probe intraoperatively; however, their location was noted with the reference to specific anatomical landmarks and sent for histopathological examination after excision. Results: The ARM node was successfully identified in 47/50 cases (sensitivity - 94%). In 40 out of 47 cases (85%), the location of the ARM node was found to lateral to the subscapular pedicle, above the second intercostobrachial nerve and just below the axillary vein. Of the 47 patients in whom ARM node/s were identified, metastasis was noted in 5 of them (10%). Four out of these 5 patients had the pN3 disease. Conclusion: ARM node exists, and it is feasible to identify ARM node using radio isotope technique with an excellent sensitivity. ARM node seems to have a fairly constant location in more than 80% cases. It is involved with metastasis (10% cases) only when there are multiple lymph nodal metastases in the axilla. PMID:26917887

  1. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS

    Swollen glands; Glands - swollen; Lymph nodes - swollen; Lymphadenopathy ... Common areas where the lymph nodes can be felt (with the fingers) include: Groin Armpit Neck (there is a chain of lymph nodes on either side of ...

  2. Is It Contralateral Axillary Metastasis or Occult Breast Cancer?: A Confusing Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yong Gi; Kim, Woon Won; Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with primary left breast cancer presenting metastatic lymphadenopathy in the contralateral axilla. This patient represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because primary breast cancer, occult contralateral breast cancer, and extra-mammary primary lesion can all be the source of the contralateral axillary metastasis. Left breast-conserving surgery, left sentinel lymph node biopsy, right breast mass excision, and right axillary lymph node dissection were performed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the left breast cancer specimen was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), but negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In contrast, the right axillary lymphadenopathy specimen was negative for ER and PR, but positive for HER2. Further investigation revealed no evidence of occult primary cancers or extra-mammary tumors. After surgical intervention, the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation therapy, and targeted therapy with trastuzumab. Two years after diagnosis, she is free of disease and presently being treated with tamoxifen. PMID:26668571

  3. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant. PMID:23887660

  4. Spread of herpes simplex virus in lymph nodes after experimental infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, R J; Czelusniak, S M

    1987-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus was frequently isolated from ipsilateral popliteal lymph nodes after percutaneous inoculation of the dorsal face of the footpad, and from ipsi- and contralateral submandibular lymph nodes after percutaneous inoculation of the cheek or the orofacial area of mice. Virus was detected only on very rare occasion in nondraining lymph nodes (inguinal or axillary) or in contralateral popliteal lymph nodes, but was frequently isolated in contralateral lumbar lymph nodes after footpad inoculation. The presence of virus in lymph nodes paralleled or followed the invasion of ipsilateral sensory ganglia and was associated with dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia after unilateral inoculation. In older mice virus was detected only occasionally in lymph nodes and dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia was generally not observed. The results suggest that lymphatic spread may contribute to dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia after unilateral inoculation of mice. PMID:3025889

  5. [Axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinium A toxin treatment: Review].

    PubMed

    Clerico, C; Fernandez, J; Camuzard, O; Chignon-Sicard, B; Ihrai, T

    2016-02-01

    Injection of type A botulinum toxin in the armpits is a temporary treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. This technique described in 1996 by Bushara et al., is known to be efficient and safe. The purpose of this article was to review the data concerning the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A, and discuss the other treatment modalities for this socially disabling entity. PMID:25555435

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, P; Baa, R; Antnio, A; Almeida, J; Simes, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  7. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  8. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  9. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hmmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J.; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas. PMID:21540548

  10. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse.

    PubMed

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hmmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-05-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas. PMID:21540548

  11. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  12. Axillary dissection in primary breast cancer: variations of the surgical technique and influence on morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Nuengsri, Sirin; Hillemanns, Peter; Schmidt, Werner; Deryal, Mustafa; Ertan, Kubilay; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Lymphedema of the arm is the most common and impairing complication after breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Our prospective study evaluated the effect of two different surgical techniques for ALND on postoperative morbidity. Patients were scheduled to undergo ALND. Patients in group 1 (n = 17) underwent the most common and standard technique of ALND, which uses sharp dissection of the tissue and subsequent electro-coagulation of bleedings. Patients in group 2 (n = 17) underwent a modified standard technique of ALND with clamping and ligatures of all resection margins. Postoperative wound secretion was quantified and patients were followed up for 6 months to assess long-term morbidity. The variations in surgical technique had no significant influence on the outcome variables. However, patients in group 2 showed a tendency to less wound secretion (713 versus 802 mL; P = nonsignificant), a decreased rate of immediate postoperative seromas (11.8 versus 23.5%; P = nonsignificant) and less lymphedema after 3 months (29.4 versus 41.2%; P = nonsignificant). Moreover, the number of resected lymph nodes correlated with the total amount of drained fluid (P = 0.006), the duration of the drain (P = 0.015), and the risk for the development of lymphedema after 3 months (P = 0.016). The described variations in surgical technique had no influence on the outcomes of the patients. The number of resected axillary lymph nodes remains the most important risk factor for treatment-related morbidity. Therefore, a well-balanced choice of the extent of the axillary dissection should be the surgeon’s main concern. PMID:22570566

  13. Axillary dissection in primary breast cancer: variations of the surgical technique and influence on morbidity.

    PubMed

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Nuengsri, Sirin; Hillemanns, Peter; Schmidt, Werner; Deryal, Mustafa; Ertan, Kubilay; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Lymphedema of the arm is the most common and impairing complication after breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Our prospective study evaluated the effect of two different surgical techniques for ALND on postoperative morbidity. Patients were scheduled to undergo ALND. Patients in group 1 (n = 17) underwent the most common and standard technique of ALND, which uses sharp dissection of the tissue and subsequent electro-coagulation of bleedings. Patients in group 2 (n = 17) underwent a modified standard technique of ALND with clamping and ligatures of all resection margins. Postoperative wound secretion was quantified and patients were followed up for 6 months to assess long-term morbidity. The variations in surgical technique had no significant influence on the outcome variables. However, patients in group 2 showed a tendency to less wound secretion (713 versus 802 mL; P = nonsignificant), a decreased rate of immediate postoperative seromas (11.8 versus 23.5%; P = nonsignificant) and less lymphedema after 3 months (29.4 versus 41.2%; P = nonsignificant). Moreover, the number of resected lymph nodes correlated with the total amount of drained fluid (P = 0.006), the duration of the drain (P = 0.015), and the risk for the development of lymphedema after 3 months (P = 0.016). The described variations in surgical technique had no influence on the outcomes of the patients. The number of resected axillary lymph nodes remains the most important risk factor for treatment-related morbidity. Therefore, a well-balanced choice of the extent of the axillary dissection should be the surgeon's main concern. PMID:22570566

  14. [Study of the Identification Rate of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy after Partial Breast Resection].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakurai, Kenichi; Adachi, Keita; Masuo, Yuki; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Amano, Sadao; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Makishima, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy using the dye method is generally performed for patients with breast cancer. However, identification of the sentinel lymph node in the mammary gland is occasionally difficult after breast partial resection, as lymph flow is changed under the influence of surgery. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with breast cancer who underwent partial mastectomy without axillary lymph node dissection is grade C1 in the breast cancer clinical practice guideline ver.2 2013. We examined the identification rate of the sentinel lymph node for patients with breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or partial mastectomy. Lumpectomy and partial mastectomy were performed in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. It was possible to identify the sentinel lymph node in 6 patients, and no metastasis of cancer cells was identified in any patient. In 1 patient who underwent partial mastectomy, it was impossible to identify the sentinel lymph node, and thus, Level Ⅰlymph node sampling was performed. However, the pathological diagnosis was no metastasis of cancer cells. This patient underwent partial mastectomy of the C area and a smaller volume of the mammary gland. Therefore, we consider that lymph flow changed under the influence of surgery. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using the dye method after partial breast resection is useful, but partial mastectomy of the C area makes it difficult to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy. PMID:26805174

  15. Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants.

    PubMed

    Cernoch, J M; Porter, R H

    1985-12-01

    A series of 5 experiments was conducted to determine whether neonates, at approximately 2 weeks of age, can recognize their parents through axillary odors alone. Breast-feeding infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by either nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. In contrast, breast-feeding infants displayed no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their father. Likewise, bottle-feeding infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or an unfamiliar bottle-feeding female. Several hypotheses were presented in an attempt to account for the differential reactions to maternal odors by breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding infants. It was tentatively concluded that, while breast-feeding, infants are exposed to salient maternal odors and thereby rapidly become familiarized with their mother's unique olfactory signature. PMID:4075877

  16. Axillary pilonidal sinus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Ilker; Sengul, Demet; Mocan, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    Context: Pilonidal sinus is a disease which is very common, especially in men and usually located in sacrococcygeal area. However, the disease can be also seen in rare localizations such as umblicus, forehead, scalp, clitoris, interdigital area and axilla. In the etiology of pilonidal sinus, acquired theory is accepted by most of surgeons instead of the congenital one. Case report: In the present study, we purposed to report our case of hirsute Turkish women aged 25 having axillary pilonidal sinus. After application of total surgical excision with eliptical skin incision, histopathological evaluations confirmed the prediagnosis of axillary pilonidal sinus. The patient was lost to follow-up and neither recurrens nor distance metastasis has been detected during 36 months. Conclusions: In our opinion; surgical therapy of axillary pilonidal sinus, allows to complete resection in addition to absolute histopathological diagnoses and it may be an appropriate choice of treatment especially for the disease having one or two sinuses. PMID:22666715

  17. Intraoperative frozen section assessment of sentinel lymph nodes in the operative management of women with symptomatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohanna; Hanly, Ann M; Naughton, Peter; Castineira, Constantino F; Landers, Rob; Cahill, Ronan A; Watson, R Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Background Maximisation of the potential of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a minimally invasive method of axillary staging requires sensitive intraoperative pathological analysis so that rates of re-operation for lymphatic metastases are minimised. The aim of this study was to describe the test parameters of the frozen section evaluation of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer compared to the gold standard of standard permanent pathological evaluation at our institution. Methods The accuracy of intraoperative frozen section (FS) of sentinel nodes was determined in 94 consecutive women undergoing surgery for clinically node negative, invasive breast cancer (37:T1 disease; 43:T2; 14:T3). Definitive evidence of lymphatic spread on FS indicated immediate level II axillary clearance while sentinel node "negativity" on intraoperative testing led to the operation being curtailed to allow formal H&E analysis of the remaining sentinel nodal tissue. Results Intraoperative FS correctly predicted axillary involvement in 23/30 patients with lymphatic metastases (76% sensitivity rate) permitting definitive surgery to be completed at the index operation in 87 women (93%) overall. All SN found involved on FS were confirmed as harbouring tumour cells on subsequent formal specimen examination (100% specificity and positive predictive value) with 16 patients having additional non-sentinel nodes found also to contain tumour. Negative Predictive Values were highest in women with T1 tumours (97%) and lessened with more local advancement of disease (T2 rates: 86%; T3: 75%). Of those with falsely negative FS, three had only micrometastatic disease. Conclusion Intraoperative FS reliably evaluates the status of the sentinel node allowing most women complete their surgery in a single stage. Thus SN can be offered with increased confidence to those less likely to have negative axillae hence expanding the population of potential beneficiaries. PMID:18582366

  18. Dose coverage of axillary level I-III areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy in early stage breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Jeffrey; Ma, Jin-li; Mei, Xin; Yu, Xiao-li; Zhou, Zhi-rui; Shao, Zhi-min; Liu, Guang-yu; Guo, Xiao-mao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the dose coverage of axillary areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy (s-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (for-IMRT) in early stage breast cancer patients. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were collected. Two plans were created for each patient: the s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan. Dosimetric parameters of axillary areas were compared. Results The average of mean doses delivered to the axillary level I areas in s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan were 27.7Gy and 29.1Gy (p = 0.011), respectively. The average of V47.5Gy, V45Gy and V40Gy (percent volume receiving≥ 47.5Gy, 45Gy and 40Gy) of the axillary level I in s-IMRT plan was significantly lower than that in for-IMRT plan (p < 0.001). For for-IMRT plans, patients with upper tangential border to humeral head ≤2cm, breast separation >19.3cm and body width >31.9cm had significantly higher mean dose in axillary level I area (p = 0.002, 0.007, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Compared with for-IMRT plan, the s-IMRT plan delivered lower dose to axillary level I area. For centers using s-IMRT technique, caution should be exercised when selecting to omit axillary lymph node dissection for patients with breast conserving surgery and limited positive SLNs. PMID:26082440

  19. A case of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast involving extensive lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) involving extensive lymph node metastasis with no recurrence for over 7 years. A 41-year-old female presented with pain and a swelling mass in the left axillary region, which had been present for several months. The tumor measured 1.6 cm in diameter in the middle of upper area of the left breast. Based on the findings of a core needle biopsy the pathological diagnosis was IMPC or mucinous carcinoma. The cytology of the left axillary lymph node was positive for metastatic carcinoma. The patient underwent a left mastectomy and a left axillary dissection (level I to III). The postoperative pathological diagnosis was IMPC with mucin production, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes was 59. The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy (four courses of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) and four courses of docetaxel), radiation for the left chest wall, supraclavicular and internal thoracic area, and then received tamoxifen for 5 years. The patient has remained recurrence-free for over 7 years. IMPC is known to be an aggressive histological type associated with a high incidence of lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. It seems that long-term survival was obtained by performing sufficient medical treatment. Prognostic factors other than the number of lymph node metastases may also exist. PMID:24708742

  20. Swollen lymph node (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Lymph nodes play an important part in the body's defense against infection. Swelling might occur even if the infection is trivial or not apparent. Swelling of lymph nodes generally results from localized or systemic infection, abscess ...

  1. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body and travel to an area of lymph nodes. The cancer cells often travel to nodes near the tumor ... American Cancer Society. Lymph Nodes and Cancer. Available at: ... Accessed June 4, 2014. Camp MS, Smith BL. ...

  2. Axillary vein thrombosis mimicking muscular strain.

    PubMed Central

    Louis, J

    1999-01-01

    Axillary vein thrombosis may occur on strenuous activity with a clinical picture similar to a simple strain. It carries significant morbidity but a good outcome is possible with early treatment. The aetiology, investigation, and treatment are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 PMID:10353060

  3. Lymphatic Vessel Function and Lymphatic Growth Factor Secretion after Microvascular Lymph Node Transfer in Lymphedema Patients

    PubMed Central

    Viitanen, Tiina P.; Visuri, Mikko T.; Hartiala, Pauliina; Mki, Maija T.; Seppnen, Marko P.; Suominen, Erkki A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent reports have shown that microvascular lymph node transfer may improve lymphatic drainage in lymphedema patients. Lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously in response to lymphatic growth factor [vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)] secreted by the transferred lymph nodes. Methods: We have analyzed the results of 19 lymph node transfer patients operated on 20072012. Postoperat ive lymphatic function of the affected arm was evaluated using semiquantitative lymphoscintigraphy (transport index) and limb circumference measurements. To investigate the postoperative VEGF-C secretion, we examined axillary seroma fluid samples after different surgical operations, including lymph node transfer. Results: The transport index was improved postoperatively in 7 of 19 patients. Ten of the 19 patients were able to reduce or even discontinue using compression garments. Arm circumferences were reduced in 12 of 19 patients. Six of the 7 patients with preoperative erysipelas infections have not had infectious episodes postoperatively during 1567 months follow-up. Neuropathic pain was relieved in 5 of 5 patients. VEGF-C protein was detected in the axillary seroma fluid both after lymph node transfer and normal breast reconstruction. Conclusions: Reconstructing the lymphatic anatomy of the axilla with a lymph node flap may offer possibilities that other reconstructive options are lacking. However, we will need further reports and comparative studies about the clinical efficacy of this new promising technique. In addition to the transferred lymph nodes, lymphatic growth factor production may also be induced by other factors related to microvascular breast reconstruction. PMID:25289206

  4. Proteomic analysis of lymph.

    PubMed

    Leak, Lee V; Liotta, Lance A; Krutzsch, Henry; Jones, Michael; Fusaro, Vincent A; Ross, Sally J; Zhao, Yingming; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Fusaroa, Vincent A

    2004-03-01

    This report provides the first proteomic analysis of normal ovine lymph. By establishing the fact that lymph is more than an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma, it documents that the lymph proteome contains an array of proteins that differentiates it from plasma. The protein chip technology, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and MS, were employed to examine the protein expression profiles of ovine lymph. Using a weak cation exchange chip surface to assay lymph and plasma samples by SELDI-TOF-MS showed that the analysis of peak maps from lymph contained three protein peaks that were found only in lymph, while analysis of peak maps from plasma samples showed that five protein peaks were found only in plasma. Lymph and plasma samples showed eight peaks that were common to both. There were also more ions present in plasma than in lymph, which is consistent with the 2-D PAGE analysis. MS analysis of a large number of protein spots from 2-D PAGE gels of lymph produced MS/MS sequences for 18 proteins that were identified by searching against a comprehensive protein sequence database. As in plasma, large protein spots of albumin dominated the protein pattern in lymph. Other major proteins identified in 2-D PAGE gels of lymph included, fibrinogen alpha- and beta-chains, immunoglobulin G (IgG) heavy chain, serotransferrin precursor, lactoferrin, and apolipoprotein A-1. Two proteins that were identified and were differentially expressed in lymph were glial fibrillary astrocyte acidic protein and neutrophil cytosol factor-1. By bringing the technologies of proteomics to bear on the analysis of lymph, it is possible to detect proteins in lymph that are quantitatively and qualitatively differentially expressed from those of plasma. PMID:14997497

  5. Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

    2014-05-01

    A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794

  6. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  7. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for the detection of lymph node metastases from breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjandra, J.J.; Russell, I.S.; Collins, J.P.; Andrews, J.T.; Lichtenstein, M.; Binns, D.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1989-03-15

    The presence of metastases in the regional lymph nodes is the major prognostic factor in breast cancer in the absence of overt distant metastases and is also an important indicator of the need for adjuvant therapy in ''early'' breast cancer. Currently, the accurate assessment of axillary lymph node status requires axillary dissection which has an associated morbidity. An alternative method of identifying patients who are ''node positive'' has been developed by means of immunolymphoscintigraphy with s.c. administered radioiodinated monoclonal antibody. The /sup 131/I-labeled anti-breast cancer antibody (RCC-1; 400 micrograms) and cold iodine-labeled blocking antibody (Ly-2.1; 2 mg which is nonreactive with breast cancer) were injected s.c. into both arms and scintigraphy images were obtained 16-18 h after the injection, using the axilla contralateral to the side of the breast cancer as the control. Studies were reported as positive if the amount of background-subtracted radioactive count in the axilla of interest exceeded the normal side by a radio equal to or greater than 1.5:1.0 as assessed by computer analysis. In 38 of 40 patients the findings on scintigraphy were correlated with operative and histopathological findings on the axillary dissection specimen or cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of axillary lymph nodes. In a prospective study of 26 patients, the method is more sensitive (86%) and specific (92%) than preoperative clinical assessment (57% sensitivity, 58% specificity) in the detection of axillary lymph node metastases; and by combining both modalities of assessment, there was an improvement in the sensitivity (100%) but a deterioration in the specificity (50%).

  8. Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, Suzanne van Jaeger, Katrien de; Mijnheer, Ben |; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

  9. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Douek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality. PMID:24281206

  10. Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping using Au nanocages as a lymph node tracer in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Cobley, Claire M.; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been widely performed and become the standard procedure for axillary staging in breast cancer patients. In current SLNB, identification of SLNs is prerequisite, and blue dye and/or radioactive colloids are clinically used for mapping. However, these methods are still intraoperative, and especially radioactive colloids based method is ionizing. As a result, SLNB is generally associated with ill side effects. In this study, we have proposed near-infrared Au nanocages as a new tracer for noninvasive and nonionizing photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping in a rat model as a step toward clinical applications. Au nanocages have great features: biocompatibility, easy surface modification for biomarker, a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which allows for peak absorption to be optimized for the laser being used, and capsule-type drug delivery. Au nanocage-enhanced photoacoustic imaging has the potential to be adjunctive to current invasive SLNB for preoperative axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  11. Diffusion MRI on lymph node staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Memmi, Naim; Turkmen, Ihsan; Cipe, Gokhan; Yildiz, Pelin; Arici, Dilek Sema; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 23 gastric cancer patients with a mean age of 59.410.9 years were analyzed. Lymph nodes were grouped as perigastric lesser curvature (Group Ia), perigastric greater curvature (Group Ib), D1+/D2 lymph nodes (Group II). Identification of histologically metastatic lymph nodes by diffusion weighted MRI was regarded as the main outcome. Results A total of 1,056 lymph nodes including 180 histologically proven metastatic lymph nodes were dissected. Although diffusion weighted MRI could identify the metastatic lymph nodes in 18 out of 23 patients (77.8%), only 69 of total 1,056 nodes (6.53%), either metastatic or non-metastatic, could be detected. There was no correlation between histopathology and diffusion weighted MRI with regard to lymph node groups (P>0.05 for all). Overall accuracy was calculated as 69.56, 65.21 and 52.17 for Groups II, Ib and Ia lymph nodes, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could not be helpful to differentiate metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.673). Conclusions Diffusion weighted MRI has low accuracy to detect or to differentiate metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes based on their ADC values in gastric cancer. PMID:26029642

  12. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  13. [Pelvic lymph nodes imaging].

    PubMed

    Roy, C

    2013-10-01

    Detecting metastatic pelvic lymph nodes is essential during the survey of a pelvic carcinoma. In routine clinical practice, CT scan is commonly used. However, its accuracy is quite low for small size lymph nodes. Diffusion-weighted imaging could be in the near future an efficient modality. PMID:23969242

  14. Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Stein, Erich W.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method of axillary staging for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Even though SLNB using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure with associated morbidity. Axillary ultrasound has emerged as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the axilla, but it can only assess morphology and cannot specifically sidentify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In this pilot study, we propose a noninvasive photoacoustic SLN identification system using methylene blue injection in a rat model. We successfully image a SLN with high optical contrast (14641, standard deviation) and good ultrasonic resolution (~500 m) in vivo We also show potential feasibility for clinical applications by imaging 20- and 31-mm-deep SLNs in 3-D and 2-D, respectively. Our results suggest that this technology would be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs noninvasively in vivo. PMID:19021413

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Indications, Contraindications, and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Rubello, Domenico; Tardelli, Elisa; Giammarile, Francesco; Mazzarri, Sara; Boni, Giuseppe; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Chiacchio, Serena; Ghilli, Matteo; Roncella, Manuela; Volterrani, Duccio; Colletti, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Axillary lymph node status, a major prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer, provides information important for individualized surgical treatment. Because imaging techniques have limited sensitivity to detect metastasis in axillary lymph nodes, the axilla must be explored surgically. The histology of all resected nodes at the time of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been regarded as the most accurate method for assessing metastatic spread of disease to the locoregional lymph nodes. However, ALND may result in lymphedema, nerve injury, shoulder dysfunction, and other short-term and long-term complications limiting functionality and reducing quality of life. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a less invasive method of assessing nodal involvement. The concept of SLNB is based on the notion that tumors drain in an orderly manner through the lymphatic system. Therefore, the SLN is the first to be affected by metastasis if the tumor has spread, and a tumor-free SLN makes it highly unlikely for other nodes to be affected. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard of care for primary treatment of early breast cancer and has replaced ALND to stage clinically node-negative patients, thus reducing ALND-associated morbidity. More than 20 years after its introduction, there are still aspects concerning SLNB and ALND that are currently debated. Moreover, SLNB remains an unstandardized procedure surrounded by many unresolved controversies concerning the technique itself. In this article, we review the main indications, contraindications, and controversies of SLNB in breast cancer in the light of the most recent publications. PMID:26447368

  16. [Acute axillary eczema caused by mercury compounds].

    PubMed

    Ippen, H

    1979-01-01

    Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests. PMID:487942

  17. Advances and perspectives in nanoprobes for noninvasive lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhuan, Zhigang; Jiang, Beiqi; Zhao, Peng; Lin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is now being well accepted as a practical approach to determine axillary lymph node status. For SLN biopsy, the mapping of SLN is an important procedure. However, blue dyes and radioactive colloids used for clinical SLN mapping are associated with a few issues such as adverse side effects and short retention time in SLN. In recent years, nanoscale probes for noninvasive SLN mapping have received attention due to their adaptable synthesis methods, adjustable optical properties and good biocompatibility. This review thoroughly summarizes the design of the nanoprobes and their properties in SLN mapping. The aim is to understand the status of nanomaterials for SLN mapping, challenging work and potential clinical translation in the future. PMID:25867863

  18. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  19. Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, Caroline; Stevens, Denise; Brain, Etienne

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  20. Sentinel lymph node mapping of a breast cancer of the vulva: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cripe, James; Eskander, Ramez; Tewari, Krishnansu

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is rare and typically presents as an axillary mass. Previous reports have identified ectopic breast tissue in the vulva, but malignancy is exceedingly uncommon. We present a 62 years old with locally advanced breast carcinoma arising in the vulva demonstrates the utilization of sentinel lymph node mapping to identify metastatic lymph nodes previously unable to be identified via traditional surgical exploration. Our case supports the principles of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer to be applied to ectopic breast cancer arising in the vulva. A literature review highlights common key points in similar cases to guide management. PMID:25866706

  1. Axillary lymphoscintigraphy in the management of patients with breast cancer: A study of 341 patients

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

    1985-05-01

    Axillary lymphoscintigraph (AxLS) has been proposed preoperatively to diagnose breast cancer and postoperatively to predict recurrence; its role in routine management of carcinoma of the breast has not yet been determined. In a population with predominantly Stage I or II disease AxLS was performed in 140 patients who underwent surgery without axillary dissection (GpI), and in 201 whose surgery included axillary dissection (GpII), 49 of whom were studied prior to surgery; 84% of all patients were studied within 2 months of operation. Bilateral interdigital injections of Tc-99mSb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ (20MBq) were given and anterior images obtained 2 hours later. Internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy (IMLS) was performed concurrently. Scans were classed as normal (NOR) or abnormal (ABN) by adapting criteria used in interpretation of IMLS. For analysis of prognostic value, only patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were assessed. In patients scanned prior to surgery, AxLS sensitivity and specificity in predicting nodal involvement were 74% and 77% respectively. Clinical correlation suggests that features in the AxLS can be recognized which may be predictive of disease outcome despite the lack of direct correlation between the image and histopathological findings.

  2. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa; Shin, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Woo

    2006-04-15

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  3. Cerebral revascularization by axillary-carotid bypass.

    PubMed

    Archie, J P

    1989-01-01

    Revascularization for symptomatic proximal common carotid severe stenosis or occlusion frequently requires a bypass procedure. Subclavian-carotid bypass is probably the most frequently performed operation. In the past 5 years 13 patients underwent an alternative operation, axillary-carotid bypass, which may be technically easier than subclavian-carotid bypass and just as durable. The graft is placed under the clavicle, in an easily constructed tunnel not involving the true thoracic outlet, deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and internal jugular vein. Five distal anastomoses were made to the common carotid (2 greater saphenous vein, 2 Dacron and 1 Gortex grafts), 4 to the internal carotid (all vein) and 4 to the external carotid (all vein, 1 sequential with a end-side anastomosis to the ipsilateral vertebral). There were no perioperative deaths. One stroke occurred in a patient with a Dacron graft to the common carotid who also had a concomitant ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy. All grafts were open by Doppler exam at a mean follow-up of 2 1/2 years. Improved cerebral hemodynamics was confirmed in 11 patients by Gee oculoplethysmography. These early results support the use of the axillary artery as a donor for extracranial cerebral revascularization when the proximal common carotid is occluded or severely stenotic. PMID:2708425

  4. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function. PMID:18498507

  5. Effect of shaving on axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Marti, V P J; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Paterson, S E; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V

    2003-08-01

    Removal of underarm hair is an intrinsic part of the care regimen for the majority of female consumers, with most using a wet shave with a disposable razor. However, little is known of the impact of shaving on axillary skin, and it is a particularly neglected area of research. To investigate this, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of shaving ultrastructurally, biochemically and functionally. A forearm patch test protocol was devised for antiperspirant (AP) product screening, which involved a pre-shave of the test site with a dry razor just prior to patching. Comparison of the irritation caused by a series of AP products confirmed that shaving leads to increased irritation consistent with enhanced sensitivity. The effect of regular shaving in the axilla was assessed in a 4-week in-use study with shaving either once a week or once a day, both combined with the application of an AP. Expert visual assessment of skin condition showed that more frequent shaving promoted a higher level of visible irritation. However, indirect measurement using corneosurfametry indicated no significant changes to the lipid barrier over the study period irrespective of shaving frequency. Nevertheless, digital images of the axillary skin after dry shaving show distinct opaque lines because of uplifting skin flakes with a corresponding increase in scaliness parameter. Moreover, histamine iontophoresis to assess skin sensitivity demonstrated a significant enhancement of histamine-induced itch and neurogenic flare. PMID:18494901

  6. Autologous Lymph Node Transfers.

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a common chronic and progressive condition complicating cancer treatment. Patients undergoing lymph node dissection and radiation therapy required for oncological treatment in breast and pelvic cancers are at high risk for secondary lymphedema. Reconstruction of the damaged region with a fatty flap containing lymph nodes may restore the anatomy. It has been postulated that the cytokines included in the fat surrounding the nodes VEGF-c allow regrowth of the lymphatic vessels. Hypoplasic congenital lymphedema are also positively improved by the autologous lymph node transfer, thanks to the same principles. PMID:26372688

  7. A newly discovered Anaerococcus strain responsible for axillary odor and a new axillary odor inhibitor, pentagalloyl glucose.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayoshi; Shinozaki, Junko; Kajiura, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Keiji; Fudou, Ryosuke

    2014-07-01

    Skin surface bacteria contribute to body odor, especially axillary odor. We aimed to investigate anaerobic bacteria that had not been previously studied for axillary odor formation. A new anaerobic Anaerococcus sp. A20, that releases 3-hydroxy-3-metyl-hexanoic acid (HMHA, main component of axillary odor) from its glutamyl conjugate, was discovered from axillary isolates. This strain showed strong resistance to the antimicrobial agents, triclosan and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol; therefore, we screened plant extracts that inhibit the A20 strain. We discovered that pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) extracted from the Chinese Gall plant exhibited both antibacterial and inhibitory activities against HMHA release by the A20 strain. As the excellent antibacterial activity and inhibitory effect of PGG against HMHA release were seen in vitro, we conducted an open study to evaluate the deodorant effects of PGG on axillary odor. The sensory tests on odor strength showed that application of the PGG solution could reduce axillary odors in vivo. Although there was a small change in axillary microbiota, the microbial count of A20 significantly reduced. These results strongly indicate PGG as a new innovative deodorant material that only affects odor-releasing bacteria in the axillary microbiota. PMID:24784923

  8. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  9. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in direct contact with the external environment, the circulatory system acts as a transport system for these cells. Two distinct fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients ...

  10. Effects of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Levobupivacaine in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Kaygusuz, Kenan; Kol, Iclal Ozdemir; Duger, Cevdet; Gursoy, Sinan; Ozturk, Hayati; Kayacan, Ulku; Aydin, Rukiye; Mimaroglu, Caner

    2012-01-01

    Background Although several studies have described effects of dexmedetomidine on peripheral nerve blocks, to date there is limited knowledge available on the impact of dexmedetomidine adjunct to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine for an axillary brachial plexus block. Methods A total of 64 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II scheduled to undergo forearm and hand surgery, in which an axillary block was used, were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: in group L patients (n = 32), an axillary block was performed with 39 mL levobupivacaine 5% plus 1 mL of isotonic sodium chloride. In group D patients (n = 32), an axillary block was performed with 39 mL levobupivacaine 5% and 1 mL dexmedetomidine 1 ?g/kg?1 plus isotonic sodium chloride. Demographic data, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2), sensory and motor block onset times and block durations, time to first analgesic use, total analgesic need, intraoperative verbal analog scale, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) data, and side effects were recorded for each patient. Results There were no significant differences in patient and surgery characteristics between the 2 groups. Sensory block onset time was shorter in group D (P < 0.05). Sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use were significantly longer in group D (P < 0.05), and the total need for analgesics was lower in group D (P < 0.05). Intraoperative 5- and 10-minute verbal analog scale values and postoperative VAS value at 12 hours were significantly lower in group D (P < 0.05). Intraoperative MAP and HR values, except at 5 minutes and postoperatively at 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours, were significantly lower in group D (P < 0.01). Bradycardia, hypotension, hypoxemia, nausea, vomiting, and any other side effects were not seen in any patients. Conclusions It was concluded in our study that adding dexmedetomidine to axillary brachial plexus block shortens sensory block onset time, increases the sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use, and decreases total analgesic use with no side effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier ISRCTN67622282. PMID:24648597

  11. Axillary Metastasis from an Occult Tubal Serous Carcinoma in a Patient with Ipsilateral Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Altinel, Gulbeyaz; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Omeroglu, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Axillary nodal metastasis from a nonmammary neoplasia is much rarer than diseases associated with a primary breast carcinoma. However, this has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodal disease in patients with a history of breast cancer. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old female with a past medical history of breast cancer, presenting with an ipsilateral axillary metastatic carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesion was consistent with a high grade serous carcinoma. After undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, thorough pathological examination revealed two microscopic foci of serous carcinoma in the right fallopian tube, not detectable by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In this context, the poorly differentiated appearance of the metastatic tumor and positive staining for estrogen receptor, might lead to a misdiagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. As the therapeutic implications differ, it is important for the pathologist to critically assess axillary lymph node metastases, even in patients with a past history of ipsilateral breast carcinoma and no other known primary tumors. PMID:25110596

  12. Factors Predicting Additional Disease in the Axilla in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jeruss, Jacqueline S.; Newman, Lisa A.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Broglio, Kristine R.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Yi, Min; Waljee, Jennifer F.; Ross, Merrick I.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The utility of sentinel lymph node (SNL) biopsy (SLNB) as a predictor of axillary lymph node status is similar in patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and patients who undergo surgery first. The authors of this study hypothesized that patients with positive SLNs after neoadjuvant therapy would have unique clinicopathologic factors that would be predictive of additional positive non-SLNs distinct from patients who underwent surgery first. METHODS One hundred four patients were identified who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, had a positive SLN, and underwent axillary dissection between 1997 and 2005. At the time of presentation, 66 patients had clinically negative lymph nodes by ultrasonography, and 38 patients had positive lymph nodes confirmed by fine-needle aspiration. Eighteen factors were assessed for their ability to predict positive non-SLNs using chi-square and logistic regression analysis with a bootstrapped, backwards elimination procedure. The resulting nomogram was tested by using a patient cohort from another institution. RESULTS Patients with clinically negative lymph nodes at presentation were less likely than patients with positive lymph nodes to have positive non-SLNs (47% vs 71%; P = .017). On multivariate analysis, lymphovascular invasion, the method for detecting SLN metastasis, multicentricity, positive axillary lymph nodes at presentation, and pathologic tumor size retained grouped significance with a bootstrap-adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.762. The resulting nomogram was validated in the external patient cohort (AUC, 0.78). CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of patients with positive SLNs after neoadjuvant chemotherapy had no positive non-SLNs. The use of a nomogram based on 5 predictive variables that were identified in this study may be useful for predicting the risk of positive non-SLNs in patients who have positive SLNs after chemotherapy. PMID:18442039

  13. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision making of the internal mammary radiotherapy, especially for clinically ALN-positive patients. PMID:26469922

  14. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and assisting in visualization of recurrence and tumoral boundaries.

  15. Study of incidence of lymphedema in Indian patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Pramod R; Sharma, Shekhar; Ahmed, Sheikh Zahoor; Vijaykumar, D K

    2010-09-01

    Lymphedema of the upper extremity, in addition to being unsightly, can be painful, can limit the arm movements, increases the risk of infection and is psychologically distressing, serving as a constant reminder of cancer. 1. To ascertain the incidence of lymphedema in a hospital based population (in patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer. 2. To determine the clinico-epidemilogical factors associated with the occurrence of lymphedema in these patients. For all patients undergoing axillary dissection, arm measurements were taken in the pre-& post-operative period from at least 3 sites; one in the arm, forearm and wrist (points fixed in reference to fixed bony landmarks). Patients included in this study were followed up for at least 12months. Circumference difference of more than 5% was taken as mild lymphedema; more than 10% as moderate lymphedema and more than 15% as severe lymphedema. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software. Of the 231 patients in this study mean age was 51.2years, majority were housewives (71.9%) and postmenopausal (58.5%). Modified radical mastectomy (MRM), was performed on 203 (87.9%) patients. 57.2% patients had positive lymph nodes. The mean number of positive nodes was 6.52. Majority of the patients received chemo and radio therapy. Overall incidence of lymphedema was 41.1%. The definition of 5-10% increase as mild lymphedema may be a bit severe as in most patients with this increase, lymphedema is not clinically apparent. The incidence of moderate and severe lymphedema in our series is only 7.4%. The incidence of clinically significant lymphedema (moderate to severe lymphedema & symptomatic mild lymphedema) was 16.8%. Only axillary irradiation and pathological nodal status (pN3) emerged as significant risk factors for lymphedema development on multivariate analysis. Lymphedema once established is difficult to treat. Combination of axillary dissection with radiation and more nodal positivity seems to predispose to lymphedema. Prevention by means of sentinel node biopsy in early cases, good surgical technique, arm care post surgery, exercises and massage therapy may help reducing the incidence and/or severity. PMID:22693375

  16. Axillary vein thrombosis in adolescent onset systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leak, A; Patel, K J; Tuddenham, E G; Pearson, J D; Woo, P

    1990-01-01

    A 16 year old girl with a two year history of systemic sclerosis developed left axillary vein thrombosis. Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and raised von Willebrand factor antigen were shown. Images PMID:2383084

  17. Endovascular treatment of a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Kyun; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Sang Dong

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery is extremely rare. The standard treatment for axillary artery aneurysm has been surgical repair, but endovascular management of select aneurysms using stent grafts has become more prevalent with the development of endoluminal technology. We report the case of a 36-year old man with a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. He experienced a tingling sensation and intermittent pain in the left upper extremity and had no history of trauma to the axilla. We performed endovascular treatment [placement of a Viabahn stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA)] for a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. Following the procedure, his symptoms disappeared completely. After 6, 12 and 24 months, we carried out computed tomography angiography; all scans showed no complications. Now, the patient has no symptoms related to aneurysm in the axilla. PMID:25246010

  18. Iliopsoas tuberculous abscess associated with cervical and axillary tuberculous lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Latsios, Dimitrios; Chloros, Diamantis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Dagdilelis, Loukas; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of iliopsoas tuberculous abscess without obvious spinal column involvement. Cervical and axillary tuberculous lymphadenopathy were also presented. Despite appropriate antituberculous treatment, patient required percutaneous drainage with CT-guided catheter insertion. PMID:22693294

  19. Surgical Algorithm and Results of Isolated Traumatic Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wayne A; Schippert, David W; Daws, Snow B; Koman, L Andrew; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-03-01

    Background?Axillary nerve injuries are common and typically occur during high-energy, traumatic events. The purpose of this study is to propose a treatment algorithm for acute isolated axillary nerve injuries and report the outcomes of surgically treated patients. Methods?A retrospective review identified 14 patients surgically treated for an isolated axillary nerve injury. Axillary nerve neurolysis was performed for all patients, and a triceps branch of the radial nerve was transferred to the axillary nerve in patients without evidence of deltoid function following intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation. Four patients were treated with neurolysis alone and 10 patients received a transfer. Pre- and postoperative deltoid strength, shoulder abduction, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) outcome score were evaluated. Results?At most recent follow-up, both the neurolysis and nerve transfer groups had significant improvement in deltoid strength, with 86% achieving M4 or greater. Shoulder abduction improved from a mean of 63 to 127 degrees. This difference was significant in the nerve transfer group and when all patients were analyzed together. DASH scores significantly improved from a mean of 47 to 34 when all patients were analyzed together. No patients experienced a decrease in elbow extension strength following nerve transfer. Conclusions?In patients with preserved triceps strength, a triceps branch of the radial nerve can be coapted directly to the axillary nerve in the absence of deltoid contraction following electrical stimulation. Functional improvements were seen in patients treated with neurolysis alone and in combination with nerve transfer, supporting the use of intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation to guide treatment. PMID:26473794

  20. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M; Sura, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.

  1. MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks

    PubMed Central

    Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frdric; Smith, Hans-Jrgen; Rkkum, Magne; Klaastad, ivind

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

  2. Statistical relationship between human axillary and forehead temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.; Hao, X.; Wang, F.; Tu, X.; Bai, C.; Ran, L.

    2013-09-01

    Forehead or face infrared thermometric screening for febrile people in public places, i.e., entry and exit ports of a country, is one of the important measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The statistical relationship between body and skin temperatures are the key factors that affect the accuracy of estimating axillary temperature from forehead temperature. The axillary and forehead temperatures of more than 1000 individuals were acquired. A two-regressand linear model was used to estimate the difference between the axillary and forehead temperatures of the subjects, with corrections for ambient temperature. At an ambient temperature of 23.6 C, the statistical temperature difference between axillary and forehead temperatures was 3.700.12 C at 36.5 C and 3.14012 C at 38.0 C in axillary temperature. Statistical distributions of the individual residual deviations from the regressed estimates were obtained. The uncertainty of the regression equation and its applications were analyzed in detail. The individual differences in forehead and axillary temperatures, with standard deviations of 0.88 C and 0.66 C, respectively, were the main factors that contributed to the uncertainty in the screening and confirmation measurements. This study provides important information for verifying or improving the body-site correction model for forehead thermometers and screening thermal imagers, and necessary for estimating rational alarm setting and the probabilities of erroneous and missing alarms in preliminary screenings.

  3. Characterizing axillary web syndrome: ultrasonographic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Koehler, L A; Hunter, D W; Haddad, T C; Blaes, A H; Hirsch, A T; Ludewig, P M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ultrasound could successfully characterize axillary web syndrome (AWS) and clarify the pathophysiologic basis of AWS as a vascular or lymphatic abnormality, or an abnormal tissue structure. This prospective study evaluated women who developed AWS following breast cancer surgery. Using an 18 MHz ultrasound transducer, images were taken of the AWS cord and compared to mirror images on the contralateral side. A blinded radiologist assessed the ultrasound characteristics of and structural changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue and formulated an opinion as to the side in which AWS was located. Seventeen subjects participated in the study. No structure or abnormality consistent with AWS could be identified by ultrasound. There were no statistical differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral side in skin thickness; subcutaneous reflector thickness, number or disorganization; or subcutaneous tissue echodensity (p>0.05). The radiologist correctly identified the side with AWS in 12 of 17 subjects (=0.41). A distinct ultrasonographic structure or abnormality could not be identified in subjects with AWS using 18 MHz ultrasound. The inability to identify a specific structure excludes the possibility that AWS is associated with vein thrombosis or a fascial abnormality, and supports the theory that AWS may be pathology that is not visible with 18 MHz ultrasound, such as microlymphatic stasis or binding of fibrin or other proteins in the interstitial space. PMID:25915976

  4. New treatment techniques for axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Mordon, Serge R; Trelles, Mario A; Leclere, Franck Marie; Betrouni, Nacim

    2014-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a medical problem defined as perspiration in excess of what is normally needed to cool the body. The excessive production of sweat by the sudoriferous glands is independent of the process of thermoregulation. Techniques have recently appeared that make use of energy sources, in particular microwave devices and light (pulsed flashlamp or laser). The aim is to obtain very long-lasting efficacy without notable side effects. Thermal Nd:YAG lasers used with an interstitial fiber, microwave devices, and photodynamic therapy appear to offer new treatment options for axillary hyperhidrosis. However, insertion of a laser fiber into tissue by means of a cannula may lead to complications if the procedure is not well mastered, as has been shown by numerous studies on laser lipolysis. The only microwave device available on the market is certainly interesting. Photodynamic therapy using eosin gel is an attractive technique. The energy source is a pulsed flashlamp, which many physicians have. Eosin gel is relatively easy to produce and these gels are already marketed in several countries. However, further clinical studies of larger series of patients and with longer follow-up are still needed to reach a definitive conclusion as to the value of this approach. PMID:25065458

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer: Work in progress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, I T

    2016-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in those patients with clinically node negative axilla and nowadays, patients with low burden disease in the SLNs may spare an ALND without compromising their oncologic outcomes. In the last decade, indications of neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) have been extended to patients with operable disease and with the use of targeted therapies, rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) after NAT have increased. In the neoadjuvant setting, SLN after NAT is feasible and accurate in clinically node negative patients and it has been explored in different randomized prospective studies in patients with clinically positive axilla in the continuous effort to avoid the morbidity of ALND. The importance of identifying patients with residual axillary disease may serve not only as indicator for selecting patients with pCR to be spared an ALND but also for selecting patients for additional therapy. Future research is needed to more accurately identify residual axillary disease and the SLN after NAT is the driver for this achievement. PMID:26774943

  6. Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, Rachel Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S.; Finlayson, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

  7. Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Kwon, Hee Min; Song, Yoon Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2014-12-01

    Because of the potential roles of the primo vascular system (PVS) in cancer metastasis, immune function, and regeneration, understanding the molecular biology of the PVS is desirable. The current state of PVS research is comparable to that of lymph research prior to the advent of Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1). There is very little knowledge of the molecular biology of the PVS due to difficulties in identifying and isolating primo endothelial cells. Present investigations rely on the morphology and the use of differential staining procedures to identify the PVS within tissues, making detailed molecular studies all but impossible. To overcome such difficulties, one may emulate the explosive development of lymph molecular biology. For this purpose, there is a need for a reliable method to obtain PVS specimens to initiate the molecular investigation. One of the most reliable methods is to detect the primo vessels and primo nodes afloat in the lymph flow. The protocols for observation of the PVS in the large lymph ducts in the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity were reported earlier. These methods require a laparectomy and skillful techniques. In this work, we present a protocol to identify and harvest PVS specimens from the lymph ducts connecting the inguinal and the axillary nodes, which are located entirely in the skin. Thus, the PVS specimen is more easily obtainable. This method is a stepping-stone toward development of a system to monitor migration of cancer cells in metastasis from a breast tumor to the axillary nodes, where cancer cells use the PVS as a survival rope in hostile lymph flow. PMID:25499568

  8. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  9. Lymphedema After Complete Axillary Node Dissection for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Starritt, Emma C.; Joseph, David; McKinnon, J Gregory; Lo, Sing Kai; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.; Thompson, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to define appropriate criteria for assessing the presence of lymphedema, and to report the prevalence and risk factors for development of upper limb lymphedema after level IIII axillary dissection for melanoma. Summary Background Data: The lack of a consistent and reliable objective definition for lymphedema remains a significant barrier to appreciating its prevalence after axillary dissection for melanoma (or breast carcinoma). Methods: Lymphedema was assessed in 107 patients (82 male, 25 female) who had previously undergone complete level IIII axillary dissection. Of the 107 patients, 17 had also received postoperative axillary radiotherapy. Arm volume was measured using a water displacement technique. Change in volume of the arm on the side of the dissection was referenced to the volume of the other (control) arm. Volume measurements were corrected for the effect of handedness using corrections derived from a control group. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to determine a threshold fractional arm volume increase above which volume changes were considered to indicate lymphedema. Results: Based on the CART analysis results, lymphedema was defined as an increase in arm volume greater than 16% of the volume of the control arm. Using this definition, lymphedema prevalence for patients in the present study was 10% after complete level IIII axillary dissection for melanoma and 53% after additional axillary radiotherapy. Radiotherapy and wound complications were independent risk factors for the development of lymphedema. Conclusions: A suggested objective definition for arm lymphedema after axillary dissection is an arm volume increase of greater than 16% of the volume of the control arm. PMID:15492570

  10. Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas showing intertumoural heterogeneity: a comparison of histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of primary tumour and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Monica; Podoleanu, Cristian; Georgescu, Rares; Moldovan, Cosmin; Molnar, Calin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Our study aimed to compare the histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of invasive tumour foci in multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas with those in corresponding axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. We reassessed slides from consecutive multiple breast carcinomas surgically treated with axillary LN dissection (2007-2012). 155 (19.23%) of 806 cases had multiple breast cancer, of which 115 (74.19%) cases had identical morphology. Of these, 85 (73.91%) cases had axillary LN metastases morphologically identical to the originating breast tumours. 32 of the 40 (80%) cases with different morphology had axillary LN metastases; in most heterogeneous cases with differences in grade (87.5%), the grade of metastases was identical to the grade of the tumour foci with the highest histological grade, and in 33.33% of cases the grade in LN was concordant with the grade of smaller foci. Among the 18 cases heterogeneous in histological type with axillary metastases, 33.33% presented heterogeneous histological types in LN, and 22.22% of them were only concordant with the histological type of the smaller tumour foci. The morphological aspects of axillary LN metastases correspond to the highest histological grade and/or histological tumour type with unfavourable prognosis, which does not necessarily appear in the largest tumour focus. PMID:26247525

  11. A randomized Phase II trial of systemic chemotherapy with and without trastuzumab followed by surgery in HER2-positive advanced gastric or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study JCOG1301 (Trigger Study).

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kozo; Tokunaga, Masanori; Mizusawa, Junki; Machida, Nozomu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shitara, Kohei; Tomita, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kenichi; Boku, Narikazu; Sano, Takeshi; Terashima, Masanori; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2015-11-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin is considered to be acceptable as one of the standard treatment options for gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastases in Japan. Addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy is shown to be effective for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer patients, and we have commenced a randomized Phase II trial in March 2015 to evaluate S-1 plus cisplatin plus trastuzumab compared with S-1 plus cisplatin alone in the neoadjuvant setting for HER2-positive gastric cancer patients with ELM, which are followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year. A total of 130 patients will be accrued from 41 Japanese institutions over 3 years. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate of pre-operative chemotherapy, proportion of patients with R0 resection, proportion of patients who complete the pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery, proportion of patients who complete the protocol treatment including post-operative chemotherapy, pathological response rate and adverse events. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000016920. PMID:26355164

  12. Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. II. Examples of strategy adopted and trace element analysis of blood, lymph nodes and cerebrospinal fluid of Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, E; Minoia, C; Pietra, R; Fortaner, S; Gallorini, M; Saltelli, A

    1992-06-01

    The EURO TERVIHT (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues), recently initiated, aims to establish and compare trace metal reference values in inhabitants from the different EC countries. The project anticipates international cooperation of specialized chemical and toxicological laboratories in Western Europe. In order to overcome the well known and intolerable high fluctuation in published trace metal concentrations in body fluids and tissues, which are mostly due to poor analysis, this paper gives recommendations and strategies for approaching 'background' values measurement practised in the EURO TERVIHT. The focus of the paper is more on quality rather than on quantity of data with particular aspects: (i) well-described protocol for the selection/composition of reference groups (extended epidemiological data plus clinical status); (ii) numerous pre-analytical factors, among which are of paramount importance are ultraclean laboratory air, container material, storage conditions at -20 degrees C; (iii) statistical treatment of the data and the expression of the analytical results (use of refined statistical analysis such as the Lilliefors test to define the type of distribution, normal or log-normal). Results reported here concern the determination of trace elements in whole blood of more than 350 Italian subjects which allowed the proposal of 'reference values' for 12 elements. In lymph nodes and cerebrospinal (CSF) the degree of information acquired is only sufficient to suggest 'indicative' of 'informative' values. PMID:1641639

  13. The Effect of Ethnicity on Human Axillary Odorant Production.

    PubMed

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Greene, Kathryn; Varallo, Lauren; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory highlighted marked ethnic differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cerumen among individuals of Caucasian, East Asian, and African-American descent, based, in part, on genetic differences in a gene that codes for a transport protein, which is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family C, member 11 (ABCC11). In the current work, we hypothesized that axillary odorants produced by East Asians would differ markedly from those obtained from individuals of European or African descent based on the pattern of ethnic diversity that exists in ABCC11. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we examined differences in axillary odorant VOCs among 30 individuals of African-American, Caucasian, and East Asian descent with respect to their ABCC11 genotype. While no qualitative differences in the type of axillary odorants were observed across ethnic groups, we found that characteristic axillary odorants varied quantitatively with respect to ethnic origin. We propose that ABCC11 is not solely responsible for predicting the relative amounts of volatiles found in axillary secretions and that other biochemical pathways must be involved. PMID:26634572

  14. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy; Kirby, Anna; Crichton, Siobhan; Gillett, Cheryl; Cane, Paul; Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

  15. Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Marion, Blandine; Leclre, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1cm (position 2) and 2cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV. PMID:24497198

  16. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with thyroiditis: lymph node metastasis, complications

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun Sook

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis, and to determine the rate of its complications for it. Methods A retrospective review of 1,247 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent primary thyroidectomy was performed. Among them, 316 patients had thyroiditis (group I) while 931 patients had no thyroiditis (group II), as reflected in the final pathologic reports. The two groups' clinicopathologic results and rate of complications were compared. Results Female gender, preoperative hypothyroidism, total thyroidectomy, no extrathyroid extension, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion were associated with group I. More central lymph nodes were removed in group I than in group II, but there were fewer central lymph nodes with metastasis in group I than in group II. For the lateral lymph nodes, the two groups had the same numbers of removed nodes and nodes with metastatic tumor. Multivariate analysis revealed female predominance, more cases of preoperative hypothyroidism, more dissected lymph nodes, and fewer lymph nodes with metastasis in group I. Among the patients who underwent lobectomy, postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in group I than in group II (P < 0.001). There was no difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Conclusion Papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis showed less aggressive features. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in the patients with thyroiditis. PMID:23833756

  17. Validation of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram for predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast-cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiang; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Minmin; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Zhengbo; Liu, Yanbing; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Zhaopeng; Wang, Chunjian; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The main purpose of the study reported here was to validate the clinical value of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram that predicts non-sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in SLN-positive patients with breast cancer. Methods Data on 1,576 patients who received sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at the Shandong Cancer Hospital from December 2001 to March 2014 were collected in this study, and data on 509 patients with positive SLN were analyzed to evaluate the risk factors for non-SLN metastasis. The MSKCC nomogram was used to estimate the probability of non-SLN metastasis and was compared with actual probability after grouping into deciles. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and predictive accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the ROC curve. Results Tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, number of positive SLNs, and number of negative SLNs were correlated with non-SLN metastasis (P<0.05) by univariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P=0.039), histological grade (P=0.043), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.001), number of positive SLNs (P=0.001), and number of negative SLNs (P=0.000) were identified as independent predictors for non-SLN metastasis. The trend of actual probability in various decile groups was comparable to the predicted probability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.722. Patients with predictive values lower than 10% (97/492, 19.7%) had a frequency of non-SLN metastasis of 17.5% (17/97). Conclusion The MSKCC nomogram can provide an accurate prediction of the probability of non-SLN metastasis, and offers a reference basis about axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary lymph node dissection could be avoided in patients with predictive values lower than 10%. PMID:25750542

  18. Tuberculous dactylitis (spina ventosa) with concomitant ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma in an immunocompetent child: A rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar; Khonglah, Tashi; Bareh, Jerryson

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a distinctly uncommon, yet well recognized form of tuberculosis involving the small bones of the hand or foot. It occurs in young children in endemic areas under 5 years of age. Tuberculosis of the short tubular bones like phalanges, metacarpals or metatarsals is quite uncommon beyond 6 years of age, once the epiphyseal centers are well established. The radiographic features of cystic expansion have led to the name “Spina Ventosa” for tuberculous dactylitis of the short bones. Scrofuloderma is a mycobacterial infection affecting children and young adults, representing direct extension of tuberculosis into the skin from underlying structures e.g. lymph nodes. An 8-year-old malnourished girl had multiple axillary ulcers with lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous dactylitis with ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma was suspected on clinical and radiological grounds. The suspicion was confirmed by histology and bacteriology. The patient responded to antitubercular drugs with progressive healing of the lesions without surgery. Concomitant presence of these dual lesions suggesting active disseminated tuberculosis in immune-competent child over 6 years is very rare and hardly reported. PMID:23977657

  19. Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: 13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Jacques; Scarth, Hugh; Levine, Mark; Hugi, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Objective To provide information and recommendations to women with breast cancer and their physicians regarding what is now known about sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Options Axillary dissection; SLN biopsy followed by backup axillary dissection; SLN biopsy. Outcomes Accurate determination of cancer stage, resulting in better-informed therapeutic decisions. Evidence Systematic review of English-language literature published from January 1991 to December 2000 retrieved primarily from MEDLINE and CANCERLIT. Recommendations · Axillary dissection is the standard of care for the surgical staging of operable breast cancer. · If a patient requests or is offered SLN biopsy, the benefits and risks as well as what is and is not known about the procedure should be outlined. · Patients should be informed of the number of SLN biopsies performed by the surgeon and the surgeon's success rate with the procedure, as determined by the identification of the SLN and the false-negative rate (the presence of tumour cells in the axillary nodes when the SLN biopsy result is negative). · Before surgeons replace axillary dissection by SLN biopsy as the staging procedure at their institution, they should (a) familiarize themselves with the literature on the topic and the techniques needed to perform the procedure, (b) follow a defined protocol for all 3 aspects of the procedure (nuclear medicine, surgery, pathology) and (c) perform backup axillary dissection until an acceptable success rate (as determined by the identification of the SLN and the false-negative rate) is achieved. · A surgeon who performs breast cancer surgery infrequently should not perform SLN biopsy. · A positive SLN biopsy result or failure to identify an SLN should prompt full axillary dissection. · SLN biopsy is contraindicated in women who have clinically palpable nodes, locally advanced breast cancer, multifocal tumours, previous breast surgery or previous irradiation of the breast. · Staining of tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin, and not immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin, should determine adjuvant therapy. · Participation in randomized clinical trials is encouraged. [A patient version of these guidelines appears in Appendix 1.] Validation Internal validation within the Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer; no external validation. Sponsor The steering committee was convened by Health Canada. Completion date Apr. 9, 2001. PMID:11501455

  20. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  1. Axillary nerve course and position in the fetal period

    PubMed Central

    Uluer, Tuğba; Aktekin, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Zeliha; Buluklu, Semih; Karşıyaka, Dilan; Can, Erdem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the fetal axillary nerve to reveal and compare its morphometric features within the second and third trimester. Methods: This study was conducted at the Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. Thirty-five fetal shoulders were studied to provide anatomic data and to describe its position with regard to certain landmarks around the shoulder. Results: The shortest distance between the axillary nerve and the glenoid labrum was found 2.27 mm and 2.89 mm in the second and third trimester fetuses, respectively. The shortest distances between the anterior and posterior acromial tips and the axillary nerve were also measured and were used with arm length measurements to define the anterior and posterior indexes. Conclusion: The indexes show that the distance between the axillary nerve and the anterior/posterior acromial tips are approximately one-fourth of the arm length in both the second and third trimester fetuses. The data presented in this study will be of use to surgeons, particularly to pediatric and orthopedic surgeons who will undertake surgical procedures in the axilla and arm in the newborn or early childhood. PMID:26492124

  2. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8%) that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males) with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2T4). Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 14.2 months (range = 424 months). A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5%) and another patient (2.5%) presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353) and 2.5% (p = .552), respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58%) compared to palmar type (14, 35.89%) or axillary type (7, 17.94%). Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications.

  3. Axillary Artery Thrombosis in a Major League Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, John M.; Angeline, Michael E.; Bohon, Tiffany M.; Loftus, Michael; Potter, Hollis G.; Weiland, Andrew J.; Thompson, Robert W.; Coleman, Struan H.; Altchek, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a Major League Baseball player who was diagnosed with an axillary artery thrombosis due to arterial compression from throwing. The purpose of this article is to create awareness as to the signs and symptoms associated with arterial positional compression and the rehabilitative implications to surgical intervention. PMID:24427409

  4. Isolated axillary artery injury due to blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    O, Mehmet; Gvener, Murat; Uar, Halil Ibrahim; Akbulut, Birkan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ersoy, Unsal

    2007-04-01

    The intimal damage of the axillary artery due to an acute, single blunt trauma is very rare without concomitant bone, brachial plexus, venous and soft tissue injuries. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of the arterial injury is essential to avoid permanent disability. The clinical signs are usually occult and do not become manifest until a long ischemic interval following injury, owing to the extensive collateral network. A twenty-year-old male patient had injured his left arm in a hyperabduction and hyperextension position while he was carrying a refrigerator with his arm. An increase in the intensity of pain and numbness reappeared in his left arm 1.5 months after the trauma. Digital subtraction angiography of the axillary artery performed after his hospitalization showed an occlusion of the axillary artery and no reconstitution of distal part of the occlusion via collateral vessels. During the operation, the axillary and brachial arteries were bypassed with a saphenous graft. As shown in this case report, in the early period after blunt trauma of the upper limb, progressive signs of vascular compromise may disappear because of collateral circulation even if the distal pulses are absent. Then an angiography of the upper limb becomes essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. This is our second experience. On the basis of our first experience that was reported, in such a chronic case, oral anticoagulation must be carried out at least six months whenever a graft thrombosis after revascularization is encountered. PMID:17682958

  5. Rapid Stereology Based Quantitative Immunohistochemistry of Dendritic Cells in Lymph Nodes: A Methodological Study

    PubMed Central

    van Hensbergen, Yvette; Luykx?de Bakker, Sylvia A.; Heideman, Danille A. M.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Pinedo, Herbert M.; van Diest, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to arrive at a fast and reliable protocol for assessment of fractional volumes of immunohistochemically stained dendritic cells in lymph nodes. Twenty axillary lymph nodes of patients with locally advanced breast cancer were immuno?histochemically stained with an S100 antibody. Fractional volumes of dendritic cells were assessed by stereology based quantitative immunohistochemistry using an interactive video overlay system including an automated microscope. The gold standard percentage of dendritic cells was the fractional volume of S100 stained cells in 500 fields systematically spread over the whole lymph node. Then, in a computer simulation, different sample sizes (1200 fields of vision) were tested and the coefficient of variation (CV) for each sample size was calculated. The CV dropped with increasing sample size. A sample size of 100 fields of vision appeared to be optimal. Intra? and interobserver reproducibility appeared to be good (correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.86, respectively) when re?analyzing the cases with the established protocol. In conclusion, a fast and reliable assessment of the fractional volume of dendritic cells in lymph nodes is possible with semi?automated quantitative immuno?histochemistry. This method will form the base for further clinical studies into the immunological response in lymph nodes of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:11455033

  6. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

    PubMed Central

    Senel, Ahmet Can; Ukinc, Ozlem; Timurkaynak, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50?mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40?mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40?mL with 50?mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40?mL with 50?mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable) were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50?mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects. PMID:24883319

  7. Axillary Artery Injury Caused by Fracture of Humerus Neck and Its Repair Using Basilic Vein Graft

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Sandeep; Sehgal, Manik

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are rarely associated with axillary artery injury. We present a case of a 59-year-old female who had fracture neck humerus along with absent pulsations in the left upper limb after blunt trauma. Computed tomographic angiogram revealed complete occlusion of the left axillary artery. Urgent surgical intervention was done in the form of fixation of fracture followed by exploration and repair of axillary artery. Axillary artery was contused and totally occluded by fractured edge of humerus. Repair of the axillary artery was done using basilic vein graft harvested through the same incision. Postprocedure pulsations were present in the upper limb. PMID:25061530

  8. Lymph node staging.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas; Bisdas, Sotirios; Bisdas, Sortirios

    2007-08-01

    Cancers of the head and neck (HNC) include cancers of the larynx, nasal passages/nose, oral cavity, pharynx, salivary glands, buccal regions, and thyroid. In these cancers, lymph node staging and localization of pathological lymph nodes are necessary to decide on either (neo) adjuvant or surgical therapy and are a major factor for the prognosis in HNC patients. Cervical node metastases have different incidence, and their presence is associated with a decrease in global survival to roughly half and with higher recurrence rates. The node metastases can be categorized in the following 2 groups: overt (clinical) or nonovert (occult). The latter can be subcategorized as metastases detectable by traditional methods (eg, staining) or "submicroscopic" metastases, only evident with immunohistochemical or molecular analysis. Compared with clinical invasive and laboratory examinations, which may have complications and are expensive, radiology plays an important role in lymph node staging. Mainly, the overt node metastases are the field of radiological imaging, and second, the detection of nonovert metastases is important and holds promise for the future because many patients of those initially classified as cN0 have, in fact, occult metastatic disease (pN1). Vice versa, radiological imaging has to avoid false-positive results that can lead to an elective or radical neck dissection, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and thus overshadow the improvement in survival. Radiological imaging plays a role not only as an initial staging of N+ but also in the case of N0 due to the continuing controversy for the treatment of N0 patients. A close observation of the patient may reveal a positive node in the follow-up. The imaging modalities used for the node staging in HNC patients include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography scans. None of the above-mentioned methods reaches a 100% sensitivity or specificity, and the accuracy of the exact number of metastases or levels involved has not been studied; thus, neck dissection with subsequent pathological examination remains the gold standard for node staging. Among the described cross-sectional imaging modalities, MRI presents a lot of advantages mainly due to the increased soft tissue contrast and the ability to obtain tissue characteristics in different sequences, including diffusion- and perfusion-weighted sequences and proton spectroscopy imaging. The lack of the radiation burden makes MRI suitable for a close follow-up of the patient, and the imaging with the use of new intravenous contrast material (such as ultrasmall iron oxide particles) seems superior to the conventional. In this article, we will focus on the lymph node MRI staging in HNC patients and the MR anatomy of the nodes, the necessary diagnostic workup, and the advantages of the method over computed tomography. The possibilities of the new imaging sequences and the treatment implications will be addressed as well. PMID:17893595

  9. Rehabilitation of patient with brachial plexus lesion and break in axillary artery. Case study.

    PubMed

    Bajuk, S; Jelnikar, T; Ortar, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the physiotherapy and occupational therapy used in treating a 74-year-old woman with a left brachial plexus lesion, a break in the axillary artery, dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint, a broken scapula and clavicula, serial left rib fractures, and lacerations on the upper and lower arm. After testing the patient, the following goals were set: reduce pain, soften scar tissue, and improve joint motion, muscle strength, and functionality of the hand. A 12-month outpatient program was used. Various analgesics were used to reduce pain, and a special aid was made to unweight the shoulder and elbow joints. Physiotherapy included kinesiotherapy, audiovisual biofeedback, electrical stimulation, friction massage, and lymph drainage. Occupational therapy included active functional exercises and re-education. As a result of this program, the patient no longer had pain, passive range of motion was close to normal, active motion where present was improved, swelling was reduced, and the hand became functional again. Complex physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and the patient's motivation resulted in the rehabilitation of severe trauma of the hand. PMID:8994018

  10. Dexamethasone or Dexmedetomidine as Local Anesthetic Adjuvants for Ultrasound-guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Blocks with Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Jong; Koo, Dae Jeong; Choi, Yu Sun; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone or dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine on the onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blocks (BPB). Methods Fifty-one ASA physical status I-II patients with elective forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus blocks were randomly allocated to receive 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (C group, n = 17), 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (10 mg) of dexamethasone (D group, n = 17) or 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (100 g) of dexmedetomidine (DM group, n = 17). A nerve stimulation technique with ultrasound was used in all patients. The onset time and duration of sensory blocks were assessed. Results The duration of the sensory block was extended in group D and group DX compared with group C (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between group D and group DX. However, there were no significant differences in onset time in all three groups. Conclusions Dexamethasone 10 mg and dexmedetomidine 100 g were equally effective in extending the duration of ropivacaine in ultrasound-guided axillary BPB with nerve stimulation. However, neither drug has significantly effects the onset time. PMID:26839668

  11. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. PMID:25841039

  12. Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Anneleen; Brouckaert, Olivier; Smeets, Ann; Laenen, Annouschka; Yoshihara, Emi; Persyn, Frederik; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frederic; Soens, Julie; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Moerman, Philippe; Vergote, Ignace; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Staelens, Gracienne; Van Eygen, Koen; Vanneste, Alain; Van Dam, Peter; Colpaert, Cecile; Neven, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) is the golden standard if breast cancer involves the sentinel lymph node (SLN). However, most non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) are not involved, cALND has a considerable complication rate and does not improve outcome. We here present and validate our predictive model for positive NSLNs in the cALND if the SLN is positive. Consecutive early breast cancer patients from one center undergoing cALND for a positive SLN were included. We assessed demographic and clinicopathological variables for NSLN involvement. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed. A predictive model was built and validated in two external centers. 21.9% of 470 patients had at least one involved NSLN. In univariate analysis, seven variables were significantly correlated with NSLN involvement: tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of positive and negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive SLN. In multivariate analysis, LVI, number of negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive pathological evaluation were independent predictors for NSLN involvement. The calculated risk resulted in an AUC of 0.76. Applied to the external data, the model was accurate and discriminating for one (AUC = 0.75) and less for the other center (AUC = 0.58). A discriminative predictive model was constructed to calculate the risk of NSLN involvement in case of a positive SLN. External validation of our model reveals differences in performance when applied to data from other institutions concluding that such a predictive model requires validation prior to use. PMID:24768478

  13. The biological characteristics of a water soluble porphyrin in rat lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cole, D A; Mercer-Smith, J A; Schreyer, S A; Norman, J K; Lavallee, D K

    1990-01-01

    The biological characteristics of a radiolabeled metalloporphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphinato [67Cu]copper (II) [( 67Cu]TCPP), in rat lymph nodes, surrounding muscle, fat, and blood were determined. Lymphatic tissue localized greater amounts of [67Cu]TCPP than did surrounding muscle and fat. Inflamed lymph nodes localized greater amounts of [67Cu]TCPP than did noninflamed lymph nodes. Time course studies suggest that the uptake of [67Cu]TCPP in noninflamed and in inflamed lymph nodes may involve different biological processes. The affinity of [67Cu]TCPP for inflamed lymph nodes may be influenced by the degree of inflammation. If further studies confirm these results, [67Cu]TCPP may be useful as a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging inflamed lymph nodes. PMID:2391239

  14. Primary breast lymphoma presenting as non-healing axillary abscess.

    PubMed

    Anele, Chukwuemeka; Phan, Yih Chyn; Wong, Suanne; Poddar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with a history consistent with a right axillary abscess, presented to her general practitioner (GP). A diagnosis of folliculitis was made and the GP started a course of flucloxacillin. Despite antibiotics, the patient's symptoms worsened and the abscess increased in size. This prompted her GP to perform an incision and drainage procedure of the abscess. The practice nurse subsequently oversaw the follow-up care of the wound. Two months after the incision and drainage, and after regular wound dressing, the patient was referred to the acute surgical team with a complicated, non-healing right axillary abscess cavity and associated generalised right breast cellulitis. There was no history of breast symptoms prior to the onset of the axillary abscess. The patient underwent wound debridement, washout and application of negative pressure vacuum therapy. Biopsies revealed primary breast lymphoma (B-cell). She underwent radical chemotherapy and is currently in remission. PMID:26446318

  15. An unusual variation of axillary artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aastha; Jain, Anjali; Kumar, M Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    An unusual unilateral variation was observed in branching pattern and course of branches of the axillary artery of the left upper limb in an adult male cadaver. The superior thoracic branch of axillary artery had a very unusual course as it passed between the two divisions of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus and then descended down towards the first two intercostal spaces. A common trunk was seen arising from the third part of the axillary artery which divided into anterior and posterior circumflex humeral, subscapular and Profunda brachii artery. The ulnar and radial collaterals arose from the Profunda brachii artery rather than the brachial artery. The knowledge about such variations becomes essential and of utmost significance in various clinical procedures performed by the vascular surgeons, radiologists and clinical anatomists. Moreover, the injuries of the brachial plexus are quite common and require exploration and repair. During such repair surgeries the abnormal arterial branch may be a matter of definite concern if its presence is not kept in mind. PMID:25737968

  16. Circadian rhythms in axillary skin surface pH.

    PubMed

    Burry, J; Coulson, H F; Roberts, G

    2001-08-01

    Sweat and skin surface pH are critical parameters in determining the performance of antiperspirants. The mechanism of action, the so-called 'plug theory' first proposed by Reller and Luedders, involves the expression of eccrine sweat onto the surface of the skin into which the solid antiperspirant salts, typically an aluminium chlorohydrate or zirconium aluminium glycine, dissolve. The resultant acidic 'solution' then diffuses with time into the sweat glands, where it hydrolyses in more alkaline sweat and forms an amorphous metal hydroxide agglomerate that physically plugs the ducts some 20-100 mum into the glands. It is therefore important to understand whether diurnal variations in skin surface pH exist in the axilla, as these may influence strongly the time of day at which antiperspirant should be applied in order to yield maximal protection. Clinical studies demonstrate a significant fall in axillary skin surface pH between the morning (pH = 5.87 +/- 0.23) and the evening (pH = 5.49 +/- 0.23). This diurnal variation in skin surface pH suggests that antiperspirant efficacy will be optimal when products are applied in the morning. In addition, the data suggest a circadian rhythm in axillary skin barrier function, indicating that chronopharmacology, the timing of administration of medication, could be used to optimize treatment of axillary hyperhidrotics using topical administration of anticholinergic drugs. PMID:18498460

  17. Does information from axillary dissection change treatment in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer? An algorithm for assessment of impact of axillary dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Dees, E C; Shulman, L N; Souba, W W; Smith, B L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the impact of axillary dissection on adjuvant systemic therapy recommendations in patients with breast cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: With increasing use of systemic therapy in node-negative women and the desire to reduce treatment morbidity and cost, the need for axillary dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer has been challenged. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two women with clinically negative axillae were analyzed using a model treatment algorithm. Systemic therapy was assigned with and without data from axillary dissection. Treatment shifts based on axillary dissection data were scored. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of clinically node-negative women had pathologically positive nodes. Eight percent of T1a and 10% of T1b tumors had positive nodes and would have been undertreated without axillary dissection. Seven percent of premenopausal women with tumors < 1 cm and 13% with tumors > or = 1 cm had treatment changed by axillary dissection. For women 50 to 60 years of age, 10% with tumors < 1 cm, 17% with tumors 1 to 2 cm with positive prognostic features, and 4% with poor prognostic features had significant treatment shifts after axillary dissection. For clinically node-negative women older than 60 years of age not eligible for chemotherapy, only 3% of those with tumors < 1 cm and none of those with tumors > or = 1 cm had their treatment changed by findings at axillary dissection. Treatment shifts based on axillary dissection were larger if the treatment algorithm allowed for more varied or more aggressive treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from axillary dissection will alter adjuvant systemic therapy regimen in a significant number of clinically node-negative women younger than 60 years of age and for older women eligible to receive chemotherapy. PMID:9339934

  18. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  19. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  20. Lymphadenopathy and lymph node infarction as a result of gold injections

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, C; Batstone, P; Goodlad, J

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a case of lymphadenopathy and lymph node infarction as a consequence of intramuscular gold administered to a patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, to highlight this rare association. A 34 year old woman with a four year history of rheumatoid arthritis affecting multiple joints was started on intramuscular gold injections after little response to anti-inflammatory medication. After her sixth injection the patient developed enlarged neck and axillary lymph nodes. Biopsy showed subtotal infarction of a reactive node, confirmed by histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques. The patient continued to suffer from rheumatoid arthritis with no evidence of malignant lymphoma after three years. This case provides strong evidence that lymphadenopathy with infarction is a rare complication of gold injections. In such a situation, it is particularly important to exclude a diagnosis of lymphoma, because this is the most common cause of spontaneous lymph node infarction. This can be achieved through awareness of the association, and by the use of ancillary histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques on the biopsy material. Key Words: lymph node infarction gold rheumatoid arthritis PMID:11429432

  1. The effect of neoadjuvant therapy on the size, number, and distribution of mesorectal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Yegen, Glin; Keskin, Metin; Byk, Melek; Kunduz, Enver; Bal?k, Emre; Sa?lam, Esra Kaytan; Kapran, Yersu; Aso?lu, Oktar; Gllo?lu, Mine

    2016-02-01

    The current therapeutic approach to patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision. We aimed to investigate the number, size, and distribution of metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes within the mesorectum; whether neoadjuvant therapy has any impact on the number and size of the lymph nodes; and the impact of metastatic lymph node localization on overall and disease-free survival. Specimens from 50 consecutive patients with stage II/III rectal cancer receiving either neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were investigated. Lymph node dissection was carried out by careful visual inspection and palpation. The localization of the each lymph node within the mesorectum and the relation with the tumor site were noted. The size and the number of lymph nodes retrieved decreased significantly with neoadjuvant therapy. Majority of the metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes were located at or proximally to the tumor level and posterior side of the mesorectum. No relation was observed between the overall and disease-free survival, and the localization of the metastatic lymph nodes. Presence of lymph node metastases proximal to the tumor level has no impact on survival compared with the presence of lymph node metastasis only in the peritumoral region of the mesorectum. Although neoadjuvant therapy decreases the size and the number of lymph nodes, reaching an ideal number of lymph nodes for accurate staging is still possible with careful naked eye examination and dissection of perirectal fat. As the majority of metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes are located in peritumoral and proximal compartment, and posterior side of the mesorectum, these regions should be the major interest of dissection. PMID:26706785

  2. Partial shoot reiteration in Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) does not arise from ‘axillary meristems’

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, P. B.; Huggett, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Conifers are characterized by the paucity of axillary buds which in dicotyledonous trees usually occur at every node. To compensate, conifers also produce ‘axillary meristems’, which may be stimulated to late development. In juvenile material of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae: Massart's model) first-order (plagiotropic) branches lack both axillary buds and, seemingly, axillary meristems. This contrasts with orthotropic (trunk) axes, which produce branches, either within the terminal bud or as reiterated orthotropic axes originating from axillary meristems. However, plagiotropic axes do produce branches if they are decapitated. This study investigated how this can occur if axillary meristems are not the source. Methods The terminal buds of a series of plagiotropic branches on juvenile trees were decapitated in order to generate axillary shoots. Shoots were culled at about weekly intervals to obtain stages in lateral shoot development. Serial sections were cut with a sliding microtome from the distal end of each sample and scanned sequentially for evidence of axillary meristems and early bud development. Key Results Anatomical search produced no clear evidence of pre-existing axillary meristems but did reveal stages of bud initiation. Buds were initiated in a group of small starch-rich cortical cells. Further development involved de-differentiation of these small cells and the development of contrasting outer and inner regions. The outer part becomes meristematic and organizes the apex of the new branch. The inner part develops a callus-like tissue of vacuolated cells within which vascular cambia are developed. This kind of insertion of a branch on the parent axis seems not to have been described before. Conclusions Axillary meristems in Wollemia characterize the leaf axils of trunk axes so that the origin of reiterated shoots is clear. Plagiotropic axes seemingly lack axillary meristems but still produce axillary branches by distinctive developmental processes. These observations demonstrate limited understanding of branch initiation in trees generally. PMID:21335327

  3. Effects of Variable Placement of Superior Tangential/Supraclavicular Match Line on Dosimetric Coverage of Level III Axilla/Axillary Apex in Patients Treated With Breast and Supraclavicular Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Amit K.; Frija, Erik K.; Sun, T.-L.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia L.; Yu, T.-K.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tereffe, Welella A.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the differences in dosimetric coverage of the Level III axillary node target as a function of the superior tangential/supraclavicular match line in breast cancer patients undergoing with tangential breast and supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 20 consecutive breast cancer patients who were treated with breast conservation surgery and Level I and II axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the undissected Level III axilla/supraclavicular fossa were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal volumes were delineated from the computed tomography simulation data set. Three composite treatment plans were generated for each patient according to the placement of the match line. Results: Coverage of the contoured Level III/axillary apex varied significantly with respect to the ipsilateral clavicular head, depending on the placement of the superior tangential/supraclavicular match line. The mean volume of the Level III/axillary apex covered by the 90% isodose line (45 Gy) was 100% for caudal placement of the match line, significantly greater than the 92% for intermediate placement (bisecting the clavicular head; p = 0.001) and the 68% for cranial placement with respect to the clavicular head (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Placement of the superior tangential/supraclavicular match line caudal to the clavicular head results in statistically improved dosimetric coverage of the Level III axilla/axillary apex in breast cancer patients undergoing tangential/supraclavicular radiotherapy.

  4. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Xia; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carbon nanoparticles have a strong affinity for the lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy using carbon nanoparticles in early breast cancer and to optimize the application procedure. Methods Firstly, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the optimized condition using carbon nanoparticles for sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection by investigating 36 clinically node negative breast cancer patients. In subsequent prospective study, 83 patients with clinically node negative breast cancer were included to evaluate SLNs using carbon nanoparticles. Another 83 SLNs were detected by using blue dye. SLNs detection parameters were compared between the methods. All patients irrespective of the SLNs status underwent axillary lymph node dissection for verification of axillary node status after the SLN biopsy. Results In pilot study, a 1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension used 1015min before surgery was associated with the best detection rate. In subsequent prospective study, with carbon nanoparticles, the identification rate, accuracy, false negative rate was 100%, 96.4%, 11.1%, respectively. The identification rate and accuracy were 88% and 95.5% with 15.8% of false negative rate using blue dye technique. The use of carbon nanoparticles suspension showed significantly superior results in identification rate (p = 0.001) and reduced false-negative results compared with blue dye technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrated feasibility and accuracy of using carbon nanoparticles for SLNs mapping in breast cancer patients. Carbon nanoparticles are useful in SLNs detection in institutions without access to radioisotope. PMID:26296136

  5. Immunospecific targeting of CD45 expressing lymphoid cells: towards improved detection agents of the sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianqing; Cousins, Aidan; Chien, Chia-Chi; Kempson, Ivan; Thompson, Sarah; Hwu, Yeukuang; Thierry, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    This study was designed to demonstrate the potential of small nanoparticulate lymphotropic contrast agents designed to bind with high affinity to lymphoid cells overexpressing the CD45 antigen. To this end, small gold nanoparticles used as model were conjugated to anti-CD45 antibodies and injected in mice in the dorsal toe of the fore/hind paw. Chemical analysis demonstrated rapid uptake and transport of the nanoparticles in the lymphatic as well as significant retention of the nanoparticles with high binding affinity to lymphoid cells in the popliteal and axillary lymph nodes in comparison to non-targeted nanoparticles. PMID:23043762

  6. Axillary nerve injuries in contact sports: recommendations for treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, G S; Apruzzese, W

    1998-11-01

    Axillary nerve injuries are some of the most common peripheral nerve injuries in athletes who participate in contact sports. Resulting deltoid muscle paralysis is secondary to nerve trauma which occurs following shoulder dislocation or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in quadrilateral space syndrome as the axillary nerve exits this anatomic compartment. The axillary nerve is also extremely vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder, and iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. Accurate diagnosis of axillary nerve injury is based on a careful history and physical examination as well as an understanding of the anatomy of the shoulder and the axillary nerve in particular. Inspection, palpation and neurological testing provide the bases for diagnosis. A clinically suspected axillary nerve injury should be confirmed by electrophysiological testing, including electromyography and nerve conduction studies. During the acute phase of injury, the athlete should be rested and any ligamentous or bony injury should be treated as indicated. Patients should undergo an extensive rehabilitation programme emphasising active and passive range of motion as well as strengthening of the rotator cuff, deltoid and periscapular musculature. Shoulder joint contracture should be avoided at all costs as a loss of shoulder mobility may ultimately affect functional outcome despite a return of axillary nerve function. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 4 months following injury, surgical exploration is indicated. Athletes who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery, although the return of function of the involved shoulder is typically good to excellent. We recommend that athletes who sustain axillary nerve injury may return to contact sport participation when they achieve full active range of motion of the shoulder and when shoulder strength is documented to be good to excellent by isometric or manual muscle testing. PMID:9858397

  7. Cytokine production by lymph node cells from mice infested with Ixodes ricinus ticks and the effect of tick salivary gland extracts on IL-2 production.

    PubMed

    Ganapamo, F; Rutti, B; Brossard, M

    1996-10-01

    In BALB/c mice repeatedly infested with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks, lymphocytes from axillary and brachial lymph nodes which drain the tick attachment site produced significant levels of IL-2, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF when stimulated in vitro with Con A or anti-CD3 antibodies. Cytokine production by cells from lymph nodes of the opposite flank was equivalent to that of cells from uninfested mice. Nine days after the first infestation and IL-2, GM-CSF were produced primarily by the CD4+ T cells, while some other cell types contributed also to the TNF-alpha production. In mice repeatedly infested, a gradual increase of lymph node cell production of IL-2 was observed. The IL-2 levels regularly increased from the first to the third infestation compared to TNF-alpha levels which gradually decreased. The in vitro production of GM-CSF was not affected by successive infestations. Spleen lymphocytes from naive mice produced higher levels of IL-2 than lymphocytes from axillary and brachial lymph nodes. Both tick salivary gland extracts and D-mannose inhibited IL-2 production by these lymphocytes. PMID:8845033

  8. Langer's arch: a rare anomaly affects axillary lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed M.; Barsoum, Adel K.; Moneer, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Langer's arch is the best-known anatomic variant of definite surgical implication in the region of the axilla. This rare anomaly is a muscular slip extending from the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle to the tendons, muscles or fasciae around the superior part of the humerus. In this report, we present a rare case of left axillary arch. During modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, we encountered an abnormal muscle slip crossing the axilla from the LD muscle to the posterior surface of the pectoralis major muscle anterior to the neurovascular structures. Preoperative knowledge is essential to identify such unusual anomaly and avoid potential complications both intra- and postoperatively. PMID:26712801

  9. Langer's arch: a rare anomaly affects axillary lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed M; Barsoum, Adel K; Moneer, Mohammed M

    2015-01-01

    Langer's arch is the best-known anatomic variant of definite surgical implication in the region of the axilla. This rare anomaly is a muscular slip extending from the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle to the tendons, muscles or fasciae around the superior part of the humerus. In this report, we present a rare case of left axillary arch. During modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, we encountered an abnormal muscle slip crossing the axilla from the LD muscle to the posterior surface of the pectoralis major muscle anterior to the neurovascular structures. Preoperative knowledge is essential to identify such unusual anomaly and avoid potential complications both intra- and postoperatively. PMID:26712801

  10. Surgeon specialization and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tina W.F.; Laud, Purushuttom W.; Sparapani, Rodney A.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. It is not known whether SLNB rates differ by surgeon expertise. If surgeons with less breast cancer expertise are less likely to offer SLNB to clinically node-negative patients, this practice pattern could lead to unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND) and lymphedema. OBJECTIVE To explore potential measures of surgical expertise (including a novel objective specialization measure percentage of a surgeons operations devoted to breast cancer determined from claims) on the use of SLNB for invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. Patient, tumor, treatment and surgeon characteristics were examined. SETTING California, Florida, Illinois PARTICIPANTS Elderly (65+ years) women identified from Medicare claims as having had incident invasive breast cancer surgery in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type of axillary surgery performed. RESULTS Of the 1,703 women treated by 863 different surgeons, 56% underwent an initial SLNB, 37% initial ALND and 6% no axillary surgery. The median annual surgeon Medicare volume of breast cancer cases was 6 (range: 1.557); the median surgeon percentage of breast cancer cases was 4.6% (range: 0.7%100%). After multivariable adjustment of patient and surgeon factors, women operated on by surgeons with higher volumes and percentages of breast cancer cases had a higher likelihood of undergoing SLNB. Specifically, women were most likely to undergo SLNB if operated on by high volume surgeons (regardless of percentage) or by lower volume surgeons with a high percentage of cases devoted to breast cancer. In addition, membership in the American Society of Breast Surgeons (OR 1.98, CI 1.512.60) and Society of Surgical Oncology (OR 1.59, CI 1.092.30) were independent predictors of women undergoing an initial SLNB. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients treated by surgeons with more experience and focus in breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo SLNB, highlighting the importance of receiving initial treatment by specialized providers. Factors relating to specialization in a particular area, including our novel surgeon percentage measure, require further investigation as potential indicators of quality of care. PMID:24369337

  11. The Impact on Post-surgical Treatment of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy of Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, EVE; Gobardhan, PD; Bongers, V; Albregts, M; Burgmans, JPJ; De Hooge, P; Van Gorp, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients there is a renewed interest in lymphatic drainage to the internal mammary (IM) chain nodes. We evaluated the frequency of lymphatic drainage to the IM chain, the rate of SLNs that contain metastases and the clinical implications of IM LN metastases. Methods Between June 1999 and April 2005 506 consecutive patients underwent SLN biopsy as a staging procedure for clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. In all patients preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was combined with the intraoperative use of a gammaprobe. In patients with IM SLNs visualized on lymphoscintigraphy, LNs were extirpated through an intercostal parasternal incision. Results SLNs were visualized by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 99% of all patients (502/506): axillary SLNs in 499 patients (99%), ipsilateral IM LNs in 109 patients (22%). In 85 patients with visualized IM SLNs the IM nodes could be removed (78%). In 20 of the latter 85 patients IM SLNs contained metastases (24%). IM metastases were associated with axillary LN metastases (P<0.001). In 17 patients IM metastases led to extension of the radiotherapy field, while additional (adjuvant) systemic therapy was given in six patients. Conclusion SLNs in the IM chain are common in breast cancer patients and can be extirpated in the majority of these patients. The proportion of patients in whom radiotherapeutic treatment was adjusted due to IM LN metastases was substantial. We advocate retrieval of IM SLNs when visualized by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. PMID:17253106

  12. Rupture of axillary artery and neuropraxis as complications of recurrent traumatic shoulder dislocation: case report.

    PubMed

    Allie, Babak; Kilroy, Darren A; Riding, Graham; Summers, Claire

    2005-06-01

    Gleno-humeral dislocations are frequent, but associated complete transection of the axillary artery has only been reported sporadically. We present a case of complete rupture of the axillary artery associated with recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder, followed by a discussion of the likely mechanisms and the key learning points. PMID:15891444

  13. BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 REGULATES AXILLARY MERISTEM DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAIZE INFLORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how axillary meristems are initiated and maintained, we characterized the barren inflorescence2 mutant, which affects axillary meristems in the maize inflorescence. Scanning electron microscopy, histology and RNA in situ hybridization using knotted1 as a marker for meristematic tissue ...

  14. Axillary Nerve Reconstruction: Anterior-Posterior Exposure With Sural Nerve Cable Graft Pull-Through Technique.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Heather L; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-12-01

    Deltoid paralysis after axillary nerve injury results in limitations in shoulder function and stability. In the setting of an isolated axillary nerve injury with no clinical or electromyographic evidence of recovery that is within 6 to 9 months postinjury, the authors' preferred technique to reinnervate the deltoid is to reconstruct the axillary nerve with sural nerve grafting. Intraoperative neuromuscular electrophysiology is critical to determine the continuity of the axillary nerve before proceeding with reconstruction. The majority of the time, both an anterior and posterior incision and dissection of the axillary nerve is required to adequately delineate the zone of injury. This also ensures that both proximally and distally, uninjured axillary nerve is present before graft inset and also facilitates the ability to perform a meticulous microsurgical inset of the nerve graft posteriorly. The nerve graft must be pulled through from posterior to anterior to span the zone of injury and reconstruct the axillary nerve. Careful infraclavicular brachial plexus dissection is necessary to prevent further injury to components of the brachial plexus in the setting of a scarred bed. Patients will require postoperative therapy to prevent limitations in shoulder range of motion secondary to postoperative stiffness. This paper presents a detailed surgical technique for axillary nerve reconstruction by an anterior-posterior approach with a pull-through technique of a sural nerve cable graft. PMID:26524659

  15. Management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Gary J.; Ameli, F. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To study, by literature review, the management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis (SAVT) and to make recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE database and cross-referenced articles. Study selection Key words subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis, venous thrombosis, Paget–Schroetter syndrome, anticoagulation, and thrombolysis were used to extract articles related to SAVT. Data extraction Independent extraction of articles by 2 observers. Data synthesis Although numerous studies are available in the literature, they vary widely in their patient selection, treatment methods, follow-up and conclusions. As such, the management of patients with SAVT remains controversial. Conclusions Anticoagulation remains the initial treatment of choice for acute SAVT although there is definitely a role for thrombolysis and surgery in selected cases. Surgical intervention should be reserved for patients in whom there is a specific indication. Since chronic symptoms depend largely on the etiology of the disease, treatment should be tailored to address the causative factors. A multicentre, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the optimum management strategies for patients with SAVT. PMID:9492744

  16. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

  17. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria. PMID:25077920

  18. Axillary temperature measurement: a less stressful alternative for hospitalised cats?

    PubMed

    Girod, M; Vandenheede, M; Farnir, F; Gommeren, K

    2016-02-20

    Rectal temperature measurement (RTM) can promote stress and defensive behaviour in hospitalised cats. The aim of this study was to assess if axillary temperature measurement (ATM) could be a reliable and less stressful alternative for these animals. In this prospective study, paired rectal and axillary temperatures were measured in 42 cats, either by a veterinarian or a student. To assess the impact of these procedures on the cat's stress state, their heart rate was checked and a cat stress score (CSS) was defined and graded from 1 (relaxed) to 5 (terrified). A moderate correlation was found between RTM and ATM (r=0.52; P<0.0001). RTM was on average 0.9°C (1.6°F) higher than ATM (P<0.0001), although a wide variation was found in the difference between these two measurements (-2.1°C to 3.6°C (-3.8°F to 6.5°F)). ATM failed to identify hypothermia in 25 per cent of the cases and hyperthermia in 19 per cent of the cases but may be considered less stressful than RTM. Indeed, RTM induced a mildly greater increase in heart rate (+6 bpm; P=0.01) and in CSS (+0.2; P=0.001) than ATM. The results were not affected by operator type. In conclusion, RTM should remain the standard method to obtain accurate temperatures in cats. PMID:26829966

  19. Studies on topical antiperspirant control of axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Hurley, H J

    1975-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrotics is reviewed from the standpoint of anatomical factors, physiological mechanisms and the history of methods of control. Anhydrous aluminum chloride and anhydrous zirconium tetrachloride are shown to be superior topical agents for partial control of axillary sweating when applied as a powder or in anhydrous nonreactive vehicles. Complete anhidrosis as demonstrated by sustained garment armpit dryness could be achieved in hyperhidrotics within 48 hours by the following trinary antiperspirant system: (1) a saturated solution of aluminum chloride hexahydrate or zirconyl chloride in absolute ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, (2) application to the dry axilla at times of sleep or other prolonged non-sweating period, (3) water vapor occlusion of area for 6 to 8 hours by means of Saran wrap. The hypothesis is presented that metallic antiperspirants act by reflux entrance into the terminal intraepidermal eccrine duct, slowly combining with the intraductal keratin, to produce a fibrillar contraction (super contraction) of keratin and hence functional closure, not histologically evident. This altered keratin is shed weeks later, with the consequent return of ductal patency and sweating. PMID:52254

  20. Association between Lymph Node Ratio and Disease Specific Survival in Breast Cancer Patients with One or Two Positive Lymph Nodes Stratified by Different Local Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjie; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial indicated that complete axillary node dissection (ALND) may not be warranted in some breast cancer patients with low tumor burden who are undergoing breast-conserving surgery following whole-breast irradiation. However, this study did not address patients undergoing mastectomy or those undergoing breast-conserving surgery without whole-breast radiotherapy. Given that lymph node ratio (LNR; ratio of positive lymph nodes to the total number removed) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in breast cancer, we first sought to determine the prognostic value of LNR in a low risk population comparable to that of the Z0011 trial and further to investigate whether the prognostic significance differs with local treatment modality. Method We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify breast cancer patients with T1-T2 tumor and 12 positive nodes. Patients were subclassified by the local therapy they underwent for the primary tumor. The prognostic value of LNR in predicting disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined in each treatment group. Results A total of 53,109 patients were included. In the subgroup of 20,602 patients who underwent lumpectomy following radiotherapy, LNR was not found to be significantly associated with DSS in both the univariate and multivariate model. For the 4,664 patients treated with mastectomy following radiotherapy, 6,811 treated with lumpectomy without radiotherapy and 21,031 with mastectomy without radiotherapy, LNR independently predict DSS in each of these subgroups. Conclusions Our results add evidence to the concept that axillary dissection could be omitted in patients with one or two positive nodes following breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation. PMID:26513258

  1. Morphology of brachial plexus and axillary artery in bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; Oishi, M; Shimizu, D

    2011-02-01

    A left brachial plexus and axillary artery of bonobo (Pan paniscus) were examined, and the interrelation between the brachial plexus and the axillary artery was discussed. This is the first report of the brachial plexus and the axillary artery of bonobo. The bonobo brachial plexus formed very similar pattern to that of other ape species and human. On the other hand, the branches of the bonobo axillary artery had uncommon architecture in comparison with human case. The axillary artery did not penetrate the brachial plexus and passes through all way along anterior to the brachial plexus. Only 4.9% of human forelimbs have this pattern. Moreover, the brachial artery runs through superficially anterior to branches of the brachial plexus. PMID:21091763

  2. Swollen lymph nodes in the groin (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Lymph nodes play an important part in the body's defense against infection. Swelling might occur even if the infection is trivial or not apparent. Swelling of lymph nodes generally results from localized or systemic infection, abscess ...

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-12-10

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  5. A Unique Case of Erdheim-Chester Disease with Axial Skeleton, Lymph Node, and Bone Marrow Involvement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan; Suh, Koung Jin; Yoh, Kyung Ah; Moon, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Roh, Eun Youn; Choi, In Sil; Kim, Jin-Soo; Park, Jin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with bone and organ involvement. A 76-year-old man presented with low back pain and a history of visits for exertional dyspnea. We diagnosed him with anemia of chronic disease, cytopenia related to chronic illness, chronic renal failure due to hypertension, and hypothyroidism. However, we could not determine a definite cause or explanation for the cytopenia. Multiple osteosclerotic axial skeleton lesions and axillary lymph node enlargement were detected by computed tomography. Bone marrow biopsy revealed histiocytic infiltration, which was CD68-positive and CD1a-negative. This report describes an unusual presentation of Erdheim-Chester disease involving the bone marrow, axial skeleton, and lymph nodes. PMID:25715762

  6. A Unique Case of Erdheim-Chester Disease with Axial Skeleton, Lymph Node, and Bone Marrow Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan; Suh, Koung Jin; Yoh, Kyung Ah; Moon, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Roh, Eun Youn; Choi, In Sil; Kim, Jin-Soo; Park, Jin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with bone and organ involvement. A 76-year-old man presented with low back pain and a history of visits for exertional dyspnea. We diagnosed him with anemia of chronic disease, cytopenia related to chronic illness, chronic renal failure due to hypertension, and hypothyroidism. However, we could not determine a definite cause or explanation for the cytopenia. Multiple osteosclerotic axial skeleton lesions and axillary lymph node enlargement were detected by computed tomography. Bone marrow biopsy revealed histiocytic infiltration, which was CD68-positive and CD1a-negative. This report describes an unusual presentation of Erdheim-Chester disease involving the bone marrow, axial skeleton, and lymph nodes. PMID:25715762

  7. Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thrlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.233.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS. PMID:18385202

  8. Invasive Paget disease of the nipple: a brief review of the literature and report of the first case with axillary nodal metastases.

    PubMed

    Ozerdem, Ugur; Swistel, Alexander; Antonio, Lilian B; Hoda, Syed A

    2014-09-01

    Although Paget disease of the nipple (PDN) is a well-established clinical and pathological neoplastic process, invasive PDN (IPDN) is a relatively newly described disease. The latter entity is characterized by invasive carcinoma that is localized to the nipple and is associated with PDN as well as with either intraductal and/or invasive carcinoma in the underlying breast. To our knowledge, only 17 cases of IPDN, all node negative, have been reported. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old woman with invasive Paget disease of the left nipple. The patient had a history of intraductal carcinoma, treated by lumpectomy alone. She presented 6 years later with "eczematous" lesion of the ipsilateral nipple, a punch biopsy of which showed a superficially IPDN as well as conventional PDN. The subsequently performed wide excision of the nipple, areola, and underlying breast tissue showed the invasive carcinoma to span 0.6 cm. Then, 3 months later, the patient presented with ipsilateral palpable axillary lymphadenopathy. Axillary dissection revealed metastatic carcinoma in 7 of 19 lymph nodes. This case of IPDN not only represents the deepest extent of invasion reported thus far but also the only one known to be node positive. PMID:24583835

  9. Correlation between serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and sentinel lymph node status in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Prez, Diego; Rohde, Alexander; Callejn, Gonzalo; Prez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Rodrigo, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Ramos, Belen; Medina, Francisco; Villatoro, Rosa; Redondo, Maximino; Zarcos, Irene; Maan, Claudio; Rueda, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Axillary lymph nodes status is the most important prognosis factor in early breast cancer. This status is known by a selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer tumour tissue have reported a relation between the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and the risk of lymph node metastasis. We researched whether serum levels of VEGF-C could be a predictor factor of sentinel lymph node status in these patients. A prospective analysis was performed on serum from 174 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB. The level of VEGF-C was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical-pathologic variables were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were conducted, taking SLNB positivity as the segmentation variable. The predictive value of VEGF-C was assessed using ROC curves. Of the sample group of 167 patients, 64 (38.3%) had affected lymph node. Eighteen patients (28.1%) presented micrometastasis; there were isolated tumour cells in 11 cases (17.2%) and macrometastasis in 35 (54.6%). The median value of VEGF-C was 6561.5pg/ml. These values did not correlate with any clinical variables, and there was no association between the level of VEGF-C and SLNB status (p?=?0.626). In the multivariate analysis, tumour size (p?=?0.009) and the presence of vascular invasion (p?lymph node affected. Serum levels of VEGF-C do not appear to predict sentinel lymph node status in patients with early breast cancer who undergo SLNB. PMID:26104766

  10. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  11. Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Simon, H.; Bl, F. X.; Ravelo, R.; Chabrier, R.; Steibel, J.; Rodier, J. F.; Poulet, P.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard method to detect a metastatic invasion from the primary breast cancer. This method can avoid patients to be submitted to full axillary chain dissection. In this study we present and compare two near-infrared optical probes for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. The two setups were developed to improve the detection of the dye injected in clinical routine: the Patent Blue V dye. Herein, we present results regarding clinical ex-vivo detection of sentinel lymph node after different volume injections. We have previously published results obtained with a two-wavelength probe on phantom and animal models. However this first generation device did not completely account for the optical absorption variations from biological tissue. Thus, a second generation probe has been equipped with four wavelengths. The dye concentration computation is then more robust to measurement and tissue property fluctuations. The detection threshold of the second setup was estimated at 8.10-3?mol/L, which is about 37 times lower than the eye visibility threshold. We present here the preliminary results and demonstrate the advantages of using four wavelengths compared to two on phantom suspensions simulating the optical properties of breast tissues.

  12. Surface chemistry architecture of silica nanoparticles determine the efficiency of in vivo fluorescence lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Helle, Marion; Rampazzo, Enrico; Monchanin, Morgane; Marchal, Frdric; Guillemin, Franois; Bonacchi, Sara; Salis, Francesca; Prodi, Luca; Bezdetnaya, Lina

    2013-10-22

    Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the lymphatic system offers a sensitive, versatile, and accurate lymph node mapping to locate the first, potentially metastatic, draining nodes in the operating room. Many luminescent nanoprobes have received great attention in this field, and the design of nontoxic and bright nanosystems is of crucial importance. Fluorescent NIR-emitting dye doped silica nanoparticles represent valuable platforms to fulfill these scopes, providing sufficient brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and hydrophilic nontoxic materials. Here, we synthesized these highly stable core-shell nanoparticles with a programmable surface charge positioning and determined the effect of these physicochemical properties on their in vivo behavior. In addition, we characterized their fluorescence kinetic profile in the right axillary lymph node (RALN) mapping. We found that nanoparticles with negative charges hidden by a PEG shell are more appropriate than those with external negative charges in the mapping of lymph nodes. We also demonstrated the efficient excretion of these nanostructures by the hepatobiliary route and their nontoxicity in mice up to 3 months postinjection. These results indicate the potential future development of these fluorescent nanosystems for LN mapping. PMID:24070236

  13. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor’s behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  14. The Feasibility and Oncological Safety of Axillary Reverse Mapping in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yang, Ben; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Zheng, Gang; Yang, Li; Zheng, Mei-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique has recently been developed to prevent lymphedema by preserving the arm lymphatic drainage during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) procedures. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the feasibility and oncological safety of ARM. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for relevant prospective studies. The identification rate of ARM nodes, the crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes, the proportion of metastatic ARM nodes, and the incidence of complications were pooled into meta-analyses by the random-effects model. Results A total of 24 prospective studies were included into meta-analyses, of which 11 studies reported ARM during SLNB, and 18 studies reported ARM during SLNB. The overall identification rate of ARM nodes was 38.2% (95% CI 32.9%-43.8%) during SLNB and 82.8% (78.0%-86.6%) during ALND, respectively. The crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes was 19.6% (95% CI 14.4%-26.1%). The metastatic rate of ARM nodes was 16.9% (95% CI 14.2%-20.1%). The pooled incidence of lymphedema was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9–5.9%) for patients undergoing ARM procedure. Conclusions The ARM procedure was feasible during ALND. Nevertheless, it was restricted by low identification rate of ARM nodes during SLNB. ARM was beneficial for preventing lymphedema. However, this technique should be performed with caution given the possibility of crossover SLN-ARM nodes and metastatic ARM nodes. ARM appeared to be unsuitable for patients with clinically positive breast cancer due to oncological safety concern. PMID:26919589

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium clusters in the human axillary region.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Van Gele, Mireille; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n?=?17), whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n?=?36). The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome. PMID:23950955

  16. [Axillary approach for surgical closure of atrial septal defect].

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, J M; Castillo, R; Zabala, J I; Conejo, L; Cuenca, V; Picazo, B

    2013-08-01

    Mid-line sternotomy is the routine approach for surgical repair of congenital heart diseases. However, its noticeable scar is a constant reminder of having undergone heart surgery. Several alternative approaches have been developed for simple cardiac conditions to hide the scar. Our series, consisting of 26 patients with axillary closure of atrial septal defect, is presented. The median age was 5.45 years (range 3-13), and median weight was 19.84 Kg. (range 13-37). The defect was closed directly in 13 cases, and with an autologous pericardial patch in the other 13. The number of surgical steps and time taken were the same as in median sternotomy. Functional recovery, intensive care unit stay, and hospital discharge were also standard. The cosmetic result, assessed both by patients and relatives, was excellent. PMID:23462094

  17. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  18. An operative gamma camera for sentinel lymph node procedure in case of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, S.; Bekaert, V.; Mathelin, C.; Guyonnet, J. L.; Huss, D.

    2007-07-01

    Large field of view gamma cameras are widely used to perform lymphoscintigraphy in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) procedure in case of breast cancer. However, they are not specified for this application and their sizes do not enable their use in the operative room to control the excision of the all SLN. We present the results obtained with a prototype of a new mini gamma camera developed especially for the operative lymphoscintigraphy of the axillary area in case of breast cancer. This prototype is composed of 10 mm thick parallel lead collimator, a 2 mm thick GSO:Ce inorganic scintillating crystal from Hitachi and a Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel multianode (64 channels) photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) equipped with a dedicated electronics. Its actual field of view is 50 50mm2. The gamma interaction position in the GSO scintillating plate is obtained by calculating the center of gravity of the fired MAPMT channels. The measurements performed with this prototype demonstrate the usefulness of this mini gamma camera for the pre, per and post-operative identification of SLN's and how its complementary role with an intraoperative handheld gamma probe enables to improve the efficiency of this practice. A 100 100mm2 field of view camera designated to cover the entire axillary area is under investigation.

  19. Near infrared fluorescent chlorophyll nanoscale liposomes for sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lina; Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using in vivo near infrared fluorescence imaging has attracted great attention during the past few years. Here we report on the early use of poorly water-soluble chlorophyll with near infrared fluorescence extracted from the leaf of Chimonanthus salicifolius, for mouse axillary SLN mapping. Methods and results To improve the water solubility and SLN targeting of the chlorophyll, we encapsulated the chlorophyll in nanoscale liposomes. The liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites obtained were spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 21.7 6.0 nm. The nanocomposites dispersed well in water, and in aqueous suspension they exhibited brighter near infrared fluorescence than chlorophyll alone. After incubation of the nanocomposites with normal liver cells (QSG-7701) and macrophage cells (Ana-1) for no more than 48 hours, there was no obvious reduction in cell viability. When the nanocomposites were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the axillary SLN was found to be strongly fluorescent and was easily visualized in real time without a requirement for surgery. The intensity of the near infrared fluorescence emitted by the SLN was obviously brighter than that emitted by the SLN of another mouse that had been intradermally injected with chlorophyll alone. Conclusion Our data show that the liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites could have great potential for clinical SLN mapping due to their lack of toxicity, bright near infrared fluorescence, and small diameter. PMID:22787402

  20. Chromosomal Copy Number Alterations are Associated with Persistent Lymph Node Metastasis after Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenbin; Liu, Zheng; Deng, Xutao; Warden, Charles; Li, Wenyan; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis is an important indicator of oncologic outcome for patients with rectal cancer. Identifying predictive biomarkers of lymph node metastasis could therefore be clinically useful. Objective To assess whether chromosomal copy number alterations can assist in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with pre-operative chemoradiation therapy. Design Non-randomized, prospective Phase II study. Setting Multi-institutional. Patients 95 patients with stage II (cT3-4, cN0) or stage III (any cT, cN1-2) rectal cancer. Intervention Patients were treated with pre-operative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision. Pretreatment biopsy tumor DNA and surgical margin control DNA was extracted and analyzed by oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosomal copy number alterations were correlated with lymph node metastasis. Finally, a model for predicting lymph node metastasis was built. Main outcome measures To determine if chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal cancer, and to assess the accuracy of oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization for predicting lymph node metastasis. Results Twenty-five of 95 (26%) patients had lymph node metastasis after chemoradiation. Losses of 28 chromosomal regions, most notably in chromosome 4, were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Our predictive model contained 65 probes and predicted lymph node metastasis with 68% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 89%. Using this model lymph node status (positive or negative) after CRT was predicted accurately in 82 out of 95 patients (86%). Limitations The patient cohort was not completely homogeneous which may have influenced their clinical outcome. Additionally, while we performed rigorous statistically sound internal validation, external validation will be important to further corroborate our findings. Conclusions Copy number alterations can help identify rectal cancer patients at risk of lymph node metastasis after chemoradiation. PMID:22595848

  1. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Suggests Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Dissemination of Breast Cancer to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Blighe, Kevin; Kenny, Laura; Patel, Naina; Guttery, David S.; Page, Karen; Gronau, Julian H.; Golshani, Cyrus; Stebbing, Justin; Coombes, R. Charles; Shaw, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS) of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. Methods Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 g (range 11.113.3 g) of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. Results Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. Conclusion This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples. PMID:25546409

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Human Mesenteric Lymph

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wohlauer, Max V.; Moore, Ernest E.; Damle, Sagar; Peltz, Erik; Campsen, Jeffrey; Kelher, Marguerite; Silliman, Christopher; Banerjee, Anirban; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive animal work has established mesenteric lymph as the mechanistic link between gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and distant organ injury. Our trauma and transplant services provide a unique opportunity to assess the relevance of our animal data to human mesenteric lymph under conditions that simulate those used in the laboratory. Mesenteric lymph was collected from eleven patients; with lymphatic injuries, during semi-elective spine reconstruction, or immediately before organ donation. The lymph was tested for its ability to activate human neutrophils in vitro, and was analyzed by label-free proteomic analysis. Human mesenteric lymph primed human PMNs in a pattern similar to that observed in previous rodent, swine, and primate studies. A total of 477 proteins were identified from the 11 subjects lymph samples with greater than 99% confidence. In addition to classical serum proteins, markers of hemolysis, extracellular matrix components, and general tissue damage were identified. Both tissue injury and shock correlate strongly with production of bioactive lymph. Products of red blood cell hemolysis correlate strongly with human lymph bioactivity and immunoglobulins have a negative correlation with the pro-inflammatory lymph. These human data corroborate the current body of research implicating post shock mesenteric lymph in the development of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure. Further studies will be required to determine if the proteins identified participate in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure and if they can be used as diagnostic markers. PMID:21192285

  3. Lymph-flow diagnostics using speckle microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Brill, Gregory E.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper speckle-interferometrical technique utilizing strongly focused Gaussian beam (SFGB) diffraction has been proposed for the analysis of microcirculatory parameters. The method has been applied for the investigation of lymph motion characteristics in microvessels in vivo. Spectra of scattered intensity fluctuations in the statistically inhomogeneous speckles formed at the diffraction in lymph microvessels have been presented. It has been shown that the alterations of the spectra envelope depend on peculiarities of lymph motion in microvessels. Physical parameters of determination both of temporal changes of a mean velocity and of spatial-temporal velocity distribution in lymph microvessels have been proposed. An application of lymphotropic drug on the lymph microvessels has been studied. Temporal changes of lymph flow parameters have been analyzed in the paper.

  4. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy successful implant of catheters in the axillary veins. PMID:24143120

  5. Open repair and endovascular covered stent placement in the management of bilateral axillary artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Troutman, Douglas A; Mohan, Chittur R; Samhouri, Farouq A; Sohn, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    A 72-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hyperlipidemia presented with acute right upper limb ischemia. Arterial occlusion was found to be secondary to a thrombosed axillary artery aneurysm. An open repair was performed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. On further workup, the patient was found to have an asymptomatic axillary artery aneurysm on the left-hand side. Endovascular repair with a covered stent was chosen to treat this aneurysm. PMID:20675316

  6. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  7. Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes treated with combined-modality therapy: The importance of radiation field selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Lightsey, Judith; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of a consistent treatment approach with electron beam postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive nodes treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: TSixty-three breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes were treated with combined-modality therapy using an electron beam en face technique for PMRT at University of Florida. Patterns of recurrence were studied for correlation with radiation fields. Potential clinical and treatment variables were tested for possible association with local-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: TAt 5, 10, and 15 years, OS rates were 57%, 36%, and 27%, respectively; DFS rates were 46%, 37%, and 34%; and LRC rates were 87%, 87%, and 87%. No clinical or treatment variables were associated with OS or DFS. The use of supplemental axillary radiation (SART) (p = 0.012) and pathologic N stage (p = 0.053) were associated with improved LRC. Patients who received SART had a higher rate of LRC than those who did not. Moderate to severe arm edema developed in 17% of patients receiving SART compared with 7% in patients not treated with SART (p = 0.28). Conclusions: TA substantial percentage of patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes survive breast cancer. The 10-year overall survival in these patients was 36%. The addition of SART was associated with better LRC.

  8. Suppression of a Vegetative MADS Box Gene of Potato Activates Axillary Meristem Development1

    PubMed Central

    Rosin, Faye M.; Hart, Jennifer K.; Van Onckelen, Harry; Hannapel, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato MADS box 1 (POTM1) is a member of the SQUAMOSA-like family of plant MADS box genes isolated from an early stage tuber cDNA library. The RNA of POTM1 is most abundant in vegetative meristems of potato (Solanum tuberosum), accumulating specifically in the tunica and corpus layers of the meristem, the procambium, the lamina of new leaves, and newly formed axillary meristems. Transgenic lines with reduced levels of POTM1 mRNA exhibited decreased apical dominance accompanied by a compact growth habit and a reduction in leaf size. Suppression lines produced truncated shoot clusters from stem buds and, in a model system, exhibited enhanced axillary bud growth instead of producing a tuber. This enhanced axillary bud growth was not the result of increased axillary bud formation. Tuber yields were reduced and rooting of cuttings was strongly inhibited in POTM1 suppression lines. Both starch accumulation and the activation of cell division occurred in specific regions of the vegetative meristems of the POTM1 transgenic lines. Cytokinin levels in axillary buds of a transgenic suppression line increased 2- to 3-fold. These results imply that POTM1 mediates the control of axillary bud development by regulating cell growth in vegetative meristems. PMID:12692320

  9. Sentinel lymph node in lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Melfi, Franca M A; Davini, Federico; Boni, Giuseppe; Mussi, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    The greatest utility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) assessment is the avoidance of lymph node dissection and related morbidity. Another potential utility is the ability to direct pathologic examination and more sensitive techniques to detect occult micrometastatic disease. New pathologic methods can identify single tumor cells or even genetic material within a single lymph node station, bringing the concept of ultrastaging and micrometastasis in the field on staging. This article describes the SLN technique in patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer, as unique and useful targeting enables pathologists to localize micrometastatic foci within an otherwise normal lymph node. PMID:22520287

  10. USTUR Whole Body Case 0262: 33-y Follow-up of PuO2 In A Skin Wound and Associated Axillary Node

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Wood, T. G.; Glover, Samuel E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Dagle, Gerald E.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved two suspected plutonium oxide (Pu) inhalation intakes, each indicated by a measurable Pu alpha activity in a single urine sample, followed about 1.5 y later by a puncture wound to the thumb while working in a Pu glovebox. The study is concerned with modeling simultaneously the biokinetics of deposition and retention in the respiratory tract and at the wound site; and the biokinetics of Pu subsequently transferred to other body organs, until the donor's death. Urine samples taken after the wound incident had readily measurable Pu alpha activity over the next 14 y, before dropping below the minimum detectable excretion rate (<0.4 mBq per day). The Registrant died about 33 y after the wound intake, at the age of 71, from hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive metastases. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for analysis of their Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241 content. The amount of Pu-239+240 retained at the wound site was 68 7 Bq (1 SD), measured by low-energy planar Ge spectrometry. A further 56.0 1.2 Bq was retained in an associated axillary lymph node, measured by radiochemistry. Simultaneous mathematical analysis (modelling) of all in vivo urinary excretion data, together with the measured lung, thoracic lymph node, wound, axillary lymph node and systemic tissue contents at death, yielded estimated intake amounts of 757 and 1504 Bq, respectively, for the first and second inhalation incidents, and 204 Bq for the total wound intake. The inhaled Pu material was highly insoluble, with an estimated long-term absorption rate from the lungs of 2 E-5 per day. The Pu material deposited at the wound site was mixed: 14% was rapidly absorbed, 49% was absorbed at the rate of about 6E-5 per day, and the remainder ( 37%) was absorbed extremely slowly (at the rate of about 5E-6 per day). Thus, it was estimated that only 40% of the Pu initially deposited in the wound had been absorbed systemically over the 33-y period until the donor's death. The biokinetic modelling also indicated that, in this individual case, some of the parameter values (rate constants) incorporated in the ICRP Publication 67 Pu model were up to a factor of 2 different from ICRP's recommended values (for reference man).

  11. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal avascular areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue, Sonazoid and Definity. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  12. The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (χ2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

  13. The lymph node pre-metastatic niche.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Lymph node metastases occur frequently during the progression of many types of cancer, and their presence often reflects poor prognosis. The drainage of tumor-derived factors such as antigens, growth factors, cytokines, and exosomes through the lymphatic system to the regional lymph nodes plays an important role in the pre-metastatic conditioning of the microenvironment in lymph nodes, making them receptive and supportive metastatic niches for disseminating tumor cells. Modified immunological responses and remodeling of the vasculature are the most studied tumor-induced pre-metastatic changes in the lymph node microenvironment that promote metastasis, although other metastasis-relevant alterations are also starting to be studied. Here, I review our current understanding of the lymph node pre-metastatic niche, how tumors condition this niche, and the relevance of this conditioning for our understanding of the process of metastasis. PMID:26489604

  14. Armpit lump

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lymphadenopathy - armpit; Axillary lymphadenopathy; Axillary lymph enlargement; Lymph nodes enlargement - axillary; Axillary abscess ... in the armpit may have many causes. Lymph nodes act as filters that can catch germs or ...

  15. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    PubMed

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  16. Axillary vein technique for pacemaker and implantable defibrillator leads implantation: a safe and alternative approach?

    PubMed

    Migliore, Federico; Curnis, Antonio; Bertaglia, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Different methods for venous access are used for permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), of which subclavian vein puncture technique is the most widely practised. Although this approach is relatively easy to learn, quick and offers high success rates, it may be associated with potential serious acute complications including pneumothorax, emopneumothorax, brachial plexus injury and longer-term complications such as lead fracture, loss of lead insulation and subclavian crush syndrome especially in young patients with ICD leads. Axillary vein approach seems to be a favourable technique not only for the prevention of acute complications but also to reduce lead failure including lead insulation and lead fracture prevention with a consequently better long-term lead survival compared with the classical subclavian approach. Although randomized studies are lacking, recent reports not only evaluated the safety and effectiveness of new fluoroscopic axillary venous puncture technique, but also compared it with the conventional intrathoracic subclavian venous puncture technique for the implantation of leads in permanent pacing. Various techniques of axillary vein puncture have been proposed ranging from a blind percutaneous puncture to the use of different tools such as contrast venography and ultrasound. In this article, we report a case of subclavian crush syndrome, the use of a modified Bellot's technique of axillary vein puncture that we currently use and the potential benefits of axillary vein puncture for pacemaker and ICD leads implantation compared with subclavian approach to avoid acute and long-term lead complications. PMID:25252042

  17. Axillary nerve position in the anterosuperior approach of the shoulder: a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Nascimento, Luis Gustavo Prata; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Almeida, Luiz Henrique Oliveira; Strose, Eric; Murachovsky, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the distance between the axillary nerve and the antero-lateral (AL) edge of the acromion, its anatomical variability and relationship to humeral length and body height. Methods: Twenty-two shoulders were dissected. The anterosuperior (AS) approach was used; the deltoid was detached from the acromion and the distance between the AL portion and the axillary nerve was measured and submitted to statistical analysis. Results: The distance varied from 4.3 to 6.4 cm (average 5.32 0.60 cm). The axillary nerve distance increased as the humeral size (p<0.05) and the height of each cadaver increased. However, the correlation with the specimens height was not significant (p=0.24). Conclusions: The distance between the acromion and the axillary nerve on the AS approach was 5.32 0.60 cm in both shoulders, and increasing the humeral length there is also an increase in the axillary nerve distance. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series - Anatomic Study. PMID:26327791

  18. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  19. Peculiarities of lymph flow in microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Brill, Gregory E.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Solov'eva, Anastasiya V.; Sedykh, Alexey V.

    2000-05-01

    In the present study the characteristics of lymph flow in microvessels are investigated in vivo by the speckle- interferometrical and biomicroscopic methods. Two parameters of the lymph flow velocity are determined. The first frequency-weighted spectral moment of Doppler signal (M1) was calculated. This parameter is proportional to lymph flow velocity. In the same regions of lymphatics the velocity of translational motion of the signal lymphocytes in the flow is assessed. The value of velocity and the parameter M1 essentially varied. The temporary dynamics of M1 indicated that the lymph flow had the alternating- translational character. Simultaneously the diameter of lymph microvessel, the amplitude and the rate of phasic contraction and the rate of valve functioning are registered. NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10-4 M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is topically applied during 15 min. The application of L-NNA provoked the modulation of alternating-translational motion of lymph flow, the changes of diameters and rate of valve function and the stimulating of phasic contractions and the correlation between parameters of lymph microcirculation.

  20. Conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Long-term results of 1232 cases treated with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, U; Salvadori, B; Luini, A; Banfi, A; Zucali, R; Del Vecchio, M; Saccozzi, R; Beretta, E; Boracchi, P; Farante, G

    1990-01-01

    One thousand two hundred and thirty-two women with invasive breast cancer lesions measuring less than 2 cm in diameter, clinically assessed as T1N0-1M0, were treated from 1970 to 1983 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy (QUART). Pathologic evidence of lymph-nodes metastases was found in 32% of the patients. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years from surgery was 91% and 78%, respectively. The cumulative probability of survival tends to decrease with increasing tumor size: the 7-year survival rate was 84% in cases in which lesions measured from 1.6 to 2.0 cm, and 94% in cases in which the lesions were less than 0.5 cm. Tumor site in the treated breast did not affect distant outcome. No difference was found between the patients without node metastases and patients with one node involved, whereas the patients with more than one node showed a lower probability of survival. The survival curves of 352 cases treated inside a randomized trial and that of 880 cases routinely treated appear to be superimposable. Local recurrences and new primary ipsilateral tumors were, respectively, 35 (2.8%) and 19 (1.6%); 56 women with local recurrences or second tumors underwent second surgery (total mastectomy, 43; wide resection, 11). Five of them died from distant spread of breast cancer, while 49 are alive and well. In the contralateral breasts 45 carcinomas were recorded during the follow-up time. The results of the present analysis of a large number of T1 cases reconfirm the safety of integrated radiosurgical conservative treatments. PMID:2106841

  1. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Schregel, W; Her, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    Cannulation of the axillary vein is claimed to be an effective and relatively safe access to the central venous (CV) system [2, 4, 5, 8]. However, anatomical landmarks recommended for venous location (Muskulus pectoralis minor, processus coracoideus) are probably hard to identify in the majority of intensive care (ICU) patients. This investigation evaluated unidirectional 8 MHz Doppler ultrasound (US) in locating the axillary vein. Success rates and complications of this CV access in ICU patients is analysed. METHODS. The experimental design was approved by the local ethical committee (RUB). In 50 patients from our ICU cannulation of the axillary vein was attempted; all were in need of a CV line. Other CV puncture sites (except for the subclavian vein) were associated with contraindications. Patients were placed in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position (15 exceptions); the arm was abducted to 45 degrees [5, 8]. The course of the axillary vein was located by Doppler US and marked on the skin with a felt pen. Prior to puncture, US intensity was judged by a score ranging from 0 to 4. After skin desinfection, sterile draping, and local anaesthesia, puncture of the axillary vein was attempted. The puncture kit LeaderCath 11,515 (Vygon, Aachen, FRG) was used. When venous blood could be aspirated, the Seldinger guidewire was inserted and the definite catheter placed. The experimental design allowed up to ten punctures, slightly modified in angle and direction of the needle, if puncture of the axillary vein or guide-wire placement failed. The cannulation attempt was classified as unsuccessful in the following cases: malposition, axillary vein not encountered by the puncture needle, guide-wire placement unsuccessful, or if identification and cannulation of the vein lasted more than 20 min. The puncture attempts were evaluated in respect to success rate, time, relation of US intensity to puncture attempts and CV pressure, complications, and malposition. RESULTS. Of the 50 attempted CV catheters, 43 were placed successfully. In 2 cases the axillary vein could not be encountered by the puncture needle. Guide-wire placement did not succeed in 4 patients. One catheter was malpositioned in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein. Four inadvertent punctures of the axillary artery remained without sequelae after compression. No further puncture-related complications were observed. With high US intensity score the number of puncture attempts necessary for successful vein cannulation was lower. On the other hand, complications and puncture failure seemed to be more frequent in patients with lower US intensity scores. DISCUSSION. CV access via the axillary vein had a satisfying success rate (43/50) and proved to be a safe procedure in our ICU patients despite higher risk factors compared to a healthy population. Although ethical reasons did not allow a randomised comparison with the standard technique, location of the axillary vein by Doppler US is likely to improve cannulation results and reduce complications induced by "blind" needle probing. With a low US intensity score, the rate of successful punctures is lower and complication rates increase. In some patients, e.g., those with extended tumour operations involving the head and neck, CV access via the axillary vein may be of high clinical value. PMID:7818050

  2. Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W.; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, “emergent” behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled—at least in part—by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca2+-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca2+ and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382

  3. Mechanoinduction of lymph vessel expansion

    PubMed Central

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Strili?, Boris; Goedecke, Axel; Breier, Georg; Fssler, Reinhard; Lammert, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    In the mammalian embryo, few mechanical signals have been identified to influence organ development and function. Here, we report that an increase in the volume of interstitial or extracellular fluid mechanically induces growth of an organ system, that is, the lymphatic vasculature. We first demonstrate that lymph vessel expansion in the developing mouse embryo correlates with a peak in interstitial fluid pressure and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) elongation. In loss-of-fluid' experiments, we then show that aspiration of interstitial fluid reduces the length of LECs, decreases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3), and inhibits LEC proliferation. Conversely, in gain-of-fluid' experiments, increasing the amount of interstitial fluid elongates the LECs, and increases both VEGFR3 phosphorylation and LEC proliferation. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that ?1 integrins are required for the proliferative response of LECs to both fluid accumulation and cell stretching and, therefore, are necessary for lymphatic vessel expansion and fluid drainage. Thus, we propose a new and physiologically relevant mode of VEGFR3 activation, which is based on mechanotransduction and is essential for normal development and fluid homeostasis in a mammalian embryo. PMID:22157817

  4. Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P; Munn, Lance L

    2015-09-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, "emergent" behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled--at least in part--by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca(2+)-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca(2+) and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382

  5. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flvio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  6. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tetik, Cihangir; Uzun, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results. PMID:25140251

  7. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, G K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with coeliac disease and mesenteric lymph node cavitation is reported. This is a rare occurrence and has received very little attention in the English literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3721297

  8. Stress-induced changes in lymph microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'eva, Anastasiya V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Stepanova, Tatyana V.

    2001-05-01

    In the present study some characteristics of lymph microcirculation in mesentery of intact and stressed rats were investigated. The stress was modelled by simultaneous action of rigid immobilization and interrupting sound during 2 h. The direct observation of lymph circulation in microvessels was based on the light intravital videomicroscopy technique. The diameters of microvessels as well as parameters of phasic contractions and valve function of lymphatics were registered. After stress the mean diameter of lymphatic vessels was increased by 13%. The number of microvessels with phasic contractions raised by 20%. The amplitude and frequency of phasic contractions decreased by 31 and 39%, respectively. The percentage of microvessels with lymph flow comprised 86% in control and 93% in stressed animals. The mean velocity of lymph flow increased by 61 micrometers /s whereas the rate of valve work was not modified after stress.

  9. Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study

    Cancer.gov

    A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenstrm's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

  10. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of Lymph Node: A report of a Patient with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treated with Imatinib.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nisha; Singh, Ragini; Marwah, Nisha; Gupta, Sumiti; Sen, Rajeev

    2015-07-01

    Follicular dendritic cells or dendritic reticulum cells are important components of the immune system essential for antigen presentation. Malignancies arising from these cells are uncommon and the first case was reported in 1986. The most common sites of follicular dendritic cell sarcomas are lymph nodes, especially cervical, axillary and mediastinal regions, but extranodal sites including head and neck and gastrointestinal tract may be affected in one-third of patients. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in its diagnosis to differentiate it from morphologically similar malignancies The present report describes a case of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatininb mesylate for 6 years. This case deserves reporting due to rarity of the disease and hitherto unreported association with CML. Furthermore, the pathological diagnosis is challenging and requires a close-knit effort between the pathologist and haematologist. PMID:26261702

  11. Lessons Learned from the Initial 100 Patient Experience with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrman, George M.; Burch, Ernest G.; Farr, Gist H.; King, Tari A.; Farkas, Emily; Bolton, John S.

    2000-01-01

    The initial reports of sentinel lymph node mapping for breast cancer currently appearing in the surgical literature are demonstrating the practicality and accuracy of the technique to evaluate patients for axillary nodal disease. We reviewed our initial 100 patient experience with sentinel node mapping to evaluate our ability to employ this technique in breast cancer patients. We combined a peritumoral injection of a radioactive substance and blue dye. Each sentinel node was evaluated with frozen section analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and, if still negative, five re-cuts were taken from deeper levels of the node and evaluated for immunohistochemical evidence of cytokeratin staining. Sentinel node(s) were identified in all but two patients with 51% demonstrating metastasis. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately perform sentinel node mapping in the evaluation of our breast cancer patients. This exciting advance should become a standard part of breast cancer surgery. PMID:21765657

  12. Robotic-assisted inguinal lymph node dissection: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, P. N.; Saini, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Prabhjot

    2011-01-01

    Penile cancer with inguinal lymph node metastasis is a common cancer in India. Open inguinal lymphadenectomy is the gold standard treatment of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes. We report our experience and technique of robotic assisted inguinal lymph node dissection in two patients presented with palpable inguinal lymph nodes, which to our knowledge is the first reported case series from India. PMID:22022077

  13. Thoracoscopic left mediastinal lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for primary lung cancer is increasing. However, it is not easy to perform mediastinal lymph node dissection using VATS as effectively as it is performed using thoracotomy. Herein, I have presented two techniques for subcarinal lymph node dissection from the left thoracic cavity: one involves the retraction of the lower bronchus towards the visceral and cranial side before inferior pulmonary vein resection to secure the view of the right lower portion. The other involves the separation of lymph nodes from the right main bronchus before separation from the left bronchus, to prevent the lymph nodes from falling down and interrupting the right-side view. Moreover, I have also described a technique that facilitates left upper mediastinal lymph node dissection. It involves traction of a thoracic cardiac branch from the recurrent laryngeal nerve allowing visualization of the bottom of the #4L lymph node, so that it can be dissected easily. There has been no observation of recurrent nerve paralysis using this procedure. PMID:26855946

  14. Thoracoscopic left mediastinal lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for primary lung cancer is increasing. However, it is not easy to perform mediastinal lymph node dissection using VATS as effectively as it is performed using thoracotomy. Herein, I have presented two techniques for subcarinal lymph node dissection from the left thoracic cavity: one involves the retraction of the lower bronchus towards the visceral and cranial side before inferior pulmonary vein resection to secure the view of the right lower portion. The other involves the separation of lymph nodes from the right main bronchus before separation from the left bronchus, to prevent the lymph nodes from falling down and interrupting the right-side view. Moreover, I have also described a technique that facilitates left upper mediastinal lymph node dissection. It involves traction of a thoracic cardiac branch from the recurrent laryngeal nerve allowing visualization of the bottom of the #4L lymph node, so that it can be dissected easily. There has been no observation of recurrent nerve paralysis using this procedure. PMID:26855946

  15. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  16. Lymph node disease after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M P; Froehner, M

    2007-03-01

    Most patients with lymph node involvement at radical prostatectomy are destined to experience disease progression. Since the detection rate of lymph node metastases depends on the extension of lymphadenectomy, comparison between series may be biased and there is no generally accepted treatment approach. Although one small randomized study demonstrated a survival benefit for patients receiving immediate hormonal treatment compared with treatment onset at clinical progression, in patients with minimal lymph node involvement the benefit of immediate treatment is uncertain. It is possible that treatment onset at PSA relapse is sufficient in such cases thus sparing side effects and costs of hormonal treatment. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unclear in patients with lymph node involvement at radical prostatectomy. Since spread into the lymph nodes in most cases indicates systemic disease, local measures only are unlikely to cure those patients. Possibly, in select cases, adjuvant radiotherapy may improve local control and maintain quality of life, even if no survival benefit may be expected. Overall, there is a need to enroll patients with lymph node involvement at radical prostatectomy onto clinical studies to improve the body of knowledge on optimal management in these cases. PMID:17431370

  17. Molecular analysis of sarcoidosis lymph nodes for microorganisms: a case–control study with clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lary A; Smith, Prudence; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Prentice, Jennifer L; Sandin, Ramon L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is an incurable, chronic granulomatous disease primarily involving the lungs and lymph nodes of unknown aetiology, treated with non-specific anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive drugs. Persistently symptomatic patients worsen with a disabling, potentially fatal clinical course. To determine a possible infectious cause, we correlated in a case-control study the clinical information with the presence of bacterial DNA in sarcoidosis mediastinal lymph nodes compared with control lymph nodes resected during cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively studied formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, mediastinal lymph nodes from 30 patients with sarcoidosis and 30 control patients with lung cancer. Nucleic acids were extracted from nodes, evaluated by ribosomal RNA PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA and the results were sequenced and compared with a bacterial sequence library. Clinical information was correlated. Results 11/30 (36.7%) of lymph nodes from patients with sarcoidosis had detectable bacterial DNA, significantly more than control patient lymph nodes (2/30, 6.7%), p=0.00516. At presentation, 19/30 (63.3%) patients with sarcoidosis were symptomatic including all patients with detectable bacterial DNA. Radiographically, there were 18 stage I and 12 stage II patients. All stage II patients were symptomatic and 75% had PCR-detectable bacteria. After a mean follow-up of 52.8±32.8 months, all patients with PCR-detectable bacteria in this series were persistently symptomatic requiring treatment. Discussion 36.6% of patients with sarcoidosis had detectable bacterial DNA on presentation, all of these patients were quite symptomatic and most were radiographically advanced stage II. These findings suggest that bacterial DNA-positive, symptomatic patients have more aggressive sarcoidosis that persists long term and might benefit from antimicrobial treatment directed against this presumed chronic granulomatous infection. PMID:24366580

  18. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Digenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, Joo Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, Jos Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, Joo Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  19. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  20. Axillary artery pseudoaneurysm after plate osteosynthesis for a clavicle nonunion: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Gregory I.; Galley, Ian J.; Keogh, Angus R. E.; Durrant, Adam W.

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular complications have been reported from both plate osteosynthesis and intramedullary fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures. We wish to report a case of limb threatening ischemia from screw penetration of the axillary artery after plate osteosynthesis for a clavicle nonunion. A literature review of vascular trauma from midshaft clavicle fractures is presented. PMID:21472068

  1. Cryopreservation of apple in vitro axillary buds using droplet-vitrification.

    PubMed

    Condello, E; Caboni, E; Andre, E; Piette, B; Druart, R; Swennen, R; Panis, B

    2011-01-01

    In vitro axillary buds of two apple cultivars, Pinova and Jonagold, were successfully cryopreserved by droplet-vitrification. In vitro axillary buds of cv. Pinova were subjected to PVS2 for 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 or 100 min, while Jonagold buds were treated with PVS2 for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. In addition, the effect of age of in vitro mother-plants on recovery after cryopreservation was evaluated. Recovery was performed on medium with various combinations of BA, IBA and GA3. Regrowth percentages for cv. Pinova increased in line with increasing PVS2 exposure durations, from 15 to 60 min. Cv. Jonagold showed a similar trend with an increase in regrowth from 30 to 60 min PVS2 exposure. Improved regrowth was observed when axillary buds were excised from aged mother-plants in comparison to those excised from plantlets that were regularly subcultured. The highest shoot regrowth was obtained when applying a 60 min PVS2 treatment to axillary buds excised from non-preconditioned 4-month old in vitro shoots and performing regrowth on recovery medium containing 4.50 microM BA and 0.50 microM IBA. This optimal protocol was also successfully applied to apple rootstocks M26 and Jork 9. PMID:21766147

  2. Gynecomastia-Like Hyperplasia of Axillary Ectopic Breast Tissue in a Young Female

    PubMed Central

    Shatzel, Joseph; Khoury, Thaer; Milligan, Janine; Skitzki, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia-like hyperplasia of orthotopic female breast tissue is a rare entity. We present the singularly unique case of a 22-year-old female who presented with a small axillary mass subsequently discovered to be a discrete deposit of ectopic breast tissue with gynecomastia-like hyperplasia. This case highlights the etiology, variable presentation, and evaluation of ectopic breast tissue. PMID:23984148

  3. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the infra-axillary region: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nisha V; Sandu, Jasleen; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Saikia, Uma Nahar

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is an uncommon, benign hyperproliferative disorder. Papules and nodules occur predominantly in the head and neck region. Involvement of other sites such as the trunk and mucosae has been rarely reported. We herein report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia involving the right infra-axillary region. PMID:24656269

  4. Clinical features of axillary osmidrosis: a retrospective chart review of 723 Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Daichi; Ohkubo, Fumio; Amikura, Yoshiyasu

    2013-05-01

    Axillary osmidrosis often disturbs a person's social life, particularly in Asian countries. However, the clinical aspects of this condition have not been well documented in the English-language published work. This study aimed to provide information on the features of axillary osmidrosis, with a particular focus on sex differences. A retrospective review was made of the charts for 723 Japanese patients (492 female, 231 male). The mean age at initial presentation (29.1years) was nearly the same for males and females. Almost all patients (96.1%) had wet earwax, which was extremely high compared to its frequency in the general Japanese population. An association with hyperhidrosis was seen in 61.8% of these patients. Subjective odor levels in female patients were significantly lower than those in males (P<0.001). A positive family history was more frequent for females than for males (P<0.001), and prior treatment history was also more frequent for females than for males (P<0.015). Most patients (86.6%) had received some treatments in our clinic. There were significantly fewer females who underwent surgical treatments compared to males (P=0.026), as females preferred less invasive techniques (P<0.001). Several features, including male/female ratios, and associations of wet earwax and hyperhidrosis, corresponded to previously reported data on axillary osmidrosis. Female patients were more concerned with axillary odor than males, and females had a tendency for polysurgery. PMID:23451913

  5. Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer patients using surgical navigation system based on fluorescence molecular imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Precision and personalization treatments are expected to be effective methods for early stage cancer studies. Breast cancer is a major threat to women's health and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an effective method to realize precision and personalized treatment for axillary lymph node (ALN) negative patients. In this study, we developed a surgical navigation system (SNS) based on optical molecular imaging technology for the precise detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. This approach helps surgeons in precise positioning during surgery. Methods: The SNS was mainly based on the technology of optical molecular imaging. A novel optical path has been designed in our hardware system and a feature-matching algorithm has been devised to achieve rapid fluorescence and color image registration fusion. Ten in vivo studies of SLN detection in rabbits using indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye were executed for system evaluation and 8 breast cancer patients accepted the combination method for therapy. Results: The detection rate of the combination method was 100% and an average of 2.6 SLNs was found in all patients. Our results showed that the method of using SNS to detect SLN has the potential to promote its application. Conclusion: The advantage of this system is the real-time tracing of lymph flow in a one-step procedure. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the system for providing accurate location and reliable treatment for surgeons. Our approach delivers valuable information and facilitates more detailed exploration for image-guided surgery research.

  6. Non-Surgical Breast-Conserving Treatment (KORTUC-BCT) Using a New Radiosensitization Method (KORTUC II) for Patients with Stage I or II Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Aoyama, Nobutaka; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Kariya, Shinji; Hamada, Norihiko; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Onogawa, Masahide; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a non-surgical breast-conserving treatment (BCT) using KORTUC II radiosensitization treatment. A new radiosensitizing agent containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate (a CD44 ligand) has been developed for intra-tumoral injection into various tumors. This new method, named KORTUC II, was approved by our local ethics committee for the treatment of breast cancer and metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 72 early-stage breast cancer patients (stage 0, 1 patient; stage I, 23; stage II, 48) were enrolled in the KORTUC II trial after providing fully informed consent. The mean age of the patients was 59.7 years. A maximum of 6 mL (usually 3 mL for tumors of less than approximately 3 cm in diameter) of the agent was injected into breast tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance. For radiotherapy, hypofraction radiotherapy was administered using a tangential fields approach including an ipsilateral axillary region and field-in-field method; the energy level was 4 MV, and the total radiation dose was 44 Gy administered as 2.75 Gy/fraction. An electron boost of 3 Gy was added three times. Treatment was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects in all 72 patients. No patients showed any significant complications other than mild dermatitis. A total of 24 patients under 75 years old with stage II breast cancer underwent induction chemotherapy (EC and/or taxane) prior to KORTUC II treatment, and 58 patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors also received hormonal therapy following KORTUC II. The mean duration of follow-up as of the end of September 2014 was 51.1 months, at which time 68 patients were alive without any distant metastases. Only one patient had local recurrence and died of cardiac failure at 6.5 years. Another one patient had bone metastases. For two of the 72 patients, follow-up ended after several months following KORTUC II treatment. In conclusion, non-surgical BCT can be performed using KORTUC II, which has three major characteristics: imaging guidance; enzyme-targeting; and targeting of breast cancer stem cells via the CD44 receptor. PMID:26593948

  7. Minimal Thorotrast deposition in parapancreatic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K; Ichinohe, A; Kono, K; Ueda, S; Noguchi, T

    1976-04-01

    The characteristic roentgenologic features of Thorotrast deposition in the perihepatic and parapancreatic lymphatics are described. Minimal deposits of Thorotrast were seen in the liver and spleen on the abdominal radiograph in 6 patients who had no clinical symptoms. Inquiry into the patient's history invariably disclosed angiography for vascular surgery several years earlier. The typical configuration of the affected lymph node is an oval, heavy density with a long tail, resembling a tadpole or teardrop. Other irregular radiopacities in the same area, including linear ones, probably represent colloid deposition along the lymphatics. Roentgenologic differentiation of Thorotrast deposits from pancreas stones and calcified lymph nodes is discussed. PMID:1257448

  8. In situ lymph dynamic characterization through lymph nodes in rabbit hind leg: special reference to nodal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2008-04-01

    In some lymph nodes, water and water-soluble substances of smaller molecular weight are known to be absorbed into blood vessels, and consequently the protein concentration of lymph within the nodes increases. In this study, we examined pressure-flow relationships of lymph nodes in situ and exchange properties of water and water-soluble substances through the nodes with special reference to inflamed lymph nodes. A lymph perfusion model through the lymph node in situ was constructed by cannulating one of the afferent lymphatics and an efferent lymphatic. Increasing infusion pressure (0 to 150 cmH(2)O) or decreasing outflow pressure (10 to -5 cmH(2)O) in the model caused a significant increase of the lymph outflow rate through the node. This rate was also increased significantly with increases in both intranodal venous pressure (range: control, 20, 30, and 40 mmHg) and prenodal lymph albumin concentration (range: 0%, 2.6%, and 10%). When formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (fMLP)-mediated acute inflammation was produced in the lymph nodes, the lymph outflow rate through the node was significantly decreased. These results indicate that colloid osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure within the lymph node may play important roles in the transport of water and water-soluble substances through the node. Acute fMLP-mediated inflammation of lymph nodes also produced a significant decrease of the lymph flow rate through lymph nodes. PMID:18325146

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Patients with Breast Cancer: Five-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Richard S; Holmes, Dennis R; Kumar, Anjali S; Kutner, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is rapidly gaining acceptance as a diagnostic tool for staging breast cancer. Objective: Analyze trends among surgeons and facilities in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) in adopting SLNB to stage cases of breast cancer and assess success in locating the sentinel node. Methods: Retrospective review of data for patients whose breast cancer was staged using SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection between July 1997 through December 2002 at KPNC. Rates of false-negative results were calculated and stratified by surgeons' experience with SLNB. Results: The number of SLNB procedures performed each month increased steadily from fewer than ten (in late 1998) to about 80 per month (in mid-2002) and were done at 17 facilities. Of the 132 surgeons who performed SLNB, most had done fewer than 15 procedures. The false-negative result rate overall was 6.53% (95% CI 4.75%, 8.73%); for surgeons who performed <30 procedures the rate was 8.58% (95% CI 5.52%, 12.60%); for surgeons who performed 20 to 30 procedures the rate was 13.08% (95% CI 7.34%, 20.98%); and for surgeons who performed more than 30 procedures the rate was 5.05% (95% CI 3.07%, 7.78%). Conclusions: SLNB is rapidly being adopted at KPNC to stage cases of breast cancer and surgeons achieve an acceptable 6.53% false-negative result rate overall. The higher false-negative rate for surgeons who performed 20 to 30 procedures suggests that departments should expand efforts to monitor and proctor these surgeons. PMID:21687490

  10. Utilization of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Undergoing Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R.; Canter, Robert J.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Bold, Richard J.; Yang, Anthony D.; Martinez, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines suggest consideration of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) undergoing mastectomy. Our objective was to identify factors influencing the utilization of SLNB in this population. Methods We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database to identify all women with breast DCIS treated with mastectomy from 2000 to 2008. We excluded patients without histologic confirmation, those diagnosed at autopsy, those who had axillary lymph node dissections performed without a preceding SLNB, and those for whom the status of SLNB was unknown. We used multivariate logistic regression reporting odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship of patient- and tumor-related factors to the likelihood of undergoing SLNB. Results Of 20,177 patients, 51 % did not receive SLNB. Factors associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving a SLNB included advancing age (OR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.620.71), Asian (OR 0.75; CI 0.680.83) or Hispanic (OR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.740.96) race/ethnicity, and history of prior non-breast (OR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.530.61). Factors associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a SLNB included treatment in the east (OR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.171.4), intermediate (OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.111.41), high (OR 1.84; 95 % CI 1.622.08) grade tumors, treatment after the year 2000, and DCIS size 25 cm (OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.421.68) and >5 cm (OR 2.43; 95 % CI 2.162.75). Conclusions SLNB is increasingly utilized in patients undergoing mastectomy for DCIS, but disparities in usage remain. Efforts at improving rates of SLNB in this population are warranted. PMID:23054103

  11. Is Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Necessary in Patients Undergoing Prophylactic Mastectomy? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Edirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-03-01

    The gain by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) during prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is debatable, and we performed a meta-analysis of existing literature to evaluate that the role of SLNB in subjects undergoing PM. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The search identified 11 relevant articles reporting on patients who underwent SLNB at the time of PM. Data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We included 14 studies comprising of 2,708 prophylactic mastectomies. Among 2,708 prophylactic mastectomies, the frequency of occult invasive cancer (51 cases) was 1.8% and the rate of positive SLNs (33 cases) was 1.2%. In 25 invasive cancers at the time of PM were found to have negative SLNs which avoided axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In seven cases with positive SLNBs were found not to have invasive cancer at the time of PM and needed a subsequent ALND. Most of the patients with positive SLNs had locally advanced disease in the contralateral breast. SLNB may be suitable for patients with ipsilateral, locally advanced breast cancer and is not recommend for all patients undergoing PM. PMID:26748493

  12. Axillary-Femoral Bypass May Provide Inadequate Distal Perfusion Compared with In-Line Large Diameter Aortic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Go, Michael R; Masterson, Loren; Vaccaro, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Axillary-femoral bypass is sometimes performed for complex aortoiliac occlusive disease in patients unfit for aortic surgery or in those with aortic infection. Typically, older patients with medical comorbidities that commonly accompany atherosclerotic or aneurysmal disease are involved and can tolerate the theoretic risk of limited flow volume associated with long, small diameter, axillary-femoral grafts. However, a subset of younger, healthier, more vigorous patients outside the typical atherosclerotic or aneurysmal demographic occasionally come to axillary-femoral bypass and may experience symptoms of distal hypoperfusion if flow volumes cannot meet demand. We present a series of patients with primary aortic infection treated with aortic ligation and axillary-femoral bypass, who then progressed to symptoms of visceral, spinal, or extremity ischemia from inadequate distal perfusion. PMID:26476270

  13. Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek Soo; Choi, Sung Bong; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, In Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation. Materials and Methods The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively. Results In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS. Conclusion If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients. PMID:25943323

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: the role of micrometastasis.

    PubMed

    Prez-Callejo, David; Franco, Fernando; Nez, Beatriz; Gonzlez-Lois, Carmen; Cantos, Blanca; Provencio, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy is widely used in patients with early-stage breast cancer for staging the axilla. The conventional analysis of the SLN has classically been performed by frozen section or touch imprint with a rapid H&E (hematoxylin and eosin) staining. Because of the risk of false-negative results, it has been replaced by the one-step acid amplification (OSNA) assay, a molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA expression. Due to the controversial for the use of OSNA to evaluate the SLN because of its cost-effective and the lack of consensus to perform or avoid a lymphadenectomy when there is micrometastasis, we analyze 410 patients subjected to SLN biopsy in Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Of the total of nodes, 223 (54.4%) were processed throughout frozen-section examination and imprint cytology and 187 (45.6%) throughout OSNA. The specificity of the frozen-section histological examination was of 100%, with a sensitivity of 83.33% (95% CI 73.07-93.60). Of the 40 patients with definitive micrometastasis in the SLN, axillary dissection was performed in 90% of the patients, with subsequent positive affectation in four of them (11.11%). Based on our result and taking into account that 10% of the lymphadenectomy performed after micrometastasis are positive, we do not believe that lymphadenectomy should be avoided after N(mi+) is detected in a SLN. PMID:25603951

  15. Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeki; Shirai, Yuko; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Lymph node (LN) dissection is the primary option for head and neck cancer when imaging modalities and biopsy confirm metastasis to the sentinel LN. However, there are no effective alternative treatments to dissection for LN metastasis. Here, we describe a novel drug delivery system combining nano/microbubbles (NMBs) with ultrasound (US) that exhibits considerable potential for the delivery of exogenous molecules into LNs through the lymphatic vessels. A solution containing fluorophores (as a model of a therapeutic molecule) and NMBs was injected into the subiliac LNs of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice, which develop systemic swelling of LNs (up to 13 mm in diameter, similar to human LNs). It was found that the NMBs were delivered to the entire area of the proper axillary LN (proper-ALN) via the lymphatic channels and that these were retained there for more than 8 min. Furthermore, exposure to US in the presence of NMBs enhanced the delivery of fluorophores into the lymphocytes near the lymphatic channels, compared with exposure to US in the absence of NMBs. It is proposed that a system using US and NMBs to deliver therapeutic drugs via lymphatic vessels can serve as a new treatment method for LN metastasis. PMID:25637527

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ: Chinese experiences

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XIAO; LI, HAO; LIU, YAN-BING; ZHOU, ZHENG-BO; CHEN, PENG; ZHAO, TONG; WANG, CHUN-JIAN; ZHANG, ZHAO-PENG; QIU, PENG-FEI; WANG, YONG-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    The axillary treatment of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with breast DCIS. A database containing the data from 262 patients diagnosed with breast DCIS and 100 patients diagnosed with DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) who received SLNB between January 2002 and July 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Of the 262 patients with DCIS, 9 presented with SLN metastases (3 macrometastases and 6 micrometastases). Patients with large tumors diagnosed by ultrasound or with tumors of high histological grade had a higher positive rate of SLNs than those without (P=0.037 and P<0.0001, respectively). Of the 100 patients with DCISM, 11 presented with metastases. Younger patients had a higher positive rate of SLNs (P=0.028). According to the results of this study and the systematic review of recent studies, the indications of SLNB for patients with DCIS are as follows: SLNB should be performed in all DCISM patients and in those DCIS patients who received mastectomy, and could be avoided in those who received breast-conserving surgery. However, SLNB should be recommended to patients who have high risks of harboring invasive components. The risk factors include a large, palpable tumor, a mammographic mass or a high histological grade. PMID:26622778

  17. Lymph nodes tuberculosis: a retrospective study on clinical and therapeutic features

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Amine; Darouassi, Youssef; Zakaria, Yasser; Bouchentouf, Rachid; Errami, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Lymph nodes tuberculosis represents 30 percent of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Morocco. We report here the experience of the pulmonology unit of the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakech for a period of 4 years. Our study interested 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) with an average age of 29 years old (10 to 62 years old). Tuberculosis has interested a single site in 28 patients, the other two patients had multiple but unilateral involvement. For the single sites, locations were jugulo-carotidian (20 patients), supra-calvicular (2 patients), axillary (2 patients), sub-mandibular (2 patients), spinal (2 patients) and mediastinal (2 patients). For the multiple locations, the involvement was jugulo-carotidian, sub-mandibular, spinal and sub-clavicular for one patient; and jugulo-carotidian and sub-clavicular for the other. Diagnosis was made by surgical biopsy and histology for all the patients. A six-month anti-tuberculous treatment was given afterward, with relapses in two patients. PMID:26090023

  18. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmanns operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high. PMID:26640350

  19. Infraclavicular axillary vein cannulation using ultrasound in a mechanically ventilated general intensive care population.

    PubMed

    Glen, H; Lang, I; Christie, L

    2015-09-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is commonly undertaken in the ICU. The use of ultrasound (US) to facilitate CVC insertion is standard and is supported by guidelines. Because the subclavian vein cannot be insonated where it underlies the clavicle, its use as a CVC site is now less common. The axillary vein, however, can be seen on US just distal to the subclavian vein and placement of a CVC at this site gives a result which is functionally indistinguishable from a subclavian CVC. We evaluated placement of US-guided axillary CVCs in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Data were collected for 125 consecutive US-guided axillary CVC procedures in ventilated patients in an adult intensive care setting. All lines were inserted using real-time US guidance with an out-of-plane technique. One hundred and twenty-five procedures occurred in 119 patients. Successful line placement was achieved in 117 out of 125 (94%) procedures. Complications included four procedures that required repeating due to catheter malposition and one arterial puncture. The median number of attempts per procedure was one (IQR 1 to 2). Thirty-nine (31%) patients had a body mass index of 30 or above, 43 (34%) patients had a coagulopathy and 70 (56%) patients had significant ventilator dependence (FiO2 of 0.5 or above, or positive end expiratory pressure 10 cmH20 or above). The technique of US-guided axillary CVC access can be undertaken successfully in ventilated intensive care patients, even in challenging circumstances. Taken together with existing work on the utility and safety of this technique, we suggest that it be adopted more widely in the intensive care population. PMID:26310415

  20. Comparison of two techniques for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade in cats.

    PubMed

    Ansn, Agustina; Laredo, Francisco G; Gil, Francisco; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, Maria D; Agut, Amalia

    2015-06-01

    Axillary blockade of the brachial plexus (BP) is advocated in humans and dogs for surgical procedures carried out on the foot, carpus and elbow as it provides complete analgesia distally from above the elbow joint. The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound (US)-guided approach to block the BP in cats. Two groups of 12 feline cadavers each were used to compare two different techniques to block the BP at the axillary level. The reliability of the techniques was assessed by anatomical and computed tomography (CT) studies. Cadavers of the first group were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb to be blocked adducted (thoracic limbs flexed and orientated caudally) (FAD technique). The second group was positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb abducted 90 (FAB technique). The accuracy of the techniques was determined by US after injecting 1 ml blue ink along the BP nerves, and by CT after injecting 1 ml of an iodinated contrast medium. The anatomical and CT studies confirmed the accuracy of the US location of the BP nerves. Staining of the axillaris, musculocutaneous, radialis, medianus and ulnaris nerves was observed in 100% of cats using the FAB technique and in 66% of the cats using the FAD technique. Rate of complications was higher in the FAD technique. In conclusion, a US-guided axillary approach to the BP by the use of a FAB technique is a safe and feasible procedure to block the BP in the cat. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether the technique can be applied in a clinical setting. PMID:25193280

  1. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  2. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  3. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea: imaging lymph node mapping].

    PubMed

    Borik, W; Pricopi, C; Hernigou, A; Fabre, E; Laccourreye, O; Hidden, G; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2014-12-01

    The anatomy of the trachea lymphatics is poorly understood and the only researches date back to more than one century. Tracheal tumors are very rare, miscellaneous and variously lymphophilic. The cancers of the trachea have no TNM and their lymph node metastases are little studied despite their poor prognosis. We observed 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, one in the cervical and the other in the intrathoracic trachea. TDM-3D reformats demonstrated metastatic lymph nodes of the right para-tracheal lymph node chain (2R and 4R) in both patients and in the cervical lymph nodes (right recurrent nerve lymph node chain) in the patient with cervical tumor. Right location of the mediastinal metastases may be explained by the anatomy of the lymph node chain drainage of the lung segments, the right para-tracheal chain being the only one to regularly possess lymph nodes at that level. The right recurrent nerve lymph node metastases of the cervical tumor are explained by common lymph drainage of the cervical trachea towards larynx lymph centres. Besides lymph node metastases, cancers prognosis may also depends on its location in the trachea. Thus, the tracheal tumors are complex and constitute quite as many orphan tumors. Multicentric studies are mandatory to better understand their behavior. Means provided by new imaging techniques might permit establishing a veritable TNM lymph node mapping of these tumors. PMID:25457221

  4. Comparative dispositions of ofloxacin in human head, axillary, and pubic hairs.

    PubMed

    Kosuge, K; Uematsu, T; Araki, S I; Matsuno, H; Ohashi, K; Nakashima, M

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of ofloxacin (OFLX) along the shaft of each of three hair types, i.e., head, axillary and pubic, was investigated and compared among five healthy male volunteers 1 to 4 months after ingestion of OFLX for 1 or 2 days (total dose, 200 or 600 mg). Five strands of each hair type were sectioned together into successive 0.5-cm lengths starting from the dermal end, over a length of < or = 6 cm, and the OFLX concentration in each hair section was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The distribution of OFLX along the head hair shaft was narrow, having a single peak even 3 to 4 months after administration, suggesting a rather uniform growth rate among hair strands. On the other hand, the OFLX distribution along axillary or pubic hair shafts tended to be broad, even having two apparent peaks, and the growth rate did not seem uniform. Since axillary hair seemed to stop growing after having gained a length of < or = 4 to 5 cm, it was suggested to enter a resting stage after the growth of < or = 3 cm over the 2 to 4 months after OFLX incorporation. These findings indicate that head hair is the most suitable for analysis of individual drug use and the larger growth rate and cycle stage variabilities of strands of the other types of hair should be taken into account. PMID:9593174

  5. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). PMID:26551789

  6. Arabidopsis BRANCHED1 Acts as an Integrator of Branching Signals within Axillary Buds[W

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Martnez, Jos Antonio; Poza-Carrin, Csar; Cubas, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns depend on a key developmental decision: whether axillary buds grow out to give a branch or whether they remain dormant in the axils of leaves. This decision is controlled by endogenous and environmental stimuli mediated by hormonal signals. Although genes involved in the long-distance signaling of this process have been identified, the genes responding inside the buds to cause growth arrest remained unknown in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe an Arabidopsis gene encoding a TCP transcription factor closely related to teosinte branched1 (tb1) from maize (Zea mays), BRANCHED1 (BRC1), which represents a key point at which signals controlling branching are integrated within axillary buds. BRC1 is expressed in developing buds, where it arrests bud development. BRC1 downregulation leads to branch outgrowth. BRC1 responds to developmental and environmental stimuli controlling branching and mediates the response to these stimuli. Mutant and expression analyses suggest that BRC1 is downstream of the MORE AXILLARY GROWTH pathway and that it is required for auxin-induced apical dominance. Therefore, BRC1 acts inside the buds as an integrator of signals controlling bud outgrowth and translates them into a response of cell growth arrest. The conservation of BRC1/tb1 function among distantly related angiosperm species suggests that a single ancestral mechanism of branching control integration evolved before the radiation of flowering plants. PMID:17307924

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Patterns of spread

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lizhi; Zhang Guoyi; Xie Chuangmiao; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Li Li . E-mail: lililixj@hotmail.com

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, distribution, and spread pattern of retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: The MR images of 275 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were reviewed retrospectively. Nodes were classified as metastatic based on size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: Retropharyngeal lymph node involvement was detected in 175 (63.6%) patients. Metastatic RLNs were seen at the following levels: occipital bone, 24 (9.6%) nodes; C1, 157 (62.5%) nodes; C1/2, 40 (15.9%) nodes; C2, 27 (10.8%) nodes; C2/3, 1 (0.4%) node; and C3, 2 (0.8%) nodes. The incidence of RLN involvement was equal to the incidence of cervical lymph node involvement (81.4% vs. 81.4%) in 215 patients with nodal metastases. A significantly higher incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed in the presence of oropharynx, prestyloid parapharyngeal space, post-styloid parapharyngeal space, longus colli muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, levator muscle of velum palatini, tensor muscle of velum palatini, Level II node, Level III node, and Level V node involvement. A significantly lower incidence of metastatic RLNs was found in T1, N0, and Stage I disease. Conversely, no significant difference in the incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed between T1, 2, and, 3; N2 and N3; or Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: There is an orderly decrease in the incidence of metastatic lateral RLNs from the C1 to C3 level. Metastatic RLNs associate well with involvement of certain structures in early stage primary tumors and lymph node metastases of the upper jugular chain (Level II, Level III nodes) and the posterior triangle (Level V nodes). Both RLNs and cervical Level II nodes appear to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC.

  8. Generation of Lymph Node-fat Pad Chimeras for the Study of Lymph Node Stromal Cell Origin

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Cecile; Caamano, Jorge H.

    2013-01-01

    The stroma is a key component of the lymph node structure and function. However, little is known about its origin, exact cellular composition and the mechanisms governing its formation. Lymph nodes are always encapsulated in adipose tissue and we recently demonstrated the importance of this relation for the formation of lymph node stroma. Adipocyte precursor cells migrate into the lymph node during its development and upon engagement of the Lymphotoxin-b receptor switch off adipogenesis and differentiate into lymphoid stromal cells (Bnzechet al.14). Based on the lymphoid stroma potential of adipose tissue, we present a method using a lymph node/fat pad chimera that allows the lineage tracing of lymph node stromal cell precursors. We show how to isolate newborn lymph nodes and EYFP+ embryonic adipose tissue and make a LN/ EYFP+ fat pad chimera. After transfer under the kidney capsule of a host mouse, the lymph node incorporates local adipose tissue precursor cells and finishes its formation. Progeny analysis of EYFP+ fat pad cells in the resulting lymph nodes can be performed by flow-cytometric analysis of enzymatically digested lymph nodes or by immunofluorescence analysis of lymph nodes cryosections. By using fat pads from different knockout mouse models, this method will provide an efficient way of analyzing the origin of the different lymph node stromal cell populations. PMID:24378826

  9. The Usefulness of Diffusion MRI in Detection of Lymph Node Metastases of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masaichi; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Watanabe, Michiaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative diagnosis by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (D-MRI) for lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. The b-value represents the diffusion factor (measured in s/mm(2)) and the strength of the diffusion gradients. The b-value used in this study was 1,000 s/mm(2). A total of 119 patients underwent D-MRI before resection of primary colorectal cancer (52 of the rectum, 67 of the colon) at our hospital between February 2005 and April 2006. Lymph node metastases judged by D-MRI were compared with postoperative pathological results. The form of lymph node metastasis was classified either as abundant or scarce type. The predictive values for lymph-node metastasis (sensitivity and specificity) by D-MRI were calculated from the result of this classification and lymph-node size. The study was divided into two periods: before the consensus meeting in January 2006, (n=79) (P-I), and after the adjustment of the criteria to improve the sensitivity and specificity based on the results of P-I (n=40) (P-II). Detection of lymph node metastasis using D-MRI in P-I had sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 55%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 77%, while in P-II, these values improved to 79%, 95%, 94%, and 83%, respectively. Specificity and PPV for P-II were significantly higher than those for P-I (p<0.05). The diameter of lymph nodes judged to be metastatic on D-MRI (P-I vs. P-II: n=32 vs. 16) was 10.3±5.4 (3-28) vs. 9.1±3.0 (4-14) mm; 11.5±6.2 (4-28) vs. 9.2±3.1 (4-14) mm for truly positive nodes (n=18 vs. 15), and 6±3.8 (3-14) vs. 8 mm for false-positive nodes (n=14 vs. 1). On the other hand, lymph nodes judged negative by D-MRI (n=47 vs. 24) was 5.9±2.4 (3-16) vs. 5.7±2.8 (2-15) mm; 5.9±2.1 (3-16) vs. 5.3±2.1 (2-8) mm for truly negative (n=36 vs. 20), and 5.7±2.7 (3-12) vs. 7.8±4.9 (4-15) mm for false negative (n=11 vs. 4). As to the form of metastasis, all truly positive nodes were of the abundant type, and 6/11 (55%) in P-I and 1/4 (25%) in P-II false-negatives were of the scarce type. In conclusion, D-MRI seems useful for preoperative detection of metastatic lymph nodes in colorectal cancer, especially if the node is hyperintense and more than 9 mm in diameter. PMID:26851045

  10. [Particular features of lymph dissection in operations for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Iaitski?, A N; Danilov, I N

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize the technique of lymph dissection, a method of intraoperative mapping of lymph outflow tracts was used with a lymphotropic dye Blue patente V. It allowed better orientation during lymphodissection in operations for gastric cancer. The detection and investigation of the "signal" lymph node as the most probable object of lymphogenic metastazing can improve the accuracy of postoperative staging of gastric cancer. Visualization of the lymph nodes in the preparation made it possible to increase the number of lymph nodes sent for histological investigation. PMID:18522180

  11. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy benefits subgroups of breast cancer patients with T12 tumor and 13 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Li; Li, Shan-Hsuan; Chen, Yen-Yang; Chen, Hui-Chun; Tang, Yen; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chou, Fong-Fu; Wu, Shih-Chung; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with T12 and N1 disease. Patients and methods. A total of 207 postmastectomy women were enrolled. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of locoregional recurrence rate (LRR), distant recurrence rate (DRR) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by different tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results With median follow-up 59.5 months, the 5-year LRR, DRR and OS were 9.1%, 20.3% and 84.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age < 40 years old (p = 0.003) and Her-2/neu over-expression (p = 0.016) were associated with higher LRR, whereas presence of LVI significantly predicted higher DRR (p = 0.026). Negative estrogen status (p = 0.033), Her-2/neu overexpression (p = 0.001) and LVI (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with worse OS. PMRT didnt prove to reduce 5-year LRR (p = 0.107), as well as 5-year OS (p = 0.918). In subgroup analysis, PMRT showed significant benefits of improvement LRR and OS in patients with positive LVI. Conclusions For patients with T12 and N1 stage breast cancer, PMRT can decrease locoregional recurrence and increase overall survival only in patients with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:25177247

  12. [Lymph nodes of esophagus cancer: radiological approach].

    PubMed

    Aubert, E; Servois, V

    2014-10-01

    The cervico-thoracic-abdominal-pelvic CT-scan is a key examination of the staging of esophagus cancers. Anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge of the lymph nodes is an essential tool to establish a precise mapping. Imaging tests (such endoscopic ultrasound and PET scanning) will be very useful to determine clinical options and clinical target volume delineation for the radiotherapy of esophagus cancers. PMID:25205427

  13. Horizontal right axillary minithoracotomy: aesthetic and effective option for atrial and ventricular septal defect repair in infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana da Fonseca; da Silva, Jos Pedro; Turquetto, Aida L R; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Cascudo, Cybelle M; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Gomes, Walter Jos; Schreiber, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart defects treatment shows progressive reduction in morbidity and mortality, however, the scar, resulting from ventricular (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) repair, may cause discomfort. Right axillary minithoracotomy approach, by avoiding the breast growth region, is an option for correction of these defects that may provide better aesthetic results at low cost. Since October 2011, we have been using this technique for repairing VSD and ASD defects as well as associated defects. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of this method in children undergoing correction of VSD and ASD, to compare perioperative clinical outcomes with those repaired by median sternotomy, and to evaluate the aesthetic result. Methods Perioperative clinical data of 25 patients submitted to axillary thoracotomy were compared with data from a paired group of 25 patients with similar heart defects repaired by median sternotomy, from October 2011 to August 2012. Results Axillary approach was possible even in infants. There was no mortality and the main perioperative variables were similar in both groups, except for lower use of blood products in the axillary group (6/25) vs. control (13/25), with statistical difference (P =0.04). The VSD size varied from 7 to 15 mm in axillary group. Cannulation of the aorta and vena cavae was performed through the main incision, whose size ranged from 3 to 5 cm in the axillary group, with excellent aesthetic results. Conclusion The axillary thoracotomy was effective, allowing for a heart defect repair similar to the median sternotomy, with more satisfactory aesthetic results and reduced blood transfusion, and it can be safely used in infants. PMID:25140460

  14. Comparison of only T3 and T3T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating

    PubMed Central

    Yuncu, Gkhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gkhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. METHODS One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. RESULTS No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P = 0.56), gender (P = 0.81), duration of the surgery (P = 0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P = 0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:23644731

  15. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  16. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic invasion and size of SLN metastasis, and the product of tumor size and square of SLN metastasis size. Conclusion We present a new model developed from a community-based SLN database that uses only three rather than eight variables to achieve higher accuracy than the Nomogram for predicting NSLN status in two different datasets. PMID:18315887

  17. Self-illuminating quantum dots for highly sensitive in vivo real-time luminescent mapping of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) show promise as novel nanomaterials for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping through their use in noninvasive in vivo fluorescence imaging, and they have provided remarkable results. However, in vivo fluorescence imaging has limitations mainly reflected in the strong autofluorescence and low deepness of tissue penetration associated with this technique. Here, we report on the use of self-illuminating 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe/CdS QDs for mouse axillary SLN mapping by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, which was found to overcome these limitations [corrected]. We used CdTe/CdS QDs synthesized in aqueous solution to conjugate a mutant of the bioluminescent protein, Renilla reniformis luciferase. The nanobioconjugates obtained had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 19 nm, and their luminescence catalyzed by the substrate (coelenterazine) could penetrate into at least 20 mm of hairless pigskin, which could be observed using an in vivo imaging system equipped with a 700 nm emission filter. Conversely, the fluorescence of the nanobioconjugates penetrated no more than 10 mm of pigskin and was observed with a strong background. When 80 μL of the nanobioconjugates (containing about 0.5 μmol/L of QDs) and 5 μL of coelenterazine (1 μg/μL) were intradermally injected into a mouse paw, the axillary SLN could be imaged in real time without external excitation, and little background interference was detected. Furthermore, the decayed luminescence of QD-Luc8 in SLNs could be recovered after being intradermally reinjected with the coelenterazine. Our data showed that using self-illuminating QDs, as opposed to fluorescence QDs, has greatly enhanced sensitivity in SLN mapping, and that the SLN could be identified synchronously by the luminescence and fluorescence of the self-illuminating QDs. PMID:22848169

  18. Feasibility and Accuracy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Clinically Node-Positive Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiao; Yi, Cheng-Hao; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary node-negative breast cancer patients. However, the use of SLNB remains controversial in patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this review is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB after NAC in clinically node-positive patients. Systematic searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from 1993 to December 2013 for studies on node-positive breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB after NAC followed by ALND. Of 436 identified studies, 15 were included in this review, with a total of 2,471 patients. The pooled identification rate (IR) of SLNB was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85–93%], and the false negative rate (FNR) of SLNB was 14% (95% CI 10–17%). The heterogeneity of FNR was analyzed by meta-regression, and the results revealed that immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining may represent an independent factor (P = 0.04). FNR was lower in the IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining subgroup than in the H&E staining alone subgroup, with values of 8.7% versus 16.0%, respectively (P = 0.001). Thus, SLNB was feasible after NAC in node-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, the IR of SLNB was respectable, although the FNR of SLNB was poor and requires further improvement. These findings indicate that IHC may improve the accuracy of SLNB. PMID:25210779

  19. Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center

    PubMed Central

    Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Loreto, Carla Di; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary. PMID:24427358

  20. The Importance of Needle Echogenity in Ultrasound Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    DUGER, Cevdet; ISBIR, Ahmet Cemil; KAYGUSUZ, Kenan; KOL, Iclal OZDEMIR; GURSOY, Sinan; OZTURK, Hayati; MIMARO?LU, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to compare the echogenic needles and the nerve stimulation addition to non-echogenic needles in ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block for upper extremity surgery. Methods: 90 patients were enrolled to the study. The patients were allocated into three groups randomly: Group E (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using echogenic needle, Group N (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using non-echogenic needle, Group NS (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using non-echogenic needle with nerve stimulator assistance. Duration of block procedure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, pulse-oximetry, onset time of sensory and motor block, duration of sensory and motor block, time to first analgesic use, total need for analgesics, postoperative pain scores, patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were recorded. Results: Duration of block procedure values were lower in group E and NS, sensory and motor block durations, were significantly lower in group N. Sensorial and motor block onset time values were found lower in group NS but higher in group N. Patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were found lower in group N. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasound guided axillary block may be performed successfully using both echogenic needles and nerve stimulation assisted non-echogenic needles. PMID:23869186

  1. Diversification in the South American Pampas: the genetic and morphological variation of the widespread Petunia axillaris complex (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Segatto, Ana L A; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Sols Neffa, Viviana G; Speranza, Pablo R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation and the ways in which this distribution is connected to the ecological context of natural populations is fundamental for understanding the nature and mode of intraspecific and, ultimately, interspecific differentiation. The Petunia axillaris complex is endemic to the grasslands of southern South America and includes three subspecies: P.a.axillaris, P.a.parodii and P.a.subandina. These subspecies are traditionally delimited based on both geography and floral morphology, although the latter is highly variable. Here, we determined the patterns of genetic (nuclear and cpDNA), morphological and ecological (bioclimatic) variation of a large number of P.axillaris populations and found that they are mostly coincident with subspecies delimitation. The nuclear data suggest that the subspecies are likely independent evolutionary units, and their morphological differences may be associated with local adaptations to diverse climatic and/or edaphic conditions and population isolation. The demographic dynamics over time estimated by skyline plot analyses showed different patterns for each subspecies in the last 100000years, which is compatible with a divergence time between 35000 and 107000years ago between P.a.axillaris and P.a.parodii, as estimated with the IMa program. Coalescent simulation tests using Approximate Bayesian Computation do not support previous suggestions of extensive gene flow between P.a.axillaris and P.a.parodii in their contact zone. PMID:24372681

  2. The use of a water extract from the bark of Choerospondias axillaris in the treatment of second degree burns.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D D; Nguyen, N H; Nguyen, T T; Phan, T S; Nguyen, V D; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernstrm, N E; Sderberg, T A

    1996-06-01

    Burns are common in Vietnam, and because of economic constraints and limited resources for the import of appropriate treatments, the health authorities are obliged to rely on traditional herbal remedies. It is therefore essential to evaluate current drugs, one of which is the water extract of the bark of the tree Choerospondias axillaris. It has been used for many years in the Vietnam-Sweden hospital at Uong Bi in northern Vietnam. We assessed the efficacy of the remedy in an open, randomised controlled clinical trial, in which 20 patients with second degree burns were treated with the extract of the Choerospondias axillaris and 19 with saline gauze. The mean healing time was significantly shorter for patients treated with Choerospondias axillaris (11 days) compared with patients treated with saline gauze (17 days) (p < 0.01), and the number of wound infections was significantly lower in the Choerospondias axillaris group (7/20 compared with 16/19, p = 0.003). The bark extract was easy to apply and additional wound care was not usually necessary, while the treatment with saline gauze was laborious for both patients and staff and was much more expensive. The extract from Choerospondias axillaris is a convenient treatment for second degree burns in both children and adults. PMID:8815984

  3. Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1071 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Byrd, David R.; Ollila, David W.; Julian, Thomas B.; McLaughlin, Sarah A.; McCall, Linda; Symmans, W. Fraser; Le-Petross, Huong T.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Nelson, Heidi; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery provides reliable nodal staging information with less morbidity than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer patients. The application of SLN surgery for staging the axilla following chemotherapy for women who initially had node-positive breast cancer (cN1) is unclear because of high false negative results reported in previous studies. Objective To determine the false negative rate (FNR) for SLN surgery following chemotherapy in patients initially presenting with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients The ACOSOG Z1071 trial enrolled women with clinical T04 N12, M0 breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following chemotherapy, patients underwent both SLN surgery and ALND. SLN surgery using both blue dye and a radiolabeled colloid mapping agent was encouraged. Main Outcome Measure The primary endpoint was the FNR of SLN surgery after chemotherapy in women who presented with cN1 disease. We examined the likelihood that the FNR in those with 2 or more SLNs examined was greater than 10%, the rate expected for women undergoing SLN surgery who present with clinically node-negative disease. Results Seven hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled from 136 institutions. Of 663 evaluable patients with cN1 disease, 649 underwent chemotherapy followed by both SLN surgery and ALND. A SLN could not be identified in 46 patients (7.1%). Only one SLN was excised in 78 patients (12.0%). Of the remaining 525 patients with 2 or more SLNs removed, no cancer was identified in the axillary lymph nodes of 215 patients yielding a pathological complete nodal response of 41.0% (95% CI: 36.7%45.3%). In 39 patients, cancer was not identified in the SLNs but was found in lymph nodes obtained with ALND resulting in a FNR of 12.6% (90% Bayesian Credible Interval, 9.85%16.05%). Conclusions and Relevance Among women with cN1 breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy who had 2 or more SLNs examined, the FNR was not found to be 10% or less. Given this FNR threshold, changes in approach and patient selection that result in greater sensitivity would be necessary to support the use of SLN surgery as an alternative to ALND. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov; trial identifier NCT00881361. PMID:24101169

  4. Erroneous gender differences in axillary skin surface/sweat pH.

    PubMed

    Burry, J S; Coulson, H F; Esser, I; Marti, V; Melling, S J; Rawlings, A V; Roberts, G; Mills, A K

    2001-04-01

    Assessing accurately the pH of axillary eccrine sweat is of vital importance in the antiperspirant industry. Eccrine sweat pH is a critical parameter in determining the effectiveness of antiperspirants; antiperspirant salts dissolve in sweat and diffuse into the sweat glands, where the resultant acidic solution hydrolyses in more alkaline sweat forming an amorphous metal hydroxide gel, thereby restricting the flow of eccrine sweat. Comparison of the skin surface and sweat pH of males and females reported in the literature shows that, although consistent male/female differences have been observed on the forearm, determination of significant gender-based pH differences across other sites are less conclusive. Studies on the back and infra-mammary regions exhibited significant gender differences in skin surface pH, whereas those on the forehead, cheek, neck and inguinal area showed no such difference. With regard to the axilla specifically, four studies have been reported, three showing no significant difference in axillary skin surface pH and one indicating that females have an eccrine sweat pH of 7 and males have a sweat pH of 5.6. This paper describes a series of carefully controlled studies aimed at assessing potential gender differences in eccrine sweat and skin surface pH following exposure to a variety of temperature, humidity and time conditions. The results highlight the importance of controlling precisely the time of investigation, site of measurement and, most importantly, the necessity to pre-equilibrate samples in 40 mmHg carbon dioxide (equivalent to arterial CO(2) tension (pCO2)) before determining sweat pH. When these parameters are controlled no gender differences in axillary sweat or skin surface pH are observed. Large differences in eccrine sweat and skin surface pH are found, however, between the vault (hairy region) and fossa (non-hairy region) of the axilla. PMID:18498454

  5. [Operative management in axillary brachial plexus blocks: comparison of ultrasound and nerve stimulation].

    PubMed

    Schwemmer, U; Schleppers, A; Markus, C; Kredel, M; Kirschner, S; Roewer, N

    2006-04-01

    Given a case-by-case accounting system, the analysis of medical performance becomes increasingly important. Quality of treatment and the time effort attached play an important role. Anaesthesia procedures require a high level of quality and safety. Moreover, they are personnel intensive. In the area of regional anaesthesia, new procedures such as the use of high definition ultrasonography for nerve blocks, allow a possible time gain as well as improved quality. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the impact on time and results when using ultrasonography or nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus blocks. Therefore, over a time period of 9 months, the ultrasound-guided plexus anaesthesia (Sono) and the neurostimulation methods (NStim) were investigated based upon the anaesthesia documentation of patients undergoing hand surgery. Only those cases were included where an axillary brachial plexus block had been performed, incomplete protocols were excluded and 1.5% mepivacaine was used as medication. Overall, a total of 130 cases fulfilled these criteria. The success rates, time consumption and timelines were evaluated. All data was stored on an Excel-sheet and statistically evaluated. The results revealed a significant increase in the success rate for the patient group where ultrasound was used (98.2% Sono vs 83.1% NStim) and the operation could begin 15 min earlier in the Sono group (5 min vs. 20 min, p<0.001). Furthermore, the duration of anaesthesia was significantly shorter (85 min vs. 120 min, p<0.001) and the necessity for post-operative observation was less (5.4% vs. 32.4%, p<0.001). The data provided in the study indicate that the use of ultrasound for the identification of the nerves can clearly improve quality and time-scales of axillary brachial plexus blocks. PMID:16463076

  6. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in the onset of sensory block in group NS (6.17 ± 1.22 min) and in group US (6.33 ± 0.48 min) (P = 0.16), and in onset of motor block (23.33 ± 1.26 min) in group US and (23.17 ± 1.79 min) in group NS; P > =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  7. A Case Report of Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome Treated with Carotid to Axillary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jundi, Wissam; Saleh, Aiman; Lawrence, Kathryn; Choksy, Sohail

    2009-01-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome results from atherosclerotic disease of the proximal subclavian artery causing reversal of flow in an internal mammary artery used as conduit for coronary artery bypass. This rare complication of cardiac revascularisation leads to recurrence of myocardial ischaemia. When feasible, subclavian angioplasty and/or stent placement can provide acceptable result for these patients. Vascular reconstruction through carotid to subclavian artery bypass has been the standard procedure of choice. Other interventions in literature include axilloaxillary bypass and subclavian carotid transposition. This case report describes the use of carotid axillary artery bypass for the treatment of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. PMID:19721705

  8. Acute forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn caused by reperfusion after spontaneous axillary artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bekmez, Senol; Beken, Serdar; Mermerkaya, Musa Ugur; Ozkan, Mehpare; Okumus, Nurullah

    2015-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm in newborns is often misdiagnosed and can be disastrous if left untreated. Here, we report a full-term infant of a diabetic mother with underlying heterozygosity for MTHFR C677T and A1298C alleles. A spontaneous thrombosis occurred in the left axillary artery immediately after birth. The patient responded well to anticoagulant (heparin) and thrombolytic (tissue plasminogen activator) agents. After reperfusion of the extremity, acute compartment syndrome developed. Emergent fasciotomy was performed. In this case, effective collaboration between pediatricians and orthopedic surgeons resulted in salvage of the extremity, with good clinical and functional results. PMID:26237661

  9. Axillary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass with an externally stented graft: a technical report

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Rao, Christopher; Salvador, Loris; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of minimally invasive cardiac surgery a number of alternative inflow sites for coronary artery bypass grafting have been utilized, especially in higher risk patients. The use of axillary-coronary artery bypass is a safe and effective alternative especially in the case of patients requiring redo coronary revascularization. However, the length and convoluted course of the axillary-coronary vein graft makes is susceptible to twisting, trauma and neointimal hyperplasia. We therefore report a case of an axillary-coronary artery bypass in a high risk patient in which a Dacron conduit was used to externally support and protect the vein graft to the left anterior descending artery. Surgical technique and considerations are presented and discussed. PMID:18269756

  10. Axillary-femoral bypass graft patency without aorto-femoral pressure differential: disuse atrophy of ipsilateral ileo-femoral segment.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, C B

    1975-01-01

    Differential aorto-femoral pressure gradient is not required to assure axillary-femoral bypass graft patency for a brief period of time. One-hundred twenty-three days elapsed from axillary-femoral graft construction to elective removal of the functioning conduit in an individual without aorto-femoral pressure differential. During this time, reversible "disuse atrophy" of the ipsilateral ileo-femoral arterial system occurred. It is suggested that phasic differences in pulse wave propagation between the aorto-iliac-femoral and axillary-femoral circuits maintained graft patency and accompanying decreased flow volume in the ileo-femoral arterial circuit resulted in "disuse atrophy." Images Figs. 1A to D. Fig. 3. PMID:1130861

  11. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  12. Immuno-reactivity of excised lymph nodes in neck dissections of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Suchitra, G; Puranik, RS; Vanaki, SS; Prasad, B Ganesh; Malgaonkar, Nikhil I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regional lymph nodes play an important role in acting as anatomic barriers to systemic dissemination of tumor cells. This reflects in the host immunologic response. Oral squamous cell carcinoma, is known to be associated with early deficiencies of cell-mediated immunity, the pathology of which is reflected in the histology of the regional lymph nodes. Aim: The goal of this study was to study the different immunity reactions in the lymph nodes and to correlate it with the histopathology of tumor proper. Materials and Methods: Out of 40 head and neck dissections, 30 were male and 10 females within the age range of 2172 years. According to Tumor Node Metastasis classification, there were 12 cases of stage II and stage III, respectively while 16 were of stage IV. A total of 372 nodes were histologically evaluated. The harvested lymph nodes were categorized into metastatic and non-metastatic nodes exhibiting four patterns as: Lymphocyte predominance pattern, germinal center predominance pattern, lymphocyte depleted pattern and unstimulated pattern. Results: The predominant pattern of lymph node reactivity was of lymphocyte predominance (199 nodes) followed by germinal center predominance (117 nodes); lymphocyte depleted (17 nodes) and unstimulated node pattern (39 nodes). Twenty-seven nodes were positive for metastasis. A statistically significant relationship (P = 0.0019 and P = 0.0290, chi square, respectively) was observed between the number of nodes harvested and stage and level of lymph nodes. A brief follow-up period of 3 years was carried out. Conclusion: Further studies relating the immuno-morphologic assessment of the lymph nodes in conjunction with other factors may be helpful in assessing the metastases risk of the individual. PMID:26604485

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of rodent plasma and mesenteric lymph.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Fang, Jen-Feng; Hsieh, Sen-Yung; Shih, Hsin-Nung

    2013-06-30

    The lymph has long been considered as the plasma filtrate and the proteomes of the lymph have received scanty attention. Currently, mesenteric lymph is reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in some critical illnesses. A better understanding of the composition and proteomes of mesenteric lymph becomes imperative to disclose the mechanistic role of mesenteric lymph. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted overnight, and anesthetized to collect plasma and mesenteric lymph. The specimens were subjected to proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). An average of 434 and 412 protein spots were found in the gels of the plasma and mesenteric lymph respectively. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis identified 77 proteins for 212 protein spots. The 2-DE proteomic pattern of mesenteric lymph was largely similar to that of the plasma. As in the plasma, large protein spots of albumin dominated the protein pattern in mesenteric lymph. Other major proteins identified in 2-DE gels included immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, fibrinogen alpha-, beta- and gamma-chains, serotransferrin, protease inhibitors, kininogens, macroglobulins, haptoglobin, and apolipoproteins. Meanwhile, mesenteric lymph contained an array of proteins that differentiated it from the plasma. The most differentially expressed proteins in mesenteric lymph were gamma-fibrinogen, protease inhibitors, and proteins related to lipid transport/metabolism. The study presents a detailed description of mesenteric lymph proteomes of a common experimental animal in physiological status using a common proteomic approach. These results provide the basis for future research. PMID:23656218

  14. Speckle diagnostics of shuttle-stream lymph and blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the focused Gaussian beam (FGB) diffraction both in blood and lymph microvessels have been carried out. Speckle- interferometrical technique with the spectral analysis of scattered light intensity fluctuations has been applied for the investigation of lymph circulation in native microvessels. The measuring errors of bioflow velocity has been analyzed. Alterations caused by the drug influence on lymph vessels have been studied. Doppler method using FGB scattering is considered theoretically and experimentally.

  15. Safety and effectiveness of placement of pacemaker and defibrillator leads in the axillary vein guided by contrast venography.

    PubMed

    Ramza, B M; Rosenthal, L; Hui, R; Nsah, E; Savader, S; Lawrence, J H; Tomaselli, G; Berger, R; Brinker, J; Calkins, H

    1997-10-01

    Despite evidence of an increased incidence of lead fracture, the infraclavicular subclavian approach remains the dominant approach for placement of pacemaker and implantable defibrillator leads. Although this complication can be prevented by lead placement in the cephalic vein or by recently described approaches for lead placement in the axillary vein, these approaches have not gained widespread acceptance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an alternative technique for lead placement that uses contrast-guided venipuncture of the axillary vein with a 5Fr micropuncture introducer set. A total of 50 patients underwent an attempt at placement of pacemaker or implantable defibrillator leads via the axillary vein using this new technique. Patients were randomized into 2 groups based on whether the initial attempt at axillary vein access was performed medial or lateral to the rib cage margin. Lead placement was successfully accomplished in 49 of the 50 patients using this technique. Initial success was achieved in each of 25 patients randomized to the medial approach compared with 18 of 24 patients randomized to the lateral approach to the axillary vein (75%). In each of the 6 patients in whom the initial technique failed, lead placement was subsequently achieved with the medial approach. In addition to a higher initial success rate, the medial approach was determined to be preferable as evidenced by a shorter lead placement time, a smaller number of contrast injections, and a reduced requirement for additional micropuncture guidewires. There were no major complications associated with either approach. Contrast-guided venipuncture of the axillary vein is a safe and effective approach to placement of endocardial leads. PMID:9382004

  16. Multifocality and multicentricity are not contraindications for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Alberta; Dionigi, Paolo; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Limonta, Giorgio; Garancini, Silvana; De Palma, Diego; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Vanoli, Cristiana; Diurni, Mario; Carcano, Giulio; Dionigi, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Background After the availability of the results of validation studies, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced routine axillary dissection (AD) as the new standard of care in early unifocal breast cancers. Multifocal (MF) and multicentric (MC) tumors have been considered a contraindication for this technique due to the possible incidence of a higher false-negative rate. This prospective study evaluates the lymphatic drainage from different tumoral foci of the breast and assesses the accuracy of SLNB in MF-MC breast cancer. Patients and methods Patients with preoperative diagnosis of MF or MC infiltrating and clinically node-negative (cN0) breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Two consecutive groups of patients underwent SLN mapping using a different site of injection of the radioisotope tracer: a) "2ID" Group received two intradermal (ID) injections over the site of the two dominant neoplastic nodules. A lymphoscintigraphic study was performed after each injection to evaluate the route of lymphatic spreading from different sites of the breast. b) "A" Group had periareolar (A) injection followed by a conventional lymphoscintigraphy. At surgery, both radioguided SLNB (with frozen section exam) and subsequent AD were planned, regardless the SLN status. Results A total 31 patients with MF (n = 12) or MC (n = 19) invasive, cN0 cancer of the breast fulfil the selection criteria. In 2 ID Group (n = 15) the lymphoscintigraphic study showed the lymphatic pathways from two different sites of the breast which converged into one major lymphatic trunk affering to the same SLN(s) in 14 (93.3%) cases. In one (6.7%) MC cancer two different pathways were found, each of them affering to a different SLN. In A Group (n = 16) lymphoscintigraphy showed one (93.7%) or two (6.3%) lymphatic channels, each connecting areola with one or more SLN(s). Identification rate of SLN was 100% in both Groups. Accuracy of frozen section exam on SLN was 96.8% (1 case of micrometastasis was missed). SLN was positive in 13 (41.9%) of 31 patients, including 4 cases (30.7%) of micrometastasis. In 7 of 13 (53.8%) patients the SLN was the only site of axillary metastasis. SLNB accuracy was 96.8% (30 of 31), sensitivity 92.8 (13 of 14), and false-negative rate 7.1% (1 of 14). Since the case of skip metastasis was identified by the surgeon intraoperatively, it would have been no impact in the clinical practice. Conclusion Our lymphoscintigraphic study shows that axillary SLN represents the whole breast regardless of tumor location within the parenchyma. The high accuracy of SLNB in MF and MC breast cancer demonstrates, according with the results of other series published in the literature, that both MF and MC tumors do not represent a contraindication for SLNB anymore. PMID:17116258

  17. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  18. Surgical Management of Lymph Node Compartments in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Cord; Yang, Anthony; Elaraj, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, prophylactic central neck dissection is controversial. The primary treatment for lymph node metastases is surgical resection. Patients diagnosed with PTC should be assessed preoperatively by cervical ultrasound to evaluate central and lateral neck lymph node compartments. Sonographically suspicious lymph nodes in the lateral neck should be biopsied for cytology or thyroglobulin levels. Any compartment (central or lateral) that has definitive proof of nodal metastases should be formally dissected at the time of thyroidectomy. PMID:26610772

  19. Regional lymph node radiotherapy in breast cancer: single anterior supraclavicular field vs. two anterior and posterior opposed supraclavicular fields

    PubMed Central

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi; Varaki, Sakineh Soleimani; Rakhsha, Afshin; Blookat, Eftekhar Rajab

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of lymph nodes engaged in breast cancer with radiotherapy leads to improved locoregional control and enhanced survival rates in patients after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare two treatment techniques, namely single anterior posterior (AP) supraclavicular field with plan depth and two anterior and posterior opposed (AP/PA) supraclavicular fields. In the study, we also examined the relationships between the depth of supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLNs) and the diameter of the wall of the chest and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Forty patients with breast cancer were analyzed using computed tomography (CT) scans. In planning target volume (PTV), the SCLNs and axillary lymph nodes (AXLNs) were contoured, and, with the attention to PTV, supraclavicular (SC) depth was measured. The dosage that reached the aforementioned lymph nodes and the level of hot spots were investigated using two treatment methods, i.e., 1) AP/PA and 2) AP with three-dimensional (3D) planning. Each of these methods was analyzed using the program Isogray for the 6 MV compact accelerator, and the diameter of the wall of the chest was measured using the CT scan at the center of the SC field. Results: Placing the plan such that 95% of the target volume with 95% or greater of the prescribed dose of 50 Gy (V95) had ?95% concordance in both treatment techniques. According to the PTV, the depth of SCLNs and the diameter of the wall of the chest were 37 and 1221cm, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the mean SC depth (the mean Plan depth) and the mean diameter of the wall of the chest were related directly to BMI (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.67) and (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.71), respectively. Conclusion: The AP/PA treatment technique was a more suitable choice of treatment than the AP field, especially for overweight and obese breast cancer patients. However, in the AP/PA technique, the use of a single-photon, low energy (6 MV) caused more hot spots than usual. PMID:26120411

  20. Invasive Mucinous Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nardello, Salvatore M.; Kulkarni, Nandini; Aggon, Allison; Boraas, Marcia; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Bleicher, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 70 Final Diagnosis: Primary invasive mucinous carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue Symptoms: Axillary mass Medication: Adjuvant hormonal therapy and irradiation to the ipsilateral axilla Clinical Procedure: Wide local excision of ectopic breast carcinoma with lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Invasive mucinous carcinoma arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is an uncommon diagnosis. While some published medical literature makes recommendations regarding the management of ectopic primaries, many of these recommendations are outdated. We therefore hope to provide general guidance with the management of this rare entity. Case Report: We report a case of a 70-year-old woman with primary invasive mucinous carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue. A literature study was performed on primary ectopic breast carcinoma. This case report with review of the literature was performed to provide rationales for a more conservative treatment based upon current data and treatment paradigms. Although the diagnosis of primary ectopic breast carcinoma is uncommon, the presence of a suspicious nodule along the mammary ridge should alert the clinician to consider the possibility of this diagnosis. A mammogram and ultrasound of the nodule were performed and the suspicious nodule was biopsied, confirming the diagnosis. Breast conservation was performed with standard nodal evaluation. Conclusions: The management of primary ectopic breast carcinoma should be based upon current breast conservation techniques of orthotopic breast cancer. Current data suggest that standard treatment paradigms remain applicable to this rare clinical entity. PMID:25770309

  1. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation. PMID:24551680

  2. Decreasing the risk of iatrogenic lymphoedema after axillary surgery: a threefold intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Sophie; Sedgwick, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Procedures such as venepuncture and cannulation can precipitate Breast Cancer Related Lymphoedema (BCRL) in patients who have undergone axillary surgery. We noted that procedures were inadvertently being performed on the side of surgery at our hospital, as susceptible patients were not clearly identifiable to staff. An online anonymous staff survey at our hospital revealed that 26.9% of responders had seen procedures being performed on at risk arms in non-emergency settings. 83.3% of responders felt an intervention to allow easy identification of at risk arms would be useful. Our intervention was threefold. Firstly, we created an At Risk Arm alert on the computerised records system. Secondly, we produced a warning sign for each susceptible patient's bed. The signs are displayed above beds, and returned to notes for use if the patient is re-admitted. Thirdly, we informed GPs via discharge summaries of the need to perform procedures on the opposite side to surgery. A second staff survey was conducted after implementation. 46.2%of responders felt that the new interventions would decrease the chance of patients developing BCRL. 61.5% felt that susceptible patients being more identifiable to staff would decrease the likelihood of procedures being performed on at risk arms. Our project showed the importance of ensuring axillary surgery patients are clearly identifiable to hospital staff during admission. Further interventions could include wristbands or patient alert cards. This work could be extended to include primary care and outpatient settings.

  3. Micropropagation of paradise tree (Melia azedarach) by in vitro culture of axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Mroginski, Luis A; Rey, Hebe Y

    2013-01-01

    Paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels. PMID:23179702

  4. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ranjan; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Kumar, Parbodh

    2015-01-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  5. Estrogen upregulates inflammatory signals through NF-?B, IFN-?, and nitric oxide via Akt/mTOR pathway in the lymph node lymphocytes of middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Uday P; Sharma, Himanshu R; Mohanty, Aparna; Kale, Prathamesh; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Hima, Lalgi; Priyanka, Hannah P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2015-12-01

    The alterations in the secretion of sex steroids, especially estrogen, in females throughout reproductive life and its decline with age alters the functions of the neuroendocrine-immune network and renders them susceptible to age-related diseases and cancers. This study investigates the mechanisms of estrogen-induced alterations in cell-mediated immune and inflammatory responses in the lymphocytes from lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged female rats. Ovariectomized middle-aged (MA) Sprague-Dawley female rats (n=8) were implanted with 17?-estradiol (E2) 30-day release pellets (0.6 and 300?g). At the end of the treatment period, lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) were isolated and examined for serum 17?-estradiol, lymphoproliferation, cytokine production, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-I?B-? and p-NF-?B (p50 and p65), extent of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytochrome c oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. There was an OVX-related decline in serum 17?-estradiol level, Con A-induced lymphoproliferation, p-Akt and p-mTOR expression, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. E2 supplementation increased serum 17?-estradiol level, lymphoproliferation, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-I?B-? and p-NF-?B (p50 and p65), lipid peroxidation, IFN-?, TNF-?, ROS and NO production, while it decreased IL-6 production. E2 mediates inflammatory responses by increasing the levels of NO and TNF-? by up regulating IFN-? and simultaneously promotes aging through the generation of free radicals as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and ROS production in lymph nodes. These findings may have wide implications to immunity and inflammatory disorders including autoimmune diseases predominantly prevalent in females. PMID:26440402

  6. Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suvendu; Sarrou, Eliana; Podgrabinska, Simona; Cassella, Melanie; Mungamuri, Sathish Kumar; Feirt, Nikki; Gordon, Ronald; Nagi, Chandandeep S.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to contribute to metastasis primarily by serving as a transportation system. It is widely believed that tumor cells enter lymph nodes passively by the flow of lymph. We demonstrate that lymph node lymphatic sinuses control tumor cell entry into the lymph node, which requires active tumor cell migration. In human and mouse tissues, CCL1 protein is detected in lymph node lymphatic sinuses but not in the peripheral lymphatics. CCR8, the receptor for CCL1, is strongly expressed by human malignant melanoma. Tumor cell migration to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro is inhibited by blocking CCR8 or CCL1, and recombinant CCL1 promotes migration of CCR8+ tumor cells. The proinflammatory mediators TNF, IL-1β, and LPS increase CCL1 production by LECs and tumor cell migration to LECs. In a mouse model, blocking CCR8 with the soluble antagonist or knockdown with shRNA significantly decreased lymph node metastasis. Notably, inhibition of CCR8 led to the arrest of tumor cells in the collecting lymphatic vessels at the junction with the lymph node subcapsular sinus. These data identify a novel function for CCL1–CCR8 in metastasis and lymph node LECs as a critical checkpoint for the entry of metastases into the lymph nodes. PMID:23878309

  7. Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Devin; Al-Shaer, Mays; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S; Dale, Paul S; Henry, Carolyn; Papageorgio, Chris; Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Viator, John A

    2009-07-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and has the fastest growth rate of all cancer types. Proper staging of melanoma is required for clinical management. One method of staging melanoma is performed by taking a sentinel node biopsy, in which the first node in the lymphatic drainage path of the primary lesion is removed and tested for the presence of melanoma cells. Current standard of care typically involves taking fewer than ten histologic sections of the node out of the hundreds of possible sections available in the tissue. We have developed a photoacoustic method that probes the entire intact node. We acquired a lymph node from a healthy canine subject. We cultured a malignant human melanoma cell line HS 936. Approximately 1 x 10(6) cells were separated and injected into the lymph node. We also had a healthy lymph node in which no melanoma cells were implanted. We used a tunable laser system set at 532 nm to irradiate the lymph nodes. Three piezoelectric acoustic detectors were positioned near the lymph node to detect photoacoustic pulses generated within the lymph nodes. We also acquired lymph nodes from pigs and repeated the experiments with increased amplification and improved sensors. We detected photoacoustic responses from a lymph node with as few as 500 melanoma cells injected into the tissue, while normal lymph nodes showed no response. Photoacoustic generation can be used to detect melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. This detection can be used to guide further histologic study of the node, increasing the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy. PMID:19640155

  8. Clinical trial of combined radio- and fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Rietbergen, Daphne D.D.; van der Hiel, Bernies; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Combining radioactive colloids and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore permit preoperative planning and intraoperative localization of deeply located sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with direct optical guidance by a single lymphatic tracer. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and optimize a hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer for SLN detection in breast cancer patients. Method Patients with breast cancer undergoing SLN biopsy were enrolled. The day before surgery, indocyanine green (ICG)-99mTc-Nanocolloid was injected periareolarly and a lymphoscintigram was acquired. Directly before surgery, blue dye was injected. Intraoperative SLN localization was performed by a gamma probe and the Mini-FLARETM NIR fluorescence imaging system. Patients were divided into two dose groups, with one group receiving twice the particle density of ICG and nanocolloid, but the same dose of radioactive 99mTechnetium. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the trial. At least one SLN was identified pre- and intraoperatively. All 48 axillary SLNs could be detected by gamma tracing and NIR fluorescence imaging, but only 42 of them stained blue. NIR fluorescence permitted detection of lymphatic vessels draining to the SLN up to 29 hours after injection. Increasing the particle density by two-fold did not yield a difference in fluorescence intensity, median 255 (range 98 542) vs. median 284 (90 921; P = 0.590), or signal- to- background ratio, median 5.4 (range 3.0 15.4) vs. median 4.9 (3.5 16.3; P = 1.000), of the SLN. Conclusion The hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer ICG-99mTc-Nanocolloid permitted accurate pre- and intraoperative detection of the SLNs in patients with breast cancer. PMID:23696463

  9. Curative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Presenting With Paraortic and Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Yoon, Mee Sun; Kim, Juree; Kim, Young Seok

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with curative intent in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer initially presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 25 patients with both paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases (group I) were reviewed and compared with those of 101 women with paraortic lymph node metastases alone (group II). Group I received a mean 59.4 Gy to the paraortic and left supraclavicular areas and 50.4 Gy to the pelvis, followed by 30 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in 6 fractions. Group II received the same dose to the paraortic area and pelvis followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy simultaneously. Results: Of the 25 patients in group I, 16 (64%) experienced acute grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, and 1 had a late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Complete responses, including the primary mass and pelvic, paraortic, and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, were observed in 13 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 32 months for surviving patients, 3 experienced in-field failure, 6 showed distant failure, and 9 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 49% and 33%, respectively. In comparison, of the 101 patients in group II, 16 showed in-field failure, 14 experienced distant failure, and 11 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 69% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions: Curative CCRT is feasible in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases, with acceptable late toxicity and high response rates, despite high rates of acute hematologic toxicity.

  10. Factors affecting sentinel lymph node identification rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients enrolled in ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors affecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initial node-positive breast cancer. Summary Background Data SLN surgery is increasingly used for nodal staging after NAC and optimal technique for SLN identification is important. Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 prospective trial enrolled clinical T0-4,N1-2,M0 breast cancer patients. Following NAC, SLN surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were planned. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessing factors influencing SLN identification was performed. Results Of 756 patients enrolled, 34 women withdrew, 21 were ineligible, 12 underwent ALND only, and 689 had SLN surgery attempted. At least one SLN was identified in 639 patients (92.7%: 95%CI: 90.594.6%). Among factors evaluated, mapping technique was the only factor found to impact SLN identification; with use of blue dye alone increasing the likelihood of failure to identify the SLN relative to using radiolabelled colloid +/? blue dye (p=0.006; OR=3.82 95%CI: 1.47-9.92). The SLN identification rate was 78.6% with blue dye alone; 91.4% with radiolabelled colloid and 93.8% with dual mapping agents. Patient factors (age, BMI), tumor factors (clinical T or N stage), pathologic nodal response to chemotherapy, site of tracer injection and length of chemotherapy treatment did not significantly affect the SLN identification rate. Conclusions The SLN identification rate after NAC was higher when mapping was performed using radiolabelled colloid alone or with blue dye compared to blue dye alone. Optimal tracer use is important to ensure successful identification of SLN(s) after NAC. PMID:25664534

  11. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  12. Investigation of lymph flow dynamics using methods of speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.

    1997-06-01

    For some human diseases both the blood and lymph microcirculation parameters change. These parameters are of great importance in diagnostics. As distinct from blood flow from the lymph motion is more complicated and diverse. Lymph flow in microvessels is non-stationary and randomly varies in time. At present, the existing measuring methods of these flows are not fully developed and are mostly of qualitative character. In this paper the blood and the lymph motion have been considered from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. The speckle-interferometric method has been proposed for the investigation of the dynamic characteristics of biofluids. The method has been applied in the investigation of blood and lymph flows in microvessels. Using the method of the focused Gaussian beam diffraction, the following parameters were defined: V that is the value characterizing the time- averaged velocity of biofluid and (Sigma) V that is the parameter indicating the deviation degree of the spectral envelope from the Gaussian curve. The value of (Sigma) V contains an information about the velocity range in the flow and, besides, indicates the spatial-temporal velocity changes in region being investigated. Investigations of the lymph flow dynamics also have been carried out under the influence of the lymphotropic agent. It has been shown that lymph vessels may act at different stages when both the structure of the lymph flow and its temporal dynamics change qualitatively.

  13. Imaging of lymph flow in single microvessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Solov'eva, Anastasiya V.

    2000-10-01

    In this study parameters of lymph microcirculation are investigated. The microcirculation was studied on small intestine mesentery in norm and during Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) application. The direct measurement of lymph flow velocity (parameter V) in individual microvessels was based on the technique of light intravital videomicroscopy. The first spectral moments of Doppler signal, characterizing the mean velocities of lymph flow in microvessels (parameter M1), were measured by speckle-interferometrical method. Simultaneously, diameters of lymph microvessels as well as parameters of phasic contractions and valve function of lymphatics were registered. The value of V was very changeable; the mean V was equal to 270+/- 24micrometers /s. The M1 was the varying characteristic of the lymph flow too. The temporal dynamic of M1 was reflected alternating- translation motion of lymph flow. DMSO application during 15 min caused the constriction in a majority of lymphatics and the phasic contractions. DMSO induced lymphostatis in 20% of cases. But the other microvessels responded to the rise of lymph flow velocity. These changes led to the stimulation of drainage function of lymph microcirculation function.

  14. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  15. Increased lymph node yield in colorectal cancer is not necessarily associated with a greater number of lymph node positive cancers.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Aisling; Aly, Omar; Parnaby, Craig N; Loudon, Malcolm A; Samuel, Leslie M; Murray, Graeme I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis is a key prognostic factor in colorectal cancer and lymph node yield is an important parameter in assessing the quality of histopathology reporting of colorectal cancer excision specimens. This study assesses the trend in lymph node evaluation over time in a single institution and the relationship with the identification of lymph node positive tumours. It compares the lymph node yield of a contemporary dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 2178 patients who underwent surgery for primary colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2012 with that of a historic dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 1038 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer at 5 yearly intervals from 1975 to 2000. The mean lymph node yield was 14.91 in 2005 rising to 21.38 in 2012. In 2012 92.9% of all cases had at least 12 lymph nodes examined. Comparison of the mean lymph node yield and proportion of Dukes C cases shows a significant increase (Pearson correlation = 0.927, p = 0.001) in lymph node yield while there is no corresponding significant trend in the proportion of Dukes C cases (Pearson correlation = ?-0.138, p = 0.745). This study shows that there is increasing yield of lymph nodes from colorectal cancer excision specimens. However, this is not necessarily associated with an increase number of lymph node positive cancers. Further risk stratifying of colorectal cancer requires consideration of other pathological parameters especially the presence of extramural venous invasion and relevant biomarkers. PMID:25118594

  16. Increased Lymph Node Yield in Colorectal Cancer Is Not Necessarily Associated with a Greater Number of Lymph Node Positive Cancers

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Aisling; Aly, Omar; Parnaby, Craig N.; Loudon, Malcolm A.; Samuel, Leslie M.; Murray, Graeme I.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis is a key prognostic factor in colorectal cancer and lymph node yield is an important parameter in assessing the quality of histopathology reporting of colorectal cancer excision specimens. This study assesses the trend in lymph node evaluation over time in a single institution and the relationship with the identification of lymph node positive tumours. It compares the lymph node yield of a contemporary dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 2178 patients who underwent surgery for primary colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2012 with that of a historic dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 1038 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer at 5 yearly intervals from 1975 to 2000. The mean lymph node yield was 14.91 in 2005 rising to 21.38 in 2012. In 2012 92.9% of all cases had at least 12 lymph nodes examined. Comparison of the mean lymph node yield and proportion of Dukes C cases shows a significant increase (Pearson correlation?=?0.927, p?=?0.001) in lymph node yield while there is no corresponding significant trend in the proportion of Dukes C cases (Pearson correlation?=??0.138, p?=?0.745). This study shows that there is increasing yield of lymph nodes from colorectal cancer excision specimens. However, this is not necessarily associated with an increase number of lymph node positive cancers. Further risk stratifying of colorectal cancer requires consideration of other pathological parameters especially the presence of extramural venous invasion and relevant biomarkers. PMID:25118594

  17. Lymph flow pattern in the intact thoracic duct in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Onizuka, M; Flateb, T; Nicolaysen, G

    1997-01-01

    1. To study the lymph flow dynamics in the intact thoracic duct, we applied an ultrasound transit-time flow probe in seven anaesthetized and four unanaesthetized adult sheep (approximately 60 kg). In unanaesthetized non-fasting animals we found that lymph flow in the thoracic duct was always regular pulsatile (pulsation frequency, 5.2 +/- 0.8 min-1) with no relation to heart or respiratory activity. At baseline the peak level of the thoracic duct pulse flow was 11.6-20.7 ml min-1 with a nadir of 0-3.6 ml min-1. Mean lymph flow was 5.4 +/- 3.1 ml min-1. The flow pattern of lymph in the thoracic duct was essentially the same in the anaesthetized animals. 2. In both the anaesthetized and unanaesthetized animals, the lymph flow response to a stepwise increase in the outflow venous pressure showed interindividual variation. Some were sensitive to any increase in outflow venous pressure, but others were resistant in that lymph flow did not decrease until outflow venous pressure was increased to higher levels. This resistance was also observed in the high lymph flow condition produced by fluid infusion in the anaesthetized animal and mechanical constriction of the caudal vena cava in the unaesthetized animals. Pulsation frequency of the thoracic duct flow initially increased and then decreased with a stepwise increase in the outflow venous pressure. This initial increase might be a compensatory response to maintain lymph flow against elevated outflow venous pressure. 3. To test the effect of long-term outflow venous pressure elevation in unanaesthetized sheep, outflow venous pressure was increased by inflation of a cuff around the cranial vena cava for 1, 5 or 25 h. The cuff was inflated to a level where lymph flow was reduced. Lymph flow remained low or decreased further during the entire cuff-inflation period. We calculated the lymph debt caused by the outflow venous pressure elevation and the amount 'repaid' when venous pressure returned to normal. Lymph debt for 25 h was 6400 ml but only 200 ml was repaid. Since we observed no visible oedema formation in the lower body of the sheep, the non-colloidal components of the lymph must have been reabsorbed into the bloodstream, most likely in the lymph nodes. PMID:9288690

  18. In vitro production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma by lymph node cells from BALB/c mice infested with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Ganapamo, F; Rutti, B; Brossard, M

    1995-05-01

    In this study we compared the ability of lymphocytes taken from axillary and brachial lymph nodes of BALB/c mice that had been infested once three times with 15 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks, to produce interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) after in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A). They released high levels of IL-4 and low levels of IFN-gamma. An increase of IFN-gamma between the first and the third tick infestation was observed. Salivary gland extracts from female I. ricinus ticks induced specific in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from infested mice. IL-4 production was correlated with the salivary gland extracts' ability to stimulate tick-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Its levels remained high from the first to the third infestation. IFN-gamma production was not necessarily associated with tick salivary gland antigen stimulation. In BALB/c mice, anti-tick immune response induction is regional and the contribution of other similar secondary lymphoid organs is negligible. Only cells from the lymph nodes which drained the tick-fixation site proliferated in vitro in the presence of tick antigens, and when stimulated with Con A produced IL-4 and IFN-gamma. PMID:7635513

  19. In vitro production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma by lymph node cells from BALB/c mice infested with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Ganapamo, F; Rutti, B; Brossard, M

    1995-01-01

    In this study we compared the ability of lymphocytes taken from axillary and brachial lymph nodes of BALB/c mice that had been infested once three times with 15 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks, to produce interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) after in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A). They released high levels of IL-4 and low levels of IFN-gamma. An increase of IFN-gamma between the first and the third tick infestation was observed. Salivary gland extracts from female I. ricinus ticks induced specific in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from infested mice. IL-4 production was correlated with the salivary gland extracts' ability to stimulate tick-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Its levels remained high from the first to the third infestation. IFN-gamma production was not necessarily associated with tick salivary gland antigen stimulation. In BALB/c mice, anti-tick immune response induction is regional and the contribution of other similar secondary lymphoid organs is negligible. Only cells from the lymph nodes which drained the tick-fixation site proliferated in vitro in the presence of tick antigens, and when stimulated with Con A produced IL-4 and IFN-gamma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7635513

  20. ICG Fluorescence Technique for the Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Open-label Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grischke, E.-M.; Rhm, C.; Hahn, M.; Helms, G.; Brucker, S.; Wallwiener, D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is the standard procedure to evaluate axillary lymph node status in breast cancer. In addition to known and established procedures such as the blue dye method and scintigraphy, this study investigated the efficacy of a method based on use of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG). Patients and Method: A total of 126 women with breast cancer histologically verified by punch biopsy were studied during surgical removal of SLN. In addition to SLN marking with technetium and scintigraphy, intra-individual comparison was done using indocyanine green (ICG) for marking instead of the standard blue dye. Results: Scintigraphy had a detection rate of 96?%; the detection rate with ICG was just under 89?%. A body mass index (BMI) >?40 was found to be a limiting factor for the fluorescent method. Investigation into potential toxicities associated with the use of the fluorescent dye ICG revealed no systemic or even local side effects. The fluorescent method was found to be significantly less expensive than the scintigraphy method. Conclusion: The ICG fluorescence technique for the detection of SLN was found to be a valid and feasible method in clinical practice when compared directly with the blue dye method and scintigraphy. PMID:26500370

  1. Investigation of lymph flow characteristics using speckle-interferometrical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, A. A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2001-07-01

    The measuring method of microcirculatory parameters using strongly focused Gaussain beam (SFGB) diffraction phenomenon has been proposed in this paper. The method has been applied for the investigation of lymph flow characteristics in microvessels in vivo. Intensity, fluctuation spectra of a scattered field which are the result of laser beam diffraction in lymph vessels have been presented in the paper. It has been shown that the alterations of spectra shape depend on peculiarities of lymph motion in microvessels. Physical parameters of determination both of temporal changes of mean velocity and of spatial-temporal velocity distribution in lymph microvessels have been proposed. An action of lymphotropic drug on the lymph flow parameters have been studied.

  2. High-sensitivity optical lymph flow-meter.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, O; Engeset, A; Olszewski, W I; Lindmo, T

    1982-03-01

    An optical flow-meter is described which allows precise and continuous registration of the flow of lymph from cannulated human lymph vessels. The cannula from the lymph vessel is connected to the measurement tubing of the instrument where the flow is measured by automatically monitoring the movement of an air bubble introduced into the flow at the beginning of the measurement. The limit of sensitivity of the instrument is about 0.1 microliter, allowing reliable registration of stroke volumes of about 1 microliter which typically occur in human leg lymphatics. The size and capacity of the instrument were chosen to be suitable for clinical use. A technical description of the instrument is given. Application of the instrument is illustrated with recording of lymph flow and lateral intralymphatic pressure in a prenodal lymph vessel of the human leg. PMID:6461802

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  4. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    PubMed Central

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 ?g/mL), 2 (400 ?g/mL), 3 (600 ?g/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [ standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.511.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P < 0.001). In a comparison of different deodorant densities, the interaction effect was not significant between deodorant 200 and 400 ?g/mL, but was significant between 200 and 600 and between 400 and 600 ?g/mL sage extract sticks (P < 0.001). Before running the sensory evaluation of the deodorant sticks on the subjects, a rabbit skin patch test was used to demonstrate that the formulation had no irritants. Conclusion: A single treatment with a stick deodorant containing dichloromethane sage extract of 200, 400, or 600 ?g/mL concentrations was effective in reducing the axillary malodor level compared with the control, in healthy subjects. PMID:24497852

  5. Lymph Node Macrophages Restrict Murine Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Dolken, Lars; Mach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic infections that spread from a primary entry site to secondary vascular sites, such as the spleen, and then to tertiary shedding sites, such as the salivary glands. Human CMV (HCMV) is difficult to analyze, because its spread precedes clinical presentation. Murine CMV (MCMV) offers a tractable model. It is hypothesized to spread from peripheral sites via vascular endothelial cells and associated monocytes. However, viral luciferase imaging showed footpad-inoculated MCMV first reaching the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). PLN colonization was rapid and further spread was slow, implying that LN infection can be a significant bottleneck. Most acutely infected PLN cells were CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM). Replication-deficient MCMV also reached them, indicating direct infection. Many SSM expressed viral reporter genes, but few expressed lytic genes. SSM expressed CD11c, and MCMV with a cre-sensitive fluorochrome switch showed switched infected cells in PLN of CD11c-cre mice but yielded little switched virus. SSM depletion with liposomal clodronate or via a CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgene shifted infection to ER-TR7+ stromal cells, increased virus production, and accelerated its spread to the spleen. Therefore, MCMV disseminated via LN, and SSM slowed this spread by shielding permissive fibroblasts and poorly supporting viral lytic replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV chronically infects most people, and it can cause congenital disability and harm the immunocompromised. A major goal of vaccination is to prevent systemic infection. How this is established is unclear. Restriction to humans makes HCMV difficult to analyze. We show that peripheral MCMV infection spreads via lymph nodes. Here, MCMV infected filtering macrophages, which supported virus replication poorly. When these macrophages were depleted, MCMV infected susceptible fibroblasts and spread faster. The capacity of filtering macrophages to limit MCMV spread argued that their infection is an important bottleneck in host colonization and might be a good vaccine target. PMID:25926638

  6. Characterization of sheep lung lymph lipoproteins: chemical and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Cross, C.E.; Gunther, R.A.; Kramer, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have determined the composition and distribution of plasma and lung lymph lipoproteins from unanesthetized ewes. Cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels in lung lymph were 45%, 50%, and 50%, respectively, of those in plasma. Lipoproteins from both lymph and plasma were separated into two major fractions: d < 1.063 g/ml or LDL, and d 1.063-1.21 g/ml or HDL. HDL was the major lipoprotein species in the plasma and lymph. Gradients gel electrophoresis of HDL on 4-30% gels showed that, in lymph, HDL particles were shifted to larger sizes; in addition to a peak at 8.5 nm, which was similar to plasma HDL, there were two additional components of larger size, one at 9.2 nm and the other at 12 nm. Electron microscopy revealed that lymph HDL contained two new particles not seen in plasma: large, round particles, 13.6 nm diameter, and discoidal particles, 18.7 by 4.9 nm, long and short axis, respectively. Compositional analysis of lymph HDL revealed a relative enrichment in free cholesterol as well as an enrichment in apolipoprotein E. Lymph LDL on gradient gel electrophoresis was extremely heterogeneous. Several peaks were evident in the 23-30 nm size range (similar to plasma LDL), but a supplementary component at approximately 15-16 nm was also present. Whereas plasma LDL on electron microscopy contained only round particles 26 nm in diameter, lymph contained an additional, unusual particle which was close-packed, with square geometry, and was 15 nm in diameter. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of lung lymph lipoproteins suggest that these particles are metabolically modified.

  7. Expression of Tiam1 predicts lymph node metastasis and poor survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the value of Tiam1 in predicting lymph node metastasis and survival after curative resection in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for Tiam1 was performed on 98 adenocarcinoma and 30 normal lung tissues. The association of Tiam1 protein expression with the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma were subsequently assessed. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 60 of 98 (61.22%) adenocarcinoma tissues showed high expression of Tiam1, and high Tiam1 expression was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage (P?lymph node status (P?II (P?=?0.006). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that high expression of Tiam1 protein was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P?=?0.011) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusion These findings suggest for the first time that Tiam1 expression may be beneficial in predicting lymph node metastasis and survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A future study will investigate whether Tiam1 can serve as a novel therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1377798917111123. PMID:24661909

  8. Non-invasive mapping of deep-tissue lymph nodes in live animals using a multimodal PET/MRI nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Ulmert, David; Diop, Ndeye-Fatou M.; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Doran, Michael G.; Huang, Ruimin; Abou, Diane S.; Larson, Steven M.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The invasion status of tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) is a critical indicator of cancer stage and is important for treatment planning. Clinicians currently use planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-radiocolloid to guide biopsy and resection of LNs. However, emerging multimodality approaches such as positron emission tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) detect sites of disease with higher sensitivity and accuracy. Here we present a multimodal nanoparticle, 89Zr-ferumoxytol, for the enhanced detection of LNs with PET/MRI. For genuine translational potential, we leverage a clinical iron oxide formulation, altered with minimal modification for radiolabelling. Axillary drainage in naive mice and from healthy and tumour-bearing prostates was investigated. We demonstrate that 89Zr-ferumoxytol can be used for high-resolution tomographic studies of lymphatic drainage in preclinical disease models. This nanoparticle platform has significant translational potential to improve preoperative planning for nodal resection and tumour staging. PMID:24445347

  9. Navigation surgery for intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection using Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence real-time imaging in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Toh, U; Iwakuma, N; Mishima, M; Okabe, M; Nakagawa, S; Akagi, Y

    2015-09-01

    A new sensitive fluorescence imaging system was developed for the real-time identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a color charge-coupled device camera system for the intraoperative detection of SLNs and to determine its clinical efficacy and sensitivity in patients with operable breast cancer. We assessed a total of 168 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having early-stage breast cancer without metastasis in SLNs. The intraoperative detection of SLNs was performed using the conventional Indigo Carmine dye (indigotindisulfonate sodium) technique combined with a new Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging system (HyperEye Medical System: HEMS, MIZUHO IKAKOGYO, Japan) to map SLNs, in which the lymphatic vessels and SLNs were visualized transcutaneously with illuminating ICG fluorescence. Between January 2012 and May 2013, SLNs were successfully identified in all 168 patients (detection rate: 100%). By histopathology, the sensitivity was 93.8% for the detection of the metastatic involvement of SLNs (15 of 16 nodal-positive patients). After a median follow-up of 30.5 months, none of the patients presented with axillary recurrence. These results suggest that the HEMS imaging system is a feasible and effective method for the detection of SLNs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the HEMS device permitted the transcutaneous visualization of lymphatic vessels under light conditions, thus facilitating the identification and detection of SLNs without affecting the surgical procedure, together with a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26267663

  10. Non-invasive mapping of deep-tissue lymph nodes in live animals using a multimodal PET/MRI nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, David; Diop, Ndeye-Fatou M.; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Doran, Michael G.; Huang, Ruimin; Abou, Diane S.; Larson, Steven M.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The invasion status of tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) is a critical indicator of cancer stage and is important for treatment planning. Clinicians currently use planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-radiocolloid to guide biopsy and resection of LNs. However, emerging multimodality approaches such as positron emission tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) detect sites of disease with higher sensitivity and accuracy. Here we present a multimodal nanoparticle, 89Zr-ferumoxytol, for the enhanced detection of LNs with PET/MRI. For genuine translational potential, we leverage a clinical iron oxide formulation, altered with minimal modification for radiolabelling. Axillary drainage in naive mice and from healthy and tumour-bearing prostates was investigated. We demonstrate that 89Zr-ferumoxytol can be used for high-resolution tomographic studies of lymphatic drainage in preclinical disease models. This nanoparticle platform has significant translational potential to improve preoperative planning for nodal resection and tumour staging.

  11. Regulation of Axillary Meristem Initiation by Transcription Factors and Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minglei; Jiao, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    One distinctive feature of plant post-embryonic development is that plants can undergo reiterative growth and continuous organogenesis throughout their lifetimes. Axillary meristems (AMs) in leaf axils play a central role in this growth and differences in meristem initiation and development produce the diversity of plant architecture. Studies in the past 15 years have shown that several transcription factors (TFs) and phytohormones affect AM initiation. In this review, we highlight recent research using systems biology approaches to examine the regulatory hierarchies underlying AM initiation and the role of auxins and cytokinins in AM initiation and development. This research revealed a developmental mechanism in which phytohormone signals act with a gene regulatory network containing multiple TFs to contribute to the initiation of AMs. PMID:26925087

  12. An organ boundary-enriched gene regulatory network uncovers regulatory hierarchies underlying axillary meristem initiation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Caihuan; Zhang, Xiaoni; He, Jun; Yu, Haopeng; Wang, Ying; Shi, Bihai; Han, Yingying; Wang, Guoxun; Feng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Jin; Qi, Jiyan; Yu, Rong; Jiao, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control development via cell type-specific gene expression and interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and regulatory promoter regions. Plant organ boundaries separate lateral organs from the apical meristem and harbor axillary meristems (AMs). AMs, as stem cell niches, make the shoot a ramifying system. Although AMs have important functions in plant development, our knowledge of organ boundary and AM formation remains rudimentary. Here, we generated a cellular-resolution genomewide gene expression map for low-abundance Arabidopsis thaliana organ boundary cells and constructed a genomewide protein–DNA interaction map focusing on genes affecting boundary and AM formation. The resulting GRN uncovers transcriptional signatures, predicts cellular functions, and identifies promoter hub regions that are bound by many TFs. Importantly, further experimental studies determined the regulatory effects of many TFs on their targets, identifying regulators and regulatory relationships in AM initiation. This systems biology approach thus enhances our understanding of a key developmental process. PMID:25358340

  13. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Review of the Literature and Management of the Axillary Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Eid B.; Ali, Subhi D.; Kurtz, Lewis H.

    1980-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a suppurative inflammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands. It affects the apocrine gland bearing regions, the axillae being the most common site. It causes considerable morbidity and has several complications. The etiology is unknown and there is no standard method of treatment. A comprehensive review of the literature is presented demonstrating a paucity of information about this disease. The authors' experience and the management of the axillary lesion is outlined. Radical excision of the apocrine gland bearing area with split thickness skin graft (STSG) after one week is the method of choice. A reinforced sling is used for arm immobilization after grafting. The predictability of this technique makes it the preferred method of treatment. Also, more effort is urged towards better understanding of this neglected but serious health problem. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:6993691

  14. [Does the use of TachoSil allow to reduce the morbidity of axillary dissection?].

    PubMed

    Lacoste, C; Ouldamer, L; Body, G; Marret, H

    2013-02-01

    The lymphocele is the most frequently encountered complication after axillary dissection performed for breast cancer (15-81%). This study compares the efficacy of a lympho-hemostatic combipatch TachoSil() versus conventional implementation of a suction drain on the incidence and severity of lymphoceles. This is a case (group TachoSil()n=20) control (drainage group) n=40 study. In our study, we demonstrated an increased rate of postoperative complications (<3weeks) in the group TachoSil() (P=0.0265) explained by a lymphocele rate significantly higher (P=0.0194). However, no significant difference was demonstrated on the severity of these lymphoceles. Beyond 3weeks postoperatively, the two groups were comparable in terms of postoperative complications. The TachoSil() does not prevent the formation of seroma but their severity is not increased. In addition, it reduces of more than 48hours the duration of hospitalization stay (P=0.002). PMID:23375637

  15. Comparison of forehead infrared thermometry with axillary digital thermometry in neonates.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ankur; Patel, Dipen; Nimbalkar, Archana; Phatak, Ajay; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2013-12-01

    Fluctuations in core body temperature beyond a narrow range are of concern as they indicate changed homeostasis. Thermoregulation remains a key aspect of neonatal care. New non touch method of measuring temperature may reduce infection rate and discomfort of neonates. Body temperature of neonates admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was measured using axillary digital thermometer and a handheld infrared non touch thermometer. The two methods did not agree well (mean difference = -0.5, 95% limits of agreement: [-2.3, 1.2]). The agreement was similar with a negligible difference when patients in open care warmers were excluded (mean difference = -0.6, 95% limits of agreement: [-2.3, 1.1]). As the accuracy is unsatisfactory, the said technology needs further improvement before it can be adapted for routine patient care. PMID:23999676

  16. Case Report and Dosimetric Analysis of an Axillary Recurrence After Partial Breast Irradiation with Mammosite Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand P. Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael C.; Chen, Sea S.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Coon, Alan B.; Turian, Julius V.; Siziopikou, Kalliopi; Dowlat, Kambiz; Griem, Katherine L.

    2008-10-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) was designed in part to decrease overall treatment times associated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). WBRT treats the entire breast and usually portions of the axilla. The goal of PBI is to treat a smaller volume of breast tissue in less time, focusing the dose around the lumpectomy cavity. The following is a case of a 64-year-old woman with early-stage breast cancer treated with PBI who failed regionally in the ipsilateral axilla. With our dosimetric analysis, we found that the entire area of this axillary failure would have likely received at least 45 Gy if WBRT had been used, enough to sterilize microscopic disease. With PBI, this area received a mean dose of only 2.8 Gy, which raises the possibility that this regional failure may have been prevented had WBRT been used instead of PBI.

  17. Regulation of Axillary Meristem Initiation by Transcription Factors and Plant Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minglei; Jiao, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    One distinctive feature of plant post-embryonic development is that plants can undergo reiterative growth and continuous organogenesis throughout their lifetimes. Axillary meristems (AMs) in leaf axils play a central role in this growth and differences in meristem initiation and development produce the diversity of plant architecture. Studies in the past 15 years have shown that several transcription factors (TFs) and phytohormones affect AM initiation. In this review, we highlight recent research using systems biology approaches to examine the regulatory hierarchies underlying AM initiation and the role of auxins and cytokinins in AM initiation and development. This research revealed a developmental mechanism in which phytohormone signals act with a gene regulatory network containing multiple TFs to contribute to the initiation of AMs. PMID:26925087

  18. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize ramosa pathway.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Long, Jeff A; Stanfield, Sharon; Yang, Xiang; Jackson, David; Vollbrecht, Erik; Schmidt, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Plant axillary meristems are composed of highly organized, self-renewing stem cells that produce indeterminate branches or terminate in differentiated structures, such as the flowers. These opposite fates, dictated by both genetic and environmental factors, determine interspecific differences in the architecture of plants. The Cys(2)-His(2) zinc-finger transcription factor RAMOSA1 (RA1) regulates the fate of most axillary meristems during the early development of maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and has been implicated in the evolution of grass architecture. Mutations in RA1 or any other known members of the ramosa pathway, RAMOSA2 and RAMOSA3, generate highly branched inflorescences. Here, we report a genetic screen for the enhancement of maize inflorescence branching and the discovery of a new regulator of meristem fate: the RAMOSA1 ENHANCER LOCUS2 (REL2) gene. rel2 mutants dramatically increase the formation of long branches in ears of both ra1 and ra2 mutants. REL2 encodes a transcriptional co-repressor similar to the TOPLESS protein of Arabidopsis, which is known to maintain apical-basal polarity during embryogenesis. REL2 is capable of rescuing the embryonic defects of the Arabidopsis topless-1 mutant, suggesting that REL2 also functions as a transcriptional co-repressor throughout development. We show by genetic and molecular analyses that REL2 physically interacts with RA1, indicating that the REL2/RA1 transcriptional repressor complex antagonizes the formation of indeterminate branches during maize inflorescence development. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of meristem fate and the architecture of plants. PMID:20699296

  19. [Determination of Mineral Elements in Choerospondias Axillaris and Its Extractives by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-xin; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Ji-yan; Wang, Xie-yi; Cheng, Chao; Liu, Cheng-mei

    2015-04-01

    Nine elements in Choerospondias axillaris flesh, peels, aqueous extractives and gastric digesta were determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in the present study. The results showed that the contents of Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn, Al, Mg, Cu, K and P in the flesh were 27.37, 269.88, 1.51, 2.45, 1.95, 195.30, 2.45, 2,970.11, and 133.94 g g(-1), respectively. They are lower than that in the peels, about 40.31%, 11.70%, 21.68%, 4.27%, 10.58%, 15.76%, 68.72%, 42.04%, and 22.59%, respectively. For microwave assistant extraction, the release rate of Mn was highest (81.68%), while Fe was lowest (4.42%) in the flesh. The release rate of Zn was the highest (79.00%), while that of A1 was the lowest (4.94%) in the peels. Except Fe, Cu and Zn, the release rates of the other elements in flesh were higher than those in the peels. After gastric digestion, the release rates of nine elements were 3.25%-87.51% in the flesh and 7.11%-50.69% in the peels. The release rates of minerals in the flesh were found to be higher than those in the peels except Fe and Cu. Microwave assistant extraction can more efficiently release Fe, Ca, Mn, Mg and K from the flesh than the gastric digestion do. While gastric digestion had a significant effect on the peels, the release rates of elements, except Zn, were higher than those in microwave assistant extraction. Therefore, the difference of distribution and release of mineral elements between peels and flesh of Choerospondias axillaris was understood, which will provide a positive guide for further study of bioavailability of minerals for human body. PMID:26197601

  20. Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

  1. Histopathological Evidence of Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Can, Nuray; Tastekin, Ebru; Ozyilmaz, Filiz; Sezer, Yavuz Atakan; Guldiken, Sibel; Sut, Necdet; Sarikas, Nurtac; Oz Puyan, Fulya; Guler, Beril; Ayturk, Semra; Celik, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Prophylactic lymph node dissection is still controversial due to the potentially surgery-related morbidity in management of papillary thyroid carcinomas. So, some histopathological predictors for lymph node metastasis in thyroidectomy specimens may reveal importance. The objective of this study was to define histomorphological indicators of lymph node metastasis in the patients who had been performed thyroidectomy without lymph node dissection. Clinicopathological features of patients archived in Department of Pathology at Trakya University Medical Faculty were reviewed. A total of 211 patients who had been diagnosed as papillary carcinoma and had been performed total thyroidectomy/lobectomy with central/cervical lymph node dissection were included in the study. Clinical features (age, gender, preoperative/postoperative clinical, and laboratory findings) and histopathological features (histological variant, tumor size, focality, extrathyroidal extension, tumor border, lateral tubular growth, intraglandular dissemination, stromal and lymphocytic tumor response, lymphocytic thyroiditis, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, number of metastatic lymph nodes, extranodal extension, size of the metastatic foci) were evaluated. Male gender, conventional variant, tumor size greater than 10 mm, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lateral tubular growth, intraglandular dissemination, lymphocytic and stromal tumor response, and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis were predictive, and older age (≥45 years) and follicular variant PTC were protective for lymph node metastasis. In order to optimize the management of papillary thyroid carcinomas, pathologists should search for the clues of lymph node metastasis particularly intraglandular dissemination, lateral tubular growth, tumor border and lymphocytic/stromal tumor response, multifocality, concomitant lymphocytic thyroiditis besides the actual prognostic criteria especially in younger aged male patients. PMID:26209182

  2. Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej; Brachtel, Elena F.; Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

  3. Laser speckle technique for monitoring of blood and lymph flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-07-01

    Laser speckle technique developed for monitoring of micro scale blood and lymph flows is described and discussed. It is based on the space-time correlation properties of dynamic speckle field formed by coherent light scattered by capillary flow of blood or lymph. As it was proved experimentally, the estimating of cross-correlation of speckle-field intensity fluctuations recorded in two different point allows for measurement of flow velocity and flow direction discrimination. Developed technique was applied for investigation of push-pull dynamics of lymph flow in rat mesentery. The results of experiments with models of bioflows and in vivo measurements are presented.

  4. Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jean L.; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Hudis, Clifford; Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

  5. Sentinel lymph-node biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities: the McGill experience

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Francine; Loutfi, Antoine; Shibata, Henry; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of sentinel lymph-node (SLN) biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities. Design Case series review. Setting Royal Victoria Hospital, a Canadian university hospital. Patients Thirty-six patients (18 women and 18 men) seen between October 1996 and December 1998 with melanoma 1 mm or more in thickness with clinically negative lymph-node basins. Follow-up was 396 days. Interventions SLN biopsy. Technetium-99m filtered sulfur colloid (0.5 mCi) was injected intradermally around the melanoma or the excision scar 10 to 15 minutes before the surgical skin preparation. The identification of the SLN(s) was done with a hand-held gamma probe. Local anesthesia was used mostly for inguinal SLN biopsy whereas general anesthesia was usually required for axillary SLN biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was used only for trunk melanomas. Outcome measures Morbidity, successful identification of the sentinel node and locoregional recurrence. Results The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 53.4 years (range from 2276 yr). The melanomas were distributed between the lower extremities (20 patients), upper extremities (8 patients) and trunk (8 patients). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.35 mm (range from 18 mm). Lymphoscintigraphy accurately localized the lymph-node drainage basin for trunk melanomas. In 1 patient the SLN could not be identified because the radiocolloid failed to migrate (failure rate 2.8%). The average number of SLNs removed was 1.97. Eight patients (22%) had sentinel nodes positive for malignant disease. The postoperative complication rate was 8.5%. Seven of 8 patients with positive SLNs underwent a complete node dissection (1 patient refused). Of the completion dissections only 2 patients had positive non-SLNs. All patients with positive nodes received interferon alpha-2b as adjuvant treatment. At follow-up, 34 patients are alive with no evidence of disease, 1 patient with a positive SLN is alive with distant metastatic disease and 1 patient with a negative SLN is dead of disseminated disease. Conclusion SLN biopsy is a feasible technique with an acceptable failure rate and is thus a useful tool in the surgical management of melanoma. PMID:11764875

  6. Apelin promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Berta, Judit; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Laszlo, Viktoria; Rozsas, Anita; Garay, Tamas; Torok, Szilvia; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter; Paku, Sandor; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Masri, Bernard; Tovari, Jozsef; Groger, Marion; Klepetko, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Dome, Balazs

    2014-06-30

    Whereas the role of the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor and its ligand, apelin, in angiogenesis has been well documented, the ability of the apelin/APJ system to induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis has been largely unexplored. To this end, we first show that APJ is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and, moreover, that it responds to apelin by activating the apelinergic signaling cascade. We find that although apelin treatment does not influence the proliferation of LECs in vitro, it enhances their migration, protects them against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, increases their spheroid numbers in 3D culture, stimulates their in vitro capillary-like tube formation and, furthermore, promotes the invasive growth of lymphatic microvessels in vivo in the matrigel plug assay. We also demonstrate that apelin overexpression in malignant cells is associated with accelerated in vivo tumor growth and with increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. These results indicate that apelin induces lymphangiogenesis and, accordingly, plays an important role in lymphatic tumor progression. Our study does not only reveal apelin as a novel lymphangiogenic factor but might also open the door for the development of novel anticancer therapies targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24962866

  7. Ultrastructure of the Normal Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Nopajaroonsri, Charn; Luk, Shing C.; Simon, Grard T.

    1971-01-01

    The normal lymph node has been studied by electron microscopy. The lymphoid tissue can be divided into three distinct zones. Zone 1 consists of loosely arranged cells surrounding the lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. This is the only zone in which plasma cells are present. Zone 2 is surrounded by zone 1 and consists of compactly arranged cells in which lymphocytes predominate. Zone 3 (germinal center) appears only after antigenic stimulation. It is characterized by large, ribosome-rich cells and macrophages containing phagocytosed lymphocytes. These zones are arranged with their longest diameters pointing towards the hilus. Zone 1 is the longest and extends across the cortex, paracortex and medulla. Zone 2 spans across cortex and paracortex. Zone 3 usually is confined to the cortex. Our preliminary studies indicate that zone 1 is mainly bursal dependent, zone 2 is mainly thymic dependent and zone 3 is bursal dependent. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 9Fig 10Fig 6Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 11Fig 13Fig 15Fig 5Fig 7Fig 8Fig 4 PMID:5096365

  8. Apelin promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Viktoria; Rozsas, Anita; Garay, Tamas; Torok, Szilvia; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter; Paku, Sandor; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Masri, Bernard; Tovari, Jozsef; Groger, Marion; Klepetko, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Dome, Balazs

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the role of the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor and its ligand, apelin, in angiogenesis has been well documented, the ability of the apelin/APJ system to induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis has been largely unexplored. To this end, we first show that APJ is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and, moreover, that it responds to apelin by activating the apelinergic signaling cascade. We find that although apelin treatment does not influence the proliferation of LECs in vitro, it enhances their migration, protects them against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, increases their spheroid numbers in 3D culture, stimulates their in vitro capillary-like tube formation and, furthermore, promotes the invasive growth of lymphatic microvessels in vivo in the matrigel plug assay. We also demonstrate that apelin overexpression in malignant cells is associated with accelerated in vivo tumor growth and with increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. These results indicate that apelin induces lymphangiogenesis and, accordingly, plays an important role in lymphatic tumor progression. Our study does not only reveal apelin as a novel lymphangiogenic factor but might also open the door for the development of novel anticancer therapies targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24962866

  9. Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Ji, Deng-Bo; Han, Hai-Bo; Shi, Yun-Fei; Du, Chang-Zheng; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of miR-193a-5p with lymph node metastasis and postoperative survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A total of 304 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (69 paired cancer and normal tissues, 55 primary tumors of stage III CRC and matched lymph nodes, and 56 primary tumors of stage II CRC) were included in this study. The relative expression levels of miR-193a-5p in the normal mucosa, primary cancer, and metastatic lymph node lesions were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the association of its expression with colorectal cancer lymph node metastasis, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival. RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-193a-5p was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in the normal mucosa (P = 0.0060). The expression levels of miR-193a-5p were lower in primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without metastases (P = 0.0006), and decreased expression of miR-193a-5p correlated with advanced lymph node metastatic stage (P = 0.0007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0026) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0003). Interestingly, for the group of patients with lymph node metastases, miR-193a-5p expression was also related to survival. Patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased DFS (P = 0.0262) and poor OS (P = 0.0230). Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-193a-5p was an independent predictor of poor OS. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. miR-193a-5p may be a useful biomarker for CRC diagnosis, metastasis and prognosis prediction. PMID:25232258

  10. Speckle diagnostics and biomicroscopy of lymph flow in microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Solov'eva, Anastasiya V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brill, Gregory E.

    2001-08-01

    In the present study speckle-interferometry and TV intravital biomicroscopy techniques has been proposed for the analysis of microcirculatory parameters. The power spectra of fluctuation of intensity, scattered by these vessels, have a complicated shape. The mean value of first spectral movement M1 (which is assumed to be directly proportional to average velocity) in lymphatics with spontaneous contractions differ from vessels without phasic activity. We register two types of histogram of M1 in contracting and non-contracting vessels. The phasic contractions may be caused by the modification of lymph flow in microvessels and/or by the changes of the speckle signal values. An application of lymphotropic drugs (staphylococcal toxin, N-nitro-L-arginine and dimethyl sufoxide) on the lymph microvessels has been investigated. The study of lymph flow by two methods (intravital TV biomicroscopy and speckle-interferometry) allows to determine the ways of the action of vasoactive drugs on lymph flow.

  11. Lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Martins, Mário Rino

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Efforts to reduce its high mortality rates are currently focused on multidisciplinary management. However, surgery remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with resectable disease. There is still some controversy as to the extent of lymph node dissection for potentially curable stomach cancer. Surgeons in eastern countries favor more extensive lymph node dissection, whereas those in the West favor less extensive dissection. Thus, extent of lymph node dissection remains one of the most hotly discussed aspects of gastric surgery, particularly because most stomach cancers are now often comprehensively treated by adding some perioperative chemotherapy or chemo-radiation. We provide a critical review of lymph nodes dissection for gastric cancer with a particular focus on its benefits in a multimodal approach. PMID:25992202

  12. Nanoparticle Transport from Mouse Vagina to Adjacent Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K.; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Hope, Thomas J.; Labib, Mohamed E.

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844

  13. A Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Genexol (Paclitaxel) and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinsun; Chang, Eilsung; Choi, Woonjung; Lee, Kwangman; Yoon, Hyunjo; Jung, Sunghoo; Park, Minho; Yoon, Junghan; Kim, Sungyong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) is yet to be established as the definitive treatment regimen for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of NC with epirubicin and paclitaxel. Methods Between March 2007 and January 2009, 50 patients with LABC were enrolled in an open-label, phase II, multicenter study carried out at five distinct institutions. All patients were scheduled to receive four cycles of 60 mg/m2 epirubicin and 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel every 3 weeks, preoperatively, unless they developed profound side effects or disease progression. After curative surgery, two additional cycles of chemotherapy were administered to patients who had shown a positive response to NC. Results In all, 196 cycles of chemotherapy were administered preoperatively; 47 of the 50 patients (94%) underwent all four cycles of designated treatment. Complete disappearance of invasive foci of the primary tumor, and negative axillary lymph nodes were confirmed in eight patients (16.0%), post operation. The cumulative 5-year disease-free survival rate was 70.0% for patients with complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR), and 33.3% for patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD) (p=0.018). The cumulative 5-year overall survival was 90.0% for patients who achieved CR and PR and 55.6% for patients who had SD and PD (p=0.001). Neutropenia (42.0%) was the most common grade 3/4 toxicity. However, none of the toxicities resulted in cessation of the treatment. Conclusion The encouraging pathologic response observed in the patients treated with epirubicin plus paclitaxel NC in this study suggests that epirubicin could be a substitute for doxorubicin, which is the most cardiotoxic agent. PMID:25548582

  14. Computer-aided lymph node detection in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; White, Jacob M.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-03-01

    Many malignant processes cause abdominal lymphadenopathy, and computed tomography (CT) has become the primary modality for its detection. A lymph node is considered enlarged (swollen) if it is more than 1 centimeter in diameter. Which lymph nodes are swollen depends on the type of disease and the body parts involved. Identifying their locations is very important to determine the possible cause. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of enlarged lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be error-prone and time consuming. 3D blob enhancement filter is a usual way for computer-aided node detection. We proposed a new 3D blob detector for automatic lymph node detection in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT images. Since lymph nodes are usually next to blood vessels, abdominal blood vessels were first segmented as a reference to set the search region for lymph nodes. Then a new detection response measure, blobness, is defined based on eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix and the object scale in our new blob detector. Voxels with higher blobness were clustered as lymph node candidates. Finally some prior anatomical knowledge was utilized for false positive reduction. We applied our method to 5 patients and compared the results with the performance of the original blobness definition. Both methods achieved sensitivity of 83.3% but the false positive rates per patient were 14 and 26 for our method and the original method, respectively. Our results indicated that computer-aided lymph node detection with this new blob detector may yield a high sensitivity and a relatively low FP rate in abdominal CT.

  15. Quality enhancement with adaptive edge preservation for lymph nodal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Haiying; Cai, Hongmin; Cui, Chunyan; Li, Li

    2011-06-01

    Morphological information of lymph nodal metastasis is a critical prognostic factor in patients with cancer. However, the raw images of lymph node obtained by CT equipments are usually corrupted by noises. In this paper, we are proposing to use a revised nonlinear diffusion techniques to remove the noises while preserving edge information. Experiments on real data show that the method can be used to obtain accurate edge information and thus facilitate nodal morphological analysis.

  16. Lymph node characteristics of sarcoidosis with endobronchial ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Cetinkaya, Erdo?an; Kirkil, Gamze; Ozgul, Guler; Abul, Yasin; Acat, Murat; Onaran, Hilal; Urer, Halide Nur; Tutar, Nuri; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sonographic features of lymph nodes on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) have been shown to be useful in prediction of malignancy in mediastinum and hilum. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of morphologic features of mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes obtained by EBUS in patients with sarcoidosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 224 patients with mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargements who underwent EBUS for diagnostic purpose. The lymph nodes were characterized based on the EBUS images as follows: (1) Size; based on short-axis dimension, <1 cm or ?1 cm, (2) shape; oval or round, (3) margin; distinct or indistinct, (4) echogenicity; homogeneous or heterogeneous, (5) presence or absence of central hilar structure, and (6) presence or absence of granular (sandpaper) appearance. Results: One hundred (24.4%) nodes exhibited indistinct margins while 309 (75.6%) had distinct margins. One hundred and ninety nine (48.7%) nodes were characterized as homogeneous, and 210 (51.3%) nodes as heterogeneous. Granular appearance was observed in 130 (31.8%) lymph nodes. The presence of granules in lymph nodes on EBUS had the highest specificity (99.3%) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed the finding of distinct margin alone as an independent predictive factor for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Conclusions: The presence of granular appearance in lymph nodes by EBUS had the highest specificity (99.3%) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Lymph nodes having distinct margins tend to suggest sarcoidosis. PMID:25485271

  17. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed.

  18. Long term compensatory sweating results after sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; DAndrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for primary upper extremity hyperhidrosis, but the potential for adverse effects, particularly the development of compensatory sweating, is a concern and often precludes surgery as a definitive therapy. This study aims to evaluate long-term results of two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Methods From November 1995 to February 2011, 261 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis underwent endoscopic sympathectomy with a follow-up of at least 4 years. One-hundred and twenty-six patients received one-stage bilateral, single port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 135 patients underwent two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of four months between the procedures (two-stage group). Results The mean postoperative follow-up period was 7.2 years (range, 49 years). Sixteen patients (12.7%) in the one-stage group and 15 patients (11.1%) in the two-stage group suffered from bradycardia (P=0.15). Recurrences occurred in three patients (2.4%) in the one-stage group and one (0.7%) in the two-stage group (P=0,09). Facial flushing or hyperthermia occurred in eight patients (6.3%) in the one-stage group and 11 (8.1%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 27 patients (21.4%) in the one-stage group and six patients (4.4%) in the two-stage group (P=0.0001). However, compensatory sweating recovered in five patients (83.3%) in the two-stage group versus nine (33.35%) in one-stage group during the follow-up period (Log-rank test P=0.016; HR, 7.196; 95% CI, 1.43136.20). An improvement in postoperative quality of life (QoL) scores was observed in at least 90% of patients at three years after surgery in the one-stage group and at least 95% of patients in the two-stage group (P=0.001). Conclusions Compensatory sweating seems to improve during the follow-up period with a higher recovery rate after two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral sympathectomy for patients with palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis.

  19. Nomogram for predicting lymph node metastasis rate of submucosal gastric cancer by analyzing clinicopathological characteristics associated with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhixue; Zhang, Yinan; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Wu, Aiwen; Wu, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background To combine clinicopathological characteristics associated with lymph node metastasis for submucosal gastric cancer into a nomogram. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 262 patients with submucosal gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy between 1996 and 2012. The relationship between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological features was statistically analyzed. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, we made a nomogram to predict the possibility of lymph node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed to assess the predictive value of the model. Discrimination and calibration were performed using internal validation. Results A total number of 48 (18.3%) patients with submucosal gastric cancer have pathologically lymph node metastasis. For submucosal gastric carcinoma, lymph node metastasis was associated with age, tumor location, macroscopic type, size, differentiation, histology, the existence of ulcer and lymphovascular invasion in univariate analysis (all P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age ?50 years old, macroscopic type III or mixed, undifferentiated type, and presence of lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors of lymph node metastasis in submucosal gastric cancer (all P<0.05). We constructed a predicting nomogram with all these factors for lymph node metastasis in submucosal gastric cancer with good discrimination [area under the curve (AUC) =0.844]. Internal validation demonstrated a good discrimination power that the actual probability corresponds closely with the predicted probability. Conclusions We developed a nomogram to predict the rate of lymph node metastasis for submucosal gastric cancer. With good discrimination and internal validation, the nomogram improved individualized predictions for assisting clinicians to make appropriated treatment decision for submucosal gastric cancer patients. PMID:26752931

  20. Gasless single incision trans-axillary thyroidectomy: The feasibility and safety of a hypo-morbid endoscopic thyroidectomy technique

    PubMed Central

    Bhargav, Panchangam R K; Kumbhar, Uday S; Satyam, G; Gayathri, K B

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A range of minimally invasive endoscopic techniques (gas dependent and gasless) have been attempted for thyroidectomy in the past two decades. In this context, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of our technique of a gasless trans-axillary thyroidectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study from the Department of Endocrine and metabolic surgery in Southern India included 15 cases. The details of operative technique, intra and postoperative data were documented in all the cases. Only cases with benign thyroid nodules were included. Exclusion criteria were diffuse toxic goiters (Graves disease), thyroid cancer, > 6 cm nodules, recurrent goitres and patients with shoulder joint pathology. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software 12.0 version. RESULTS: F:M -14:2. Mean age of the patient group was 26.4 years (15-52). Mean operative time was 123.4 (82-206) minutes. The only specific complications were induration in the infraclavicular area between axillary incision and thyroid region, prolonged wound drainage and stiffness in lower 3rd of sternocleidomastoid. Wound drainage lasted for 5.4 days (4 -8). There was no significant operative morbidity. CONCLUSION: This gasless trans-axillary technique for nodular goitres is safe and effective in the hands of an experienced thyroid surgeon. PMID:24019689

  1. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  2. Total phenolic, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and toxicity study of Gynotroches axillaris blume (Rhizophoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Salam Ahmed; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Taher, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content, as well as the influence of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves of Gynotroches axillaris, on microorganisms were studied. The total phenolic contents were evaluated by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 70.0 to 620 mg GAE/g. The efficiency of antioxidation, which was identified through the scavenging of free radical DPPH, exhibited that the highest IC50 was in the methanolic extract (44.7 g/mL) as compared to the standard ascorbic acid (25.83 g/mL) and to standard BHT (17.2 g/mL). In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was tested against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Methanol extract showed activity in the range (225-900 ?g/mL) with both types, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were only active with Bacillus subtilis. The three extracts strongly inhibited all fungi with activity 225-450 ?g/mL. The toxicity test against brine shrimps indicated that all extracts were non-toxic with LC50 value more than 1000 g/mL. The finding of this study supports the safety of these extracts to be used in medical treatments. PMID:26600731

  3. Nuclear shape and axillary metastases in breast cancer. Analytic morphometry of aspiration smears.

    PubMed

    Giardina, C; Ricco, R; Serio, G; Vacca, E; Pennella, A; Renzulli, G; Punzo, C; Borzacchini, A M; Delfino, V P

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to seek quantitative parameters other than dimensions to describe nuclear shape and, by this means, to determine the sum of contour irregularities and large asymmetries and seek a connection with the biologic behavior of the tumor. Nuclei of the cells obtained from 57 aspiration smears of breast cancers were studied. Dimensional parameters (area, perimeter, maximum diameter and roundness factor) and analytic parameters were computed by the Shape Analytical Morphometry software system to evaluate both contour irregularities and asymmetry of nuclear shape. All the tumors were subdivided according to their diameters into two groups: T1 tumors, the maximum diameter of which was < 2 cm (18 cases), and T2 tumors, the maximum diameter of which was > 2 cm and < 5 cm (39 cases). Among T1 tumors, both dimensional and analytic parameters were highly significant (P < .001) in distinguishing tumors with (N+) and tumors without (N-) axillary metastases, while among larger tumors (T2) only the analytic parameters showed degrees of significance, albeit variable. It could be inferred that in smaller tumors, aggressiveness is related to an increase in nuclear dimensions and shape distortions more so than in larger tumors. PMID:8191823

  4. Identification and description of the axillary web syndrome (AWS) by clinical signs, MRI and US imaging.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Fumire, E; Banse, S; Vandervorst, C; Clment, A; Parijs, T; Wilputte, F; Maquerlot, F; Ezquer Echandia, M; Tinlot, A; Leduc, A

    2014-12-01

    The Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS) follows surgery for breast neoplasia and consists of one, or more frequently two or three, cords of subcutaneous tissue. Cords originate from the axilla, spread to the antero-medial surface of the arm down to the elbow and then move into the antero-medial aspect of the forearm and sometimes into the root of the thumb. The purpose of this study was to compare two techniques, ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for their sensitivity and accuracy in identifying AWS cords and to provide insights to the origin of this pathology. US examinations were performed on fifteen patients using a high frequency probe (17 MHz). We first palpated and marked the cord with location aided by maximum abduction. To identify the cord with MRI (1.5 Tesla), a catheter filled with a gel detectable under MRI was placed on the skin at the site of the cord. We found that in some US cases, the dynamic abduction maneuver was essential to facilitate detection of the cord. This dynamic method on ultrasound confirmed the precise location of the cord even if it was located deeper in the hypodermis fascia junction. US and MRI images revealed features of the cords and surrounding tissues. Imaging the cords was difficult with either of the imaging modalities. However, US seemed to be more efficient than MRI and allowed dynamic evaluation. Overall analysis of our study results supports a lymphatic origin of the AWS cord. PMID:25915977

  5. Structure and function of the axillary organ of the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta (Goode and Bean).

    PubMed

    Maina, J N; Wood, C M; Hogstrand, C; Hopkins, T E; Luo, Y H; Gibbs, P D; Walsh, P J

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the axillary organ of a batrachoidid species, the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta Goode and Bean 1879), has been examined and several simple experiments designed to elucidate its function performed. Electron microscopy (EM) studies revealed cells and structures suggesting secretory and iono regulatory roles (e.g., abundant intracytoplasmic secretory particles, rough endoplasmic reticulum, sparse Golgi bodies, indented epithelial cells with microvilli, numerous endocytotic vesicles, etc.). Our physiological experiments allowed us to reach several conclusions: the organs do not excrete significant quantities of urea relative to other areas of the fish (head and gills), the organs do not secrete a substance that is toxic to a teleost test fish (Gambusia affinis), the secretions do not induce short-term modifications in locomotory activity of other gulf toadfish (e.g., by pheromonal means) and the secretions do not inhibit the growth of several species of microorganisms in culture. The function of the organ and its secretions remains unknown, representing a fertile area for research on structure and function in comparative physiology. PMID:11253782

  6. Effective prevention of stress-induced sweating and axillary malodour formation in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Martin, A; Hellhammer, J; Hero, T; Max, H; Schult, J; Terstegen, L

    2011-02-01

    Emotional sweating and malodour production represent a relevant challenge to today's antiperspirant (AP) and deodorant products as stress in everyday life increases continuously. The aim of this study was to investigate stress-induced sweating in teenagers who are known to experience various stressful situations, e.g. exams at school or job interviews. To induce emotional sweating in 20 female and 20 male adolescents (16-18 years of age), we applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), considered today to be the most reliable and standardized stress protocol. In this study, we demonstrate that the TSST induces high amounts of sweat and strong axillary malodour in the tested age group. Notably, male teenagers showed significantly higher stress-induced odour scores than female subjects, although no gender differences were detected concerning other physiological stress markers. Testing of a novel deodorant/AP product developed to specifically address the needs of adolescent consumers revealed excellent deodorant and AP efficacy under the challenging conditions of the TSST. PMID:20646085

  7. Two episodes of axillary granular parakeratosis triggered by different causes: case report.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Francisco; Sudy, Emilio; Misad, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Granular parakeratosis is an acquired disorder of keratinization characterized by keratotic papules and plaques located in the intertriginous areas. Its etiology is unknown. Some cases have been related to the application of deodorants and antiperspirants, local irritation or increased sweating; in other cases no precipitant factors have been found. We report a case of axillary granular parakeratosis in an adult male in whom the lesions appeared twice under different circumstances: the first time the lesions appeared after local irritation produced by an antiperspirant and/or the use of a paste containing zinc oxide; two years later, an identical eruption reappeared in both axillae, while using his habitual deodorant and without a preceding irritation of the zone; only excessive sweating was mentioned this time after a weight gain of 20 kg. On both occasions, the lesions disappeared completely a few days after using topical calcipotriol. A constitutional factor may predispose the development of granular parakeratosis, which must be considered a reaction pattern that can be induced by multiple different causes. PMID:22726284

  8. Subcutaneous emphysema from an axillary wound that resulted in pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax in a horse.

    PubMed

    Hance, S R; Robertson, J T

    1992-04-15

    A 5-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was examined because of a small axillary wound sustained 5 days earlier and had resulted in extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Three days after admission, the horse's respiratory rate had increased to 72 breaths/min, and the horse appeared anxious and distressed. Thoracic radiography revealed pneumomediastinum and severe bilateral pneumothorax. Tube thoracostomy was performed on both hemithoraxes. The drains were connected to one-way suction valves and suction devices to decompress the thorax. A nasopharyngeal catheter was inserted, and oxygen insufflation was started. Cross ties were placed on the horse to limit movement, and the wound was packed. The horse improved within 30 minutes after initiating treatment. The horse was released 15 days after the development of pneumothorax, at which time the pneumothorax had resolved, the wound was no longer open, and the subcutaneous emphysema had greatly decreased. Although subcutaneous emphysema is usually regarded as a temporary cosmetic disfigurement, it can lead to serious complications such as pneumothorax. This case demonstrates that subcutaneous emphysema can lead to a life-threatening pneumothorax if the pressure is great enough to migrate through the mediastinum and into the pleural cavity. Horses with subcutaneous emphysema should be kept in confinement and monitored for the development of pneumothorax. PMID:1607316

  9. An efficient regeneration and rapid micropropagation protocol for Almond using dormant axillary buds as explants.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ravish; Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Kailash Chandra

    2015-07-01

    An efficient in vitro protocol was standardized for Almond (Prunus dulcis) propagation using dormant axillary buds as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentration/combination(s) of phytohormones. MS basal medium showed lowest shoot induction and took longest duration for shoot initiation. Multiple shoots were induced in MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP (0.5 mgL(-1)). Cultures showed poor response for rooting in all combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and took 90 days for initiation. Rooting was higher in half strength of MS than in full-strength. The highest root induction (33.33%) was recorded in half MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) followed by full strength of MS medium (20%) supplemented with IBA (0.1 mgL(-1)). ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was less effective for rooting than IBA. The highest root induction (25%) was found in half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA followed by full strength of MS medium (20%). The protocol developed would be of use in mass propagation of almond and also support in vitro conservation. PMID:26245032

  10. Ultrasound-guided axillary plexus block in a child with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Englbrecht, J S; Langer, M; Hahnenkamp, K; Ellger, B

    2010-11-01

    We report the use of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block in a child with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa needing surgical treatment of the right hand. The regional anaesthesia was used in association with sedation/ anaesthesia. This technique is suitable for these difficult patients because it can minimise the risk of new bullae formation due to palpation of landmarks or unintentional intra- or subcutaneous injections. Initial anaesthesia/sedation was provided with sevoflurane until intravenous access was obtained, following which intravenous propofol infusion with ketamine boluses without any invasive airway management was continued for performance of the block and the procedure. This management plan provided good surgical conditions, early postoperative analgesia, minimised stress for the patient and avoided the need to manipulate the airway with instruments and the associated risk of mucosal bullae. The classification and breadth of clinical manifestation of epidermolysis bullosa is complex and briefly summarised. The anaesthetist should clarify the details of a particular patient's form of epidermolysis bullosa, especially in terms of mucosal involvement, as this may greatly influence planning for a procedure. PMID:21226445

  11. Radical Surgical Excision and Use of Lateral Thoracic Flap for Intractable Axillary Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Wan-Lin; Ong, Yee-Siang

    2012-01-01

    Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) include prolonged courses of antibiotics, retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolonged medical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracic flap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients, good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction. The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin, leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excision of the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coverage without unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateral thoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With a suitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift from prolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the quality of life for patients. PMID:23233895

  12. [In vitro propagation of mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) from axillary buds].

    PubMed

    Tacoronte, Melngel; Vielma, Mara; Mora, Argenis; Valecillos, Carle

    2004-01-01

    The mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) is a forest tree with a great commercial value mainly due to its wood quality. Unfortunately, this species is being threatened by the effect of intensive timber exploitation, its low capacity to regenerate, and the attack of the Meliaceae shoot borer (Hypsipylla grandella Zeller) (Lepidoptera Pyralidae). To increase population, large-scale propagation of mahogany by in vitro culture was developed. To obtain plantlets, nodal segments were cultured in a half-strength MS medium supplemented with different combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA), specified by the Central Compositional Rotable Statistical Design Method, within a range of 0-3 mg/L for both hormones. Favourable incubation conditions were: 16 h light, and 40-45 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) at 25 degrees C. The derived response surface showed an optimal axillary bud elongation on a medium containing 1.94 mg BA/L and 0.38 mg NAA/L. No significant differences were found neither applying Orellana Method nor modified Orellana method. Mahogany plantlets obtained were successfully acclimated. PMID:15916160

  13. Spontaneous resolution of a recurrent axillary cystic hygroma following acute infection.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Chauhan, Kashif; Singh, Shailinder

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous resolution of a recurrent axillary cystic hygroma in a 4-year-old boy. He presented with a 1-year history of a cystic lump in the left axilla, which intermittently changed in size. Ultrasound suggested it was a lipoma, with raised suspicions of vascular malformation. Scans were discussed in a multidisciplinary meeting and provisional diagnosis of lymphocele or slow flow lymphovascular malformation was made. It was surgically excised and histology confirmed the lesion to be a cystic hygroma. However, it recurred within 3?weeks. The patient was booked for aspiration and treatment with sclerotic agent OK 432. He developed acute infection in the cystic hygroma a week before surgical intervention and was treated with antibiotics for 5?days by his general practitioner. Acute infection led to complete spontaneous resolution of the cystic hygroma within a week. There are no other reported cases in which recurrent cystic hygroma has resolved after a week of acute infection. PMID:26552879

  14. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species.

    PubMed

    Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Silva, J M; Soares, M K M; Soares, A N; Martins, A R

    2015-08-01

    The species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers. PMID:26465732

  15. The Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Occult Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xingqiang; Zeng, Ruichao; Ma, Zhaosheng; Chen, Chengze; Chen, Endong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cao, Feilin

    2015-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first draining node from the primary lesion, and it has proven to be a good indicator of the metastatic status of regional lymph nodes in solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of SLN biopsy (SLNB) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with occult lymph nodes. Methods From April 2006 to October 2012, 212 consecutive PTC patients were treated with SLNB using carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNS). Then, the stained nodes defined as SLN were collected, and prophylactic central compartment neck dissection (CCND) followed by total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy were performed. All the samples were sent for pathological examination. Results There were 78 (36.8%) SLN metastasis (SLNM)-positive cases and 134 (63.2%) SLNM-negative cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false-positive and false-negative rates of SLNB were 78.8%, 100%, 100%, 84.3%, 0%, and 21.2%, respectively. The PTC patients with SLNM were more likely to be male (48.2% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.039) and exhibited multifocality (52.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.025) and extrathyroidal extension (56.7% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.015). A greater incidence of non-SLN metastases in the central compartment was found in patients with SLNM (41/78, 52.6%) than in those without SLNM (21/134, 15.7%; p < 0.05). However, the SLNM-negative PTC patients with non-SLN metastases were more likely to be male (37.9% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of SLNB using CNS is technically feasible, safe, and useful, especially for male patients with co-existing multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, the sensitivity of SLNB must be improved and its false-negative rate reduced before it can be a routine procedure and replace prophylactic CCND. More attention should be paid to PTC patients (especially males) without SLNM for signs of non-SLN metastases. PMID:26046782

  16. Chest Wall Radiotherapy: Middle Ground for Treatment of Patients With One to Three Positive Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Shannon M.; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Kobayashi, Wendy; McGrath, John J.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Powell, Simon; Smith, Barbara; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Stage II breast cancer and one to three positive lymph nodes after mastectomy who were treated with observation or adjuvant radiotherapy to the chest wall (CW) with or without the regional lymphatics. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 238 patients with Stage II breast cancer (one to three positive lymph nodes) treated with mastectomy at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2004. The estimates of locoregional recurrence (LRR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were analyzed according to the delivery of radiotherapy and multiple prognostic factors. Results: LRR and DFS were significantly improved by postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), with a 5- and 10-year LRR rate without PMRT of 6% and 11%, respectively and, with PMRT, of 0% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .02). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate without PMRT was 85% and 75%, respectively, and, with PMRT, was 93% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .03). A similar benefit was found for patients treated with RT to the CW alone. The LRR, DFS, and overall survival rate for patients treated to the CW only was 0%, 96%, and 95% at 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that adjuvant PMRT to the CW alone provides excellent disease control for patients with breast cancer <5 cm with one to three positive lymph nodes.

  17. The pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and its influence on the delineation of radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jinming . E-mail: jn7984729@public.jn.sd.cn; Li Gong; Li Jianbin; Wang Yongsheng

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The delineation of radiation fields should cover the clinical target volume (CTV) and minimally irradiate the surrounding normal tissues and organs. This study was designed to explore the pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and indications for radiotherapy after radical or modified radical mastectomy and to discuss the rational delineation of radiation fields. Methods and materials: Between September 1980 and December 2003, 78 breast cancer patients receiving extended radical mastectomy in the Margottini model and 61 cases with complete data were analyzed to investigate the internal mammary lymphatic metastatic status. Between March 1988 and December 1988, 46 patients with clinical negative supraclavicular nodes received radical mastectomy plus supraclavicular lymph node dissection. The supraclavicular lymph nodes and axillary lymph nodes were labeled as S and levels I, II, or III, respectively, and examined pathologically. Between January 1996 and April 1999, 412 patients who had radical or modified radical mastectomy underwent the pathologic examination of axillary or levels I, II, or III nodes. Results: The incidence of internal mammary lymph node metastasis was 24.6%. It was 36.7% for the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and 12.9% for the patients with negative axillary lymph nodes. All the metastatic internal mammary lymph nodes were located at the first, second, and third intercostal spaces. Skipping metastasis of the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes was observed in 3.8% and 8.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: According to our data, we suggest that the radiation field for internal mammary lymph nodes should exclude the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces, which may help to reduce the radiation damage to heart. It is unnecessary to irradiate the supraclavicular lymph nodes for the patients with negative axillary level III nodes, even with positive level I and level II nodes.

  18. TH-A-BRF-05: MRI of Individual Lymph Nodes to Guide Regional Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Heijst, T van; Asselen, B van; Lagendijk, J; Bongard, D van den; Philippens, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In regional radiotherapy (RT) for breast-cancer patients, direct visualization of individual lymph nodes (LNs) may reduce target volumes and Result in lower toxicity (i.e. reduced radiation pneumonitis, arm edema, arm morbidity), relative to standard CT-based delineations. To this end, newly designed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were optimized and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Methods: In ten healthy female volunteers, a scanning protocol was developed and optimized. Coronal images were acquired in supine RT position positioned on a wedge board on a 1.5 T Ingenia (Philips) wide-bore MRI. In four volunteers the optimized MRI protocol was applied, including a 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1w) fast-field-echo (FFE). T2w sequences, including 3D FFE, 3D and 2D fast spin echo (FSE), and diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging (DWI) were also performed. Several fatsuppression techniques were used. Qualitative evaluation parameters included LN contrast, motion susceptibility, visibility of anatomical structures, and fat suppression. The number of visible axillary and supraclavicular LNs was also determined. Results: T1 FFE, insensitive to motion, lacked contrast of LNs, which often blended in with soft tissue and blood. T2 FFE showed high contrast, but some LNs were obscured due to motion. Both 2D and 3D FSE were motion-insensitive having high contrast, although some blood remained visible. 2D FSE showed more anatomical details, while in 3D FSE, some blurring occurred. DWI showed high LN contrast, but suffered from geometric distortions and low resolution. Fat suppression by mDixon was the most reliable in regions with magnetic-field inhomogeneities. The FSE sequences showed the highest sensitivity for LN detection. Conclusion: MRI of regional LNs was achieved in volunteers. The FSE techniques were robust and the most sensitive. Our optimized MRI sequences can facilitate direct delineation of individual LNs. This can Result in smaller target volumes and reduced toxicity in regional RT compared to standard CT planning.

  19. Occurrence of salmonella in the ileum, ileocolic lymph nodes, tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes and carcasses of pigs slaughtered for consumption.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Pinto, M; Temudo, P; Martins, C

    2005-12-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of Salmonella in pork carcasses and in some risk tissues (ileum, ileocolic and mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils), that can be involved in Salmonella contamination during slaughter. Salmonella was identified in 27 (26.7%) pigs and in 13 (12.9%) carcasses. From these positive carcasses, 69.2% presented the same serotype as that identified in the corresponding pig, which emphasize the pigs importance as a source of Salmonella during the slaughter, suggesting that measures should be taken at the level of pig production in order to reduce the slaughtering of Salmonella-positive animals. The highest value of Salmonella occurrence was reached in the ileocolic lymph nodes (18.8%) and in the ileum (13.9%), representing Salmonella potential faecal source during pork processing at the abattoir. In these samples, a high level of Salmonella was observed in the ileocolic lymph nodes in comparison with the ileum. The mandibular lymph nodes (12.9%) also presented a higher occurrence in comparison with the tonsils (9.9%). These results indicate that the lymph nodes analysis could be more sensitive in the detection of Salmonella than the closer drainage tissue. Otherwise, the presence of Salmonella in the lymph nodes indicates lymphatic spread of the organism, which reflects an increased risk of pork contamination. These results also indicate that, in order to achieve a better control of Salmonella contamination during the slaughter process, it is important to consider the improvement of the evisceration practices and the tonsils as well the extraction of mandibular lymph nodes after slaughter. PMID:16364024

  20. Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic. Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research. Results In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process. Conclusion Our model reproduces the correct timing of an immune response, including the observed time delay between duplication of T helper cells and duplication of B cells in response to antigen exposure. Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes. In both cases, the model predicts the emergence of an impaired immune response, i.e., the response is significantly reduced in magnitude. Dendritic cell removal is also shown to delay the response time with respect to normal conditions. PMID:19939270

  1. Proteome changes in mesenteric lymph induced by sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Dong; Wang, Liang-Hua; Wang, Xi; He, Chao; Lin, Zhao-Fen

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the changes in mesenteric lymph during the development of sepsis and to identify the distinct proteins involved, as targets for further study. The sepsis animal model was constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mesenteric lymph was collected from 28 adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=7 per group): CLP‑6 h, CLP‑24 h, sham‑6 h and sham‑24 h groups. Capillary high performance liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the proteome in mesenteric lymph. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was then conducted to investigate the distinct proteins. Compared with the sham group, 158 distinct proteins were identified in the lymph samples from the CLP group. Five of these proteins associated with the same lipid metabolism pathway were selected, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), annexin A1 (Anxa1), neutrophil gelatinase‑associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100a8 and S100a9. The expression of ApoE, Anxa1, NGAL, S100a8 and S100a9 were all elevated in the progression of sepsis. The five proteins were reported to be closely associated with disease development and may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In conclusion, identifying proteome changes in mesenteric lymph provides a novel perspective to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying sepsis. PMID:25242054

  2. Automatic mediastinal lymph node detection in chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Marco; Deguchi, Daisuke; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Mori, Kensaku

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a very common staging investigation for the assessment of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph nodes in the context of lung cancer. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and assessment of lymph nodes is usually performed manually, which can be error-prone and timeconsuming. We therefore propose a method for the automatic detection of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph node candidates in contrast-enhanced chest CT. Based on the segmentation of important mediastinal anatomy (bronchial tree, aortic arch) and making use of anatomical knowledge, we utilize Hessian eigenvalues to detect lymph node candidates. As lymph nodes can be characterized as blob-like structures of varying size and shape within a specific intensity interval, we can utilize these characteristics to reduce the number of false positive candidates significantly. We applied our method to 5 cases suspected to have lung cancer. The processing time of our algorithm did not exceed 6 minutes, and we achieved an average sensitivity of 82.1% and an average precision of 13.3%.

  3. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter . E-mail: peter.jenkins@glos.nhs.uk; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes.

  4. Immunomorphologic lymph node changes in rats bearing experimental breast tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper regional lymph nodes draining tumors and also nonregional lymph nodes have been studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels. These nodes were obtained from rats bearing long-evolving autochthonous breast cancers. They were compared with a control group of the same age. A morphometric quantitative analysis was done to evaluate immunologically competent cell populations. In the experimental group there were no differences between regional and distal lymph nodes in the tumor challenge. Howeve