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Sample records for ii axillary lymph

  1. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PM EST. FACTS FOR LIFE Axillary Lymph Nodes Lymphatic system and axillary nodes Lymph vessels, like blood vessels, ... immune cells that act as filters for the lymphatic system. They also store white blood cells that help ...

  2. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)?/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)? subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR?/HER2? subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2? (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.349–2.021, P?axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR?/HER2? is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY Axillary lymph node status of operable breast cancers by

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    EPIDEMIOLOGY Axillary lymph node status of operable breast cancers by combined steroid receptor of operable breast cancers by their combined oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2- tivethanthosewithanother steroidreceptorandHER-2status. How these findings correlate with breast cancer prognosis remains

  4. An optimized posterior axillary boost technique in radiation therapy to supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Victor; Arenas, Meritxell; Müller, Katrin; Gomez, David; Bonet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To assess the advantages of an optimized posterior axillary (AX) boost technique for the irradiation of supraclavicular (SC) and AX lymph nodes. Five techniques for the treatment of SC and levels I, II, and III AX lymph nodes were evaluated for 10 patients selected at random: a direct anterior field (AP); an anterior to posterior parallel pair (AP-PA); an anterior field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB); an anterior field with an anterior axillary boost (AAB); and an optimized PAB technique (OptPAB). The target coverage, hot spots, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk were evaluated and a statistical analysis comparison was performed. The AP technique delivered insufficient dose to the deeper AX nodes. The AP-PA technique produced larger irradiated volumes and higher mean lung doses than the other techniques. The PAB and AAB techniques originated excessive hot spots in most of the cases. The OptPAB technique produced moderate hot spots while maintaining a similar planning target volume (PTV) coverage, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk. This optimized technique combines the advantages of the PAB and AP-PA techniques, with moderate hot spots, sufficient target coverage, and adequate sparing of normal tissues. The presented technique is simple, fast, and easy to implement in routine clinical practice and is superior to the techniques historically used for the treatment of SC and AX lymph nodes.

  5. Lymph nodes behind the axillary neurovascular bundle: case report and cadaveric study of frequency and distribution.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Nebojsa; Zdravkovic, Darko; Granic, Miroslav; Sredic, Biljana; Colakovic, Natasa; Stojiljkovic, Miodrag

    2015-12-01

    Axillary clearance was undertaken in a 58-year-old male with massive lymph node enlargement caused by melanoma from an unknown primary site. We discovered a group of metastatic lymph nodes behind the axillary neurovascular bundle. This group of nodes (retro-axillary lymph nodes) could represent an extension of the subscapular group, or the seventh group of axillary lymphoid nodes. They were successfully removed using an ad hoc surgical technique, and the subsequent findings are presented herein. To check the frequency of these lymph nodes in this area, we conducted a study on 15 cadavers (30 armpits). The technique of cadaveric sampling is described. Retro-axillary tissue was histologically processed to determine the number of lymph nodes present. It was found that lymph nodes were present in the defined area in 18 of the 30 (60 %) armpits explored. We recommend assessment of the retro-axillary space during surgery entailing massive axillary lymph node involvement. PMID:26096684

  6. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urba?ska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefa?ski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  7. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage optimizes sentinel lymph node localisation using blue dye

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Robert M; Basit, Abdul; Nguyen, Quang T; Jaipersad, Anthony; Billingham, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Aims This paper describes a simple technique of axillary and breast massage which improves the successful identification of blue sentinel nodes using patent blue dye alone. Methods Patent blue dye was injected in the subdermal part of the retroaroelar area in 167 patients having surgical treatment for invasive breast cancer. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage was performed prior to making the axillary incision for sentinel lymph node biopsy. All patients had completion axillary sampling or clearance. Results A blue lymphatic duct leading to lymph nodes of the first drainage was identified in 163 (97%) of the patients. Results are compared with 168 patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy using blue dye without axillary massage. Allergic reactions were observed in four patients (1.2%). Conclusion Three stage axillary lymphatic massage improves the successful identification of a blue sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients. PMID:18154682

  8. Axillary lymph node tuberculosis masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma in an immune-compromised patient.

    PubMed

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Vani, B R; Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-02-01

    While tuberculosis is still the leading opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is more common than pulmonary tuberculosis, with lymph nodes being a common site. Axillary lymph node pathology such as tuberculosis and lymphoma rarely mimics inflammatory breast carcinoma by producing lymphatic obstruction. We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a 40-year-old immune-compromised woman, clinically presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. PMID:25681261

  9. Breast Cancer Regional Radiation Fields for Supraclavicular and Axillary Lymph Node Treatment: Is a Posterior Axillary Boost Field Technique Optimal?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Yu, T.K.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Zhang, Sean X.; Sun, T.L.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To assess whether using an anterior oblique supraclavicular (SCV) field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB) field is an optimal technique for targeting axillary (AX) lymph nodes compared with two computed tomography (CT)-based techniques: (1) an SCV field with an anterior boost field and (2) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients with CT simulation data treated with postmastectomy radiation that included an SCV field were selected for the study. Supraclavicular nodes and AX Level I-III nodes within the SCV field were contoured and defined as the treatment target. Plans using the three techniques were generated and evaluated for each patient. Results: The anterior axillary boost field and IMRT resulted in superior dose coverage compared with PAB. Namely, treatment volumes that received 105%, 80%, and 30% of prescribed dose for IMRT plans were significantly less than those for the anterior axillary boost plans, which were significantly less than PAB. For PAB and anterior axillary boost plans, there was a linear correlation between treatment volume receiving 105% of prescribed dose and maximum target depth. Furthermore, the IMRT technique resulted in better lung sparing and dose conformity to the target than anterior axillary boost, which again was significantly better than PAB. The maximum cord dose for IMRT was small, but higher than for the other two techniques. More monitor units were required to deliver the IMRT plan than the PAB plan, which was more than the anterior axillary boost plan. Conclusions: The PAB technique is not optimal for treatment of AX lymph nodes in an SCV field. We conclude that CT treatment planning with dose optimization around delineated target volumes should become standard for radiation treatments of supraclavicular and AX lymph nodes.

  10. Contribution of Kinetic Characteristics of Axillary Lymph Nodes to the Diagnosis in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Örgüç, ?ebnem; Ba?ara, I??l; Pekindil, Gökhan; Co?kun, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of kinetic characteristics in the discrimination of malignant-benign axillary lymph nodes. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-five female patients were included in the study. Following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations postprocessing applications were applied, dynamic curves were obtained from subtracted images. Types of dynamic curves were correlated with histopathological results in malignant cases or final clinical results in patients with no evidence of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likehood ratio (+LHR), negative (?LHR) of dynamic curves characterizing the axillary lymph nodes were calculated. Results: A total of 178 lymph nodes greater than 8 mm were evaluated in 113 patients. Forty-six lymph nodes in 24 cases had malignant axillary involvement. 132 lymph nodes in 89 patients with benign diagnosis were included in the study. The sensitivity of type 3 curve as an indicator of malignancy was calculated as 89%. However the specificity, +LHR, ?LHR were calculated as 14%, 1.04, 0.76 respectively. Conclusion: Since kinetic analysis of both benign and malignant axillary lymph nodes, rapid enhancement and washout (type 3) they cannot be used as a discriminator, unlike breast lesions. MRI, depending on the kinetic features of the axillary lymph nodes, is not high enough to be used in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. PMID:25207016

  11. Diagnostic value of preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound assessment in patients with breast cancer qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adam; Wi?niewska, Magdalena; Wi?niewski, Micha?; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in the therapeutic management of patients with non-advanced breast cancer. Aim To analyse the utility of ultrasound scan (USS) examination in the process of patient qualification for SLNB and to estimate the optimal time to perform USS in the clinical preoperational assessment of axillary lymph nodes. Material and methods A prospective analysis of 702 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with SLNB between 7.03.2012 and 27.05.2013 was performed. The patients were divided into three groups: I (USS < 8 weeks before SLNB), II (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB and another one on the day before SLNB) and III (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB without perioperative USS). In these patients the percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node and the clinical factors influencing the diagnostic value of preoperative ultrasound scan were assessed. Results Metastatic lesions in sentinel lymph nodes were found in 154 (21.9%) patients. The highest percentage of metastases was noted in patients operated on in the second and third month from the beginning of preoperative diagnostics. None of the factors tested (size of the original tumour, histological malignancy grading, kind of preoperative diagnostics, Ki-67 value, biological type of the tumour, age) had a statistically significant influence on the diagnostic value of perioperative USS examination in the analysed time span. Conclusions The lowest percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node was noted in the patients qualified for SLNB who had the ultrasound performed directly before the surgical procedure (not more than 4 weeks before the surgery). PMID:26240616

  12. Intercostobrachial Nerves as a Novel Anatomic Landmark for Dividing the Axillary Space in Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Wenhai; Jia, Shi; Gu, Xi; Ma, Yan; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of using the intercostobrachial nerves (ICBNs) as a possible new anatomic landmark for axillaries lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients. Background Data Summary. The preservation of ICBN is now an accepted procedure in this type of dissection; however, it could be improved further to reduce the number of postoperative complications. The axillary space is divided into lower and upper parts by the ICBN—a thorough investigation of the metastasis patterns in lymph nodes found in this area could supply new information leading to such improvements. Methods. Seventy-two breast cancer patients, all about to undergo lymph node dissection and with sentinel lymph nodes identified, were included in this trial. The lymph nodes were collected in two groups, from lower and upper axillary spaces, relative to the intercostobrachial nerves. The first group was further subdivided into sentinel (SLN) and nonsentinel (non-SLN) nodes. All lymph nodes were tested to detect macro- and micrometastasis. Results. All the sentinel lymph nodes were found under the intercostobrachial nerves; more than 10 lymph nodes were located in that space. Moreover, when lymph nodes macrometastasize or micrometastasize above the intercostobrachial nerves, we also observe metastasis-positive nodes under the nerves; when the lower group nodes show no metastasis, the upper group is also metastasis free. Conclusions. Our results show that the intercostobrachial nerves are good candidates for a new anatomic landmark to be used in lymph node dissection procedure. PMID:23401796

  13. Diagnostic strategy for the assessment of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, F; de Margerie Mellon, C; Bricout, M; Cauderlier, E; Chapelier, M; Albiter, M; Bourrier, P; Espié, M; de Kerviler, E; de Bazelaire, C

    2015-10-01

    The nodal status in breast cancer is a major prognostic factor in terms of survival. It also plays a role in the therapeutic decision-making process. Therefore, the evaluation of lymph node involvement in breast cancer is imperative in establishing a personalized treatment scheme. The sentinel lymph node procedure has proved successful for small breast tumors (T1-T2), limiting axillary lymphadenectomy and its side effects without changing overall survival. Even so, a substantial number of women must undergo axillary lymphadenectomy during a second surgery when the analysis of the sentinel node discloses major nodal involvement. Imaging can improve patient selection, especially those who appear eligible for immediate axillary lymphadenectomy. Ultrasound is able to depict morphological abnormalities in the lymph nodes such as cortical thickening, peripheral vascularization, hilar infiltration and loss of the kidney-shaped appearance of a normal node. When ultrasound is negative, the risk of massive nodal involvement is limited, thus allowing the oncologist to take an approach with the sentinel lymph node procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be useful in detecting pathological lymph nodes, particularly with diffusion-weighted MRI sequence. PMID:26372221

  14. Morbidity of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLN) Alone Versus SLN and Completion Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Igor; Guller, Ulrich; Berclaz, Gilles; Koechli, Ossi R.; Schaer, Gabriel; Fehr, Mathias K.; Hess, Thomas; Oertli, Daniel; Bronz, Lucio; Schnarwyler, Beate; Wight, Edward; Uehlinger, Urs; Infanger, Eduard; Burger, Daniel; Zuber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the morbidity after sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy compared with SLN and completion level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in a prospective multicenter study. Summary Background Data: ALND after breast cancer surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. We hypothesized: 1) that the morbidity in patients undergoing SLN biopsy only is significantly lower compared with those after SLN and completion ALND level I and II; and 2) that SLN biopsy can be performed with similar intermediate term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. Methods: Patients with early stage breast cancer (pT1 and pT2 ? 3 cm, cN0) were included between January 2000 and December 2003 in this prospective Swiss multicenter study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy. In all patients with SLN macrometastases and most patients with SLN micrometastases (43 of 68) or isolated tumor cells (11 of 19), a completion ALND was performed. Postoperative morbidity was assessed based on a standardized protocol. Results: SLN biopsy alone was performed in 449 patients, whereas 210 patients underwent SLN and completion ALND. The median follow-ups were 31.0 and 29.5 months for the SLN and SLN and completion ALND groups, respectively. Intermediate-term follow-up information was available from 635 of 659 patients (96.4%) of enrolled patients. The following results were found in the SLN versus SLN and completion ALND group: presence of lymphedema (3.5% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.0001), impaired shoulder range of motion (3.5% vs. 11.3%, P < 0.0001), shoulder/arm pain (8.1% vs. 21.1%, P < 0.0001), and numbness (10.9% vs. 37.7%, P < 0.0001). No significant differences regarding postoperative morbidity after SLN biopsy were noticed between academic and nonacademic hospitals (P = 0.921). Conclusions: The morbidity after SLN biopsy alone is not negligible but significantly lower compared with level I and II ALND. SLN biopsy can be performed with similar short- and intermediate-term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. PMID:17435553

  15. Predicting the Risk for Additional Axillary Metastases in Patients With Breast Carcinoma and Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Giuseppe; Maiorano, Eugenio; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Valentini, Stefano; Galimberti, Viviana; Zurrida, Stefano; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Paganelli, Giovanni; Mazzarol, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the risk for nonsentinel node metastases may be predicted, thus sparing a subgroup of patients with breast carcinoma and a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Summary Background Data: The SLN is the only involved axillary lymph node in the majority of the patients undergoing ALND for a positive SLN biopsy. A model to predict the status of nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes could help tailor surgical therapy to those patients most likely to benefit from completion ALND. Methods: All the axillary sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes of 1228 patients were reviewed histologically and reclassified according to the current TNM classification of malignant tumors as bearing isolated tumor cells only, micrometastases, or (macro)metastases. The prevalence of metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes was correlated to the type of SLN involvement and the size of the metastasis, the number of affected SLNs, and the prospectively collected clinicopathologic variables of the primary tumors. Results: In multivariate analysis, further axillary involvement was significantly associated with the type and size of SLN metastases, the number of affected SLNs, and the occurrence of peritumoral vascular invasion in the primary tumor. A predictive model based on the characteristics most strongly associated with nonsentinel node metastases was able to identify subgroups of patients at significantly different risk for further axillary involvement. Conclusions: Patients with the most favorable combination of predictive factors still have no less than 13% risk for nonsentinel lymph node metastases and should be offered completion ALND outside of clinical trials of SLN biopsy without back-up axillary clearing. PMID:15650643

  16. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be “secretary breast carcinoma”, and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26045861

  17. Tattoo pigment in axillary lymph node mimicking calcification of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsika, Admire; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Gray, Janet Meryl; Galbraith, Christine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A tattoo is defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. The phenomenon of skin tattooing is on the rise worldwide and complications of tattooing are increasingly being recognised in diagnostic and clinical medicine. We describe a case of calcification-like changes on mammography resembling that of breast malignancy as a result of tattoo pigment deposition in an axillary lymph node. Recognition of such changes in routine breast screening is crucial to avoid further unnecessary invasive investigations and surgery in such patients. PMID:23929611

  18. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  19. Prediction of axillary lymph node metastases in a screened breast cancer population. South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Group.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, J; Stål, O; Westman, G; Arnesson, L G

    1994-01-01

    To define a subgroup of patients, in whom axillary dissection could be omitted, we analysed the frequency of pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases depending on tumour size, hormonal receptors, DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction (SPF), and clinical nodal status among 1,145 patients with stage I-II breast cancer from an area with ongoing screening. Clinical nodal status and tumour size were strongly correlated to pathological nodal status. Also SPF > 10% was strongly correlated to node positivity in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis there was still a significant correlation among cases with tumour size < or = 20 mm. In conclusion, patients with clinically negative nodal status, and tumour size < or = 20 mm and < or = 10 mm had pathologically positive nodes in 25% and 15% of cases respectively. The addition of SPF did not lower these figures significantly since small tumours with high SPF are few. PMID:7946435

  20. Does fibrin glue improve drainage after axillary lymph node dissection? Prospective and randomized study in humans.

    PubMed

    Vaxman, F; Kolbe, A; Stricher, F; Zund, D; Volkmar, P; Gros, D; Grenier, J F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to establish whether the use of fibrin glue was beneficial after axillary lymph node dissection. From January 1990 to January 1991, 40 women were randomized before surgery for breast cancer: 20 patients (group A) underwent vaporization of fibrin glue (Tissucol, 5 ml of 500 IU thrombin) only in the area of axillary dissection; another 20 patients (group B) served as controls. The two groups were compared for age, number of nodes removed and involved, volume and duration of fluid drainage and complications. Student's t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test and the chi 2 test were used when appropriate for statistical analysis. The two groups were well balanced for age, number of nodes removed and involved, staging and histologic findings. The average volume of lymphorrhea in the lymph node dissection area was greater after use of fibrin glue (410.4 ml) than in controls (275.5 ml, p = 0.016). No difference was noted between the two groups for the volume of drainage fluid of the site of mastectomy or lumpectomy, or for the total volume of drainage fluid. Drainage duration as well as duration of hospital stay were similar. Six complications occurred in group A, and one in group B (p = 0.037).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7589007

  1. Prognostic factors in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or inguinal lymph nodes. A multivariate analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Coit, D G; Rogatko, A; Brennan, M F

    1991-01-01

    Although pathologic nodal status is a major determinant of outcome in melanoma, there is substantial prognostic heterogeneity among node-positive patients. This study was undertaken to further clarify significant variables predicting survival in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or groin nodes. From 1019 patients with melanoma undergoing axillary or groin dissection between 1974 and 1984, the authors identified 449 patients with histologically positive nodes. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox model of proportional hazard regression. The major determinant of survival was pathologic stage (PS) according to the 1983 AJCC staging system. Three hundred fifty patients (78%) were classified PS-III (one nodal group involved), with a survival of 39% at 5 years and 32% at 10 years. Factors independently predictive of a favorable outcome in these patients were nontruncal primary site (p = 0.0002), microscopic nodal involvement (p = 0.001), number of positive nodes less than three (p = 0.003), and absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.01). Ninety-nine patients (22%) were classified PS-IV, 51 with two nodal stations involved (N2), 25 with intransit disease and one nodal station involved (N2), 7 with extraregional soft tissue metastases (M1), and 16 with visceral metastases (M2). Survival for PS-IV patients was 9% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Within PS-IV, factors independently predictive of a more favorable outcome were the absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.0001), female sex (p = 0.03), and a long interval from diagnosis to lymph node dissection (p = 0.04). These factors were incorporated into a model predicting relative risk of death from disease for both PS-III and PS-IV patients, separating patients into groups at high, intermediate, and low risk of recurrence after lymphadenectomy. PMID:1953117

  2. Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

  3. The Value of T2* in Differentiating Metastatic from Benign Axillary Lymph Nodes in Patients with Breast Cancer - A Preliminary In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuanming; Meng, Shan; Yang, Xinhua; Wang, Jian; Hu, Jiani

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection and determination of axillary lymph node metastasis are crucial for the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Noninvasive imaging methods including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not yet accurate enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of in vivo T2* in differentiating metastatic from benign axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings In this institutional review board approved study, 35 women with breast cancer underwent multi-echo T2* weighted imaging (T2*WI) of the axillary area on a 3.0 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. T2* values of pathologically proven benign and metastatic axillary lymph nodes were calculated and compared. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic ability. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) and the confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed. In total, 56 metastatic and 65 benign axillary lymph nodes were identified in this study. For metastatic lymph nodes, the average T2* value (55.96±11.87 ms) was significantly longer than that of the benign lymph nodes (26.00±5.51 ms, P<0.05). The AUC of T2* in differentiating benign from metastatic lymph nodes was 0.993. The cut-off value of 37.5 milliseconds (ms) gave a sensitivity of 94.6%, a specificity of 98.5%, a positive predictive value of 98.17 and a negative predictive value 95.54. Conclusions In vivo T2* can differentiate benign from metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. The high sensitivity and specificity as well as the easiness suggest its high potential for use in clinical practice. PMID:24454715

  4. Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Geara, Fady B. . E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie; Tucker, Susan L.; Charafeddine, Maya; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Eid, Toufic; Abbas, Jaber; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; Issa, Philip; El Saghir, Nagi

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

  5. Comparison of the expression of prognostic biomarkers between primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Xu, Lanwei; Liu, Wenjun; Lv, Cuixia; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and prediction of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases in breast cancer is traditionally based upon the biomarkers status of the primary tumor. Some retrospective studies showed significant discordance in receptor expression between primary and metastatic tumors. We aim to prospectively assess the incidence of discordant biomarkers status in primary tumor and ALN metastases and to evaluate the role of ALN biopsies for the reassessment of receptor status. Tissue arrays were constructed from 54 breast cancer patients with ALN metastases diagnosed. Arrays were immuno-stained to compare protein expression of four biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry. The kappa value of consistency in the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes were 0.465 for ER, 0.445 for PR, and 0.706 for HER2. Good consistency was shown for Ki67 expression in primary and metastases regions with T test. No significant difference is existed between primary tumor and ALN metastases. It is concluded that the good consistency is present for ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 between the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes, suggesting that ER, PR, HER2, or Ki67 status in primary tumors could reflect their status in ALN metastases. PMID:26191291

  6. Outcomes of locally advanced breast cancer patients with ? 10 positive axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Koca, Emre; Kuzan, Taha Y; Dizdar, Omer; Babacan, Taner; Sahin, Ilyas; Ararat, Erhan; Altundag, Kadri

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers with 10 or more positive lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis are staged as pathological N3a (pN3a) and they have poor prognosis. Recent studies showed five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of N3a disease as 43-66 and 58-81 %, respectively. We herein present outcomes of our patients with stage pN3a breast cancer. Among 2,578 patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma at Hacettepe University Hospital between 2002 and 2012, 218 patients (8.4 %) had pN3a disease and were included and analyzed retrospectively in this study. Patients with internal mammary, infraclavicular, and supraclavicular node metastasis or distant metastasis at initial diagnosis were excluded. Demographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment regimens, and patient outcomes in terms of DFS and OS were analyzed. Lymph node ratio was defined as the ratio of positive to total removed lymph nodes. The median age was 49. Most common histological subtype was ductal carcinoma (82.1 %). About 82.6 % of patients had stage T2/T3 cancers and 47.7 % (104) had grade III cancers. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 133 (61 %) and 121 (55.5 %) patients, respectively. HER2 status was known for 213 patients and was positive in 87 (39.9 %) patients. A total of 27 (12.6 %) patients had triple-negative tumors. Lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension, and perineural invasion were present in 106 (48.6 %), 105 (48.2 %), 20 (9.2 %) cases, respectively. A total of 18 patients (8.3 %) received neoadjuvant and 200 patients (91.7 %) received adjuvant chemotherapy, mostly with anthracycline- (95 %) and taxane (60 %)-containing regimens. A total of 210 patients (96.3 %) received radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 39.5 months. A total of 96 patients relapsed on follow-up and 64 patients died. Nineteen of the relapses were locoregional and 77 were distant relapses. The 5-year DFS rate was 46.2 % and the OS rate was 69.8 %. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, grade III disease (HR 1.899, 95 % CI 1.196-3.017, P = 0.007), perineural invasion (HR 2.519, 95 % CI 1.341-4.731, P = 0.004), and lymph node ratio (? 0.9 vs. <0.9) (HR 2.290, 95 % CI 1.368-3.835, P = 0.002) were significantly associated with DFS, and grade III disease (HR 2.679, 95 % CI 1.500-4.782, P = 0.001) and lymph node ratio (? 0.9 vs. <0.9) (HR 2.182, 95 % CI 1.211-3.932, P = 0.009) were significantly associated with OS. Patients with pN3a disease in our cohort have comparable survival rates with other reports in the literature. Within this high risk group of patients, those with grade III disease, perineural invasion, and lymph node ratio ? 0.9 seem to confer poorer prognosis. PMID:23729267

  7. Use of CEA and CA15-3 to Predict Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Ren, Hong-Yue; Yang, Li-Chao; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of preoperative serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 on the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 1148 breast cancer patients whose preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were measured. The association of these tumor markers and clinicopathologic parameters with ALNM was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A median of 15 lymph nodes were removed. Seven hundred seventy-eight (67.8%) patients had node-negative disease and 370 (32.2%) had ALNM. Univariate analysis showed that tumor location (P = 0.024), stage (P = 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P < 0.001), CEA level (P < 0.001), CA15-3 level (P < 0.001), and breast cancer subtype (BCS) (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ALNM. ALNM was present in 4.5% of patients with normal CEA and 11.6% of patients with elevated CEA. ALNM was present in 8.0% of patients with normal CA15-3 and 17.0% of patients with high CA15-3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location, stage, grade, LVI, CEA, CA15-3, and BCS were significantly and independently associated with ALNM (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The probability of ALNM was greater in patients with elevated preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. CEA and CA15-3 appear to be independent predictors of ALNM in breast cancer. PMID:26722358

  8. In-vivo detection of tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes with a handheld beta-sensitive probe: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Derakhshan, Jamal

    2001-05-01

    Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in the organs of a patient was simulated with an anthropomorphic torso phantom. Following examination by the handheld probe, a PET image of the phantom was acquired. The results demonstrated that the probe was capable of identifying lymph nodes containing as little as 10 (mu) l of tumor. This amount of simulated tumor was too small to be detected by the PET scanner. This method, therefore, may be useful in intraoperatively identifying some tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes not detected with PET; potentially increasing the efficiency of axillary dissection. Future clinical trials must be performed to assess the utility of this new technique.

  9. The prognostic relevance of the mitotic activity index in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, Jan J; van der Palen, Job; Brinkhuis, Mariël; Nortier, Johan W R; Struikmans, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to look at the mitotic activity index (MAI) as a prognostic factor in a prospective population-based cohort of lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer patients. Analyses were based on 2,048 breast-conserving therapies in 1,971 patients, node-negative, and without any form of adjuvant systemic therapy with long-term follow-up. The 15-year distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for women ?55 years was 88.3 % for low MAI values (?12) versus 73.4 % for high MAI values (>12); (HR 2.8; 95 % CI 1.8-4.4; p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses for DMFS showed significance for MAI. For MAI and Bloom-Richardson grading, by performing a likelihood ratio test, we showed the statistical significance for both. For women >55-years, the MAI was not an independent significant factor. We also confirmed the above findings for disease-specific survival. When multi-gene assays are not available, the MAI remains a robust prognostic marker in women younger than 55 years of age with early node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25526926

  10. Postoperative radiation for women with cancer of the breast and positive axillary lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsett, M.B.

    1981-01-08

    The author states his belief that further studies of routine radiation therapy of women with Stage II breast cancer are not waranted and further use of this treatment is not justified. He has not been able to find any systematic discussion within the medical community about what criteria will be used to reach some conclusion about the efficacy of radiation therapy in the large group of women with Stage II disease. (DAD)

  11. Can internal mammary chain treatment decrease the risk of death for patients with medial breast cancers and positive axillary lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Le, M.G.; Arriagada, R.; de Vathaire, F.; Dewar, J.; Fontaine, F.; Lacour, J.; Contesso, G.; Tubiana, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant death-related event was analyzed in 1195 patients with operable breast cancer and histologically involved axillary lymph nodes. A group of 135 patients who had no internal mammary chain treatment was compared with a control group of 1060 patients who were treated by surgery and/or postoperative radiation therapy. In a multivariate analysis taking into account age, clinical size of the tumor, histoprognostic grading, and the number of positive axillary lymph nodes, quantitative interaction tests were used to determine whether the effects of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant event were significantly different for patients with a lateral tumor compared with those with a medial tumor. The authors found that the effects of this treatment on the risks of distant metastases and of secondary breast cancer were not the same for the patients with a medial tumor as for those with a lateral tumor. For the untreated patients with a medial tumor, the risks of distant metastases and second breast cancer were, respectively, 1.6 (P = 0.02) and 2.9 (P = 0.02), compared with the treated patients. Conversely, for women with lateral tumor, no difference between the two treatment groups was observed. Thus, internal mammary chain treatment may improve long-term survival rate in patients with a medial tumor and positive axillary lymph nodes essentially by decreasing the risk of development of distant metastases (mainly brain, distant lymph nodes, multiple simultaneous metastases) and/or a secondary breast cancer.

  12. Cytological and Pathological Correlation of FNAC in Assessing Breast Lumps and Axillary Lymph Node Swellings in a Public Sector Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, devi. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419

  13. Significance of loss of heterozygosity in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Bing; Finkelstein, Sydney D; Saad, Reda S; Snitchler, Andrea; Silverman, Jan F

    2012-03-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of breast metastatic to axillary lymph node (ALN) is a critical factor in determining stage and is a strong predictor of disease prognosis and survival. We studied ALN metastasis using a combined histopathologic/molecular approach to gain insights into the pathobiology implications. Fourteen patients with IDC with positive ALN and 19 with negative ALN were retrieved. Analysis of 17 polymorphic microsatellite repeat markers targeting 1p34-36, 3p24-26, 5q23, 9p21, 10q23, 17p13, 17q12, 17q21, 21q22, and 22q13 was carried out in DNA isolated from primary tumors and metastatic tumors. ALN metastasis correlated with fractional mutation rate of primary and ALN metastatic tumors, primary tumor size, and nuclear grade, and did not correlate with expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Her2/neu. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) detected at 1p34-36, 3p24-26, 9p21, 10q23, 17p13, 17q12, 21q22, and 22q13 may play an important role in the development and aggressiveness of IDC, and LOHs at 1p34-36, 17p13, and 22q13 may play an important role in metastasis. None of the LOHs were shared by all the tumors, suggesting that IDC develops through various pathways that have unique and personalized patterns of mutational changes, although they share similar morphology. Detection of LOH in IDC is not only useful in studying oncogenesis, but also predicting aggressiveness and ALN metastasis. PMID:22553811

  14. A Case Report of Male Occult Breast Cancer First Manifesting as Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis With Part of Metastatic Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengna; Liu, He; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Occult breast cancer (OBC) is a type of breast cancer without any symptoms in the breast (no primary cancer lesion is found in either breast on a physical examination or imaging examination such as ultrasound and mammography). The incidence of OBC is rare in females, whereas in males, there are few cases of breast cancer, and the rate of OBC is very low. This is the first time report a case of male OBC first manifested as axillary metastasis, of which the pathological results showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. A 40-year-old male patient presenting palpable masses in his left axillary on physical and imaging examination revealed unremarkable despite of multiple swollen lymph nodes in the left axillary, and the resected sample showed metastatic adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, positive of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal receptor 2 (Her-2), it was identified as an OBC. This is the fourth case report of male OBC in the literature; 1 case was reported in China in 2008, and it was metastatic infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and 2 cases were reported in Korea in 2012, one of which was reported as metastatic carcinoma and the other was metastatic adenocarcinoma; however, our case was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of mucinous carcinoma. Our case of male OBC could metastasize to supraclavicular region and lung in addition to axillary lymph nodes, and the prognosis was relatively poor compared to the 3 cases reported before. The aim of this case report is to introduce the imaging, pathological features, and management of a rare male OBC. PMID:26107674

  15. Beyond Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis, BMI and Menopausal Status Are Prognostic Determinants for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonsang-Kitzis, Hélène; Chaltier, Léonor; Belin, Lisa; Savignoni, Alexia; Rouzier, Roman; Sablin, Marie-Paule; Lerebours, Florence; Bidard, François-Clément; Cottu, Paul; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Laé, Marick; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Reyal, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are a specific subtype of breast cancers with a particularly poor prognosis. However, it is a very heterogeneous subgroup in terms of clinical behavior and sensitivity to systemic treatments. Thus, the identification of risk factors specifically associated with those tumors still represents a major challenge. A therapeutic strategy increasingly used for TNBC patients is neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Only a subset of patients achieves a pathologic complete response (pCR) after NAC and have a better outcome than patients with residual disease. Purpose The aim of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with the metastatic-free survival in TNBC patients who received NAC. Methods We analyzed 326 cT1-3N1-3M0 patients with ductal infiltrating TNBC treated by NAC. The survival analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to determine clinical features associated with prognosis on the whole TNBC dataset. In addition, we built a recursive partitioning tree in order to identify additional clinical features associated with prognosis in specific subgroups of TNBC patients. Results We identified the lymph node involvement after NAC as the only clinical feature significantly associated with a poor prognosis using a Cox multivariate model (HR = 3.89 [2.42–6.25], p<0.0001). Using our recursive partitioning tree, we were able to distinguish 5 subgroups of TNBC patients with different prognosis. For patients without lymph node involvement after NAC, obesity was significantly associated with a poor prognosis (HR = 2.64 [1.28–5.55]). As for patients with lymph node involvement after NAC, the pre-menopausal status in grade III tumors was associated with poor prognosis (HR = 9.68 [5.71–18.31]). Conclusion This study demonstrates that axillary lymph node status after NAC is the major prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancers. Moreover, we identified body mass index and menopausal status as two other promising prognostic factors in this breast cancer subgroup. Using these clinical factors, we were able to classify TNBC patients in 5 subgroups, for which pre-menopausal patients with grade III tumors and lymph node involvement after NAC have the worse prognosis. PMID:26684197

  16. Absence of multiple atypical chemokine binders (ACBs) and the presence of VEGF and MMP-9 predict axillary lymph node metastasis in early breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Ou, Zhou-Luo; Yu, Ke-Da; Feng, Lan-Yun; Yin, Wen-Jing; Li, Jing; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis of early breast cancers by evaluating the status of DARC, D6 and CCX-CKR and the levels of VEGF and MMP-9. The status of DARC, D6 and CCX-CKR and the levels VEGF and MMP-9 were evaluated in ALN- (n = 130) and ALN + (n = 88) patients with T1 breast cancer by immunohistochemical staining. For ALN, likelihood ratio ? (2)-tests were used for univariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis identified the nuclear grade, VEGF and MMP-9 expression and absence of DARC, D6 and CCX-CKR as predictors of ALN involvement. When combining the three receptors (DARC, D6 and CCX-CKR) together, tumors with multiple absence (multi-absence, any two or three loss) had a higher likelihood of being ALN positive than non-multi-absence (coexpression of any two or three) tumors (56.2 vs. 27.9 %, P < 0.001). The final multivariate logistic regression revealed nuclear grade, VEGF, MMP-9 and non-multi-absence versus multi-absence to be independent predictors of ALN involvement; the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % CI for non-multi-absence tumors versus multi-absence were 0.469 (0.233-0.943). Multi-absence was also associated with the involvement of four or more lymph nodes among ALN + tumors. Moreover, tumors with multi-absence had higher VEGF (78.1 vs. 50.0 %, P < 0.001) and MMP-9 (81.3 vs. 36.1 %, P < 0.001) expression than non-multi-absence tumors. Our data highlight that the absence of DARC, D6 and CCX-CKR in combination, which is associated with higher VEGF and MMP-9 expression, predicts the presence and extent of ALN metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:25097078

  17. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  18. Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

  19. Axillary Lymph Node-to-Primary Tumor Standard Uptake Value Ratio on Preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT: A Prognostic Factor for Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hwan; Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Yemi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the axillary lymph node (ALN)-to-primary tumor maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) ratio (ALN/T SUV ratio) in invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) on preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) to determine the effectiveness in predicting recurrence-free survival (RFS). Methods One hundred nineteen IDC patients (mean age, 50.5±10.5 years) with pathologically proven ALN involvement without distant metastasis and preoperative FDG PET/CT were enrolled in the study. SUVmax values of the ALN and primary tumor were obtained on FDG PET/CT, and ALN/T SUV ratio was calculated. Several factors were evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting RFS. These included several parameters on FDG PET/CT as well as several clinicopathological parameters: pathologic tumor/node stage; nuclear and histological grade; hormonal state; status with respect to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB-1), and p53; primary tumor size; and ALN size. Results Among 119 patients with breast cancer, 17 patients (14.3%) experienced relapse during follow-up (mean follow-up, 28.4 months). The ALN/T SUV ratio of the group with disease recurrence was higher than that of the group without recurrence (0.97±1.60 and 0.45±0.40, respectively, p=0.005). Univariate analysis showed that the primary tumor SUVmax, ALN SUVmax, ALN/T SUV ratio, ALN status, nuclear and histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and MIB-1 status were predictors for RFS. Among these variables, ALN/T SUV ratio with hazard ratio of 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-10.13) and ER status with hazard ratio of 4.33 (95% CI, 1.06-17.71) were predictors for RFS according to multivariate analysis (p=0.002 and p=0.042, respectively). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that ALN/T SUV ratio together with ER status was an independent factor for predicting relapse in IDC with metastatic ALN. ALN/T SUV ratio on preoperative FDG PET/CT may be a useful marker for selecting IDC patients that need adjunct treatment to prevent recurrence. PMID:26155294

  20. Clinical significance of locoregional and systemic treatment in operable high-risk breast cancer patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Zhou, Liheng; Shao, Zhimin; Yin, Wenjin; Lu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer cases with four or more involved axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) feature an aggressive clinical history despite intensive treatment. However, therapies for improving the prognosis for these high-risk patients and the prognostic role of clinical characteristics have been little investigated. Therefore, we sought to assess potential prognostic factors for these patients in female Chinese patients and identify the treatment modalities they might benefit from, which offers implications for clinical practice. Patients and methods A total of 518 patients with four or more involved ALNs were retrospectively analyzed. Survival-curve analysis was performed with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to identify independent variables for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The patients were divided into groups depending on the number of ALNs, with 38.22% having four to six positive ALNs and 61.78% having seven or more ALNs. Compared with the seven or more-positive ALN subgroup, patients with four to six positive ALNs tended to have smaller tumors and were more likely to undergo modified radical mastectomy rather than radical mastectomy (both P<0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that a fluorouracil/doxorubicin (epirubicin)/cyclophosphamide (CA[E]F) regimen or a CA(E)F followed by docetaxel (CA[E] F > T) regimen conferred significantly better DFS (P=0.0075) and OS (P<0.0001) than those achieved from a cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil regimen, which was almost completely generated by the seven or more ALN subgroup (P=0.0088 and P=0.0001, respectively). Postoperative radiotherapy was associated with better DFS (P=0.0360), which was also generated by the seven or more ALN subgroup (P=0.0107). Subgroup analysis also clarified that the type of surgery conferred a modest effect on DFS in the seven or more ALN subgroup (P=0.0305). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that ALN status (hazard ratio [HR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–3.05; P=0.001), tumor size (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06–2.08; P=0.022), and type of surgery (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30–0.74; P=0.001) were independent prognostic factors for DFS. Meanwhile, ALN status (HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.51–5.77; P=0.002), tumor size (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.38–3.89; P=0.001), type of surgery (HR=0.39, 95% CI 0.20–0.76; P=0.006), and regimen of chemotherapy (HR=0.64, 95% CI 0.50–0.85; P=0.002) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion Besides the classical prognostic factors and the improvement of prognosis achieved from the anthracycline-based or anthracycline–taxane combination chemotherapy compared to cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil chemotherapy, our findings showed benefits on DFS and OS for appropriate local treatments, including radiotherapy and sufficient ALN dissection for high-risk breast cancer patients with four or more ALNs involved, which suggests that much importance should also be attached to local treatment besides adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:26442757

  1. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  2. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms. PMID:26552923

  3. Inhaled cisplatin deposition and distribution in lymph nodes in stage II lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Krauss, Leslie; Huang, Haidong; Zachariadis, George A; Katsavou, Anna; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Vogl, Thomas J; Freitag, Lutz; Stamatis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer therapies during the last decade have focused on targeting the genome of cancer cells, and novel routes for administering lung cancer therapies have been investigated for decades. Aerosol therapies for several systematic diseases and systemic infections were introduced into the market a decade ago. One of the main issues of aerosol therapies has been the ability to investigate the deposition of a drug compound throughout the systematic circulation and lymph node circulation. Until now, none of the published studies have efficiently shown the deposition of a chemotherapy pharmaceutical within the lymph node tissue. In our current work we present, for the first time, with the novel CytoViva(®) (AL, USA) technique, the deposition of cisplatin aerosol therapy in surgically resected stage II lymph nodes from lung cancer patients. Finally, we present the distribution of cisplatin in correlation with the cisplatin concentration in different lymph stations and comment on the possible mechanisms of distribution. PMID:23980678

  4. In stage II/III lymph node-positive breast cancer patients less than 55 years of age, keratin 8 expression in lymph node metastases but not in the primary tumour is an indicator of better survival.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Pracella, Danae; Barbazza, Renzo; Sulfaro, Sandro; Stanta, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Axillary lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic variables for breast cancer (BC). To investigate and understand the clinical, histopathological and biological factors that affect prognosis in node-positive young breast cancer patients, we compared the phenotype of 100 primary tumours with their corresponding loco-regional lymph node (LN) metastases using conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers currently in use for molecular classification of breast cancer. By comparing the expression of ER, PR, HER-2, Ki67, K8, K5/6 and vimentin, we found that expression of HER-2, Ki67, K8 and vimentin is frequently lost in lymph node metastases. Between the primary tumour and corresponding lymph node metastases, expression of keratins K8 and K5/6 significantly changed. Expression of K8 in lymph node metastases, but not in primary tumours, segregates patients in two sub-groups with different outcomes. Survival of patients with K8-positive LN metastases at 5 years in comparison with patients with K8-negative LN metastases was 75 vs 48 %, at 10 years 62 vs 22 % and at 20 years 53 vs 14 % (p?lymph node metastasis allows defining a sub-group of lymph node-positive BC patients with a highly unfavourable outcome, for whom therapeutic options might have to be reconsidered. PMID:25724181

  5. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  6. Prognostic value of axillary lymphoscintigraphy in breast carcinoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

    1986-07-01

    Axillary lymphoscintigraphy (AxLS) with bilateral interdigital injection of (99mTc)antimony sulfide colloid carried out concurrently with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy in 488 patients with breast carcinoma was evaluated. Patterns of radiocolloid distribution within the ipsilateral axilla and supraclavicular fossa were compared with similar features on the contralateral side to determine whether image characteristics are significantly disrupted by prior surgery, reflect the presence of metastases, and can predict treatment failure. Interpretive criteria for AxLS were refined after correlation of the identified image components with clinical parameters including axillary surgery, lymph node histology and relapse within a follow-up period of 2 years from the study. Results indicate that AxLS is at least as accurate as clinical assessment and provides data predictive of relapse to complement axillary lymph node status although the technique cannot presently replace lymph node sampling for patient staging.

  7. Transcutaneous axillary artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Kucukarslan, Nezihi; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Sungun, Mutasim; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2005-01-01

    The axillary artery may be an alternative cannulation site for patients with diffused atherosclerosis, aortic dissection, and aneurysm. There are different techniques for axillary artery cannulation that can be performed easily with a transcutaneous approach. Small incision necessity, less dissection, and good wound healing are other advantages of this technique. PMID:16183565

  8. Isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in regional lymph nodes in stage I to II endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minobe, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of isolated tumor cells (ITCs) or micrometastasis (MM) in regional lymph nodes in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to II endometrial cancer. Methods In this study, a series of 63 patients with FIGO stage I to II were included, who had at least one of the following risk factors for recurrence: G3 endometrioid/serous/clear cell adenocarcinomas, deep myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, lympho-vascular space invasion, and positive peritoneal cytology. These cases were classified as intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. Ultrastaging by multiple slicing, staining with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin, and microscopic examination was performed on regional lymph nodes that had been diagnosed as negative for metastases. Results Among 61 patients in whom paraffin-embedded block was available, ITC/MM was identified in nine patients (14.8%). Deep myometrial invasion was significantly associated with ITC/MM (p=0.028). ITC/MM was an independent risk factor for extrapelvic recurrence (hazard ratio, 17.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 232.2). The 8-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were more than 20% lower in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (OS, 71.4% vs. 91.9%; RFS, 55.6% vs. 84.0%), which were statistically not significant (OS, p=0.074; RFS, p=0.066). Time to recurrence tended to be longer in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (median, 49 months vs. 16.5 months; p=0.080). Conclusions It remains unclear whether ITC/MM have an adverse influence on prognosis of intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. A multicenter cooperative study is needed to clarify the clinical significance of ITC/MM. PMID:25925293

  9. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  10. Fluorescence Detection Of Occult Non-Palpable Metastases In Lymph Nodes Following Injection Of Low Doses Of Photofrin II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, T. S.; McGinnis, C.; Castillio, N.; Potter, W. R.

    1989-03-01

    Extraction procedures to quantitate Photofrin II concentration in tissues correlated with fluorescence measurements from instrumentation developed for in vivo fluorimetry were applied for the detection of low drug .levels in occult metastases of the lymph nodes. A sensitive fluorimeter was developed to overcome the limitation of natural background autofluorescence signals. The new device circumvents this limitation by reliably subtracting the normal tissue background signal from the combined fluorescence of DHE and natural background at 630. These techniques have been initially applied to detect low levels of drug in DBA mice bearing the SMT-F tumor, which has been extensively studied in our laboratory. The data show the ability of the techniques to detect very low levels of porphyrin in the tumors after low, non-therapeutic doses of injected photosensitizer. The Pollard rat prostatic adenocarcinoma (PA-III) model was chosen for this study because of its characteristic pattern of metastases involving only ipsilateral lymph nodes. Early studies on this lymph node model have shown the ability of the detection device to measure low levels of drug in non-palpable occult metastases in the nodes. The findings show that the detection of small numbers of metastatic cells is possible (<100 cells) with injected DHE doses of 0.25 mg/kg.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  12. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (?53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ?53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

  13. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

  14. Radiation Therapy Field Extent for Adjuvant Treatment of Axillary Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Ballo, Matthew T.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Cormier, Janice N.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Ross, Merrick I.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment-related outcomes and toxicity for patients with axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to either the axilla only or both the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (extended field [EF]). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 200 consecutive patients treated with postoperative RT for axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received postoperative hypofractionated RT for high-risk features; 95 patients (48%) received RT to the axilla only and 105 patients (52%) to the EF. Results: At a median follow-up of 59 months, 111 patients (56%) had sustained relapse, and 99 patients (50%) had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 51%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. The 5-year axillary control rate was 88%. There was no difference in axillary control rates on the basis of the treated field (89% for axilla only vs. 86% for EF; p = 0.4). Forty-seven patients (24%) developed treatment-related complications. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, only treatment with EF irradiation was significantly associated with increased treatment-related complications. Conclusions: Adjuvant hypofractionated RT to the axilla only for metastatic malignant melanoma with high-risk features is an effective method to control axillary disease. Limiting the radiation field to the axilla only produced equivalent axillary control rates to EF and resulted in lower treatment-related complication rates.

  15. Axillary lymphadenopathy 17 years after digital silicone implants: study with x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paplanus, S.H.; Payne, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    Axillary lymphadenopathy developed in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis 17 years after the placing of Swanson implants in the hand. Foreign material in the lymph nodes was identified as silicone by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. This emphasizes the long latent period that may be associated with this clinical phenomenon which may mimic other, more serious, diseases.

  16. Lymph Nodes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Lymphatic System » Components of the Lymphatic System » Lymph Nodes Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology ...

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Summary The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer. PMID:21779223

  18. Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Le Scodan, Romuald; Selz, Jessica; Stevens, Denise; Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline; Lerebours, Florence; Labib, Alain; Bruant, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

  19. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... round organs that are part of the body’s lymphatic system . They are found widely throughout the body and ... lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Anatomy of the lymphatic system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs, including ...

  20. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Incidental Carcinoma of the Gallbladder with Abdominal Wall and Axillary Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fligelstone, Louis J.; Wheeler, Malcolm H.; Horgan, Kieran; Maughan, Timothy S.

    1997-01-01

    A case report is presented of intra-mural gallbladder carcinoma discovered incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who subsequently developed abdominal wall recurrence at the epigastric exit port, and axillary lymph node metastases. Possible preventative steps for tumour dissemination and a management plan if incidental carcinoma is diagnosed is discussed. The use of a non-porous retrieval bag, early recognition of the carcinoma and excision of the exit wound are advocated. PMID:9174863

  1. Effect of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Groheux, David Moretti, Jean-Luc; Baillet, Georges; Espie, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Hindie, Elif; Hennequin, Christophe; Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert; Cuvier, Caroline; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel; Sarandi, Farid; Misset, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in this study. PET/CT was performed in addition to the initial assessment. Results: In 3 cases, PET/CT showed extra-axillary lymph node involvement that had not been demonstrated with conventional techniques. Two of these patients had hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the subpectoral and infraclavicular regions, and the third had a hypermetabolic internal mammary node. PET/CT showed distant uptake in 4 women. Of these 4 women, 1 had pleural involvement and 3 had bone metastasis. Overall, of the 39 women, the PET/CT results modified the initial stage in 7 (18%). The modified staging altered the treatment plan for 5 patients (13%). It led to radiotherapy in 4 patients (bone metastasis, pleural lesion, subpectoral lymph nodes, and internal mammary nodes) and excision of, and radiotherapy to, the infraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 patient. Conclusions: PET/CT can provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement and can uncover occult distant metastases in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, initial PET/CT could enable better treatment planning for patients with Stage II and III breast cancer.

  2. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure. PMID:25383226

  3. Spread of herpes simplex virus in lymph nodes after experimental infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, R J; Czelusniak, S M

    1987-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus was frequently isolated from ipsilateral popliteal lymph nodes after percutaneous inoculation of the dorsal face of the footpad, and from ipsi- and contralateral submandibular lymph nodes after percutaneous inoculation of the cheek or the orofacial area of mice. Virus was detected only on very rare occasion in nondraining lymph nodes (inguinal or axillary) or in contralateral popliteal lymph nodes, but was frequently isolated in contralateral lumbar lymph nodes after footpad inoculation. The presence of virus in lymph nodes paralleled or followed the invasion of ipsilateral sensory ganglia and was associated with dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia after unilateral inoculation. In older mice virus was detected only occasionally in lymph nodes and dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia was generally not observed. The results suggest that lymphatic spread may contribute to dissemination of virus in contralateral sensory ganglia after unilateral inoculation of mice. PMID:3025889

  4. Is It Contralateral Axillary Metastasis or Occult Breast Cancer?: A Confusing Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yong Gi; Kim, Woon Won; Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with primary left breast cancer presenting metastatic lymphadenopathy in the contralateral axilla. This patient represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because primary breast cancer, occult contralateral breast cancer, and extra-mammary primary lesion can all be the source of the contralateral axillary metastasis. Left breast-conserving surgery, left sentinel lymph node biopsy, right breast mass excision, and right axillary lymph node dissection were performed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the left breast cancer specimen was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), but negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In contrast, the right axillary lymphadenopathy specimen was negative for ER and PR, but positive for HER2. Further investigation revealed no evidence of occult primary cancers or extra-mammary tumors. After surgical intervention, the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation therapy, and targeted therapy with trastuzumab. Two years after diagnosis, she is free of disease and presently being treated with tamoxifen.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setúbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, P; Baía, R; António, A; Almeida, J; Simões, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonçalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient—6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  6. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  7. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  8. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hämmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J.; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas. PMID:21540548

  9. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse.

    PubMed

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hämmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-05-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas. PMID:21540548

  10. SEER Lymph Node Fields

    Cancer.gov

    1 1 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov SEER Lymph Node Codes Revisited SEER Program Training Materials October 2002 2 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov EOD Lymph Node Involvement Number of Regional Nodes Positive Number of Regional

  11. Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Maya; Takahashi, Shoki; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-04-01

    Lymph node size is an important variable in ultrasound diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. However, the size criterion often leads to oversight of tumor-positive lymph nodes within the range of "normal" size, such that more accurate diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis are required. In this study, we show how diagnosis of lymph node metastasis can be improved by evaluating changes in blood vessel volume and density using a novel contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound (CE-HFUS) system with Sonazoid. An MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mouse model of lymph node metastasis was used in which lymph nodes are similar in size to humans. Metastasis via lymphatic vessels to proper axillary lymph nodes (proper ALN) was induced by injection of tumor cells into the subiliac lymph nodes. Within 21 days of injection, significant increases in blood vessel volume and density, but no increases in the size of the proper ALNs, were observed. The increase in blood vessel density was confirmed with immunohistochemical analysis and was positively related to tumor cell proliferation as measured using bioluminescence imaging. Together, our results showed that alterations in blood vessel volume and density precede alterations in lymph node size in the early stages of lymph node metastasis. Detection of these changes by ultrasonography may offer new criteria for early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:23333937

  12. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  13. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-? release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464

  14. Dose coverage of axillary level I-III areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy in early stage breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Jeffrey; Ma, Jin-li; Mei, Xin; Yu, Xiao-li; Zhou, Zhi-rui; Shao, Zhi-min; Liu, Guang-yu; Guo, Xiao-mao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the dose coverage of axillary areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy (s-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (for-IMRT) in early stage breast cancer patients. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were collected. Two plans were created for each patient: the s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan. Dosimetric parameters of axillary areas were compared. Results The average of mean doses delivered to the axillary level I areas in s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan were 27.7Gy and 29.1Gy (p = 0.011), respectively. The average of V47.5Gy, V45Gy and V40Gy (percent volume receiving? 47.5Gy, 45Gy and 40Gy) of the axillary level I in s-IMRT plan was significantly lower than that in for-IMRT plan (p < 0.001). For for-IMRT plans, patients with upper tangential border to humeral head ?2cm, breast separation >19.3cm and body width >31.9cm had significantly higher mean dose in axillary level I area (p = 0.002, 0.007, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Compared with for-IMRT plan, the s-IMRT plan delivered lower dose to axillary level I area. For centers using s-IMRT technique, caution should be exercised when selecting to omit axillary lymph node dissection for patients with breast conserving surgery and limited positive SLNs. PMID:26082440

  15. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  16. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for the detection of lymph node metastases from breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjandra, J.J.; Russell, I.S.; Collins, J.P.; Andrews, J.T.; Lichtenstein, M.; Binns, D.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1989-03-15

    The presence of metastases in the regional lymph nodes is the major prognostic factor in breast cancer in the absence of overt distant metastases and is also an important indicator of the need for adjuvant therapy in ''early'' breast cancer. Currently, the accurate assessment of axillary lymph node status requires axillary dissection which has an associated morbidity. An alternative method of identifying patients who are ''node positive'' has been developed by means of immunolymphoscintigraphy with s.c. administered radioiodinated monoclonal antibody. The /sup 131/I-labeled anti-breast cancer antibody (RCC-1; 400 micrograms) and cold iodine-labeled blocking antibody (Ly-2.1; 2 mg which is nonreactive with breast cancer) were injected s.c. into both arms and scintigraphy images were obtained 16-18 h after the injection, using the axilla contralateral to the side of the breast cancer as the control. Studies were reported as positive if the amount of background-subtracted radioactive count in the axilla of interest exceeded the normal side by a radio equal to or greater than 1.5:1.0 as assessed by computer analysis. In 38 of 40 patients the findings on scintigraphy were correlated with operative and histopathological findings on the axillary dissection specimen or cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of axillary lymph nodes. In a prospective study of 26 patients, the method is more sensitive (86%) and specific (92%) than preoperative clinical assessment (57% sensitivity, 58% specificity) in the detection of axillary lymph node metastases; and by combining both modalities of assessment, there was an improvement in the sensitivity (100%) but a deterioration in the specificity (50%).

  17. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Douek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality. PMID:24281206

  18. Diffusion MRI on lymph node staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Memmi, Naim; Turkmen, Ihsan; Cipe, Gokhan; Yildiz, Pelin; Arici, Dilek Sema; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 23 gastric cancer patients with a mean age of 59.4±10.9 years were analyzed. Lymph nodes were grouped as perigastric lesser curvature (Group Ia), perigastric greater curvature (Group Ib), D1+/D2 lymph nodes (Group II). Identification of histologically metastatic lymph nodes by diffusion weighted MRI was regarded as the main outcome. Results A total of 1,056 lymph nodes including 180 histologically proven metastatic lymph nodes were dissected. Although diffusion weighted MRI could identify the metastatic lymph nodes in 18 out of 23 patients (77.8%), only 69 of total 1,056 nodes (6.53%), either metastatic or non-metastatic, could be detected. There was no correlation between histopathology and diffusion weighted MRI with regard to lymph node groups (P>0.05 for all). Overall accuracy was calculated as 69.56, 65.21 and 52.17 for Groups II, Ib and Ia lymph nodes, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could not be helpful to differentiate metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.673). Conclusions Diffusion weighted MRI has low accuracy to detect or to differentiate metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes based on their ADC values in gastric cancer. PMID:26029642

  19. Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, Suzanne van Jaeger, Katrien de; Mijnheer, Ben |; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 31, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2012 240 Automatic Detection and Segmentation of Lymph

    E-print Network

    Barbu, Adrian

    with virtually no loss in accuracy. Second, it presents a computationally efficient segmentation method for solid-20 seconds per volume for axillary areas and 15-40 seconds for pelvic. An added benefit of the method lymph node detection and segmentation method is shown in Fig. 1. For speed and accuracy, regions of in

  1. Axillary Lymphadenopathy: An Outstanding Presentation for Breast Implant-Associated ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tardío, Juan C; Granados, Rosario

    2015-08-01

    Till date, there is only one reported case of breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with an axillary presentation that followed an aggressive behavior. We report the case of a 50-year-old female presenting with an axillary lymphadenopathy 8 years after breast prostheses implantation. Clinical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging detected no mammary lesions. The lymph node showed intrasinusoidal infiltration by large pleomorphic cells expressing CD30 and lacking ALK-immunoreactivity. Tumor staging was negative. Cells with identical features were found in the ipsilateral periprosthetic capsule. The patient was treated with CHOP and radiotherapy, and she is alive without evidence of disease after a 30-month follow-up. The diagnosis of an ALK-negative ALCL in an axillary lymph node of a patient with ipsilateral breast prosthesis and negative staging should prompt removal of the implant with capsulectomy, since the pathological study of this specimen allows the correct diagnosis with important prognostic implications. PMID:25829459

  2. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact ? camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine ? camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  3. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Aim To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Methods Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 ± 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Results Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p < 0.001). Mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude was 2.83, SD 2.50 mV in the paralyzed shoulder and was 7.44, SD 5.47 mV in the sound shoulder (p < 0.001). Patients with right paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with right sound shoulder (p < 0.001, 1-sided for latency; p = 0.003, 1-sided for amplitude), and patients with left paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with left sound shoulder (p = 0.011, 1-sided for latency, p = 0.001, 1-sided for amplitude), support the same outcomes. The electro-physiological changes in the axillary nerve may appear during the first six weeks after stroke breakout. Conclusion Continuous traction of the axillary nerve, as in hypotonic shoulder, may affect the electro-physiological properties of the nerve. It most probably results from subluxation of the head of the humerus, causing demyelinization and even axonopathy. Slowing of the conduction velocities of the axillary nerve in the paralyzed shoulders may be related also to the lowering of the skin temperature and muscular atrophy in the same limb. The usefulness of routine screening nerve conduction studies in the shoulder of hemiplegic patients seems to be advocated. PMID:19091095

  4. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Indications, Contraindications, and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Rubello, Domenico; Tardelli, Elisa; Giammarile, Francesco; Mazzarri, Sara; Boni, Giuseppe; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Chiacchio, Serena; Ghilli, Matteo; Roncella, Manuela; Volterrani, Duccio; Colletti, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Axillary lymph node status, a major prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer, provides information important for individualized surgical treatment. Because imaging techniques have limited sensitivity to detect metastasis in axillary lymph nodes, the axilla must be explored surgically. The histology of all resected nodes at the time of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been regarded as the most accurate method for assessing metastatic spread of disease to the locoregional lymph nodes. However, ALND may result in lymphedema, nerve injury, shoulder dysfunction, and other short-term and long-term complications limiting functionality and reducing quality of life. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a less invasive method of assessing nodal involvement. The concept of SLNB is based on the notion that tumors drain in an orderly manner through the lymphatic system. Therefore, the SLN is the first to be affected by metastasis if the tumor has spread, and a tumor-free SLN makes it highly unlikely for other nodes to be affected. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard of care for primary treatment of early breast cancer and has replaced ALND to stage clinically node-negative patients, thus reducing ALND-associated morbidity. More than 20 years after its introduction, there are still aspects concerning SLNB and ALND that are currently debated. Moreover, SLNB remains an unstandardized procedure surrounded by many unresolved controversies concerning the technique itself. In this article, we review the main indications, contraindications, and controversies of SLNB in breast cancer in the light of the most recent publications. PMID:26447368

  5. Advances and perspectives in nanoprobes for noninvasive lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhuan, Zhigang; Jiang, Beiqi; Zhao, Peng; Lin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is now being well accepted as a practical approach to determine axillary lymph node status. For SLN biopsy, the mapping of SLN is an important procedure. However, blue dyes and radioactive colloids used for clinical SLN mapping are associated with a few issues such as adverse side effects and short retention time in SLN. In recent years, nanoscale probes for noninvasive SLN mapping have received attention due to their adaptable synthesis methods, adjustable optical properties and good biocompatibility. This review thoroughly summarizes the design of the nanoprobes and their properties in SLN mapping. The aim is to understand the status of nanomaterials for SLN mapping, challenging work and potential clinical translation in the future. PMID:25867863

  6. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be done: Blood tests, including liver function tests , kidney function tests , and CBC with differential Lymph node biopsy Chest x-ray Liver-spleen scan Treatment depends on the cause of the swollen nodes.

  7. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  8. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Jadusingh, I. H.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence and pathology of intramammary lymph nodes in breast specimens. METHODS: All breast specimens examined by a single pathologist over 70 months in a large teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. All the surgical pathology reports were reviewed. Relevant glass slides from cases in which intramammary lymph nodes were identified were also reexamined. RESULTS: Breast specimens (n = 682) were examined. Seven lymph nodes were found in five patients. The specimens comprised 533 biopsy specimens, 29 segmental resections, 22 reduction mammoplasties, 77 modified radical mastectomies and 20 gynecomastia mastectomies. No clinically relevant microscopical abnormalities were found in four lymph nodes and slight sinus histiocytosis was seen in two nodes. One node contained metastatic adenocarcinoma and benign glandular epithelial inclusions. CONCLUSION: Although rare, intramammary lymph nodes may be detected by careful gross examination of breast specimens even in the absence of clinical identification. They can occur in any quadrant of the breast and can display a variety of pathological conditions. Pathologists should be alert to the existence and potential importance of these lymph nodes. Images PMID:1452776

  9. A Paradigm Shift in Axillary Breast Cancer Treatment; From "Treat All-Except," Toward "Treat None-Unless".

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Ingrid; Voogd, Adri C; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2015-12-01

    The various pitfalls that exist in using predictive systems for sentinel node-positive breast cancer are described, to give insight into the background and building stones of these systems. The aim of this article was to make clinicians aware of these pitfalls before using them in the clinical decision-making process in individual patients with positive sentinel nodes. Besides these pitfalls, the implications concerning the results of the Z0011 trial as presented by Giuliano et al (Giuliano AE, et al. Locoregional recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection with or without axillary dissection in patients with sentinel lymph node metastases: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 randomized trial. Ann Surg 2010; 252:426-32, discussion 432-3) are addressed, and we point out some important issues for debate, before implementation of the conclusions of that practice-changing trial into daily clinical breast cancer practice. PMID:26253641

  10. Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, Caroline; Stevens, Denise; Brain, Etienne

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  11. A newly discovered Anaerococcus strain responsible for axillary odor and a new axillary odor inhibitor, pentagalloyl glucose.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayoshi; Shinozaki, Junko; Kajiura, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Keiji; Fudou, Ryosuke

    2014-07-01

    Skin surface bacteria contribute to body odor, especially axillary odor. We aimed to investigate anaerobic bacteria that had not been previously studied for axillary odor formation. A new anaerobic Anaerococcus sp. A20, that releases 3-hydroxy-3-metyl-hexanoic acid (HMHA, main component of axillary odor) from its glutamyl conjugate, was discovered from axillary isolates. This strain showed strong resistance to the antimicrobial agents, triclosan and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol; therefore, we screened plant extracts that inhibit the A20 strain. We discovered that pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) extracted from the Chinese Gall plant exhibited both antibacterial and inhibitory activities against HMHA release by the A20 strain. As the excellent antibacterial activity and inhibitory effect of PGG against HMHA release were seen in vitro, we conducted an open study to evaluate the deodorant effects of PGG on axillary odor. The sensory tests on odor strength showed that application of the PGG solution could reduce axillary odors in vivo. Although there was a small change in axillary microbiota, the microbial count of A20 significantly reduced. These results strongly indicate PGG as a new innovative deodorant material that only affects odor-releasing bacteria in the axillary microbiota. PMID:24784923

  12. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n?=?407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n?=?63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P?axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P?=?0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P?lymph node biopsy could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision making of the internal mammary radiotherapy, especially for clinically ALN-positive patients. PMID:26469922

  13. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and assisting in visualization of recurrence and tumoral boundaries.

  14. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10?nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830?nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60?min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25?min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices. PMID:23812946

  15. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M; Sura, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.

  16. Iliopsoas tuberculous abscess associated with cervical and axillary tuberculous lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Latsios, Dimitrios; Chloros, Diamantis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Dagdilelis, Loukas; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of iliopsoas tuberculous abscess without obvious spinal column involvement. Cervical and axillary tuberculous lymphadenopathy were also presented. Despite appropriate antituberculous treatment, patient required percutaneous drainage with CT-guided catheter insertion. PMID:22693294

  17. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  18. Characterizing axillary web syndrome: ultrasonographic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Koehler, L A; Hunter, D W; Haddad, T C; Blaes, A H; Hirsch, A T; Ludewig, P M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ultrasound could successfully characterize axillary web syndrome (AWS) and clarify the pathophysiologic basis of AWS as a vascular or lymphatic abnormality, or an abnormal tissue structure. This prospective study evaluated women who developed AWS following breast cancer surgery. Using an 18 MHz ultrasound transducer, images were taken of the AWS cord and compared to mirror images on the contralateral side. A blinded radiologist assessed the ultrasound characteristics of and structural changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue and formulated an opinion as to the side in which AWS was located. Seventeen subjects participated in the study. No structure or abnormality consistent with AWS could be identified by ultrasound. There were no statistical differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral side in skin thickness; subcutaneous reflector thickness, number or disorganization; or subcutaneous tissue echodensity (p>0.05). The radiologist correctly identified the side with AWS in 12 of 17 subjects (=0.41). A distinct ultrasonographic structure or abnormality could not be identified in subjects with AWS using 18 MHz ultrasound. The inability to identify a specific structure excludes the possibility that AWS is associated with vein thrombosis or a fascial abnormality, and supports the theory that AWS may be pathology that is not visible with 18 MHz ultrasound, such as microlymphatic stasis or binding of fibrin or other proteins in the interstitial space. PMID:25915976

  19. New treatment techniques for axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Mordon, Serge R; Trelles, Mario A; Leclere, Franck Marie; Betrouni, Nacim

    2014-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a medical problem defined as perspiration in excess of what is normally needed to cool the body. The excessive production of sweat by the sudoriferous glands is independent of the process of thermoregulation. Techniques have recently appeared that make use of energy sources, in particular microwave devices and light (pulsed flashlamp or laser). The aim is to obtain very long-lasting efficacy without notable side effects. Thermal Nd:YAG lasers used with an interstitial fiber, microwave devices, and photodynamic therapy appear to offer new treatment options for axillary hyperhidrosis. However, insertion of a laser fiber into tissue by means of a cannula may lead to complications if the procedure is not well mastered, as has been shown by numerous studies on laser lipolysis. The only microwave device available on the market is certainly interesting. Photodynamic therapy using eosin gel is an attractive technique. The energy source is a pulsed flashlamp, which many physicians have. Eosin gel is relatively easy to produce and these gels are already marketed in several countries. However, further clinical studies of larger series of patients and with longer follow-up are still needed to reach a definitive conclusion as to the value of this approach. PMID:25065458

  20. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L ?-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 ?mol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants. PMID:23179705

  1. Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas showing intertumoural heterogeneity: a comparison of histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of primary tumour and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Monica; Podoleanu, Cristian; Georgescu, Rares; Moldovan, Cosmin; Molnar, Calin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Our study aimed to compare the histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of invasive tumour foci in multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas with those in corresponding axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. We reassessed slides from consecutive multiple breast carcinomas surgically treated with axillary LN dissection (2007-2012). 155 (19.23%) of 806 cases had multiple breast cancer, of which 115 (74.19%) cases had identical morphology. Of these, 85 (73.91%) cases had axillary LN metastases morphologically identical to the originating breast tumours. 32 of the 40 (80%) cases with different morphology had axillary LN metastases; in most heterogeneous cases with differences in grade (87.5%), the grade of metastases was identical to the grade of the tumour foci with the highest histological grade, and in 33.33% of cases the grade in LN was concordant with the grade of smaller foci. Among the 18 cases heterogeneous in histological type with axillary metastases, 33.33% presented heterogeneous histological types in LN, and 22.22% of them were only concordant with the histological type of the smaller tumour foci. The morphological aspects of axillary LN metastases correspond to the highest histological grade and/or histological tumour type with unfavourable prognosis, which does not necessarily appear in the largest tumour focus. PMID:26247525

  2. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy; Kirby, Anna; Crichton, Siobhan; Gillett, Cheryl; Cane, Paul; Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

  3. Safety of avoiding routine use of axillary dissection in early stage breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pepels, Manon J; Vestjens, Johanna H M J; de Boer, Maaike; Smidt, Marjolein; van Diest, Paul J; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2011-01-01

    Physicians are moving away from routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in clinically node-negative breast cancer. We conducted a systemic review on the safety of this policy. Pubmed and Cochrane library were searched for. Sixty-eight studies were included: studies of clinically node-negative patients in the pre-sentinel node (SN) era; observational studies of SN-negative patients, without ALND; comparative studies of SN-negative patients, with a non-ALND and an ALND group; SN-positive studies, of patients without ALND. Primary endpoint was the pooled axillary recurrence rate (ARR) of each category; secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS) rate. In pre-SN studies, with larger tumors and less systemic therapy, ARR without ALND after 5-10 years follow-up was 12-18%, with 5% reduced OS. In the observational SN-negative studies, with median follow-up of 36 months, the pooled ARR was 0.6% (95% CI 0.6-0.8). In the comparative SN-negative studies, pooled ARR was 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.6) without ALND versus 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6) with ALND at 31 and 47 months, respectively, and no survival disadvantage. In SN-positive studies, ARR was up to 1.7% (95% CI 1.0-2.7) at 30 months. For patients with an H&E positive SN the ARR without ALND was 5% after 23 months, which may imply rates as high as 13 and 18% after 5 and 8 years. In conclusion, this systematic review confirms the safety of omitting ALND in SN-negative patients. There is a potential role for avoiding ALND in selected SN-positive patients, but eligibility criteria and the role of systemic therapy need further to be elucidated. PMID:20972825

  4. Surgical Resection for Bulky or Recurrent Axillary Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shada, Amber L.; Walters, Dustin M.; Tierney, Shannon N.; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Metastatic melanoma has few FDA approved treatments, and aggressive surgical resection has to be considered for management of bulky axillary metastases. We hypothesized that axillary resection in this setting is well tolerated and improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Methods We reviewed a prospectively collected database and identified 47 stage IIIC and IV patients with axillary nodal disease greater than 5 cm (68%), recurrent disease (36%), or disease adherent to axillary neurovascular structures (45%). Paresthesias, pain, and bleeding were present in 40% of patients, and were stable or improved after surgery in 75%. Most patients were asymptomatic prior to resection, and underwent resection for prevention of potential symptoms. Results Most patients underwent outpatient surgery. Postoperative complications included lymphedema (34%), range of motion limitation (23%), wound infection (17%), and neuropathic pain (17%). Among symptomatic patients, average time to progression was 3 months, compared to 9.5 months in asymptomatic patients (P = 0.08). Five-year survival was lower (16%) in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients (35%, P = 0.001). Discussion Surgery for bulky axillary melanoma metastases is well tolerated, and should be considered in the management of Stage III or IV melanoma. Resection prior to symptoms may improve quality of life and is associated with longer survival. PMID:21826672

  5. Mouse Model of Lymph Node Metastasis via Afferent Lymphatic Vessels for Development of Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Sakamoto, Maya; Takahashi, Shoki; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies of lymph node metastasis are constrained by limitations in the techniques available for noninvasive monitoring of the progression of lymph node metastasis, as well as difficulties in the establishment of appropriate animal models. To overcome these challenges, this study has developed a mouse model of inter-lymph-node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for use in the development of imaging modalities. We used 14- to 18-week-old MRL/MpJ?/lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice exhibiting remarkable systemic lymphadenopathy, with proper axillary lymph nodes (proper-ALNs) and subiliac lymph nodes (SiLNs) that are 6 to 12 mm in diameter (similar in size to human lymph nodes). When KM-Luc/GFP malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like cells stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene were injected into the SiLN, metastasis could be detected in the proper-ALN within 3 to 9 days, using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The metastasis route was found to be via the efferent lymphatic vessels of the SiLN, and metastasis incidence depended on the number of cells injected, the injection duration and the SiLN volume. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging showed that the blood vessel volume and density in the metastasized proper-ALN significantly increased at 14 days after tumor cell inoculation into the SiLN. The present metastasis model, with lymph nodes similar in size to those of humans, has potential use in the development of ultrasound imaging with high-precision and high-sensitivity as well as other imaging modalities for the detection of blood vessels in lymph nodes during the progression of metastasis. PMID:23405215

  6. Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Sakamoto, Maya; Takahashi, Shoki; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies of lymph node metastasis are constrained by limitations in the techniques available for noninvasive monitoring of the progression of lymph node metastasis, as well as difficulties in the establishment of appropriate animal models. To overcome these challenges, this study has developed a mouse model of inter-lymph-node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for use in the development of imaging modalities. We used 14- to 18-week-old MRL/MpJ-/lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice exhibiting remarkable systemic lymphadenopathy, with proper axillary lymph nodes (proper-ALNs) and subiliac lymph nodes (SiLNs) that are 6 to 12 mm in diameter (similar in size to human lymph nodes). When KM-Luc/GFP malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like cells stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene were injected into the SiLN, metastasis could be detected in the proper-ALN within 3 to 9 days, using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The metastasis route was found to be via the efferent lymphatic vessels of the SiLN, and metastasis incidence depended on the number of cells injected, the injection duration and the SiLN volume. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging showed that the blood vessel volume and density in the metastasized proper-ALN significantly increased at 14 days after tumor cell inoculation into the SiLN. The present metastasis model, with lymph nodes similar in size to those of humans, has potential use in the development of ultrasound imaging with high-precision and high-sensitivity as well as other imaging modalities for the detection of blood vessels in lymph nodes during the progression of metastasis. PMID:23405215

  7. Clinicopathologic subtypes and compromise of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaime Jans, B; Nicolás Escudero, M; Dahiana Pulgar, B; Francisco Acevedo, C; César Sánchez, R; Camus, A Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is currently a heterogeneous disease with variations in clinical behaviour. Classification according to subtypes has allowed progress in the individualisation of treatment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of axillary node compromise in patients with BC, according to clinicopathologic subtypes. Materials and methods are a retrospective, descriptive-analytical study. All patients that had undergone surgery for invasive BC were included, with the study of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) at Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica, between May 1999 and December 2012. The results showed 632 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with the median age being 55 years (range: 28–95), and 559 (88.4%) patients presented with estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive tumours. Luminal A: 246 patients (38.9%), luminal B: 243 (38.4%), luminal not otherwise specified: 70 (11.1%) triple negative (TN): 60 (9.5%) and over expression of epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2 positive): 13 (2.1%). Luminal tumours displayed a greater risk of metastasis in the SLNs, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). TN and HER2 positive tumours presented the greatest proportion of metastatic compromise in non-sentinel lymph nodes (non-SLNs) (57.1% and 50%, respectively). The presence of macrometastasis (MAM) in the SLN was associated with a greater risk of compromise of the non-SLN. Conclusions: Luminal tumours are the most frequent and present a greater proportion of axillary lymph node compromise, without being statistically significant. TN and HER2 positive tumours tend to have a higher axillary compromise; however, this was not statistically significant in either. Only the presence of MAM in SLNs displayed a statistically significantly association in the compromise of non-SLNs. PMID:25114720

  8. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis after proximal humerus fracture associated with axillary artery rupture.

    PubMed

    Mouzopoulos, G; Lasanianos, N; Mouzopoulos, D; Batanis, G; Tzurbakis, M; Georgilas, I

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of axillary artery to the humeral head makes it quite vulnerable to blunt trauma during shoulder injury. Axillary artery rupture and prolonged ischemia may lead to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Herein we present a case of a patient who sustained proximal humerus fracture associated with axillary artery rupture and acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. PMID:18587662

  9. Phase II study of concurrent selective lymph node late course accelerated hyper-fractionated radiotherapy and pemetrexed and cisplatin for locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, C; Guo, L; Li, H; Huang, W; Gong, H; Sun, M; Wang, Z; Zhou, T; Liu, C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical efficacy and toxicity of pemetrexed combined with low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) concurrent with late-course accelerated hyperfractionated (LCAF) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with inoperable locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: Patients with locally advanced ESCC (less than or equal to 75 years of age, clinical stages IIB–IVA and Karnofsky performance status ?70) were enrolled into the study. A target group size of 22 was projected based on the estimation that 2-year overall survival (OS) would increase from 20% to 40%. Patients were treated with pemetrexed, low-dose CDDP and LCAF IMRT concurrently. The main objective of the study was for a 2-year OS, and the secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response, locoregional failure rate, and acute and late toxicities. Results: 25 patients were recruited from October 2008 to July 2011. The median OS was 21 months, with 2- and 5-year OS rates of 44% and 44%, respectively. The median PFS was 18.2 months. The objective response rate was 96% (24/25), with 11 complete responses and 13 partial responses. The locoregional failure rate was 16%. Grades 4 and 5 acute toxicity rates were 8% and 4%, respectively, while no Grade 3 or greater late toxicity was observed. Conclusion: The findings of this Phase II study indicated that the therapeutic regimen appears to achieve an excellent response rate and favourable survival for locally advanced ESCC. However, the severe acute side effects should be considered cautiously in further studies. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study that introduced pemetrexed and low-dose CDDP combined with LCAF IMRT to treat locally advanced ESCC. The 5-year OS rate was as high as 44%, which was more favourable than other studies. PMID:24666012

  10. Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-Song; Shi, Jing-Hui; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shu-Jie; Li, Peng; Li, En-You

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block. Forty-five patients of ASA I~II and aged 25-60 yr who were scheduled for elective forearm and hand surgery were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and received 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (50 ?g) (Group DR1), 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (100 ?g) (group DR2) or 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml saline (group R) in a double-blind fashion. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks and side effects were recorded. The demographic data and surgical characteristics were similar in each group. Sensory and motor block onset times were the same in the three groups. Sensory and motor blockade durations were longer in group DR2 than in group R (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the sensory blockade duration between group DR1 and group R. Bradycardia, hypertension and hypotension were not observed in group R and occurred more often in group DR2 than in group DR1. Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine for an axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of the block. However, dexmedetomidine may also lead to side effects such as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension. PMID:24753763

  11. Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Anneleen; Brouckaert, Olivier; Smeets, Ann; Laenen, Annouschka; Yoshihara, Emi; Persyn, Frederik; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frederic; Soens, Julie; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Moerman, Philippe; Vergote, Ignace; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Staelens, Gracienne; Van Eygen, Koen; Vanneste, Alain; Van Dam, Peter; Colpaert, Cecile; Neven, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) is the golden standard if breast cancer involves the sentinel lymph node (SLN). However, most non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) are not involved, cALND has a considerable complication rate and does not improve outcome. We here present and validate our predictive model for positive NSLNs in the cALND if the SLN is positive. Consecutive early breast cancer patients from one center undergoing cALND for a positive SLN were included. We assessed demographic and clinicopathological variables for NSLN involvement. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed. A predictive model was built and validated in two external centers. 21.9% of 470 patients had at least one involved NSLN. In univariate analysis, seven variables were significantly correlated with NSLN involvement: tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of positive and negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive SLN. In multivariate analysis, LVI, number of negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive pathological evaluation were independent predictors for NSLN involvement. The calculated risk resulted in an AUC of 0.76. Applied to the external data, the model was accurate and discriminating for one (AUC = 0.75) and less for the other center (AUC = 0.58). A discriminative predictive model was constructed to calculate the risk of NSLN involvement in case of a positive SLN. External validation of our model reveals differences in performance when applied to data from other institutions concluding that such a predictive model requires validation prior to use. PMID:24768478

  12. Lymphadenopathy and lymph node infarction as a result of gold injections

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, C; Batstone, P; Goodlad, J

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a case of lymphadenopathy and lymph node infarction as a consequence of intramuscular gold administered to a patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, to highlight this rare association. A 34 year old woman with a four year history of rheumatoid arthritis affecting multiple joints was started on intramuscular gold injections after little response to anti-inflammatory medication. After her sixth injection the patient developed enlarged neck and axillary lymph nodes. Biopsy showed subtotal infarction of a reactive node, confirmed by histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques. The patient continued to suffer from rheumatoid arthritis with no evidence of malignant lymphoma after three years. This case provides strong evidence that lymphadenopathy with infarction is a rare complication of gold injections. In such a situation, it is particularly important to exclude a diagnosis of lymphoma, because this is the most common cause of spontaneous lymph node infarction. This can be achieved through awareness of the association, and by the use of ancillary histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques on the biopsy material. Key Words: lymph node infarction • gold • rheumatoid arthritis PMID:11429432

  13. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  14. Accuracy of electronic axillary temperature measurement in term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M E; Richards, M T

    1994-12-01

    The accuracy of axillary temperature measurement using an electronic thermometer in the predictive mode was investigated in term and preterm infants. Predictive mode measurements were compared to axillary monitoring mode measurements and to rectal temperature recordings. Fifty temperature recordings were obtained in each of four groups of neonates (full-term/radiant warmer, full-term/open crib, preterm/radiant warmer, preterm/incubator). Correlation of axillary predictive and monitoring mode temperatures ranged from r = 0.83 to 0.90. Correlations between axillary monitoring mode and rectal measurements were r = 0.69 to 0.80, and between predictive mode and rectal measurements were r = 0.59 to 0.80. Small, statistically significant differences were found between predictive and monitoring mode axillary temperatures in preterm neonates (0.1 to 0.2 degrees F). Rectal temperatures were higher than axillary predictive temperatures by 0.5 degrees F and higher than axillary monitoring mode temperatures by 0.7 degrees F. Ranges of variation of +/- 0.8 to 1.1 degrees F were similar in comparisons of rectal with axillary predictive and monitoring mode measurements. The results of this study support the use of axillary measurement in the predictive mode for clinical measurement of temperature in neonates. Clinicians should be aware of the expected differences between measurements at axillary and rectal sites and the potential for variation in measurements across measurement modes and sites. PMID:7854297

  15. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. PMID:25841039

  16. Primary breast lymphoma presenting as non-healing axillary abscess.

    PubMed

    Anele, Chukwuemeka; Phan, Yih Chyn; Wong, Suanne; Poddar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with a history consistent with a right axillary abscess, presented to her general practitioner (GP). A diagnosis of folliculitis was made and the GP started a course of flucloxacillin. Despite antibiotics, the patient's symptoms worsened and the abscess increased in size. This prompted her GP to perform an incision and drainage procedure of the abscess. The practice nurse subsequently oversaw the follow-up care of the wound. Two months after the incision and drainage, and after regular wound dressing, the patient was referred to the acute surgical team with a complicated, non-healing right axillary abscess cavity and associated generalised right breast cellulitis. There was no history of breast symptoms prior to the onset of the axillary abscess. The patient underwent wound debridement, washout and application of negative pressure vacuum therapy. Biopsies revealed primary breast lymphoma (B-cell). She underwent radical chemotherapy and is currently in remission. PMID:26446318

  17. Thyroid Gland Removal With or Without Central Lymph Node Dissection in Treating Patients With Node Negative Thyroid Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well thyroid gland removal with or without central lymph node dissection works in treating patients with thyroid cancer or suspected thyroid cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes. Currently, the standard treatment for thyroid cancer is total thyroidectomy, or complete removal of the thyroid. Sometimes, the lymph nodes in the central part of the neck may also be surgically removed, called central lymph node dissection.

  18. Mast cell types and cell-to-cell interactions in lymph nodes of the opossum Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed

    Chiarini-Garcia, H; Santos, A A; Machado, C R

    2000-03-01

    Previous light-microscopic studies have shown a unique population of mast cells in lymphatic sinuses of lymph nodes located in the head, neck, axillary fossa and inguinal region of the opossum. In the present work, scanning and transmission electron-microscopic studies in the opossum mandibular and superficial axillary lymph nodes have strengthened the differences between connective-tissue mast cells (CTMC) and the lymphatic-sinus mast cells (LSMC). Further, close appositions of mast cells to other cells were described. At the nodal capsule, CTMC contacted fibroblast and granulocytes. In the lymphatic sinuses a few CTMC contacted LSMC, macrophages and reticular cells. The LSMC contacted macrophages, reticular cells and other LSMC. A few LSMC could be located in the medullary cord in close contact with plasma cells or other lymphoid cells, keeping the same ultrastructural features of those found in the lymphatic sinuses. An important new finding was provided by light-microscopic studies in nine abdominal lymph nodes. Most of them (para-aortic, common iliac, cardial, cecocolic and those of the body and tail of the pancreas) displayed numerous LSMC with the same distribution and histological features described herein. However, the mesenteric, pyloric and head-of-pancreas lymph nodes were virtually devoid of LSMC. Instead, their mast cells occurred mainly at the medullary cords and were very similar to the CTMC. Ultrastructural studies at the mesenteric lymph nodes confirmed the CTMC character of the mast cells located at both medullary cords and sinuses, and disclosed interactions with macrophages and lymphoid cells. PMID:10664180

  19. PREDICTORS OF QUALITY OF LIFE WITH AXILLARY REVERSE

    E-print Network

    Adkins, Barbara

    2014-08-31

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging early breast cancer in clinically node negative patients is supported by the American Society of ...

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Xia; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carbon nanoparticles have a strong affinity for the lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy using carbon nanoparticles in early breast cancer and to optimize the application procedure. Methods Firstly, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the optimized condition using carbon nanoparticles for sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection by investigating 36 clinically node negative breast cancer patients. In subsequent prospective study, 83 patients with clinically node negative breast cancer were included to evaluate SLNs using carbon nanoparticles. Another 83 SLNs were detected by using blue dye. SLNs detection parameters were compared between the methods. All patients irrespective of the SLNs status underwent axillary lymph node dissection for verification of axillary node status after the SLN biopsy. Results In pilot study, a 1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension used 10–15min before surgery was associated with the best detection rate. In subsequent prospective study, with carbon nanoparticles, the identification rate, accuracy, false negative rate was 100%, 96.4%, 11.1%, respectively. The identification rate and accuracy were 88% and 95.5% with 15.8% of false negative rate using blue dye technique. The use of carbon nanoparticles suspension showed significantly superior results in identification rate (p = 0.001) and reduced false-negative results compared with blue dye technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrated feasibility and accuracy of using carbon nanoparticles for SLNs mapping in breast cancer patients. Carbon nanoparticles are useful in SLNs detection in institutions without access to radioisotope. PMID:26296136

  1. Immunospecific targeting of CD45 expressing lymphoid cells: towards improved detection agents of the sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianqing; Cousins, Aidan; Chien, Chia-Chi; Kempson, Ivan; Thompson, Sarah; Hwu, Yeukuang; Thierry, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    This study was designed to demonstrate the potential of small nanoparticulate lymphotropic contrast agents designed to bind with high affinity to lymphoid cells overexpressing the CD45 antigen. To this end, small gold nanoparticles used as model were conjugated to anti-CD45 antibodies and injected in mice in the dorsal toe of the fore/hind paw. Chemical analysis demonstrated rapid uptake and transport of the nanoparticles in the lymphatic as well as significant retention of the nanoparticles with high binding affinity to lymphoid cells in the popliteal and axillary lymph nodes in comparison to non-targeted nanoparticles. PMID:23043762

  2. Abstract Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    Abstract Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception. Nymphaeales (Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae) comprise eight genera and approxi- mately 70 species of aquatic

  3. Differential protein expression in primary breast cancer and matched axillary node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Thongwatchara, Phatcharaporn; Promwikorn, Waraporn; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Thongsuksai, Paramee

    2011-07-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis is a key step of tumor progression in breast cancer and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. However, the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. Proteomic technologies have led to identification of specific protein markers and a better understanding of the cellular processes. To explore this, differential protein expression was analyzed between node-positive breast carcinoma and node-negative breast carcinoma (11 samples) and between primary breast carcinoma and matched metastatic ALN (five pairs) using a combination of 2D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MC/MS. Of the total 678 protein spots, 19 proteins were up-regulated and 3 proteins were down-regulated in node-positive breast carcinomas compared to node-negative breast carcinomas. Four up-regulated proteins were identified, namely annexin 5, carbonic anhydrase I, peroxiredoxin 6 and proteasome ?2 subunit. For proteins altered in metastatic ALN compared to primary tumors, 6 of 14 up-regulated proteins were identified: heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, protein disulfide isomerase, prolyl 4-hydroxylase ? subunit precursor, lactate dehydrogenase B, triosephosphate isomerase 1 and ?-tubulin and 5 of 23 down-regulated proteins were identified including 90 kDa heat shock protein, chain A apo-human serum transferrin, chain A ?1-antitrypsin, enolase 1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Immunohistochemistry showed stronger immunostaining for ?-tubulin in metastatic ALN compared to primary breast tumor. All of the identified proteins function in various processes involved in cell survival and growth. Our results suggest that these processes are critical for tumor progression and metastasis and the proteins identified could be candidate markers of clinical usefulness. PMID:21503584

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-12-10

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  6. Axillary nerve injuries in contact sports: recommendations for treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, G S; Apruzzese, W

    1998-11-01

    Axillary nerve injuries are some of the most common peripheral nerve injuries in athletes who participate in contact sports. Resulting deltoid muscle paralysis is secondary to nerve trauma which occurs following shoulder dislocation or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in quadrilateral space syndrome as the axillary nerve exits this anatomic compartment. The axillary nerve is also extremely vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder, and iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. Accurate diagnosis of axillary nerve injury is based on a careful history and physical examination as well as an understanding of the anatomy of the shoulder and the axillary nerve in particular. Inspection, palpation and neurological testing provide the bases for diagnosis. A clinically suspected axillary nerve injury should be confirmed by electrophysiological testing, including electromyography and nerve conduction studies. During the acute phase of injury, the athlete should be rested and any ligamentous or bony injury should be treated as indicated. Patients should undergo an extensive rehabilitation programme emphasising active and passive range of motion as well as strengthening of the rotator cuff, deltoid and periscapular musculature. Shoulder joint contracture should be avoided at all costs as a loss of shoulder mobility may ultimately affect functional outcome despite a return of axillary nerve function. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 4 months following injury, surgical exploration is indicated. Athletes who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery, although the return of function of the involved shoulder is typically good to excellent. We recommend that athletes who sustain axillary nerve injury may return to contact sport participation when they achieve full active range of motion of the shoulder and when shoulder strength is documented to be good to excellent by isometric or manual muscle testing. PMID:9858397

  7. Langer's arch: a rare anomaly affects axillary lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed M.; Barsoum, Adel K.; Moneer, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Langer's arch is the best-known anatomic variant of definite surgical implication in the region of the axilla. This rare anomaly is a muscular slip extending from the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle to the tendons, muscles or fasciae around the superior part of the humerus. In this report, we present a rare case of left axillary arch. During modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, we encountered an abnormal muscle slip crossing the axilla from the LD muscle to the posterior surface of the pectoralis major muscle anterior to the neurovascular structures. Preoperative knowledge is essential to identify such unusual anomaly and avoid potential complications both intra- and postoperatively. PMID:26712801

  8. Langer's arch: a rare anomaly affects axillary lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed M; Barsoum, Adel K; Moneer, Mohammed M

    2015-01-01

    Langer's arch is the best-known anatomic variant of definite surgical implication in the region of the axilla. This rare anomaly is a muscular slip extending from the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle to the tendons, muscles or fasciae around the superior part of the humerus. In this report, we present a rare case of left axillary arch. During modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, we encountered an abnormal muscle slip crossing the axilla from the LD muscle to the posterior surface of the pectoralis major muscle anterior to the neurovascular structures. Preoperative knowledge is essential to identify such unusual anomaly and avoid potential complications both intra- and postoperatively. PMID:26712801

  9. Association between Lymph Node Ratio and Disease Specific Survival in Breast Cancer Patients with One or Two Positive Lymph Nodes Stratified by Different Local Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjie; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial indicated that complete axillary node dissection (ALND) may not be warranted in some breast cancer patients with low tumor burden who are undergoing breast-conserving surgery following whole-breast irradiation. However, this study did not address patients undergoing mastectomy or those undergoing breast-conserving surgery without whole-breast radiotherapy. Given that lymph node ratio (LNR; ratio of positive lymph nodes to the total number removed) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in breast cancer, we first sought to determine the prognostic value of LNR in a low risk population comparable to that of the Z0011 trial and further to investigate whether the prognostic significance differs with local treatment modality. Method We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify breast cancer patients with T1-T2 tumor and 1–2 positive nodes. Patients were subclassified by the local therapy they underwent for the primary tumor. The prognostic value of LNR in predicting disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined in each treatment group. Results A total of 53,109 patients were included. In the subgroup of 20,602 patients who underwent lumpectomy following radiotherapy, LNR was not found to be significantly associated with DSS in both the univariate and multivariate model. For the 4,664 patients treated with mastectomy following radiotherapy, 6,811 treated with lumpectomy without radiotherapy and 21,031 with mastectomy without radiotherapy, LNR independently predict DSS in each of these subgroups. Conclusions Our results add evidence to the concept that axillary dissection could be omitted in patients with one or two positive nodes following breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation. PMID:26513258

  10. Effect of Implant vs. Tissue Reconstruction on Cancer Specific Survival Varies by Axillary Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qian; Zhu, Liling; Chen, Kai; Su, Fengxi

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) between patients who underwent tissue or implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Method We used the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries and compared the BCSS between patients who underwent tissue and implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Cox-regression models were fitted, adjusting for known clinicopathological features. The interaction between the reconstruction types (tissue/implant) and nodal status (N-stage) was investigated. Results A total of 6,426 patients with a median age of 50 years were included. With a median follow up of 100 months, the 10-year cumulative BCSS and non-BCSS were 85.1% and 95.4%, respectively. Patients who underwent tissue reconstruction had tumors with a higher T-stage, N-stage, and tumor grade and tended to be ER/PR-negative compared to those who received implant reconstruction. In univariate analysis, implant-reconstruction was associated with a 2.4% increase (P = 0.003) in the BCSS compared with tissue-reconstruction. After adjusting for significant risk factors of the BCSS (suggested by univariate analysis) and stratifying based on the N-stage, there was only an association between the reconstruction type and the BCSS for the N2-3 patients (10-year BCSS of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction: 68.7% and 59.0%, P = 0.004). The 10-year BCSS rates of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction were 91.7% and 91.8% in N0 patients (P>0.05) and 84.5% and 84.4% in N1 patients (P>0.05), respectively. Conclusions The implant (vs. tissue) reconstruction after mastectomy was associated with an improved BCSS in N2-3 breast cancer patients but not in N0-1 patients. A well-designed, prospective study is needed to further confirm these findings. PMID:25692294

  11. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  12. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-11-21

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor's behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  13. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor’s behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  14. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (= 89) and good resolution (~500 ?m). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740–820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids, and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer. PMID:19430111

  15. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  16. BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 REGULATES AXILLARY MERISTEM DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAIZE INFLORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how axillary meristems are initiated and maintained, we characterized the barren inflorescence2 mutant, which affects axillary meristems in the maize inflorescence. Scanning electron microscopy, histology and RNA in situ hybridization using knotted1 as a marker for meristematic tissue ...

  17. Axillary Nerve Reconstruction: Anterior-Posterior Exposure With Sural Nerve Cable Graft Pull-Through Technique.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Heather L; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-12-01

    Deltoid paralysis after axillary nerve injury results in limitations in shoulder function and stability. In the setting of an isolated axillary nerve injury with no clinical or electromyographic evidence of recovery that is within 6 to 9 months postinjury, the authors' preferred technique to reinnervate the deltoid is to reconstruct the axillary nerve with sural nerve grafting. Intraoperative neuromuscular electrophysiology is critical to determine the continuity of the axillary nerve before proceeding with reconstruction. The majority of the time, both an anterior and posterior incision and dissection of the axillary nerve is required to adequately delineate the zone of injury. This also ensures that both proximally and distally, uninjured axillary nerve is present before graft inset and also facilitates the ability to perform a meticulous microsurgical inset of the nerve graft posteriorly. The nerve graft must be pulled through from posterior to anterior to span the zone of injury and reconstruct the axillary nerve. Careful infraclavicular brachial plexus dissection is necessary to prevent further injury to components of the brachial plexus in the setting of a scarred bed. Patients will require postoperative therapy to prevent limitations in shoulder range of motion secondary to postoperative stiffness. This paper presents a detailed surgical technique for axillary nerve reconstruction by an anterior-posterior approach with a pull-through technique of a sural nerve cable graft. PMID:26524659

  18. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria. PMID:25077920

  19. Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thürlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.23–3.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS. PMID:18385202

  20. Comparison of Modified Radical Mastectomy with Quadrantectomy, Axillary Dissection, and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer in Japaness Women.

    PubMed

    Sonoo; Kurebayashi; Shimozuma; Ohta; Miyake; Imajo

    1995-10-31

    From January 1987 to December 1993, Stage I (T1N0M0) breast cancers were treated by quadrantectomy with axillary lymph node dissection plus radiation therapy (QUART) in 57 cases and by modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in 57 cases. The results for these two treatment groups were compared retrospectively. Booster irradiation of 10 Gy to the tumor bed was given to 1 of 5 cases with a positive resection margin. The remaining 56 cases received 50 Gy lineac X-ray to the ipsilateral breast. Systemic adjuvant therapy, tamoxifen and /or 5-FU derivatives p.o., were given to the majority of cases in both groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the patient background; ie, age, tumor size, pathological node status, histology and estrogen receptor status. During the follow-up period of 12 to 89 months (median 55 months) in the QUART group, no local recurrence was observed and only 1 case of bone metastasis occurred. In the MRM group, recurrence occurred in 4 cases during the follow-up period of 12 to 95 months (median 52 months). These consisted of 2 cases of regional lymph node recurrence and 2 cases of lung metastases. The differences in the disease-free survival rate and the overall survival rate between the two groups were not significant. In the QUART group, mild radiation pneumonitis and mild telangiectasia in the breast skin were observed in 2 cases(3.5%) and 1 case, respectively. Mild arm edema was observed in 4 cases (7%) in each group. These results demonstrated that QUART was as effective as MRM in treating T1M0M0 breast carcinoma in Japanese women. PMID:11091536

  1. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  2. In vivo photoacoustic (PA) mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), is routinely used in clinic for staging breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a photoacoustic contrast agent to map non-invasively the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in a rat model in vivo. We were able to identify the SLN non-invasively with high contrast to noise ratio (~90) and high resolution (~500 ?m). Due to the broad photoacoustic spectrum of these nanotubes in the near infrared wavelength window we could easily choose a suitable light wavelength to maximize the imaging depth. Our results suggest that this technology could be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs non-invasively in vivo. In the future, these contrast agents could be functionalized to do molecular photoacoustic imaging.

  3. [Analysis of lymph node status and lymph node morphology in cervix cancer operated by the Wertheim-Meigs-Okabayashi method].

    PubMed

    Geppert, M; Smyczek-Gargya, B; Dekorsy, A; König, P A

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated in the histologic labor, of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Tübingen University 133 specimens of cervical carcinomas stages I and II operated on according to Wertheim-Meigs-Okabayashi. Topic of this analysis is lymph node status, concomitant alterations and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. On the average 22.1 lymph nodes (1-58) have been removed. 12.8 per cent of cervical carcinomas had metastases, on the average 3 ones. 78.6 per cent of the metastases were localized in nondilymphatici interiliaci, 14.3 per cent in nodi iliaci communes. 5-year survival with metastases was 70.6 per cent, without 90.5 per cent. Over all a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa in 20.3 per cent was detectable. In 59.9 per cent of the lymph node metastases additionally a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa was present, on the contrary only 9.9 per cent of tumour-free ones. 5-year survival with lymphangiosis carcinomatosa was 70.4 per cent and 92.4 per cent without. Regressive changes, mostly as vacat fat, were observed in like the same percentage both in tumour positive and tumourfree lymph nodes. PMID:1595306

  4. [Axillary approach for surgical closure of atrial septal defect].

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, J M; Castillo, R; Zabala, J I; Conejo, L; Cuenca, V; Picazo, B

    2013-08-01

    Mid-line sternotomy is the routine approach for surgical repair of congenital heart diseases. However, its noticeable scar is a constant reminder of having undergone heart surgery. Several alternative approaches have been developed for simple cardiac conditions to hide the scar. Our series, consisting of 26 patients with axillary closure of atrial septal defect, is presented. The median age was 5.45 years (range 3-13), and median weight was 19.84 Kg. (range 13-37). The defect was closed directly in 13 cases, and with an autologous pericardial patch in the other 13. The number of surgical steps and time taken were the same as in median sternotomy. Functional recovery, intensive care unit stay, and hospital discharge were also standard. The cosmetic result, assessed both by patients and relatives, was excellent. PMID:23462094

  5. Atrial Septal Defect Closure: Comparison of Vertical Axillary Minithoracotomy and Median Sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Poyrazoglu, Huseyin Hakan; Avsar, Mustafa Kemal; Karakaya, Zeynep; Güler, Tayfun; Tor, Funda

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate whether or not the method of right vertical axillary minithoracotomy (RVAM) is preferable to and as reliable as conventional sternotomy surgery, and also assesses its cosmetic results. Methods Thirty-three patients (7 males, 26 females) with atrial septal defect were admitted to the Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic of Cukurova University from December 2005 until January 2010. The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 22. Patients who underwent vertical axillary minithracotomy were assigned to group I, and those undergoing conventional sternotomy, to group II. Group I and group II were compared with regard to the preoperative, perioperative and postoperative variables. Group I included 12 females and 4 males with an average age of 16.5±9.7. Group II comprised 14 female and 3 male patients with an average age of 18.5±9.8 showing similar features and pathologies. The cases were in Class I-II according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Classification, and patients with other cardiac and systemic problems were not included in the study. The ratio of the systemic blood flow to the pulmonary blood flow (Qp/Qs) was 1.8±0.2. The average pulmonary artery pressure was 35±10 mmHg. Following the diagnosis, performing elective surgery was planned. Results No significant difference was detected in the average time of the patients' extraportal circulation, cross-clamp and surgery (p>0.05). In the early postoperative period of the cases, the duration of mechanical ventilator support, the drainage volume in the first 24 hours, and the hospitalization time in the intensive care unit were similar (p>0.05). Postoperative pains were evaluated together with narcotic analgesics taken intravenously or orally. While 7 cases (43.7%) in group I needed postoperative analgesics, 12 cases (70.6%) in group II needed them. No mortality or major morbidity has occurred in the patients. The incision style and sizes in all of the patients undergoing RVAM were preserved as they were at the beginning. Furthermore, the patients of group I were mobilized more quickly than the patients of group II. The patients of group I were quite pleased with the psychological and cosmetic results. No residual defects have been found in the early postoperative period and after the end of the follow-up periods. All of the patients achieved functional capacity per NYHA. No deformation of breast growth has been detected during 18 months of follow-up for the group I patients, who underwent RVAM. Conclusion To conclude, the repair of atrial septal defect by RVAM, apart from the limited working zone for the surgeon in these pathologies as compared to sternotomymay be considered in terms of the outcomes, and early and late complications. And this has accounted for less need of analgesics and better cosmetic results in recent years. PMID:24175268

  6. Subcapsular sinus macrophages in lymph nodes clear lymph-bornevirusesandpresentthemtoantiviralBcells

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    draining lymph nodes. Hind footpads of mice were injected with fluorescently labelled ultraviolet the putative VSV- capturing leukocytes, we performed electron microscopy on popli- teal lymph nodes harvested 5

  7. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  8. Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes treated with combined-modality therapy: The importance of radiation field selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Lightsey, Judith; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of a consistent treatment approach with electron beam postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive nodes treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: TSixty-three breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes were treated with combined-modality therapy using an electron beam en face technique for PMRT at University of Florida. Patterns of recurrence were studied for correlation with radiation fields. Potential clinical and treatment variables were tested for possible association with local-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: TAt 5, 10, and 15 years, OS rates were 57%, 36%, and 27%, respectively; DFS rates were 46%, 37%, and 34%; and LRC rates were 87%, 87%, and 87%. No clinical or treatment variables were associated with OS or DFS. The use of supplemental axillary radiation (SART) (p = 0.012) and pathologic N stage (p = 0.053) were associated with improved LRC. Patients who received SART had a higher rate of LRC than those who did not. Moderate to severe arm edema developed in 17% of patients receiving SART compared with 7% in patients not treated with SART (p = 0.28). Conclusions: TA substantial percentage of patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes survive breast cancer. The 10-year overall survival in these patients was 36%. The addition of SART was associated with better LRC.

  9. USTUR Whole Body Case 0262: 33-y Follow-up of PuO2 In A Skin Wound and Associated Axillary Node

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Wood, T. G.; Glover, Samuel E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Dagle, Gerald E.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved two suspected plutonium oxide (Pu) inhalation intakes, each indicated by a measurable Pu alpha activity in a single urine sample, followed about 1.5 y later by a puncture wound to the thumb while working in a Pu glovebox. The study is concerned with modeling simultaneously the biokinetics of deposition and retention in the respiratory tract and at the wound site; and the biokinetics of Pu subsequently transferred to other body organs, until the donor's death. Urine samples taken after the wound incident had readily measurable Pu alpha activity over the next 14 y, before dropping below the minimum detectable excretion rate (<0.4 mBq per day). The Registrant died about 33 y after the wound intake, at the age of 71, from hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive metastases. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for analysis of their Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241 content. The amount of Pu-239+240 retained at the wound site was 68 ± 7 Bq (1 SD), measured by low-energy planar Ge spectrometry. A further 56.0 ± 1.2 Bq was retained in an associated axillary lymph node, measured by radiochemistry. Simultaneous mathematical analysis (modelling) of all in vivo urinary excretion data, together with the measured lung, thoracic lymph node, wound, axillary lymph node and systemic tissue contents at death, yielded estimated intake amounts of 757 and 1504 Bq, respectively, for the first and second inhalation incidents, and 204 Bq for the total wound intake. The inhaled Pu material was highly insoluble, with an estimated long-term absorption rate from the lungs of 2 E-5 per day. The Pu material deposited at the wound site was mixed: 14% was rapidly absorbed, 49% was absorbed at the rate of about 6E-5 per day, and the remainder ( 37%) was absorbed extremely slowly (at the rate of about 5E-6 per day). Thus, it was estimated that only 40% of the Pu initially deposited in the wound had been absorbed systemically over the 33-y period until the donor's death. The biokinetic modelling also indicated that, in this individual case, some of the parameter values (rate constants) incorporated in the ICRP Publication 67 Pu model were up to a factor of 2 different from ICRP's recommended values (for reference man).

  10. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy successful implant of catheters in the axillary veins. PMID:24143120

  11. A Novel Method of Axillary Venipuncture Using the Cephalic Vein as a Sole Anatomic Landmark.

    PubMed

    Imnadze, Guram; Awad, Khaled; Wolff, Endrik; Amberger, Johannes; Franz, Norbert; Thale, Joachim; Kranig, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    The use of axillary venipuncture for pacemaker lead implantation has become a common technique. However, because of its relatively high complexity, it is still not the method of choice in most hospitals. As such, we propose an effective, simple, and safe technique for axillary venipuncture using only the cephalic vein as an anatomic landmark, with the possibility of selective cephalic contrast venography as a backup. A total of 108 patients were examined. After preparation of the cephalic vein, the puncture needle was inserted into the superficial pectoral muscle 1.5-2 cm medial to the cephalic vein and advanced in the direction parallel to the course of the cephalic vein. The needle was advanced up to 3-4 cm at an angle of 30° relative to the body surface, applying gentle suction during advancement. If after 3 attempts the axillary vein was not accessed, the same process was repeated 3-4 cm medial to the cephalic vein. If this was not effective, contrast venography of the axillary vein through the cephalic vein was performed. In 92.6% of all cases, the axillary vein was cannulated without fluoroscopic control, and in 7.4% of cases, fluoroscopic control and selective contrast venography were needed. A novel technique for axillary venipuncture using the cephalic vein as a single landmark is a simple, effective, and safe tool for pacemaker lead implantation. In some cases, selective cephalic contrast venography is an elegant and effective addition. PMID:26115871

  12. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  13. The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (?2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

  14. A comparative study of lymph node mast cell populations in five marsupial species.

    PubMed

    Chiarini-Garcia, H; Pereira, F M

    1999-06-01

    In order to determine whether different subpopulations of mast cells exist, mast cells of mandibular and axillary lymph nodes from five species (Didelphis aurita, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander opossum, Marmosops incanus and Gracilinanus agilis) of South American marsupials were studied. Our results showed that mast cells present in the connective tissue of the capsule and septa (CTMC) were similar to those described for eutherian mammals. However, a population of mast cells that was present in the lymphatic sinuses and bathed by the lymph, plus in direct contact with granulocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, and reticular cells, were morphologically and histochemically different from the CTMC. In the five species studied, these cellular types, called lymphatic-sinus mast cells (LSMC), had a lower concentration of intragranular heparin and, in four of the five species, the cytoplasmic granules appeared to be larger than those in CTMC. Although LSMC have been rarely described in eutherian mammals, it was verified, in this study, that LSMC are nevertheless present in lymphatic sinuses of the five metatherian species studied. These observations suggest that the presence of LSMC may be a characteristic of the marsupials and important in the immune response and adaptive success of the Didelphidae. PMID:10481303

  15. Characterization of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH Genes in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Background Strigolactones are a new class of plant hormones that play a key role in regulating shoot branching. Studies of branching mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, rice and petunia have identified several key genes involved in strigolactone biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the model plant Arabidopsis, MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1), MAX2, MAX3 and MAX4 are four founding members of strigolactone pathway genes. However, little is known about the strigolactone pathway genes in the woody perennial plants. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we report the identification of MAX homologues in the woody model plant Populus trichocarpa. We identified the sequence homologues for each MAX protein in P. trichocarpa. Gene expression analysis revealed that Populus MAX paralogous genes are differentially expressed across various tissues and organs. Furthermore, we showed that Populus MAX genes could complement or partially complement the shoot branching phenotypes of the corresponding Arabidopsis max mutants. Conclusion/Significance This study provides genetic evidence that strigolactone pathway genes are likely conserved in the woody perennial plants and lays a foundation for further characterization of strigolactone pathway and its functions in the woody perennial plants. PMID:25036388

  16. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  17. Axillary bud outgrowth potential is determined by parent apical bud activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R G; Hay, M J M

    2009-01-01

    Axillary buds within a plant shoot system are known to differ in their ability to respond to treatments favouring their development. This ability is referred to as their outgrowth potential. Using two species of prostrate nodally-rooting herbs, dicotyledonous Trifolium repens and monocotyledonous Tradescantia fluminensis, grown throughout in a strictly vegetative state, this study tested two hypotheses. Hypothesis 1: that each axillary bud exhibits an outgrowth potential that is directly related to the growth rate of its parent apical bud, and Hypothesis 2: that the growth rate attained by an axillary bud depends upon both its outgrowth potential and the local supply of stimulatory root-derived signal (NRS) available to it. Activation levels (growth rates) of apical buds were varied by differential exposure to nodal roots and the outgrowth responses of axillary buds recently emerged from them were then measured under standardized conditions of NRS supply. Hypothesis 1 was shown to be correct for both species. Hypothesis 2, tested only in T. repens, was supported by results showing that an axillary bud's outgrowth potential and the NRS supply to it each independently influenced its growth rate, there being no significant interaction between the two. These results emphasize the significant role the physiological state/activity of apical buds has on the outgrowth potential of axillary buds formed within them. The fact that similar relationships were observed on axillary buds on stems of differing developmental maturity and branching hierarchy, and in two taxonomically diverse species, suggests they might be widespread among morphologically similar species. PMID:19717528

  18. Can methylene blue dye be used as an alternative to patent blue dye to find the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Asieh Sadat; Tavassoli, Alireza; Rohbakhshfar, Omid; Sadeghi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Abbas; Forghani, Mohammad Naser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard care to evaluate axillary involvement in early breast cancer. It has fewer complications than complete lymph node dissection; however, using blue dye in SLNB is controversial. We have evaluated the detection rate and local complications associated with methylene blue dye (MBD) used in SLNB in early breast cancer patients and compared these results to patent blue dye (PBD). Materials and Methods: In a cohort prospective study, 312 patients with early breast cancer without axillary lymph node involvement were divided into two groups according to dye type. All of the patients received radiotracer and one type of blue dye. We filled out a checklist for the patients that contained demographic data, size of tumor, stage, detection of sentinel lymph node, and complications and then analyzed the data. Results: Demographic and histopathologic characteristics were not significantly different in both groups. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) tumor size in all patients was 2.4 (0.8) cm. Detection rate in the MBD group was 77.5% with dye alone and 94.2% with dye and radioisotope; and in the PBD group it was 80.1% and 92.9% respectively (P > 0.05). We had blue discoloration of the skin in 23.7% in the PBD and 14.1% in the MBD group (P < 0.05) local inflammation was detected in one patient in the PBD and five in the MBD group (P < 0.05). Skin necrosis and systemic complications were not observed. Conclusion: Methylene blue has an acceptable detection rate, which may be a good alternative in SLNB. Complication such as blue discoloration of the skin was also lower with MBD. PMID:25538772

  19. Evolution of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer, in and out of vogue?

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J

    2014-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced 2 decades ago and thereafter validated for routine surgical management of breast cancer, including cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As the number of lymph nodes for staging has decreased, pathologists have scrutinized SLN with a combination of standard hematoxylin and eosin, levels, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular methods. An epidemic of small-volume metastases thereby arose, leading to modifications in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging to accommodate findings such as isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micrometastases. With the goal of determining the significance of these findings, retrospective followed by prospective trials were performed, showing mixed results. The ACOSOG Z10 and NSABP B-32 trials both independently showed that ITC and micrometastases were not significant and thus discouraged the use of levels and IHC for detecting them. However, the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database showed that patients with micrometastases had an overall decreased survival. In addition, the MIRROR (Micrometastases and ITC: Relevant and Robust or Rubbish?) trial, showed that patients with ITC and micrometastases treated with adjuvant therapy had lower hazard ratios compared with untreated patients. Subsequently, the ACOSOG Z0011 trial randomized patients with up to 2 positive SLN to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or not, all treated with radiation and chemotherapy, showing no difference in survival or recurrence rates between the 2 groups and causing a shift from ALND. As the rate of ALND has declined, the necessity of performing levels, IHC, frozen section, and molecular studies on SLN needs to be revisited. PMID:25299312

  20. Micropropagation of Paulownia fortuneii through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, B; Mukhopadhyay, J; Sreenivasan, E; Kumar, V M

    2001-06-01

    Primary cultures were established with nodal segments from juvenile shoots of two- year-old Paulownia fortuneii trees from a clonal plantation in Andhra Pradesh. A medium containing half-strength MS salts + RAP (1 mg/L) + sucrose (2%) produced optimum bud break in nodal explants. The same basal medium with reduced hormone level (0.5 mg/L) supported maximum multiplication of secondary cultures of P. fortuneii (1:6 in 6 weeks). Specific treatments were tested to enhance this rate of multiplication. In one approach, five to six week old in vitro grown shoots were ratooned (cutting the main shoot at the bottom leaving one node). The stumps (ratooned basal node) produced 2 to 3 axillary shoots, which grew into 4 to 5 nodes by 3 weeks; thus, providing additional shoots from the same explant. This provided 30% additional shoots in 4 cycles. Secondly, reducing the light intensity to 1200 lux resulted in higher shoot elongation, i.e, formation of 8 nodes in 5 weeks with healthier shoots than the normal intensity of 3000 lux under which only 6 nodes were produced in 6 weeks. In vitro-grown shoots could be successfully rooted ex vitro in vermiculite + cocopeat mixture (1:1 v/v) under 90% humidity, transferred to soil in polybags for hardening in the green house for 2 weeks and shifted to shade net for further hardening. After one month, the plants could be successfully transplanted to field with 95% survival. Micropropagated plants showed an excellent growth in the field attaining a height of 1.5 m and a collar diameter of 2.8 cm in 3 months. PMID:12562025

  1. Mechanoinduction of lymph vessel expansion

    PubMed Central

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Strili?, Boris; Goedecke, Axel; Breier, Georg; Fässler, Reinhard; Lammert, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    In the mammalian embryo, few mechanical signals have been identified to influence organ development and function. Here, we report that an increase in the volume of interstitial or extracellular fluid mechanically induces growth of an organ system, that is, the lymphatic vasculature. We first demonstrate that lymph vessel expansion in the developing mouse embryo correlates with a peak in interstitial fluid pressure and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) elongation. In ‘loss-of-fluid' experiments, we then show that aspiration of interstitial fluid reduces the length of LECs, decreases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3), and inhibits LEC proliferation. Conversely, in ‘gain-of-fluid' experiments, increasing the amount of interstitial fluid elongates the LECs, and increases both VEGFR3 phosphorylation and LEC proliferation. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that ?1 integrins are required for the proliferative response of LECs to both fluid accumulation and cell stretching and, therefore, are necessary for lymphatic vessel expansion and fluid drainage. Thus, we propose a new and physiologically relevant mode of VEGFR3 activation, which is based on mechanotransduction and is essential for normal development and fluid homeostasis in a mammalian embryo. PMID:22157817

  2. Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P; Munn, Lance L

    2015-09-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, "emergent" behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled--at least in part--by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca(2+)-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca(2+) and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382

  3. Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W.; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, “emergent” behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled—at least in part—by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca2+-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca2+ and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382

  4. Prognostic significance of axillary dissection in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in sentinel nodes: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ejlertsen, Bent; Christiansen, Peer; Balslev, Eva; Kroman, Niels

    2015-10-01

    We estimated the impact of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on the risk of axillary recurrence (AR) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes. We used the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) database to identify patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel nodes following surgery for primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2008. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was developed to assess the hazard ratios (HR) for AR and OS between patients with and without ALND. We identified 2074 patients, of which 240 did not undergo further axillary surgery. The 5-year cumulated incidence for AR was 1.58 %. No significant difference in AR was seen between patients with and without ALND. The age adjusted HR for AR if ALND was omitted was 1.79 (95 % CI 0.41-7.80, P = 0.44) in patients with micrometastases and 2.21 (95 % CI 0.54-8.95, P = 0.27), in patients with ITC after a median follow-up of 6 years and 3 months. There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with and without ALND, when adjusting for age, co-morbidity, tumor size, histology type, malignancy grade, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status, adjuvant systemic treatment and radiotherapy, with a HR for death if ALND was omitted of 1.21 (95 % CI 0.86-1.69, P = 0.27) in patients with micrometastases and 0.96 (95 % CI 0.57-1.62, P = 0.89) in patients with ITC after a medium follow-up on 8 and 5 years. In this nationwide study, we found a low risk of AR on 1.58 % and we did not find a significantly increased risk of AR if ALND was omitted in patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel nodes. Furthermore, no significant difference in overall survival was seen between patients with and without ALND when adjusting for adjuvant treatment. PMID:26341752

  5. Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study

    Cancer.gov

    A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

  6. Reduction of Lymph Tissue False Positives in Pulmonary Embolism Detection

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    of FP, roughly one third of all FPs, to be lymph/connective tissue. In this paper, we propose a novel context configuration of PE and lymph tissue in the lungs: a lymph FP connects to the airwayReduction of Lymph Tissue False Positives in Pulmonary Embolism Detection Bernard Ghanema

  7. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  8. A comparison of the tympanic and axillary temperatures of the preterm and term infant.

    PubMed

    Hicks, M A

    1996-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the accuracy between the axillary and tympanic temperature measurements of the preterm and term infant. Also examined was the effect of weight and environment on the temperature measurements. A convenience sample of 40 neonates (preterm, n = 20; term, n = 20) was selected. A correlation of 0.815 (p = 0.001) was found between the axillary and tympanic temperatures of all subjects, and correlations of 0.861 (p = 0.001) and 0.582 (p = 0.01) were revealed for the preterm and term infants, respectively. When weight was used as a covariate, there was no significant difference in the two temperature measurements by group (preterm, term), but there was a trend for tympanic temperatures, and the difference between axillary and tympanic temperatures, to differ by environment (radiant warmer, incubator, or open crib). PMID:8866294

  9. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  10. Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer patients using surgical navigation system based on fluorescence molecular imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Precision and personalization treatments are expected to be effective methods for early stage cancer studies. Breast cancer is a major threat to women's health and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an effective method to realize precision and personalized treatment for axillary lymph node (ALN) negative patients. In this study, we developed a surgical navigation system (SNS) based on optical molecular imaging technology for the precise detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. This approach helps surgeons in precise positioning during surgery. Methods: The SNS was mainly based on the technology of optical molecular imaging. A novel optical path has been designed in our hardware system and a feature-matching algorithm has been devised to achieve rapid fluorescence and color image registration fusion. Ten in vivo studies of SLN detection in rabbits using indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye were executed for system evaluation and 8 breast cancer patients accepted the combination method for therapy. Results: The detection rate of the combination method was 100% and an average of 2.6 SLNs was found in all patients. Our results showed that the method of using SNS to detect SLN has the potential to promote its application. Conclusion: The advantage of this system is the real-time tracing of lymph flow in a one-step procedure. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the system for providing accurate location and reliable treatment for surgeons. Our approach delivers valuable information and facilitates more detailed exploration for image-guided surgery research.

  11. Lymph node micrometastases of cutaneous melanoma: increased sensitivity of molecular diagnosis in comparison to immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Blaheta, H J; Schittek, B; Breuninger, H; Maczey, E; Kroeber, S; Sotlar, K; Ellwanger, U; Thelen, M H; Rassner, G; Bültmann, B; Garbe, C

    1998-08-21

    The presence of regional lymph node metastases is one of the most significant prognostic factors for predicting survival in patients with clinical stage I or II cutaneous melanoma. For accurate staging of the primary tumor a sensitive technique is required to detect occult nodal micrometastases. This prospective diagnostic study was designed to evaluate the incidence of nodal micrometastases using nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for tyrosinase in comparison to immunohistochemical examination. Furthermore, the incidence of melanoma micrometastases detected by RT-PCR was analysed in correlation to major prognostic factors. A total of 466 regional lymph nodes from 79 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (tumor thickness > 0.75 mm) were investigated. In 49 lymph nodes from 31 patients immunohistochemistry demonstrated melanoma metastases. Using tyrosinase RT-PCR, nodal micrometastases were detected in 136 lymph nodes from 52 patients including all lymph nodes positive by immunohistochemical examination. Out of the 417 lymph nodes negative by immunohistochemistry, 87 nodes (21%) were identified to express tyrosinase by the RT-PCR technique. Among the 48 patients negative by immunohistochemical assessment, 21 (44%) had nodal micrometastases (n = 40) using RT-PCR. All 68 lymph nodes from 46 non-melanoma patients serving as negative controls for tyrosinase RT-PCR were negative. The detection of melanocytic nodal micrometastases by tyrosinase RT-PCR is a highly specific method with a sensitivity significantly higher than that achieved by immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001). Patients with nodal micrometastases identified exclusively by RT-PCR had significantly higher tumor thickness as compared to patients with negative results by RT-PCR (p < 0.01). PMID:9699521

  12. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  13. Cryopreservation of apple in vitro axillary buds using droplet-vitrification.

    PubMed

    Condello, E; Caboni, E; Andre, E; Piette, B; Druart, R; Swennen, R; Panis, B

    2011-01-01

    In vitro axillary buds of two apple cultivars, Pinova and Jonagold, were successfully cryopreserved by droplet-vitrification. In vitro axillary buds of cv. Pinova were subjected to PVS2 for 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 or 100 min, while Jonagold buds were treated with PVS2 for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. In addition, the effect of age of in vitro mother-plants on recovery after cryopreservation was evaluated. Recovery was performed on medium with various combinations of BA, IBA and GA3. Regrowth percentages for cv. Pinova increased in line with increasing PVS2 exposure durations, from 15 to 60 min. Cv. Jonagold showed a similar trend with an increase in regrowth from 30 to 60 min PVS2 exposure. Improved regrowth was observed when axillary buds were excised from aged mother-plants in comparison to those excised from plantlets that were regularly subcultured. The highest shoot regrowth was obtained when applying a 60 min PVS2 treatment to axillary buds excised from non-preconditioned 4-month old in vitro shoots and performing regrowth on recovery medium containing 4.50 microM BA and 0.50 microM IBA. This optimal protocol was also successfully applied to apple rootstocks M26 and Jork 9. PMID:21766147

  14. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the infra-axillary region: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nisha V; Sandu, Jasleen; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Saikia, Uma Nahar

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is an uncommon, benign hyperproliferative disorder. Papules and nodules occur predominantly in the head and neck region. Involvement of other sites such as the trunk and mucosae has been rarely reported. We herein report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia involving the right infra-axillary region. PMID:24656269

  15. Grass Meristems I: Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Axillary Meristem Determinacy and the Floral Transition

    E-print Network

    Jackson, David

    Grass Meristems I: Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Axillary Meristem Determinacy and the Floral and reproductive shoot architectures dis- played by members of the grass family are critical to repro- ductive growth. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the major properties of grass shoot

  16. In situ lymph dynamic characterization through lymph nodes in rabbit hind leg: special reference to nodal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2008-04-01

    In some lymph nodes, water and water-soluble substances of smaller molecular weight are known to be absorbed into blood vessels, and consequently the protein concentration of lymph within the nodes increases. In this study, we examined pressure-flow relationships of lymph nodes in situ and exchange properties of water and water-soluble substances through the nodes with special reference to inflamed lymph nodes. A lymph perfusion model through the lymph node in situ was constructed by cannulating one of the afferent lymphatics and an efferent lymphatic. Increasing infusion pressure (0 to 150 cmH(2)O) or decreasing outflow pressure (10 to -5 cmH(2)O) in the model caused a significant increase of the lymph outflow rate through the node. This rate was also increased significantly with increases in both intranodal venous pressure (range: control, 20, 30, and 40 mmHg) and prenodal lymph albumin concentration (range: 0%, 2.6%, and 10%). When formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (fMLP)-mediated acute inflammation was produced in the lymph nodes, the lymph outflow rate through the node was significantly decreased. These results indicate that colloid osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure within the lymph node may play important roles in the transport of water and water-soluble substances through the node. Acute fMLP-mediated inflammation of lymph nodes also produced a significant decrease of the lymph flow rate through lymph nodes. PMID:18325146

  17. Pathologic examination of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ku, N N

    1999-07-01

    Lymphatic mapping with selective sentinel lymphadenectomy allows accurate pathologic examination of the nodes most likely to contain macro- or micrometastastic disease for staging and proper adjuvant chemotherapy. The hypothesis of SLN biopsies was histopathologically validated by Turner et al that if the node is tumor free by H&E and immunohistochemistry, the probability of non-SLN involvement is less than 0.1%. Giuliano et al and Veronesi et al reported that detection of metastases in SLNs by frozen section technique is 89% and 64%, respectively. At MCC, frozen section evaluation of SLN is not performed because of its potential loss of micrometastasis in the cryostat, freezing artifacts, sampling error, and perhaps radioactive contamination. Intraoperative detection of macro- or micrometastasis is critical because it enables conversion of patients with positive SLN to CLND in one surgical setting more cost-effectively. IIC of the lymph nodes has been used routinely in the diagnosis of hematologic malignancies and also in breast cancer as a useful method in many series. In the author's experience, IIC by Diff-Quik stain converted 100% of grossly positive and suspicious SLNs and 22% of grossly negative SLNs. The significance of detecting micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes using immunohistochemical techniques has been reported in many series. At the MCC, routine use of CKI on paraffin sections of grossly negative SLNs enabled the upstaging of 10.6% of patients from N0 to N1. Recent addition of intraoperative rapid CKI as an adjunct to complement Diff-Quik stain has proven to be more sensitive in detecting micrometastases than using Diff-Quik stain alone. IIC technique using either Diff-Quik stain or CKI requires intensive training and experience to avoid potential pitfalls and errors in interpretation. Evaluation of SLN should use methods that enhance the ability to detect micrometastasis, however, in a cost-effective manner. The cost-effectiveness of IIC by Diff-Quik stain is incomparable with frozen section evaluation. The added cost of routine immunohistochemical stain and perhaps multiple levels of H&E stain should be offset by the decreased costs of IIC and clinically by treating most patients in the outpatient settings. In summary, IIC by Diff-Quik stain is simple, rapid, and has excellent diagnostic accuracy in grossly positive and suspicious SLNs allowing cost-effective, immediate CLND. IIC by CKI is an extremely useful ancillary technique that complements Diff-Quik stain in detecting micrometastases particularly in low grade ductal or lobular carcinoma and low tumor cell volume. Appropriate combined use of both stains may lead to intraoperative nodal staging and cost-effective CLND. SLN mapping technology at MCC using IIC in conjunction with serial sections, entire tissue submission, routine use of CKI, and multiple levels of the SLN have led us to uncover micrometastasis in high-risk, traditionally node-negative patients. These results have encouraged investigators to pursue even more sensitive techniques to detect micrometastases, including molecular biology techniques such as RT-PCR. Experienced cytopathologists and active cytopathology services are required to avoid potential pitfalls in performing and interpreting IIC. More long-term follow-up and prospective trials are needed to determine the prognostic significance of upstaging by ancillary techniques, which may lead to a revision of the current TNM staging system. PMID:10448690

  18. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-11-28

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmann's operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high. PMID:26640350

  19. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmann’s operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high. PMID:26640350

  20. PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

  1. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  2. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  3. The Lymph Node B Cell Immune Response: Dynamic

    E-print Network

    Harel, David

    responses. By Naamah Swerdlin, Irun R. Cohen, and David Harel ABSTRACT | Lymph nodes are organs in whichINVITED P A P E R The Lymph Node B Cell Immune Response: Dynamic Analysis In-Silico A computer, the lymph node (LN) has to orchestrate the meeting and interactions between the antigen and various cell

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ: Chinese experiences

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XIAO; LI, HAO; LIU, YAN-BING; ZHOU, ZHENG-BO; CHEN, PENG; ZHAO, TONG; WANG, CHUN-JIAN; ZHANG, ZHAO-PENG; QIU, PENG-FEI; WANG, YONG-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    The axillary treatment of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with breast DCIS. A database containing the data from 262 patients diagnosed with breast DCIS and 100 patients diagnosed with DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) who received SLNB between January 2002 and July 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Of the 262 patients with DCIS, 9 presented with SLN metastases (3 macrometastases and 6 micrometastases). Patients with large tumors diagnosed by ultrasound or with tumors of high histological grade had a higher positive rate of SLNs than those without (P=0.037 and P<0.0001, respectively). Of the 100 patients with DCISM, 11 presented with metastases. Younger patients had a higher positive rate of SLNs (P=0.028). According to the results of this study and the systematic review of recent studies, the indications of SLNB for patients with DCIS are as follows: SLNB should be performed in all DCISM patients and in those DCIS patients who received mastectomy, and could be avoided in those who received breast-conserving surgery. However, SLNB should be recommended to patients who have high risks of harboring invasive components. The risk factors include a large, palpable tumor, a mammographic mass or a high histological grade.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: the role of micrometastasis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Callejo, David; Franco, Fernando; Núñez, Beatriz; González-Lois, Carmen; Cantos, Blanca; Provencio, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy is widely used in patients with early-stage breast cancer for staging the axilla. The conventional analysis of the SLN has classically been performed by frozen section or touch imprint with a rapid H&E (hematoxylin and eosin) staining. Because of the risk of false-negative results, it has been replaced by the one-step acid amplification (OSNA) assay, a molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA expression. Due to the controversial for the use of OSNA to evaluate the SLN because of its cost-effective and the lack of consensus to perform or avoid a lymphadenectomy when there is micrometastasis, we analyze 410 patients subjected to SLN biopsy in Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Of the total of nodes, 223 (54.4 %) were processed throughout frozen-section examination and imprint cytology and 187 (45.6 %) throughout OSNA. The specificity of the frozen-section histological examination was of 100 %, with a sensitivity of 83.33 % (95 % CI 73.07-93.60). Of the 40 patients with definitive micrometastasis in the SLN, axillary dissection was performed in 90 % of the patients, with subsequent positive affectation in four of them (11.11 %). Based on our result and taking into account that 10 % of the lymphadenectomy performed after micrometastasis are positive, we do not believe that lymphadenectomy should be avoided after N(mi+) is detected in a SLN. PMID:25603951

  6. Comparision Between Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine in Patients Undergoing Forearm Surgeries Under Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Anupreet; Tripathi, R.K.; Choubey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Brachial plexus block is a suitable alternative to general anaesthesia for patient undergoing upper extremity surgery. Ropivacaine the S-enantiomer emerged as a possible replacement of Bupivacaine without undesirable toxic effects. It provides similar duration of sensory analgesia with early recovery of motor block. Aims: Comparision of onset, duration of sensory- motor block and any adverse effects between 0.5% Bupivacaine and 0.5% Ropivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 50 patients between 18-55 y, comparable in demographic variables was randomly allocated to two groups of 25 each. Group I received 30ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, Group II received 30 ml 0.5% Ropivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block for forearm surgeries. Onset, Duration of sensory-motor block, Heart rate, Blood pressure, Oxygen saturation and Respiratory rate were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis used was Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15.0, Chi-square test was used to evaluate the proportional data. Odds ratio/risk ratios have been calculated wherever necessary. Parametric data has been evaluated using Student t-test while non-parametric data has been evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Onset of motor blockade was earlier in ropivacaine group (5 min) as compared to bupivacaine group (20 min), Higher levels of motor blockade, Mean onset time for motor block was significantly shorter in ropivacaine group (14.88±3.35 min) as compared to bupivacaine group (22.92±3.79 min), Mean duration of block was significantly longer in bupivacaine group (408.40±50.39 min) as compared to ropivacaine group (365.60±34.29 min) (p=0.001), Onset of sensory block was observed from 5 min itself in ropivacaine group as compared to bupivacaine group (10 min), Duration of sensory block was significantly longer in bupivacaine group (450.40±54.50 min) as compared to ropivacaine group (421.20±38.33 min) . Conclusion: On the basis of present study, conclusions were drawn that onset of action of sensory, motor block was early in Ropivacaine group with faster recovery of motor functions as compared to Bupivacaine group. No adverse effects were noted in either groups. This study suggests that Ropivacaine is a suitable alternative to Bupivacaine for forearm surgeries under Brachial Plexus Block. PMID:25738062

  7. Axillary-Femoral Bypass May Provide Inadequate Distal Perfusion Compared with In-Line Large Diameter Aortic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Go, Michael R; Masterson, Loren; Vaccaro, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Axillary-femoral bypass is sometimes performed for complex aortoiliac occlusive disease in patients unfit for aortic surgery or in those with aortic infection. Typically, older patients with medical comorbidities that commonly accompany atherosclerotic or aneurysmal disease are involved and can tolerate the theoretic risk of limited flow volume associated with long, small diameter, axillary-femoral grafts. However, a subset of younger, healthier, more vigorous patients outside the typical atherosclerotic or aneurysmal demographic occasionally come to axillary-femoral bypass and may experience symptoms of distal hypoperfusion if flow volumes cannot meet demand. We present a series of patients with primary aortic infection treated with aortic ligation and axillary-femoral bypass, who then progressed to symptoms of visceral, spinal, or extremity ischemia from inadequate distal perfusion. PMID:26476270

  8. Computed tomographic characteristics of presumed normal canine abdominal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Martijn; Grosso, Federico Vilaplana; Voorhout, George

    2013-01-01

    Though identification of lymph nodes is essential in staging cancer patients, little has been reported about the CT features of canine abdominal lymph nodes. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the visibility, location, and characteristics of abdominal lymph nodes in abdominal CT studies of dogs considered unlikely to have lymphadenopathy. The relationship between the number of identified lymph nodes and intraabdominal fat ranking, body weight, and slice thickness was also investigated. A total of 19 dogs were included. At least two jejunal lymph nodes and both left and right medial iliac lymph nodes were identified in all dogs. Colic lymph nodes were not identified in any of the dogs. Visualization of all other lymph nodes varied. There were significantly more lymph nodes visible in dogs with more intraabdominal fat (P < 0.0001). No correlation between the number of identified lymph nodes and body weight (P = 0.64) or slice thickness (P = 0.76) was found. Though most of all identified lymph nodes had an elongated shape, a rounded shape was most common in splenic, pancreaticoduodenal, renal, ileocolic and caudal mesenteric lymph nodes. Most lymph nodes had a homogeneous structure before and following the intravenous administration of contrast medium. Some lymph nodes had a slightly irregular structure or were relatively more hyper attenuating in the periphery than centrally before and/or after contrast administration. Mean attenuation before contrast was 37 Hounsfield Units (HU) (range 20-52 HU), and 109 HU after contrast (range 36-223 HU). Findings indicated that the CT visibility, characteristics of different abdominal lymph nodes may be variable in dogs. PMID:23815078

  9. Generation of Lymph Node-fat Pad Chimeras for the Study of Lymph Node Stromal Cell Origin

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Cecile; Caamano, Jorge H.

    2013-01-01

    The stroma is a key component of the lymph node structure and function. However, little is known about its origin, exact cellular composition and the mechanisms governing its formation. Lymph nodes are always encapsulated in adipose tissue and we recently demonstrated the importance of this relation for the formation of lymph node stroma. Adipocyte precursor cells migrate into the lymph node during its development and upon engagement of the Lymphotoxin-b receptor switch off adipogenesis and differentiate into lymphoid stromal cells (Bénézech et al.14). Based on the lymphoid stroma potential of adipose tissue, we present a method using a lymph node/fat pad chimera that allows the lineage tracing of lymph node stromal cell precursors. We show how to isolate newborn lymph nodes and EYFP+ embryonic adipose tissue and make a LN/ EYFP+ fat pad chimera. After transfer under the kidney capsule of a host mouse, the lymph node incorporates local adipose tissue precursor cells and finishes its formation. Progeny analysis of EYFP+ fat pad cells in the resulting lymph nodes can be performed by flow-cytometric analysis of enzymatically digested lymph nodes or by immunofluorescence analysis of lymph nodes cryosections. By using fat pads from different knockout mouse models, this method will provide an efficient way of analyzing the origin of the different lymph node stromal cell populations. PMID:24378826

  10. Infraclavicular axillary vein cannulation using ultrasound in a mechanically ventilated general intensive care population.

    PubMed

    Glen, H; Lang, I; Christie, L

    2015-09-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is commonly undertaken in the ICU. The use of ultrasound (US) to facilitate CVC insertion is standard and is supported by guidelines. Because the subclavian vein cannot be insonated where it underlies the clavicle, its use as a CVC site is now less common. The axillary vein, however, can be seen on US just distal to the subclavian vein and placement of a CVC at this site gives a result which is functionally indistinguishable from a subclavian CVC. We evaluated placement of US-guided axillary CVCs in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Data were collected for 125 consecutive US-guided axillary CVC procedures in ventilated patients in an adult intensive care setting. All lines were inserted using real-time US guidance with an out-of-plane technique. One hundred and twenty-five procedures occurred in 119 patients. Successful line placement was achieved in 117 out of 125 (94%) procedures. Complications included four procedures that required repeating due to catheter malposition and one arterial puncture. The median number of attempts per procedure was one (IQR 1 to 2). Thirty-nine (31%) patients had a body mass index of 30 or above, 43 (34%) patients had a coagulopathy and 70 (56%) patients had significant ventilator dependence (FiO2 of 0.5 or above, or positive end expiratory pressure 10 cmH20 or above). The technique of US-guided axillary CVC access can be undertaken successfully in ventilated intensive care patients, even in challenging circumstances. Taken together with existing work on the utility and safety of this technique, we suggest that it be adopted more widely in the intensive care population. PMID:26310415

  11. First trans-axillary implantation of Edwards Sapien valve to treat an incompetent aortic bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew S P; Michev, Iassen; Colombo, Antonio

    2010-03-01

    There exist case reports of using transcatheter aortic valves to treat dysfunctional surgically implanted aortic bioprosthesis. There are also case series reported of transaxillary implantation of the CoreValve device to treat aortic stenosis. In this article, we report the successful implantation an Edwards Sapien 23 mm transcatheter aortic valve through the left axillary artery, in a patient with a functioning LIMA graft in order to treat a severely regurgitant Freestyle 23 mm aortic bioprosthesis. PMID:20088013

  12. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Weed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  13. [Lymph nodes of esophagus cancer: radiological approach].

    PubMed

    Aubert, E; Servois, V

    2014-10-01

    The cervico-thoracic-abdominal-pelvic CT-scan is a key examination of the staging of esophagus cancers. Anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge of the lymph nodes is an essential tool to establish a precise mapping. Imaging tests (such endoscopic ultrasound and PET scanning) will be very useful to determine clinical options and clinical target volume delineation for the radiotherapy of esophagus cancers. PMID:25205427

  14. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  15. Substance P increases lymphocyte traffic and lymph flow through peripheral lymph nodes of sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, T C; Lami, J L; Spruck, C H

    1989-01-01

    Substance P, an 11 amino acid residue vasoactive neurotransmitter peptide, has been found on acute infusion (50 micrograms) into cannulated afferent lymphatics of popliteal lymph nodes of sheep to produce marked elevations in both efferent lymph flow and in the outputs of both blast and small recirculating lymphocytes into popliteal node efferent lymph (chronically cannulated). These elevations were characterized by a delay in the onset of major elevations, a marked prolongation of the elevations and a substantially greater stimulative effect on the output of blast lymphocytes. It is suggested that the number and types of substance P receptors on lymphocytes and in sheep peripheral lymph nodes may be responsible for these observations. Infusion of substance P, known for involvement in pain impulse transmission, was able to briefly overcome anaesthesia-induced depression in lymphocyte traffic. The substance P-induced alterations in lymph flow and lymphocyte traffic in vivo were demonstrated to be due to local rather than systemic effects of substance P. PMID:2472354

  16. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic invasion and size of SLN metastasis, and the product of tumor size and square of SLN metastasis size. Conclusion We present a new model developed from a community-based SLN database that uses only three rather than eight variables to achieve higher accuracy than the Nomogram for predicting NSLN status in two different datasets. PMID:18315887

  17. Lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in prenodal leg lymph of fasted humans. Associations with plasma concentrations in normal subjects, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, and LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nanjee, M N; Cooke, C J; Olszewski, W L; Miller, N E

    2000-08-01

    The extent to which lipid and apolipoprotein (apo) concentrations in tissue fluids are determined by those in plasma in normal humans is not known, as all studies to date have been performed on small numbers of subjects, often with dyslipidemia or lymphedema. Therefore, we quantified lipids, apolipoproteins, high density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids, and non-HDL lipids in prenodal leg lymph from 37 fasted ambulant healthy men. Lymph contained almost no triglycerides, but had higher concentrations of free glycerol than plasma. Unesterified cholesterol (UC), cholesteryl ester (CE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SPM) concentrations in whole lymph were not significantly correlated with those in plasma. HDL lipids, but not non-HDL lipids, were directly related to those in plasma. Lymph HDLs were enriched in UC. However, as the HDL cholesterol/non-HDL cholesterol ratio in lymph exceeded that in plasma, whole lymph nevertheless had a lower UC/CE ratio than plasma. Lymph also had a significantly higher SPM/PC ratio. The lymph/plasma (L/P) ratios of apolipoproteins were as follows: A-IV > A-I and A-II > C-III and E > B. Comparison with the L/P ratios of seven nonlipoprotein proteins suggested that apoA-IV was predominantly lipid free. Concentrations of apolipoproteins A-II, A-IV, C-III, and E in lymph, but not of apolipoproteins A-I or B, were positively correlated with those in plasma. The L/P ratios of apolipoproteins B, C-III, and E in two subjects with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency, and of apolipoproteins A-I and A-IV in a subject with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, were low relative to those in normal subjects. Thus, the concentrations of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins in human tissue fluid are determined only in part by their concentrations in plasma. Other factors, including the actions of LPL and LCAT, are at least as important. PMID:10946020

  18. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy benefits subgroups of breast cancer patients with T1–2 tumor and 1–3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Li; Li, Shan-Hsuan; Chen, Yen-Yang; Chen, Hui-Chun; Tang, Yen; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chou, Fong-Fu; Wu, Shih-Chung; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with T1–2 and N1 disease. Patients and methods. A total of 207 postmastectomy women were enrolled. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of locoregional recurrence rate (LRR), distant recurrence rate (DRR) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by different tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results With median follow-up 59.5 months, the 5-year LRR, DRR and OS were 9.1%, 20.3% and 84.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age < 40 years old (p = 0.003) and Her-2/neu over-expression (p = 0.016) were associated with higher LRR, whereas presence of LVI significantly predicted higher DRR (p = 0.026). Negative estrogen status (p = 0.033), Her-2/neu overexpression (p = 0.001) and LVI (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with worse OS. PMRT didn’t prove to reduce 5-year LRR (p = 0.107), as well as 5-year OS (p = 0.918). In subgroup analysis, PMRT showed significant benefits of improvement LRR and OS in patients with positive LVI. Conclusions For patients with T1–2 and N1 stage breast cancer, PMRT can decrease locoregional recurrence and increase overall survival only in patients with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:25177247

  19. Self-illuminating quantum dots for highly sensitive in vivo real-time luminescent mapping of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) show promise as novel nanomaterials for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping through their use in noninvasive in vivo fluorescence imaging, and they have provided remarkable results. However, in vivo fluorescence imaging has limitations mainly reflected in the strong autofluorescence and low deepness of tissue penetration associated with this technique. Here, we report on the use of self-illuminating 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe/CdS QDs for mouse axillary SLN mapping by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, which was found to overcome these limitations [corrected]. We used CdTe/CdS QDs synthesized in aqueous solution to conjugate a mutant of the bioluminescent protein, Renilla reniformis luciferase. The nanobioconjugates obtained had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 19 nm, and their luminescence catalyzed by the substrate (coelenterazine) could penetrate into at least 20 mm of hairless pigskin, which could be observed using an in vivo imaging system equipped with a 700 nm emission filter. Conversely, the fluorescence of the nanobioconjugates penetrated no more than 10 mm of pigskin and was observed with a strong background. When 80 ?L of the nanobioconjugates (containing about 0.5 ?mol/L of QDs) and 5 ?L of coelenterazine (1 ?g/?L) were intradermally injected into a mouse paw, the axillary SLN could be imaged in real time without external excitation, and little background interference was detected. Furthermore, the decayed luminescence of QD-Luc8 in SLNs could be recovered after being intradermally reinjected with the coelenterazine. Our data showed that using self-illuminating QDs, as opposed to fluorescence QDs, has greatly enhanced sensitivity in SLN mapping, and that the SLN could be identified synchronously by the luminescence and fluorescence of the self-illuminating QDs. PMID:22848169

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1071 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Byrd, David R.; Ollila, David W.; Julian, Thomas B.; McLaughlin, Sarah A.; McCall, Linda; Symmans, W. Fraser; Le-Petross, Huong T.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Nelson, Heidi; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery provides reliable nodal staging information with less morbidity than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer patients. The application of SLN surgery for staging the axilla following chemotherapy for women who initially had node-positive breast cancer (cN1) is unclear because of high false negative results reported in previous studies. Objective To determine the false negative rate (FNR) for SLN surgery following chemotherapy in patients initially presenting with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients The ACOSOG Z1071 trial enrolled women with clinical T0–4 N1–2, M0 breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following chemotherapy, patients underwent both SLN surgery and ALND. SLN surgery using both blue dye and a radiolabeled colloid mapping agent was encouraged. Main Outcome Measure The primary endpoint was the FNR of SLN surgery after chemotherapy in women who presented with cN1 disease. We examined the likelihood that the FNR in those with 2 or more SLNs examined was greater than 10%, the rate expected for women undergoing SLN surgery who present with clinically node-negative disease. Results Seven hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled from 136 institutions. Of 663 evaluable patients with cN1 disease, 649 underwent chemotherapy followed by both SLN surgery and ALND. A SLN could not be identified in 46 patients (7.1%). Only one SLN was excised in 78 patients (12.0%). Of the remaining 525 patients with 2 or more SLNs removed, no cancer was identified in the axillary lymph nodes of 215 patients yielding a pathological complete nodal response of 41.0% (95% CI: 36.7%–45.3%). In 39 patients, cancer was not identified in the SLNs but was found in lymph nodes obtained with ALND resulting in a FNR of 12.6% (90% Bayesian Credible Interval, 9.85%–16.05%). Conclusions and Relevance Among women with cN1 breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy who had 2 or more SLNs examined, the FNR was not found to be 10% or less. Given this FNR threshold, changes in approach and patient selection that result in greater sensitivity would be necessary to support the use of SLN surgery as an alternative to ALND. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov; trial identifier NCT00881361. PMID:24101169

  1. Immuno-reactivity of excised lymph nodes in neck dissections of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Suchitra, G; Puranik, RS; Vanaki, SS; Prasad, B Ganesh; Malgaonkar, Nikhil I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regional lymph nodes play an important role in acting as anatomic barriers to systemic dissemination of tumor cells. This reflects in the host immunologic response. Oral squamous cell carcinoma, is known to be associated with early deficiencies of cell-mediated immunity, the pathology of which is reflected in the histology of the regional lymph nodes. Aim: The goal of this study was to study the different immunity reactions in the lymph nodes and to correlate it with the histopathology of tumor proper. Materials and Methods: Out of 40 head and neck dissections, 30 were male and 10 females within the age range of 21–72 years. According to Tumor Node Metastasis classification, there were 12 cases of stage II and stage III, respectively while 16 were of stage IV. A total of 372 nodes were histologically evaluated. The harvested lymph nodes were categorized into metastatic and non-metastatic nodes exhibiting four patterns as: Lymphocyte predominance pattern, germinal center predominance pattern, lymphocyte depleted pattern and unstimulated pattern. Results: The predominant pattern of lymph node reactivity was of lymphocyte predominance (199 nodes) followed by germinal center predominance (117 nodes); lymphocyte depleted (17 nodes) and unstimulated node pattern (39 nodes). Twenty-seven nodes were positive for metastasis. A statistically significant relationship (P = 0.0019 and P = 0.0290, chi square, respectively) was observed between the number of nodes harvested and stage and level of lymph nodes. A brief follow-up period of 3 years was carried out. Conclusion: Further studies relating the immuno-morphologic assessment of the lymph nodes in conjunction with other factors may be helpful in assessing the metastases risk of the individual. PMID:26604485

  2. Subpleural lymph nodes in goat lungs.

    PubMed

    Valero, G; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1993-06-01

    Subpleural lymph nodes were found in more than 4% of 3245 goat lungs during a slaughterhouse survey of respiratory disease. Their frequency varied between flocks from 2% to as much as 27%. They were more common in feral goats than in crossbreds or Angoras. Their numbers were positively associated with carcass weight and the number of nodular muellerius lesions on the lung surface. Their distribution and architecture were different from the pulmonary lymphoid nodules described in cattle with dictyocaulus re-infection syndrome. PMID:16031697

  3. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  4. Localization of antigen-specific lymphocytes following lymph node challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Splitter, G A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of subcutaneous injections of Brucella abortus strain 19 antigen on the specific localization of autologous lymphocytes in the regional nodes of calves was analysed by fluorescent labelling and flow cytometry. Both in vitro and in vivo FITC labelling of lymphocytes indicated the preferential migration of lymphocytes from a previously challenged lymph node to a recently challenged lymph node. However, lymphocytes from a lymph node challenged with B. abortus failed to localize preferentially in a lymph node challenged with a control antigen, Listeria monocytogenes. Lymph node cells, enriched for T lymphocytes and isolated from primary stimulated or secondary challenged B. abortus lymph nodes, could proliferate when cultured with autologous antigen-pulsed macrophages. The kinetics of [3H]thymidine incorporation in lymphocytes from secondarily challenged lymph nodes occurred earlier and to a greater extent when compared with lymphocytes from primary challenged lymph nodes. Our data show that the accumulation of B. abortus-specific lymphocytes in secondarily challenged lymph nodes is increased by the presence of the specific antigen. Images Figure 4 PMID:2426183

  5. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  6. Surgical Management of Lymph Node Compartments in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Cord; Yang, Anthony; Elaraj, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, prophylactic central neck dissection is controversial. The primary treatment for lymph node metastases is surgical resection. Patients diagnosed with PTC should be assessed preoperatively by cervical ultrasound to evaluate central and lateral neck lymph node compartments. Sonographically suspicious lymph nodes in the lateral neck should be biopsied for cytology or thyroglobulin levels. Any compartment (central or lateral) that has definitive proof of nodal metastases should be formally dissected at the time of thyroidectomy. PMID:26610772

  7. Regional lymph node radiotherapy in breast cancer: single anterior supraclavicular field vs. two anterior and posterior opposed supraclavicular fields

    PubMed Central

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi; Varaki, Sakineh Soleimani; Rakhsha, Afshin; Blookat, Eftekhar Rajab

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of lymph nodes engaged in breast cancer with radiotherapy leads to improved locoregional control and enhanced survival rates in patients after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare two treatment techniques, namely single anterior posterior (AP) supraclavicular field with plan depth and two anterior and posterior opposed (AP/PA) supraclavicular fields. In the study, we also examined the relationships between the depth of supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLNs) and the diameter of the wall of the chest and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Forty patients with breast cancer were analyzed using computed tomography (CT) scans. In planning target volume (PTV), the SCLNs and axillary lymph nodes (AXLNs) were contoured, and, with the attention to PTV, supraclavicular (SC) depth was measured. The dosage that reached the aforementioned lymph nodes and the level of hot spots were investigated using two treatment methods, i.e., 1) AP/PA and 2) AP with three-dimensional (3D) planning. Each of these methods was analyzed using the program Isogray for the 6 MV compact accelerator, and the diameter of the wall of the chest was measured using the CT scan at the center of the SC field. Results: Placing the plan such that 95% of the target volume with 95% or greater of the prescribed dose of 50 Gy (V95) had ?95% concordance in both treatment techniques. According to the PTV, the depth of SCLNs and the diameter of the wall of the chest were 3–7 and 12–21cm, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the mean SC depth (the mean Plan depth) and the mean diameter of the wall of the chest were related directly to BMI (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.67) and (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.71), respectively. Conclusion: The AP/PA treatment technique was a more suitable choice of treatment than the AP field, especially for overweight and obese breast cancer patients. However, in the AP/PA technique, the use of a single-photon, low energy (6 MV) caused more hot spots than usual. PMID:26120411

  8. Multifocality and multicentricity are not contraindications for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Alberta; Dionigi, Paolo; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Limonta, Giorgio; Garancini, Silvana; De Palma, Diego; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Vanoli, Cristiana; Diurni, Mario; Carcano, Giulio; Dionigi, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Background After the availability of the results of validation studies, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced routine axillary dissection (AD) as the new standard of care in early unifocal breast cancers. Multifocal (MF) and multicentric (MC) tumors have been considered a contraindication for this technique due to the possible incidence of a higher false-negative rate. This prospective study evaluates the lymphatic drainage from different tumoral foci of the breast and assesses the accuracy of SLNB in MF-MC breast cancer. Patients and methods Patients with preoperative diagnosis of MF or MC infiltrating and clinically node-negative (cN0) breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Two consecutive groups of patients underwent SLN mapping using a different site of injection of the radioisotope tracer: a) "2ID" Group received two intradermal (ID) injections over the site of the two dominant neoplastic nodules. A lymphoscintigraphic study was performed after each injection to evaluate the route of lymphatic spreading from different sites of the breast. b) "A" Group had periareolar (A) injection followed by a conventional lymphoscintigraphy. At surgery, both radioguided SLNB (with frozen section exam) and subsequent AD were planned, regardless the SLN status. Results A total 31 patients with MF (n = 12) or MC (n = 19) invasive, cN0 cancer of the breast fulfil the selection criteria. In 2 ID Group (n = 15) the lymphoscintigraphic study showed the lymphatic pathways from two different sites of the breast which converged into one major lymphatic trunk affering to the same SLN(s) in 14 (93.3%) cases. In one (6.7%) MC cancer two different pathways were found, each of them affering to a different SLN. In A Group (n = 16) lymphoscintigraphy showed one (93.7%) or two (6.3%) lymphatic channels, each connecting areola with one or more SLN(s). Identification rate of SLN was 100% in both Groups. Accuracy of frozen section exam on SLN was 96.8% (1 case of micrometastasis was missed). SLN was positive in 13 (41.9%) of 31 patients, including 4 cases (30.7%) of micrometastasis. In 7 of 13 (53.8%) patients the SLN was the only site of axillary metastasis. SLNB accuracy was 96.8% (30 of 31), sensitivity 92.8 (13 of 14), and false-negative rate 7.1% (1 of 14). Since the case of skip metastasis was identified by the surgeon intraoperatively, it would have been no impact in the clinical practice. Conclusion Our lymphoscintigraphic study shows that axillary SLN represents the whole breast regardless of tumor location within the parenchyma. The high accuracy of SLNB in MF and MC breast cancer demonstrates, according with the results of other series published in the literature, that both MF and MC tumors do not represent a contraindication for SLNB anymore. PMID:17116258

  9. Estrogen upregulates inflammatory signals through NF-?B, IFN-?, and nitric oxide via Akt/mTOR pathway in the lymph node lymphocytes of middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Uday P; Sharma, Himanshu R; Mohanty, Aparna; Kale, Prathamesh; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Hima, Lalgi; Priyanka, Hannah P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2015-12-01

    The alterations in the secretion of sex steroids, especially estrogen, in females throughout reproductive life and its decline with age alters the functions of the neuroendocrine-immune network and renders them susceptible to age-related diseases and cancers. This study investigates the mechanisms of estrogen-induced alterations in cell-mediated immune and inflammatory responses in the lymphocytes from lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged female rats. Ovariectomized middle-aged (MA) Sprague-Dawley female rats (n=8) were implanted with 17?-estradiol (E2) 30-day release pellets (0.6 and 300?g). At the end of the treatment period, lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) were isolated and examined for serum 17?-estradiol, lymphoproliferation, cytokine production, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-I?B-? and p-NF-?B (p50 and p65), extent of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytochrome c oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. There was an OVX-related decline in serum 17?-estradiol level, Con A-induced lymphoproliferation, p-Akt and p-mTOR expression, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. E2 supplementation increased serum 17?-estradiol level, lymphoproliferation, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-I?B-? and p-NF-?B (p50 and p65), lipid peroxidation, IFN-?, TNF-?, ROS and NO production, while it decreased IL-6 production. E2 mediates inflammatory responses by increasing the levels of NO and TNF-? by up regulating IFN-? and simultaneously promotes aging through the generation of free radicals as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and ROS production in lymph nodes. These findings may have wide implications to immunity and inflammatory disorders including autoimmune diseases predominantly prevalent in females. PMID:26440402

  10. Variable course of primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes: relation to disease progression.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Cumont, M C; Montagnier, L; Hurtrel, B

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes (LN) of eight rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously with a high or low dose of the pathogenic SIVmac 251 isolate. For each animal, four axillary or inguinal LN were collected during the first weeks of infection and a fifth LN was taken 6 or 8 months later to estimate disease progression. Measurement of SIV RNA by in situ hybridization showed that all of the macaques studied had a phase of acute viral replication in LN between 7 and 14 days postinoculation which paralleled that observed in the blood. In a second phase, productive infection was controlled and viral particles were trapped in the germinal centers that developed in LN. While the peaks of productive infection were similar for the eight animals, marked differences in the numbers of productively infected cells that persisted in LN after primary infection were seen. Differences were less pronounced in the blood, where productive infection was efficiently controlled in all cases. The persistence of productively infected cells in LN after primary infection was found to be associated with more rapid disease progression, as measured by the decrease of the T4/T8 ratio and the occurrence of clinical signs. However, the persistence of a significant level of viral particles in germinal centers was observed even in animals that remained healthy over a 1- to 2-year observation period. This study indicates that the course of primary SIV infection in LN is variable, and it suggests that the initial capacity of the host to control productive infection in LN may determine the rate of disease progression. Images PMID:7916061

  11. Curative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Presenting With Paraortic and Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Yoon, Mee Sun; Kim, Juree; Kim, Young Seok

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with curative intent in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer initially presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 25 patients with both paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases (group I) were reviewed and compared with those of 101 women with paraortic lymph node metastases alone (group II). Group I received a mean 59.4 Gy to the paraortic and left supraclavicular areas and 50.4 Gy to the pelvis, followed by 30 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in 6 fractions. Group II received the same dose to the paraortic area and pelvis followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy simultaneously. Results: Of the 25 patients in group I, 16 (64%) experienced acute grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, and 1 had a late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Complete responses, including the primary mass and pelvic, paraortic, and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, were observed in 13 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 32 months for surviving patients, 3 experienced in-field failure, 6 showed distant failure, and 9 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 49% and 33%, respectively. In comparison, of the 101 patients in group II, 16 showed in-field failure, 14 experienced distant failure, and 11 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 69% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions: Curative CCRT is feasible in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases, with acceptable late toxicity and high response rates, despite high rates of acute hematologic toxicity.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of human lymph nodes with endogenous lipid

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Photoacoustic imaging of human lymph nodes with endogenous lipid and hemoglobin contrast James A://spiedl.org/terms #12;Photoacoustic imaging of human lymph nodes with endogenous lipid and hemoglobin contrast James A, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom b University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, 3

  13. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  14. Three-dimensional quantitative ultrasound for detecting lymph node metastases

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    -frequency ultrasound Lymph node metastases Lymph node micrometastases Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Gastric cancer) volume. A total of 146 LNs of colorectal, 26 LNs of gastric, and 118 LNs of breast cancer patients were nodes (LNs) is critical for cancer management. Conventional histological methods may miss metastatic

  15. MOLECULAR TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF LYMPH NODES WITH NIR FLUORESCENCE1

    E-print Network

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    for quantitatively tracking probe transport through lymphatic system and for enabling accurate image guided lymph ABSTRACT This contribution describes a system and method for tomo- graphically imaging lymph nodes marked detection system was used to collect area measurements of fluorescence amplitude and phase on the il

  16. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Lymph Node Morphology using OCT

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Amy

    procedure that maps the lymphatic system and evaluates the status of the sentinel lymph node to determine of melanoma and solid tumors that metastasize through the lymphatic system. The sentinel lymph node for the SLN mapping The SLNB is performed once the lymphatic system has been mapped using a different number

  17. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  18. Decreasing the risk of iatrogenic lymphoedema after axillary surgery: a threefold intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Sophie; Sedgwick, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Procedures such as venepuncture and cannulation can precipitate Breast Cancer Related Lymphoedema (BCRL) in patients who have undergone axillary surgery. We noted that procedures were inadvertently being performed on the side of surgery at our hospital, as susceptible patients were not clearly identifiable to staff. An online anonymous staff survey at our hospital revealed that 26.9% of responders had seen procedures being performed on at risk arms in non-emergency settings. 83.3% of responders felt an intervention to allow easy identification of at risk arms would be useful. Our intervention was threefold. Firstly, we created an ‘At Risk Arm’ alert on the computerised records system. Secondly, we produced a warning sign for each susceptible patient's bed. The signs are displayed above beds, and returned to notes for use if the patient is re-admitted. Thirdly, we informed GPs via discharge summaries of the need to perform procedures on the opposite side to surgery. A second staff survey was conducted after implementation. 46.2%of responders felt that the new interventions would decrease the chance of patients developing BCRL. 61.5% felt that susceptible patients being more identifiable to staff would decrease the likelihood of procedures being performed on at risk arms. Our project showed the importance of ensuring axillary surgery patients are clearly identifiable to hospital staff during admission. Further interventions could include wristbands or patient alert cards. This work could be extended to include primary care and outpatient settings.

  19. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation. PMID:24551680

  20. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ranjan; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Kumar, Parbodh

    2015-01-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  1. Lymph flow pattern in the intact thoracic duct in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Onizuka, M; Flatebø, T; Nicolaysen, G

    1997-01-01

    1. To study the lymph flow dynamics in the intact thoracic duct, we applied an ultrasound transit-time flow probe in seven anaesthetized and four unanaesthetized adult sheep (approximately 60 kg). In unanaesthetized non-fasting animals we found that lymph flow in the thoracic duct was always regular pulsatile (pulsation frequency, 5.2 +/- 0.8 min-1) with no relation to heart or respiratory activity. At baseline the peak level of the thoracic duct pulse flow was 11.6-20.7 ml min-1 with a nadir of 0-3.6 ml min-1. Mean lymph flow was 5.4 +/- 3.1 ml min-1. The flow pattern of lymph in the thoracic duct was essentially the same in the anaesthetized animals. 2. In both the anaesthetized and unanaesthetized animals, the lymph flow response to a stepwise increase in the outflow venous pressure showed interindividual variation. Some were sensitive to any increase in outflow venous pressure, but others were resistant in that lymph flow did not decrease until outflow venous pressure was increased to higher levels. This resistance was also observed in the high lymph flow condition produced by fluid infusion in the anaesthetized animal and mechanical constriction of the caudal vena cava in the unaesthetized animals. Pulsation frequency of the thoracic duct flow initially increased and then decreased with a stepwise increase in the outflow venous pressure. This initial increase might be a compensatory response to maintain lymph flow against elevated outflow venous pressure. 3. To test the effect of long-term outflow venous pressure elevation in unanaesthetized sheep, outflow venous pressure was increased by inflation of a cuff around the cranial vena cava for 1, 5 or 25 h. The cuff was inflated to a level where lymph flow was reduced. Lymph flow remained low or decreased further during the entire cuff-inflation period. We calculated the lymph debt caused by the outflow venous pressure elevation and the amount 'repaid' when venous pressure returned to normal. Lymph debt for 25 h was 6400 ml but only 200 ml was repaid. Since we observed no visible oedema formation in the lower body of the sheep, the non-colloidal components of the lymph must have been reabsorbed into the bloodstream, most likely in the lymph nodes. PMID:9288690

  2. ICG Fluorescence Technique for the Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Open-label Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grischke, E.-M.; Röhm, C.; Hahn, M.; Helms, G.; Brucker, S.; Wallwiener, D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is the standard procedure to evaluate axillary lymph node status in breast cancer. In addition to known and established procedures such as the blue dye method and scintigraphy, this study investigated the efficacy of a method based on use of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG). Patients and Method: A total of 126 women with breast cancer histologically verified by punch biopsy were studied during surgical removal of SLN. In addition to SLN marking with technetium and scintigraphy, intra-individual comparison was done using indocyanine green (ICG) for marking instead of the standard blue dye. Results: Scintigraphy had a detection rate of 96?%; the detection rate with ICG was just under 89?%. A body mass index (BMI) >?40 was found to be a limiting factor for the fluorescent method. Investigation into potential toxicities associated with the use of the fluorescent dye ICG revealed no systemic or even local side effects. The fluorescent method was found to be significantly less expensive than the scintigraphy method. Conclusion: The ICG fluorescence technique for the detection of SLN was found to be a valid and feasible method in clinical practice when compared directly with the blue dye method and scintigraphy. PMID:26500370

  3. Characterization of sheep lung lymph lipoproteins: chemical and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Cross, C.E.; Gunther, R.A.; Kramer, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have determined the composition and distribution of plasma and lung lymph lipoproteins from unanesthetized ewes. Cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels in lung lymph were 45%, 50%, and 50%, respectively, of those in plasma. Lipoproteins from both lymph and plasma were separated into two major fractions: d < 1.063 g/ml or LDL, and d 1.063-1.21 g/ml or HDL. HDL was the major lipoprotein species in the plasma and lymph. Gradients gel electrophoresis of HDL on 4-30% gels showed that, in lymph, HDL particles were shifted to larger sizes; in addition to a peak at 8.5 nm, which was similar to plasma HDL, there were two additional components of larger size, one at 9.2 nm and the other at 12 nm. Electron microscopy revealed that lymph HDL contained two new particles not seen in plasma: large, round particles, 13.6 nm diameter, and discoidal particles, 18.7 by 4.9 nm, long and short axis, respectively. Compositional analysis of lymph HDL revealed a relative enrichment in free cholesterol as well as an enrichment in apolipoprotein E. Lymph LDL on gradient gel electrophoresis was extremely heterogeneous. Several peaks were evident in the 23-30 nm size range (similar to plasma LDL), but a supplementary component at approximately 15-16 nm was also present. Whereas plasma LDL on electron microscopy contained only round particles 26 nm in diameter, lymph contained an additional, unusual particle which was close-packed, with square geometry, and was 15 nm in diameter. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of lung lymph lipoproteins suggest that these particles are metabolically modified.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  5. Trafficking of a Dual-Modality Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Based Nanoprobe to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Ambika; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Egen, Jackson G.; Bernardo, Marcelino; Dobson, Peter J.; Germain, Ronald N.; Choyke, Peter L.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop and characterize the trafficking of a dual-modal agent that identifies primary draining or sentinel lymph node (LN). Procedure Herein, a dual-reporting silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle (SCION) is developed. Nude mice were imaged by magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging and axillary LNs were harvested for histological analysis. Trafficking through lymphatics was observed with intravital and ex vivo confocal microscopy of popliteal LNs in B6-albino, CD11c-EYFP, and lys-EGFP transgenic mice. Results In vivo, SCION allows visualization of LNs. The particle’s size and surface functionality play a role in its passive migration from the intradermal injection site and its minimal uptake by CD11c+ dendritic cells and CD169+ and lys+ macrophages. Conclusions After injection, SCION passively migrates to LNs without macrophage uptake and then can be used to image LN(s) by MRI and fluorescence. Thus, SCION can potentially be developed for use in sentinel node resections or for intralymphatic drug delivery. PMID:21080233

  6. Navigation surgery for intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection using Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence real-time imaging in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Toh, U; Iwakuma, N; Mishima, M; Okabe, M; Nakagawa, S; Akagi, Y

    2015-09-01

    A new sensitive fluorescence imaging system was developed for the real-time identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a color charge-coupled device camera system for the intraoperative detection of SLNs and to determine its clinical efficacy and sensitivity in patients with operable breast cancer. We assessed a total of 168 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having early-stage breast cancer without metastasis in SLNs. The intraoperative detection of SLNs was performed using the conventional Indigo Carmine dye (indigotindisulfonate sodium) technique combined with a new Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging system (HyperEye Medical System: HEMS, MIZUHO IKAKOGYO, Japan) to map SLNs, in which the lymphatic vessels and SLNs were visualized transcutaneously with illuminating ICG fluorescence. Between January 2012 and May 2013, SLNs were successfully identified in all 168 patients (detection rate: 100%). By histopathology, the sensitivity was 93.8% for the detection of the metastatic involvement of SLNs (15 of 16 nodal-positive patients). After a median follow-up of 30.5 months, none of the patients presented with axillary recurrence. These results suggest that the HEMS imaging system is a feasible and effective method for the detection of SLNs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the HEMS device permitted the transcutaneous visualization of lymphatic vessels under light conditions, thus facilitating the identification and detection of SLNs without affecting the surgical procedure, together with a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26267663

  7. Non-invasive mapping of deep-tissue lymph nodes in live animals using a multimodal PET/MRI nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Ulmert, David; Diop, Ndeye-Fatou M.; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Doran, Michael G.; Huang, Ruimin; Abou, Diane S.; Larson, Steven M.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The invasion status of tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) is a critical indicator of cancer stage and is important for treatment planning. Clinicians currently use planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-radiocolloid to guide biopsy and resection of LNs. However, emerging multimodality approaches such as positron emission tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) detect sites of disease with higher sensitivity and accuracy. Here we present a multimodal nanoparticle, 89Zr-ferumoxytol, for the enhanced detection of LNs with PET/MRI. For genuine translational potential, we leverage a clinical iron oxide formulation, altered with minimal modification for radiolabelling. Axillary drainage in naive mice and from healthy and tumour-bearing prostates was investigated. We demonstrate that 89Zr-ferumoxytol can be used for high-resolution tomographic studies of lymphatic drainage in preclinical disease models. This nanoparticle platform has significant translational potential to improve preoperative planning for nodal resection and tumour staging. PMID:24445347

  8. Non-invasive mapping of deep-tissue lymph nodes in live animals using a multimodal PET/MRI nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, David; Diop, Ndeye-Fatou M.; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Doran, Michael G.; Huang, Ruimin; Abou, Diane S.; Larson, Steven M.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The invasion status of tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) is a critical indicator of cancer stage and is important for treatment planning. Clinicians currently use planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-radiocolloid to guide biopsy and resection of LNs. However, emerging multimodality approaches such as positron emission tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) detect sites of disease with higher sensitivity and accuracy. Here we present a multimodal nanoparticle, 89Zr-ferumoxytol, for the enhanced detection of LNs with PET/MRI. For genuine translational potential, we leverage a clinical iron oxide formulation, altered with minimal modification for radiolabelling. Axillary drainage in naive mice and from healthy and tumour-bearing prostates was investigated. We demonstrate that 89Zr-ferumoxytol can be used for high-resolution tomographic studies of lymphatic drainage in preclinical disease models. This nanoparticle platform has significant translational potential to improve preoperative planning for nodal resection and tumour staging.

  9. Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

  10. Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej; Brachtel, Elena F.; Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

  11. Markers of breast cancer stromal fibroblasts in the primary tumour site associated with lymph node metastasis: a systematic review including our case series

    PubMed Central

    Folgueira, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Koike; Maistro, Simone; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; Roela, Rosimeire Aparecida; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales Lopes; Nanogaki, Suely; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Brentani, M. Mitzi

    2013-01-01

    CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), the most abundant cell type in breast cancer stroma, produce a plethora of chemokines, growth factors and ECM (extracellular matrix) proteins, that may contribute to dissemination and metastasis. Axillary nodes are the first metastatic site in breast cancer; however, to the present date, there is no consensus of which specific proteins, synthesized by CAFs, might be related with lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of CAF biomarkers associated with the presence of regional metastasis. PubMed was searched using the words: ‘breast cancer’ and ‘lymph node’ and fibroblast or stroma or microenvironment. After exclusions, eight studies evaluating biomarkers immunoexpression in CAFs and lymph node status were selected. Biomarkers evaluated in these studies may be divided in two groups, according to their ontology: extracellular matrix components [MMP13 (matrix metalloproteinase 13), TIMP2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2), THBS1 (thrombospondin 1), LGALS1 (lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1)] and response to wounding [PDPN (podoplanin), PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor), CAV1 (caveolin 1), THBS1, LGALS1]. A positive expression of MMP13 and LGALS1 in CAFs was associated with enhanced OR (odds ratio) for regional metastasis. Contrariwise, CAV1 positive staining of fibroblasts was associated with decreased OR for nodal involvement. Expression of MMP13, PDPN and CAV1 was further tested in a new series of 65 samples of invasive ductal breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and no association between biomarkers expression in CAFs and nodal status was found. It was suggested that breast cancer subtypes may differentially affect CAFs behaviour. It would be interesting to evaluate the prognostic significance of these biomarkers in CAFs from different tumour types. PMID:24229053

  12. Global analysis of the sugarcane microtranscriptome reveals a unique composition of small RNAs associated with axillary bud outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto A.; Vicentini, Renato; Silva, Geraldo F.F.; Silva, Eder M.; Carrer, Helaine; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Axillary bud outgrowth determines shoot architecture and is under the control of endogenous hormones and a fine-tuned gene-expression network, which probably includes small RNAs (sRNAs). Although it is well known that sRNAs act broadly in plant development, our understanding about their roles in vegetative bud outgrowth remains limited. Moreover, the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets within axillary buds are largely unknown. Here, we employed sRNA next-generation sequencing as well as computational and gene-expression analysis to identify and quantify sRNAs and their targets in vegetative axillary buds of the biofuel crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Computational analysis allowed the identification of 26 conserved miRNA families and two putative novel miRNAs, as well as a number of trans-acting small interfering RNAs. sRNAs associated with transposable elements and protein-encoding genes were similarly represented in both inactive and developing bud libraries. Conversely, sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in developing buds, and some correlated negatively with the expression of their targets at specific stages of axillary bud development. For instance, the expression patterns of miR159 and its target GAMYB suggested that they may play roles in regulating abscisic acid-signalling pathways during sugarcane bud outgrowth. Our work reveals, for the first time, differences in the composition and expression profiles of diverse sRNAs and targets between inactive and developing vegetative buds that, together with the endogenous balance of specific hormones, may be important in regulating axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:23564956

  13. Case Report and Dosimetric Analysis of an Axillary Recurrence After Partial Breast Irradiation with Mammosite Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand P. Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael C.; Chen, Sea S.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Coon, Alan B.; Turian, Julius V.; Siziopikou, Kalliopi; Dowlat, Kambiz; Griem, Katherine L.

    2008-10-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) was designed in part to decrease overall treatment times associated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). WBRT treats the entire breast and usually portions of the axilla. The goal of PBI is to treat a smaller volume of breast tissue in less time, focusing the dose around the lumpectomy cavity. The following is a case of a 64-year-old woman with early-stage breast cancer treated with PBI who failed regionally in the ipsilateral axilla. With our dosimetric analysis, we found that the entire area of this axillary failure would have likely received at least 45 Gy if WBRT had been used, enough to sterilize microscopic disease. With PBI, this area received a mean dose of only 2.8 Gy, which raises the possibility that this regional failure may have been prevented had WBRT been used instead of PBI.

  14. Primary chemotherapy with gemcitabine, epirubicin and taxol (GET) in operable breast cancer: a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Conte, P F; Donati, S; Gennari, A; Guarneri, V; Orlandini, C; Rondini, M; Roncella, M; Marini, L; Collecchi, P; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A G; Degli Esposti, R; Bonardi, S; Bottini, A; Saracchini, S; Tumolo, S; Gullo, G; Santoro, A; Crino, L

    2005-01-01

    This trial was conducted to assess the activity and tolerability of the gemcitabine, epirubicin, taxol triplet combination in patients with operable breast cancer. After core biopsy, 43 women with stage II–IIIA breast cancer were treated with gemcitabine 1000?mg?m?2 over 30?min on days 1 and 4, epirubicin 90?mg?m?2 as an intravenous bolus on day 1, and taxol 175?mg?m?2 as a 3-h infusion on day 1, every 21 days for four cycles. The primary end point was the percentage of pathological complete responses (pCR) in the breast; secondary end points were tolerability, clinical response rates, overall and progression-free survival, tumour biomarkers before and after primary chemotherapy (PCT). All patients were included in safety and survival analyses; 41 eligible patients were evaluated for response. The overall clinical response rate was 87.8% (95% CI 77.8–97.8), with 26.8% complete responses (95% CI 13.3–40.3). A pCR in the breast was observed in six patients (14.6%; 95% CI 3.8–25.4); 15 patients (36.6%; 95% CI 21.9–51.3) had negative axillary lymph nodes. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 67.4% of the patients; febrile neutropenia occurred in 1.9% of cycles (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used in 3.2% of the cycles to shorten the duration of neutropenia). A statistically significant difference between Mib-1 at baseline (?20% in 71.4% of the patients) and at definitive surgery (28.6%, P<0.05) was observed. The gemcitabine, epirubicin, taxol regimen is active and well tolerated as PCT for operable breast cancer. This combination allows the administration of full doses of active agents with a low incidence of febrile neutropenia. PMID:16052214

  15. THE REGENERATION OF AUTOPLASTIC LYMPH NODE TRANSPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Henry L.; Richter, Maurice N.

    1928-01-01

    The reticulum plays an important part in the regeneration of lymph nodes autoplastically transplanted into the abdominal wall of the albino rat. The necrosis which follows transplantation involves mainly the lymphocytes. A margin of lymphocytes is preserved only at the periphery. This may be due to early lymphatic connection with the marginal sinus of the node. The reticulum cells are apparently more resistant since for the most part they do not degenerate. There are three possible origins of the lymphocytes of the regenerated node. They may arise by proliferation of lymphocytes retained at the periphery of the plant. The presence of a few mitotic figures among lymphocytes in the marginal region confirms the possibility of this mode of origin. They may also be derived from lymphocytes brought into the transplant by the blood or lymph circulation. Though some lymphocytes are present in the marginal sinus, and an occasional lymphocyte is seen in the capillaries which enter at the hilus, we believe that this source of origin of the lymphocytes is negligible. On the other hand, the hyperplastic reticulum appears to be the important source of lymphocyte production. These may be derived from the reticulum directly as small lymphocytes, or may be formed through the intermediary stage of large lymphoid cells. This capacity is not limited to lymphatic reticulum, as small foci of lymphocyte formation are found in the connective tissue in the vicinity. of the transplants. The reticular origin of lymphoctes is most easily observed in the earlier stages of regeneration before the picture is obscured by the numerous small lymphocytes. Two structures in the regenerating node are directly traceable to the same structures of the transplanrt. These are the marginal sinus and the hilus. The marginal sinus of thef transplant is preserved, and is probably an important means by which lymphatic communication is established with the surrounding tissue. The hilus is the site of entry of the blood vessels, and the hilus of the regenerated node is the same as that of the transplant. PMID:19869459

  16. Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Ji, Deng-Bo; Han, Hai-Bo; Shi, Yun-Fei; Du, Chang-Zheng; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of miR-193a-5p with lymph node metastasis and postoperative survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A total of 304 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (69 paired cancer and normal tissues, 55 primary tumors of stage III CRC and matched lymph nodes, and 56 primary tumors of stage II CRC) were included in this study. The relative expression levels of miR-193a-5p in the normal mucosa, primary cancer, and metastatic lymph node lesions were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the association of its expression with colorectal cancer lymph node metastasis, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival. RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-193a-5p was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in the normal mucosa (P = 0.0060). The expression levels of miR-193a-5p were lower in primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without metastases (P = 0.0006), and decreased expression of miR-193a-5p correlated with advanced lymph node metastatic stage (P = 0.0007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0026) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0003). Interestingly, for the group of patients with lymph node metastases, miR-193a-5p expression was also related to survival. Patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased DFS (P = 0.0262) and poor OS (P = 0.0230). Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-193a-5p was an independent predictor of poor OS. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. miR-193a-5p may be a useful biomarker for CRC diagnosis, metastasis and prognosis prediction. PMID:25232258

  17. Sentinel lymph-node biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities: the McGill experience

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Francine; Loutfi, Antoine; Shibata, Henry; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of sentinel lymph-node (SLN) biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities. Design Case series review. Setting Royal Victoria Hospital, a Canadian university hospital. Patients Thirty-six patients (18 women and 18 men) seen between October 1996 and December 1998 with melanoma 1 mm or more in thickness with clinically negative lymph-node basins. Follow-up was 396 days. Interventions SLN biopsy. Technetium-99m filtered sulfur colloid (0.5 mCi) was injected intradermally around the melanoma or the excision scar 10 to 15 minutes before the surgical skin preparation. The identification of the SLN(s) was done with a hand-held gamma probe. Local anesthesia was used mostly for inguinal SLN biopsy whereas general anesthesia was usually required for axillary SLN biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was used only for trunk melanomas. Outcome measures Morbidity, successful identification of the sentinel node and locoregional recurrence. Results The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 53.4 years (range from 22–76 yr). The melanomas were distributed between the lower extremities (20 patients), upper extremities (8 patients) and trunk (8 patients). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.35 mm (range from 1–8 mm). Lymphoscintigraphy accurately localized the lymph-node drainage basin for trunk melanomas. In 1 patient the SLN could not be identified because the radiocolloid failed to migrate (failure rate 2.8%). The average number of SLNs removed was 1.97. Eight patients (22%) had sentinel nodes positive for malignant disease. The postoperative complication rate was 8.5%. Seven of 8 patients with positive SLNs underwent a complete node dissection (1 patient refused). Of the completion dissections only 2 patients had positive non-SLNs. All patients with positive nodes received interferon alpha-2b as adjuvant treatment. At follow-up, 34 patients are alive with no evidence of disease, 1 patient with a positive SLN is alive with distant metastatic disease and 1 patient with a negative SLN is dead of disseminated disease. Conclusion SLN biopsy is a feasible technique with an acceptable failure rate and is thus a useful tool in the surgical management of melanoma. PMID:11764875

  18. The application of PET-CT to post-mastectomy regional radiation therapy using a deformable image registration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area. Methods Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes. Results The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43?±?0.15, 0.39?±?0.20, 0.85?±?0.10, 0.72?±?0.20 and 0.77?±?0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 ±7.1, 20.2?±?11.2, 4.4?±?6.3, 3.7?±?6.7, and 9.5?±?25.0?mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p?lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p?=?0.35). Conclusion Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area. PMID:23621896

  19. Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jean L.; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Hudis, Clifford; Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

  20. Chest Wall Radiotherapy: Middle Ground for Treatment of Patients With One to Three Positive Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Shannon M.; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Kobayashi, Wendy; McGrath, John J.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Powell, Simon; Smith, Barbara; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Stage II breast cancer and one to three positive lymph nodes after mastectomy who were treated with observation or adjuvant radiotherapy to the chest wall (CW) with or without the regional lymphatics. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 238 patients with Stage II breast cancer (one to three positive lymph nodes) treated with mastectomy at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2004. The estimates of locoregional recurrence (LRR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were analyzed according to the delivery of radiotherapy and multiple prognostic factors. Results: LRR and DFS were significantly improved by postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), with a 5- and 10-year LRR rate without PMRT of 6% and 11%, respectively and, with PMRT, of 0% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .02). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate without PMRT was 85% and 75%, respectively, and, with PMRT, was 93% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .03). A similar benefit was found for patients treated with RT to the CW alone. The LRR, DFS, and overall survival rate for patients treated to the CW only was 0%, 96%, and 95% at 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that adjuvant PMRT to the CW alone provides excellent disease control for patients with breast cancer <5 cm with one to three positive lymph nodes.

  1. The Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Occult Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xingqiang; Zeng, Ruichao; Ma, Zhaosheng; Chen, Chengze; Chen, Endong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cao, Feilin

    2015-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first draining node from the primary lesion, and it has proven to be a good indicator of the metastatic status of regional lymph nodes in solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of SLN biopsy (SLNB) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with occult lymph nodes. Methods From April 2006 to October 2012, 212 consecutive PTC patients were treated with SLNB using carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNS). Then, the stained nodes defined as SLN were collected, and prophylactic central compartment neck dissection (CCND) followed by total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy were performed. All the samples were sent for pathological examination. Results There were 78 (36.8%) SLN metastasis (SLNM)-positive cases and 134 (63.2%) SLNM-negative cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false-positive and false-negative rates of SLNB were 78.8%, 100%, 100%, 84.3%, 0%, and 21.2%, respectively. The PTC patients with SLNM were more likely to be male (48.2% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.039) and exhibited multifocality (52.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.025) and extrathyroidal extension (56.7% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.015). A greater incidence of non-SLN metastases in the central compartment was found in patients with SLNM (41/78, 52.6%) than in those without SLNM (21/134, 15.7%; p < 0.05). However, the SLNM-negative PTC patients with non-SLN metastases were more likely to be male (37.9% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of SLNB using CNS is technically feasible, safe, and useful, especially for male patients with co-existing multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, the sensitivity of SLNB must be improved and its false-negative rate reduced before it can be a routine procedure and replace prophylactic CCND. More attention should be paid to PTC patients (especially males) without SLNM for signs of non-SLN metastases. PMID:26046782

  2. The pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and its influence on the delineation of radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jinming . E-mail: jn7984729@public.jn.sd.cn; Li Gong; Li Jianbin; Wang Yongsheng

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The delineation of radiation fields should cover the clinical target volume (CTV) and minimally irradiate the surrounding normal tissues and organs. This study was designed to explore the pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and indications for radiotherapy after radical or modified radical mastectomy and to discuss the rational delineation of radiation fields. Methods and materials: Between September 1980 and December 2003, 78 breast cancer patients receiving extended radical mastectomy in the Margottini model and 61 cases with complete data were analyzed to investigate the internal mammary lymphatic metastatic status. Between March 1988 and December 1988, 46 patients with clinical negative supraclavicular nodes received radical mastectomy plus supraclavicular lymph node dissection. The supraclavicular lymph nodes and axillary lymph nodes were labeled as S and levels I, II, or III, respectively, and examined pathologically. Between January 1996 and April 1999, 412 patients who had radical or modified radical mastectomy underwent the pathologic examination of axillary or levels I, II, or III nodes. Results: The incidence of internal mammary lymph node metastasis was 24.6%. It was 36.7% for the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and 12.9% for the patients with negative axillary lymph nodes. All the metastatic internal mammary lymph nodes were located at the first, second, and third intercostal spaces. Skipping metastasis of the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes was observed in 3.8% and 8.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: According to our data, we suggest that the radiation field for internal mammary lymph nodes should exclude the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces, which may help to reduce the radiation damage to heart. It is unnecessary to irradiate the supraclavicular lymph nodes for the patients with negative axillary level III nodes, even with positive level I and level II nodes.

  3. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  4. Proteome changes in mesenteric lymph induced by sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Dong; Wang, Liang-Hua; Wang, Xi; He, Chao; Lin, Zhao-Fen

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the changes in mesenteric lymph during the development of sepsis and to identify the distinct proteins involved, as targets for further study. The sepsis animal model was constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mesenteric lymph was collected from 28 adult male Sprague?Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=7 per group): CLP?6 h, CLP?24 h, sham?6 h and sham?24 h groups. Capillary high performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the proteome in mesenteric lymph. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was then conducted to investigate the distinct proteins. Compared with the sham group, 158 distinct proteins were identified in the lymph samples from the CLP group. Five of these proteins associated with the same lipid metabolism pathway were selected, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), annexin A1 (Anxa1), neutrophil gelatinase?associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100a8 and S100a9. The expression of ApoE, Anxa1, NGAL, S100a8 and S100a9 were all elevated in the progression of sepsis. The five proteins were reported to be closely associated with disease development and may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In conclusion, identifying proteome changes in mesenteric lymph provides a novel perspective to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying sepsis. PMID:25242054

  5. TH-A-BRF-05: MRI of Individual Lymph Nodes to Guide Regional Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Heijst, T van; Asselen, B van; Lagendijk, J; Bongard, D van den; Philippens, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In regional radiotherapy (RT) for breast-cancer patients, direct visualization of individual lymph nodes (LNs) may reduce target volumes and Result in lower toxicity (i.e. reduced radiation pneumonitis, arm edema, arm morbidity), relative to standard CT-based delineations. To this end, newly designed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were optimized and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Methods: In ten healthy female volunteers, a scanning protocol was developed and optimized. Coronal images were acquired in supine RT position positioned on a wedge board on a 1.5 T Ingenia (Philips) wide-bore MRI. In four volunteers the optimized MRI protocol was applied, including a 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1w) fast-field-echo (FFE). T2w sequences, including 3D FFE, 3D and 2D fast spin echo (FSE), and diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging (DWI) were also performed. Several fatsuppression techniques were used. Qualitative evaluation parameters included LN contrast, motion susceptibility, visibility of anatomical structures, and fat suppression. The number of visible axillary and supraclavicular LNs was also determined. Results: T1 FFE, insensitive to motion, lacked contrast of LNs, which often blended in with soft tissue and blood. T2 FFE showed high contrast, but some LNs were obscured due to motion. Both 2D and 3D FSE were motion-insensitive having high contrast, although some blood remained visible. 2D FSE showed more anatomical details, while in 3D FSE, some blurring occurred. DWI showed high LN contrast, but suffered from geometric distortions and low resolution. Fat suppression by mDixon was the most reliable in regions with magnetic-field inhomogeneities. The FSE sequences showed the highest sensitivity for LN detection. Conclusion: MRI of regional LNs was achieved in volunteers. The FSE techniques were robust and the most sensitive. Our optimized MRI sequences can facilitate direct delineation of individual LNs. This can Result in smaller target volumes and reduced toxicity in regional RT compared to standard CT planning.

  6. Total phenolic, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and toxicity study of Gynotroches axillaris blume (Rhizophoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Salam Ahmed; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Taher, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content, as well as the influence of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves of Gynotroches axillaris, on microorganisms were studied. The total phenolic contents were evaluated by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 70.0 to 620 mg GAE/g. The efficiency of antioxidation, which was identified through the scavenging of free radical DPPH, exhibited that the highest IC50 was in the methanolic extract (44.7 µg/mL) as compared to the standard ascorbic acid (25.83 µg/mL) and to standard BHT (17.2 µg/mL). In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was tested against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Methanol extract showed activity in the range (225-900 ?g/mL) with both types, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were only active with Bacillus subtilis. The three extracts strongly inhibited all fungi with activity 225-450 ?g/mL. The toxicity test against brine shrimps indicated that all extracts were non-toxic with LC50 value more than 1000 µg/mL. The finding of this study supports the safety of these extracts to be used in medical treatments.

  7. An efficient regeneration and rapid micropropagation protocol for Almond using dormant axillary buds as explants.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ravish; Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Kailash Chandra

    2015-07-01

    An efficient in vitro protocol was standardized for Almond (Prunus dulcis) propagation using dormant axillary buds as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentration/combination(s) of phytohormones. MS basal medium showed lowest shoot induction and took longest duration for shoot initiation. Multiple shoots were induced in MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP (0.5 mgL(-1)). Cultures showed poor response for rooting in all combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and took 90 days for initiation. Rooting was higher in half strength of MS than in full-strength. The highest root induction (33.33%) was recorded in half MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) followed by full strength of MS medium (20%) supplemented with IBA (0.1 mgL(-1)). ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was less effective for rooting than IBA. The highest root induction (25%) was found in half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA followed by full strength of MS medium (20%). The protocol developed would be of use in mass propagation of almond and also support in vitro conservation. PMID:26245032

  8. Identification and description of the axillary web syndrome (AWS) by clinical signs, MRI and US imaging.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Fumière, E; Banse, S; Vandervorst, C; Clément, A; Parijs, T; Wilputte, F; Maquerlot, F; Ezquer Echandia, M; Tinlot, A; Leduc, A

    2014-12-01

    The Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS) follows surgery for breast neoplasia and consists of one, or more frequently two or three, cords of subcutaneous tissue. Cords originate from the axilla, spread to the antero-medial surface of the arm down to the elbow and then move into the antero-medial aspect of the forearm and sometimes into the root of the thumb. The purpose of this study was to compare two techniques, ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for their sensitivity and accuracy in identifying AWS cords and to provide insights to the origin of this pathology. US examinations were performed on fifteen patients using a high frequency probe (17 MHz). We first palpated and marked the cord with location aided by maximum abduction. To identify the cord with MRI (1.5 Tesla), a catheter filled with a gel detectable under MRI was placed on the skin at the site of the cord. We found that in some US cases, the dynamic abduction maneuver was essential to facilitate detection of the cord. This dynamic method on ultrasound confirmed the precise location of the cord even if it was located deeper in the hypodermis fascia junction. US and MRI images revealed features of the cords and surrounding tissues. Imaging the cords was difficult with either of the imaging modalities. However, US seemed to be more efficient than MRI and allowed dynamic evaluation. Overall analysis of our study results supports a lymphatic origin of the AWS cord. PMID:25915977

  9. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species.

    PubMed

    Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Silva, J M; Soares, Mkm; Soares, A N; Martins, A R

    2015-08-01

    The species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers. PMID:26465732

  10. Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in occult metastases of lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Potter, William R.

    1989-06-01

    The newest developments in the evaluation of fluorescence detection in photodynamic therapy deal with the ability to distinguish tissue autofluorescence from that of injected photosensitizers. The ability to make this distinction as well as detect fluorescence slightly above background emanating from occult metastases is paramount for the diagnosis of disease. The delivery of light to excite and detect background fluorescence as well as photosensitizer fluorescence in tissues has been accomplished using two HeNe lasers emitting at 632.8 nm and 612 nm delivered through a single quartz fiber optic. Chopping at different frequencies, contributions of fluorescence may be separated. Fluorescence is picked up via a 400 micron quartz fiber optic positioned appropriately near the target tissue. Extraction procedures to quantitate Photofrino II concentration in tissues correlated with fluorescence measurements from instrumentation developed for in vivo fluorimetry were applied for the detection of low drug levels in occult metastases of the lymph nodes. These techniques have been initially applied to detect low levels of drug in DRA mice bearing the SMT-F tumor, which has been extensively studied in our laboratory. The data show the ability of the techniques to detect very low levels of porphyrin in the tumors after low, non-therapeutic doses of injected photosensitizer. The Pollard rat prostatic adenocarcinoma (PA-III) model was chosen for this study because of its characteristic pattern of metastases involving only ipsilateral lymph nodes. Early studies on this lymph node model have shown the ability of the detection device to measure low levels of drug in non-palpable occult metastases in the nodes. The findings show that the detection of small numbers of metastatic cells is possible (<100 cells) with injected DHE doses of 0.25 mg/kg.

  11. Cervical Lymph Nodes as a Selective Niche for Brucella during Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Bovis, Béatrice; Baudimont, Fannie; Chasson, Lionel; Bosilkovski, Mile; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Martirosyan, Anna; Henri, Sandrine; Mège, Jean-Louis; Malissen, Bernard; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are the first lymph nodes encountered by material taking the oral route. To study their role in orally acquired infections, we analyzed 307 patients of up to 14 years treated in the university clinic of Skopje, Macedonia, for brucellosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease frequently acquired by ingestion of contaminated dairy products. From these children, 36% had lymphadenopathy. Among orally infected children, lymphadenopathy with CLN being the only lymph nodes affected was significantly more frequent as compared to those infected by contact with animals (83% vs. 63%), suggesting a possible involvement of CLN during orally acquired human brucellosis. Using a murine model where bacteria are delivered into the oral cavity, we show that Brucella quickly and selectively colonize the CLN where they proliferate and persist over long periods of time for up to 50 days post-infection. A similar efficient though less specific drainage to CLN was found for Brucella, Salmonella typhimurium and fluorescent microspheres delivered by gavage, a pathway likely representing a mixed infection mode of intragastric and oral infection, suggesting a central pathway of drained material. Microspheres as well as bacteria drained to CLN predominately reside in cells expressing CD68 and no or low levels of CD11c. Even though no systemic response could be detected, Brucella induced a locally restricted inflammatory reaction with increased expression levels of interferon ?, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, granzyme B and a delayed induction of Nos2. Inflammation led to pronounced lymphadenopathy, infiltration of macrophages/monocytes expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex II and to formation of epitheloid granulomas. Together, these results highlight the role of CLN in oral infections as both, an initial and efficient trap for bacterial invaders and as possible reservoir for chronic pathogens. They likewise cast a new light on the significance of oral routes for means of vaccination. PMID:25919005

  12. Propionibacterium acnes isolated from lymph nodes of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Bart; Veltkamp, Marcel; Wauters, Carla A; Grutters, Jan C; Janssen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been repeatedly suggested as a candidate causative agent of sarcoidosis. It is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions by bacterial culture so far and this has been described in Japanese patients only. We report two non-Japanese patients in whom mediastinoscopy was performed in order to obtain lymph node tissue for histopathology, which was suggestive for sarcoidosis. Bacterial culture of these uncontaminated mediastinal lymph nodes revealed P. acnes in both patients. As shown in these two cases, P. acnes can be isolated from sterile biopsied sarcoid lymph nodes of non-Japanese patients and supports the belief that there is an etiologic link between P. acnes sarcoidosis. Further elucidation could provide an opening to novel strategies using antibiotics for treating sarcoidosis. PMID:26422574

  13. Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ?0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

  14. Transmission electron microscopy study of flea lymph cell thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Uryi P.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Novikova, Olga V.

    2002-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy investigation of thin sections remains the major method of cells inner structure study with high resolution. However, the present-day technique of cells preparation make it impossible to study a number of biological samples, such as very small quantity of lymph cells of little insects. A new technique of cells preparation has been developed in our lab, which allows to obtain a thin sections of ultra small quantity of cells. Structure of lymph cells of flea was investigated by the technique.

  15. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ? 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  16. Metasin—An Intra-Operative RT-qPCR Assay to Detect Metastatic Breast Cancer in Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ramadhani, Salma; Sai-Giridhar, Priya; George, Dilushana; Gopinath, Preethi; Arkoumani, Evdokia; Jader, Samar; Sundaresan, Maryse; Salgado, Roberto; Larsimont, Dennis; Bustin, Stephen A.; Sundaresan, Vasi

    2013-01-01

    Nodal status is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Established tests such as touch imprint cytology and frozen sections currently used in the intra-operative setting show variations in sensitivity and specificity. This limitation has led to the development of molecular alternatives, such as GeneSearch, a commercial intra-operative real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) assay that allows the surgeon to carry out axillary clearance as a one-step process. Since GeneSearch has been discontinued, we have developed the replacement Metasin assay, which targets the breast epithelial cell markers CK19 and mammaglobin mRNA and identifies metastatic disease in sentinel lymph nodes. The optimised assay can be completed within 32 min (6 min for RNA preparation and 26 min instrument run time), making its use feasible in the intraoperative setting. An analysis by Metasin of 154 archived lymph node homogenates previously analysed by both parallel histology and GeneSearch showed concordance for 148 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Metasin compared with GeneSearch were 95% (CI 83%–99%) and 97% (CI 91%–99%) respectively; compared with histology they were 95% (CI 83%–99%) and 97% (CI 91%–99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneSearch compared with histology were 90% (CI 77%–96%) and 97% (CI 93%–99%) respectively. The positive predictive value of Metasin was 90% and negative predictive value was 98% for both histology and GeneSearch. The positive predictive value of GeneSearch was 92% and the negative predictive value was 97% compared to histology. The discordance rates of Metasin with both GeneSearch and histology were 3.89%. In comparison, the discordance rate of GeneSearch with histology was 4.5%. Metasin’s robustness was independently evaluated on 193 samples previously analysed by GeneSearch from the Jules Bordet Institute, where Metasin yielded comparable results. PMID:23797656

  17. A Novel Treatment Method for Lymph Node Metastasis Using a Lymphatic Drug Delivery System with Nano/Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shigeki; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy based on hematogenous administration of drugs to lymph nodes (LNs) located outside the surgically resected area shows limited tissue selectivity and inadequate response rates, resulting in poor prognosis. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a lymphatic drug delivery system using nano/microbubbles (NMBs) and ultrasound (US) to achieve sonoporation in LNs located outside the dissection area. First, we demonstrated the in vitro effectiveness of doxorubicin (Dox) delivered into three different tumor cell lines by sonoporation. Sonoporation increased the Dox autofluorescence signal and resulted in a subsequent decrease in cell viability. Next, we verified the antitumor effects of Dox in vivo using MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice that exhibit systemic lymphadenopathy, with some peripheral LNs reaching 10 mm in diameter. We defined the subiliac LN (SiLN) as the upstream LN within the dissection area, and the proper axillary LN (PALN) as the downstream LN outside the dissection area. Dox and NMBs were injected into the SiLN and delivered to the PALN via lymphatic vessels; the PALN was then exposed to US when it had filled with solution. We found that sonoporation enhanced the intracellular uptake of Dox leading to high cytotoxicity. We also found that sonoporation induced extravasation of Dox from lymphatic endothelia and penetration of Dox into tumor tissues within the PALN. Furthermore, our method inhibited tumor growth and diminished blood vessels in the PALN while avoiding systemic toxic effects of Dox. Our findings indicate that a lymphatic drug delivery system with sonoporation represents a promising method for treating metastatic LNs located outside the dissection area. PMID:26640589

  18. Long-term outcomes among breast cancer patients with extensive regional lymph node involvement: implications for locoregional management.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Lior Z; Galland-Girodet, Sigolene; Goldberg, Saveli; Warren, Laura E G; Sadek, Betro T; Shenouda, Mina N; Abi-Raad, Rita F; MacDonald, Shannon M; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2015-12-01

    Extensive lymph node (LN) involvement portends significant risk for distant metastasis (DM) among breast cancer patients. As a result, local management may be of secondary import to systemic control in this population. We analyzed patients with ?10 involved LNs (N3) to evaluate the feasibility of breast conserving therapy (BCT) vs modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in this high-risk cohort. Among 98 women with N3 disease 46 (46.9 %) underwent BCT and 52 (53.1 %) received MRM. Nearly all patients (92 %) received comprehensive radiotherapy (RT) including axillary and supraclavicular fields. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze time-to-event outcomes. Median follow-up was 76 months, with a 5-year DFS of 64.9 % and OS of 71.9 % among the cohort. Poorly differentiated (p = 0.007), ER-negative tumors (p = 0.015) had adverse DFS outcomes. Treatment groups did not differ with regard to 10-year DFS (45.4 % for MRM vs. 57.6 % for BCT; p = 0.31), or OS (61.4 vs. 63.7 %; p = 0.79). DM-free survival was 48.9 % following MRM and 60.6 % following BCT (p = 0.19). Patients with ?10 involved LNs have similar outcomes following BCT or MRM, suggesting that RT may obviate the need for more-extensive surgery. While local control is comparably favorable regardless of surgical approach, systemic control remains a challenge in this population. PMID:26585579

  19. Targeting COX-2 and EP4 to control tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiping; Majumder, Mousumi; Girish, Gannareddy V; Mohindra, Vik; Maruyama, Takayuki; Lala, Peeyush K

    2012-08-01

    We reported that cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human breast cancer stimulated cancer cell migration and invasiveness, production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and lymphangiogenesis in situ, largely from endogenous PGE2-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E (EP)1 and EP4 receptors, presenting them as candidate therapeutic targets against lymphatic metastasis. As human breast cancer xenografts in immuno-compromised mice have limitations for preclinical testing, we developed a syngeneic murine breast cancer model of spontaneous lymphatic metastasis mimicking human and applied it for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. We tested the roles of COX-2 and EP receptors in VEGF-C and -D production by a highly metastatic COX-2 expressing murine breast cancer cell line C3L5. These cells expressed all EP receptors and produced VEGF-C and -D, both inhibited with COX-2 inhibitors or EP4 (but not EP1, EP2 or EP3) antagonists. C3H/HeJ mice, when implanted SC in both inguinal regions with C3L5 cells suspended in growth factor-reduced Matrigel, exhibited rapid tumor growth, tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis (respectively measured with CD31 and LYVE-1 immunostaining), metastasis to the inguinal and axillary lymph nodes and the lungs. Chronic oral administration of COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin, COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208, but not an EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 at nontoxic doses markedly reduced tumor growth, lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Residual tumors in responding mice revealed reduced VEGF-C and -D proteins, AkT phosphorylation and increased apoptotic/proliferative cell ratios consistent with blockade of EP4 signaling. We suggest that EP4 antagonists deserve clinical testing for chemo-intervention of lymphatic metastasis in human breast cancer. PMID:22641101

  20. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  1. [Computed tomographic diagnosis of the diaphragmatic lymph nodes in malignant lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Kullnig, P; Tölly, E; Hörmann, M

    1986-06-01

    132 patients with malignant lymphomas were studied retrospectively. In 11.3% CT revealed involvement of diaphragmatic lymph nodes. The anatomy and CT appearance of these lymph nodes when involved are discussed. PMID:3731693

  2. Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. - an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method for the in vitro propagation of a screened and selected high yielding drug type variety of Cannabis sativa, MX-1 using synthetic seed technology. Axillary buds of Cannabis sativa isolated from aseptic multiple shoot cultures were successfully encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The best gel complexation was achieved using 5 % sodium alginate with 50 mM CaCl2.2H2O. Regrowth and conversion after encapsulation was evaluated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions on different planting substrates. The addition of antimicrobial substance - Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) had a positive effect on overall plantlet development. Encapsulated explants exhibited the best regrowth and conversion frequency on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ 0.5 ?M) and PPM (0.075 %) under in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, 100 % conversion of encapsulated explants was obtained on 1:1 potting mix- fertilome with coco natural growth medium, moistened with full strength MS medium without TDZ, supplemented with 3 % sucrose and 0.5 % PPM. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated explants were hardened off and successfully transferred to the soil. These plants are selected to be used in mass cultivation for the production of biomass as a starting material for the isolation of THC as a bulk active pharmaceutical. PMID:23572915

  3. Does Axillary Boost Increase Lymphedema Compared With Supraclavicular Radiation Alone After Breast Conservation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Shelly B. Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Anderson, Penny R.; Ross, Eric

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To determine independent predictors of lymphedema (LE) after breast radiotherapy and to quantify added risks of LE from regional node irradiation (RNI). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,579 women with T1-2, N 0-3, M0 breast cancer treated with breast conservation between 1970 and 2005 were studied. A total of 2,169 patients (84%) received radiation to the breast (B), 226 (8.8%) to the breast and supraclavicular LNs (B+SC), and 184 (7.1%) to the breast, supraclavicular LNs, and a posterior axillary boost (B+SC+PAB). Median follow-up was 81 months (range, 3-271). Results: Eighteen percent of patients developed LE. LE risks were as follows: 16% (B), 23% (B+SC), and 31% (B+SC+PAB) (p < 0.0001). LE severity was greater in patients who had RNI (p = 0.0002). On multivariate analysis, RT field (p < 0.0001), obesity index (p = 0.0157), systemic therapy (p = 0.0013), and number of LNs dissected (p < 0.0001) independently predicted for LE. In N1 patients, the addition of a SC to tangents (p < 0.0001) and the addition of a PAB to tangents (p = 0.0017) conferred greater risks of LE, but adding a PAB to B+SC RT did not (p = 0.8002). In the N2 patients, adding a PAB increased the risk of LE 4.5-fold over B+SC RT (p = 0.0011). Conclusions: LE predictors included number of LNs dissected, RNI, obesity index, and systemic therapy. LE risk increased when a SC or PAB were added in the N1 subgroup. In the N2 patients, a PAB increased the risk over B+SC. The decision to boost the axilla must be weighed against the increased risk of LE that it imposes.

  4. Abscisic Acid Is a General Negative Regulator of Arabidopsis Axillary Bud Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chi; Finlayson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Branching is an important process controlled by intrinsic programs and by environmental signals transduced by a variety of plant hormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) was previously shown to mediate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) branching responses to the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR; an indicator of competition) by suppressing bud outgrowth from lower rosette positions under low R:FR. However, the role of ABA in regulating branching more generally was not investigated. This study shows that ABA restricts lower bud outgrowth and promotes correlative inhibition under both high and low R:FR. ABA was elevated in buds exhibiting delayed outgrowth resulting from bud position and low R:FR and decreased in elongating buds. ABA was reduced in lower buds of hyperbranching mutants deficient in auxin signaling (AUXIN RESISTANT1), MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING (MAX) signaling (MAX2), and BRANCHED1 (BRC1) function, and partial suppression of branch elongation in these mutants by exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may act downstream of these components. Bud BRC1 expression was not altered by exogenous ABA, consistent with a downstream function for ABA. However, the expression of genes encoding the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis enzyme TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1, the auxin transporter PIN-FORMED1, and the cell cycle genes CYCLIN A2;1 and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN1 in buds was suppressed by ABA, suggesting that it may inhibit bud growth in part by suppressing elements of the cell cycle machinery and bud-autonomous IAA biosynthesis and transport. ABA was found to suppress bud IAA accumulation, thus confirming this aspect of its action. PMID:26149576

  5. Functions for rice RFL in vegetative axillary meristem specification and outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Gauravi M; Ramakrishna, Kavitha; Chongloi, Grace L; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2015-05-01

    Axillary meristems (AMs) are secondary shoot meristems whose outgrowth determines plant architecture. In rice, AMs form tillers, and tillering mutants reveal an interplay between transcription factors and the phytohormones auxin and strigolactone as some factors that underpin this developmental process. Previous studies showed that knockdown of the transcription factor gene RFL reduced tillering and caused a very large decrease in panicle branching. Here, the relationship between RFL, AM initiation, and outgrowth was examined. We show that RFL promotes AM specification through its effects on LAX1 and CUC genes, as their expression was modulated on RFL knockdown, on induction of RFL:GR fusion protein, and by a repressive RFL-EAR fusion protein. Further, we report reduced expression of auxin transporter genes OsPIN1 and OsPIN3 in the culm of RFL knockdown transgenic plants. Additionally, subtle change in the spatial pattern of IR4 DR5:GFP auxin reporter was observed, which hints at compromised auxin transport on RFL knockdown. The relationship between RFL, strigolactone signalling, and bud outgrowth was studied by transcript analyses and by the tillering phenotype of transgenic plants knocked down for both RFL and D3. These data suggest indirect RFL-strigolactone links that may affect tillering. Further, we show expression modulation of the auxin transporter gene OsPIN3 upon RFL:GR protein induction and by the repressive RFL-EAR protein. These modified forms of RFL had only indirect effects on OsPIN1. Together, we have found that RFL regulates the LAX1 and CUC genes during AM specification, and positively influences the outgrowth of AMs though its effects on auxin transport. PMID:25788736

  6. Increased concentrations of lysophosphatidylcholine in cardiac lymph from ischemic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Corr, P.B.; Akita, H.; Creer, M.H.; Yamada, K.A.; Sobel, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously shown that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) elicits electrophysiological derangements in normoxic cells exposed to low concentrations of LPC with or without albumin in the extracellular fluid. To determine whether such exposure occurs in vivo, concentrations of phospholipids in cardiac lymph were assessed in 7 dogs subjected to myocardial ischemia. In each animal, a cannula was inserted into the supracardiac lymph vessel identified with Evans Blue dye injected into the left ventricular apex. Less than 4% of /sup 14/C-PC (phosphatidyl choline) or /sup 14/C-LPC incubated in cardiac lymph for 30 min at 4/sup 0/C or 90 min at 37/sup 0/C was catabolized (n = 5). Lymph was collected on ice at 15 min intervals throughout 2 hr of ischemia induced by LAD coronary ligation, extracted in CHCl/sub 3/:CH/sub 3/OH (2:1) and phospholipids separated by HPLC. Prior to ischemia, PC constituted the major phospholipid (79 +/- 2%). Substantial quantities of sphinogomeylin (11 +/- 2%) and LPC (6 +/- 1%) were present. With ischemia, LPC concentration increased 134% from 84 +/- 5 to 197 +/- 34 ..mu..M (n = 7, p < .01) judging from the measured concentration and dilution determined with constant infusion of dye into the LV apex. In contrast, PC concentration and efflux did not change. Thus with ischemia LPC increases in interstitial fluid to levels sufficient to induce electrophysiologic derangements in normoxic cells.

  7. RESEARCH Open Access Head and neck lymph node region delineation

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    RESEARCH Open Access Head and neck lymph node region delineation with image registration Chia and neck represent a great epidemiological problem in western countries. Head and neck cancer accounts to clinical criteria, the results suggest the technique has promise. Background Malignant tumors in the head

  8. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Migration to the Draining Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Fontecha, Alfonso; Sebastiani, Silvia; Höpken, Uta E.; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Lipp, Martin; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sallusto, Federica

    2003-01-01

    Antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) are used as natural adjuvants for vaccination, but the factors that influence the efficacy of this treatment are poorly understood. We investigated the parameters that affect the migration of subcutaneously injected mouse-mature DCs to the draining lymph node. We found that the efficiency of DC migration varied with the number of injected DCs and that CCR7+/+ DCs migrating to the draining lymph node, but not CCR7?/? DCs that failed to do so, efficiently induced a rapid increase in lymph node cellularity, which was observed before the onset of T cell proliferation. We also report that DC migration could be increased up to 10-fold by preinjection of inflammatory cytokines that increased the expression of the CCR7 ligand CCL21 in lymphatic endothelial cells. The magnitude and quality of CD4+ T cell response was proportional to the number of antigen-carrying DCs that reached the lymph node and could be boosted up to 40-fold by preinjection of tumor necrosis factor that conditioned the tissue for increased DC migration. These results indicate that DC number and tissue inflammation are critical parameters for DC-based vaccination. PMID:12925677

  9. PROCEEDINGS Open Access Exploring molecular links between lymph node

    E-print Network

    Lee, Doheon

    ; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative in human breast cancer Sangwoo Kim1,2 , Hojung Nam3 , Doheon Lee1* From 22nd International Conference molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer, supported

  10. Prostanoid induces premetastatic niche in regional lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Fumihiro; Amano, Hideki; Eshima, Koji; Ito, Yoshiya; Matsui, Yoshio; Hosono, Kanako; Kitasato, Hidero; Iyoda, Akira; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Kumagai, Yuji; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Narumiya, Shuh; Majima, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system is an important route for cancer dissemination, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) serves as a critical prognostic determinant in cancer patients. We investigated the contribution of COX-2–derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the formation of a premetastatic niche and LNM. A murine model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell metastasis revealed that COX-2 is expressed in DCs from the early stage in the lymph node subcapsular regions, and COX-2 inhibition markedly suppressed mediastinal LNM. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was elevated in DCs before LLC cell infiltration to the lymph nodes, and a COX-2 inhibitor, an SDF-1 antagonist, and a CXCR4 neutralizing antibody all reduced LNM. Moreover, LNM was reduced in mice lacking the PGE2 receptor EP3, and stimulation of cultured DCs with an EP3 agonist increased SDF-1 production. Compared with WT CD11c+ DCs, injection of EP3-deficient CD11c+ DCs dramatically reduced accumulation of SDF-1+CD11c+ DCs in regional LNs and LNM in LLC-injected mice. Accumulation of Tregs and lymph node lymphangiogenesis, which may influence the fate of metastasized tumor cells, was also COX-2/EP3–dependent. These results indicate that DCs induce a premetastatic niche during LNM via COX-2/EP3–dependent induction of SDF-1 and suggest that inhibition of this signaling axis may be an effective strategy to suppress premetastatic niche formation and LNM. PMID:25271626

  11. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small size, 2) a well-PEGylated lipid surface, and 3) a slightly negative surface charge. The ability of ˜25 nm LCP to deliver genes to the lymph nodes via IV injection was illustrated by RFP cDNA expression. The results promise the potential use of LCP nanoparticles as formulations for the multifunctional, systemic delivery of both imaging and therapeutic agents to both tumors and lymph nodes.

  12. Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo; Liu, Li-Zhi; Lin, Ai-Hua; Li, Li; Ma, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices, the prognostic significance of LN size needs further evaluation.

  13. Occipital lymph node metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a special case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Xia, Wei-Xiong; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Lv, Xing; Ke, Liang-Ru; Yu, Ya-Hui; Guo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but occipital lymph node metastasis in NPC patients has not yet been reported. In this case report, we describe an NPC patient with occipital lymph node metastasis. The clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and outcome of this case were presented, with a review of the related literature. PMID:26728009

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella in Bovine Lymph Nodes Potentially Destined for Use in Ground Beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes. There are several reports of bacteria isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most of the studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes that are not normally incor...

  15. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus. PMID:26601833

  16. Aminobisphosphonates prevent the inhibitory effects exerted by lymph node stromal cells on anti-tumor V? 2 T lymphocytes in non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Alessandra; Catellani, Silvia; Canevali, Paolo; Tavella, Sara; Venè, Roberta; Boero, Silvia; Pierri, Ivana; Gobbi, Marco; Kunkl, Annalisa; Ravetti, Jean-Louis; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella; Poggi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from lymph nodes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, on effector functions and differentiation of Vdelta (?)2 T lymphocytes. We show that: i) lymph-node mesenchymal stromal cells of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma inhibit NKG2D-mediated lymphoid cell killing, but not rituximab-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, exerted by V?2 T lymphocytes; ii) pre-treatment of mesenchymal stromal cells with the aminobisphosphonates pamidronate or zoledronate can rescue lymphoma cell killing via NKG2D; iii) this is due to inhibition of transforming growth factor-? and increase in interleukin-15 production by mesenchymal stromal cells; iv) aminobisphosphonate-treated mesenchymal stromal cells drive V?2 T-lymphocyte differentiation into effector memory T cells, expressing the Thelper1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-?. In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma lymph nodes, V?2 T cells were mostly naïve; upon co-culture with autologous lymph-node mesenchymal stromal cells exposed to zoledronate, the percentage of terminal differentiated effector memory V?2 T lymphocytes increased. In all non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, low or undetectable transcription of Thelper1 cytokines was found. In diffused large B-cell lymphomas and in a group of follicular lymphoma, transcription of transforming growth factor ? and interleukin-10 was enhanced compared to non-neoplastic lymph nodes. Thus, in non-Hodgkin lymphomas mesenchymal stromal cells interfere with V?2 T-lymphocyte cytolytic function and differentiation to Thelper1 and/or effector memory cells, depending on the prominent in situ cytokine milieu. Aminobisphosphonates, acting on lymph-node mesenchymal stromal cells, can push the balance towards Thelper1/effector memory and rescue the recognition and killing of lymphoma cells through NKG2D, sparing rituximab-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:24162786

  17. Secondary sentinel lymph node tracing technique: a new method for tracing lymph nodes in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer*

    PubMed Central

    LI, Zong-lin; JIANG, Huai-wu; SONG, Min; XU, Liang; XIA, Dong; LIU, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical value of secondary sentinel lymph node (SSLN) tracing technique in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Methods: From January 2009 to June 2011, 247 patients who suffered from gastric angle cancer with metastasis in No. 3 group lymph nodes were divided randomly into groups A and B. Methylthioninium chloride was injected into the peripheral tissue of the metastatic No. 3 group lymph nodes of 138 patients in group A before tumor resections. SSLNs were traced and individual lymphadenectomies were carried out based on the biopsy results of the SSLNs. Standard D2 radical gastrectomies were carried out directly on 109 patients in group B. Postoperative follow-up and survival analysis were carried out for patients in both groups. Results: SSLNs were found in 114 (82.6%) patients in group A. Ninety of those patients (78.9%) demonstrated existing metastasis in SSLNs. According to Kaplan-Meier’s method, the postoperative 3-year cumulative survival rates were 63.5% and 47.5%, and the median survival time were 40 and 36 months for the patients of groups A and B, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions: The SSLN tracing technique is feasible in radical gastrectomy for AGC. It gives surgeons important information about the terminal status of lymph node metastasis and provides some scientific basis for individual lymphadenectomy. PMID:26537207

  18. Low-volume ulnar nerve block within the axillary sheath for the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Klein, D S; Klein, P W

    1991-09-01

    A case is described of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) of the upper limb following cerebral arteriography via the subclavian artery. The pain started in the hand and forearm but, over several weeks, spread to involve the whole arm. After identifying the ulnar nerve in the axillary bundle with a stimulator, a series of small volume injections (bupivacaine 0.5% with epinephrine 2.5 ml and methyl-prednisolone 40 mg) was given. These relieved the pain and reversed the trophic changes of RSD. It is suggested that this approach is a useful alternative treatment in cases of RSD of the upper extremity. PMID:1914061

  19. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  20. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ?22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND. PMID:25038184

  1. [Metastatic thoracic lymph node carcinoma from extra-thoracic malignancy or from unknown primary site].

    PubMed

    Bagan, P; Mordant, P; Pricopi, C; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2013-12-01

    Malignant mediastinal lymph nodes without pulmonary disease may be lymphomatous or the metastases from thoracic or extrathoracic malignancy. More rarely, metastatic lymph nodes are without primary site. Surgery is generally diagnostic, restricted to confirming the metastatic process, because of too numerous and disseminated or unresectable lymph nodes. Radical surgery consisting in lymphadenectomy can be effective in case of mediastinal lymph node malignancy without other extra- and intrathoracic disease. We observed in our experience and in several case reports long-term good results in such cases. We suggest that including surgery in the multimodality treatment of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes may be advisable in selected patients. PMID:24210159

  2. Sonographic assessment of the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured with the transducer placed in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line – a comparison

    PubMed Central

    ?o?, Magdalena; Szmygel, ?ukasz; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the values of the sonographic inferior vena cava/ aorta index obtained with the transducer placed in the median line and right anterior axillary line. Material and methods The study enrolled 45 volunteers, including 33 women, aged 22.5 ± 1.26 with a negative history of circulatory and renal diseases. The study consisted in a sonographic assessment and measurement of the inferior vena cava and aorta by placing the transducer in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line. The value of the inferior vena cava/aorta index was obtained by calculating the ratio of the diameters of the inferior vena cava and aorta. The diameter measurements were taken by placing the ultrasound transducer in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line. Two examiners performed the measurement three times and used convex probes of 3.5–5 MHz. Additionally, the subjects’ weight, height and arterial blood pressure were taken. Results Following a statistical analysis with the use of STATISTICA software, the following values of the inferior vena cava/aorta index were obtained: in the anterior median line – 1.43 ± 0.21, and in the right anterior axillary line – 1.285 ± 0.19. There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements obtained by the two examiners (p = 0.17). A strong correlation was noted between the inferior vena cava/ aorta indices calculated in both sites of transducer placement, which was irrespective of the examiners (the correlation coefficient: r = 0.61 and r = 0.71). The study indicate that the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured in the right anterior axillary line is a simple and reproducible method for determining the body fluid status; the examinations conducted in both sites may be used interchangeably. Further studies are needed to determine reference values for the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured in the right anterior axillary line.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Complex Decongestive Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Arm Lymphedema After Axillary Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Seung Yeol; Chang, Hyun Ju; Chu, In Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term effects of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on edema reduction in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients after axillary dissection, according to the initial volume of edema. Methods A retrospective review of 57 patients with unilateral arm after an axillary dissection for breast cancer was performed. The patients, treated with two weeks of CDT and self-administered home therapy, were followed for 24 months. Arm volume was serially measured by using an optoelectronic volumeter prior to and immediately after CDT; and there were follow-up visits at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the percent excess volume (PEV) prior to CDT: group 1, PEV<20% and group 2, PEV?20%. Results In group 1, mean PEV before CDT was 11.4±5.0% and 14.1±10.6% at 24 months after CDT with no significant difference. At the end of CDT, PEV was 28.8±15.7% in group 2, which was significantly lower than the baseline (41.9±19.6%). The reduction of PEV was maintained for 24 months in group 2. Conclusion The long-term effects of CDT were well-maintained for 24 months, but there was a difference in progression of PEV between the two groups. The patients with more initial PEV showed significant volume-reducing effects of CDT. In patients with less initial PEV, the severity of lymphedema did not progress to higher grades. PMID:24236257

  4. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roderick G.; Hay, Michael J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish between these mechanisms, four experiments were conducted on plants varying in initial growth stage from 10 to 19 nodes along their main stems to determine any variation in the relative importance of the operative mechanisms of correlative inhibition. Inhibitory signal exported into the main stem, detected as a branching response to girdling of basal branches, was relatively more significant in smaller (initially with 10–15 nodes on the main stem) than in larger (>19 nodes on main stem) plants. This signal was shown not to involve auxin fluxes, and is unidentified. However, across all stages of growth, the predominant mechanism driving correlative inhibition was the action of axillary and apical buds of basal branches as sinks for the stimulatory signal. This study indicates that the relative importance of the mechanisms regulating bud outgrowth in T. repens varies with growth stage and that, during intermediate stages, regulation has some similarity to that in Pisum. PMID:25922495

  5. Dual-color photoacoustic lymph node imaging using nanoformulated naphthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changho; Kim, Jeesu; Zhang, Yumiao; Jeon, Mansik; Liu, Chengbo; Song, Liang; Lovell, Jonathan F; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-12-01

    Demarking lymph node networks is important for cancer staging in clinical practice. Here, we demonstrate in vivo dual-color photoacoustic lymphangiography using all-organic nanoformulated naphthalocyanines (referred to as nanonaps). Nanonap frozen micelles were self-assembled from two different naphthalocyanine dyes with near-infrared absorption at 707 nm or 860 nm. These allowed for noninvasive, nonionizing, high resolution photoacoustic identification of separate lymphatic drainage systems in vivo. With both types of nanonaps, rat lymph nodes buried deeply below an exogenously-placed 10 mm thick layer of chicken breast were clearly visualized in vivo. These results show the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging with nanonaps for detailed mapping of lymphatic drainage systems. PMID:26408999

  6. Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma metastatic to supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Zannella, Stefano; Testi, Maria Adele; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Zucchini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing between malignant mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia is often inestimable, but may be a challenging gauntlet for pathologists. A 62-year-old man underwent appendectomy after the identification of a peritoneal mass and the histological examination showed mesothelial proliferation along the appendix surface with no clear images of infiltration. After a few months the patient developed mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathies, and a nodal biopsy showed mesothelial cell proliferation invading lymphatic sinuses, consistent with the cells seen in the abdominal cavity. Since overt morphologic criteria for malignancy were lacking and reactive mesothelial cell deposits have been documented in lymph nodes, a molecular investigation of the CDKN2A (henceforth simply p16) gene status via fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, which showed homozygous deletion in 100% tumor cells. These data ruled out the hypothesis of reactive mesothelial cells inclusion in lymph nodes, thus confirming the diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma. PMID:24474244

  7. High Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Lymph Node Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Wrobel, Tomasz P.; Mayerich, David; Bindra, Snehal; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD) data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy. PMID:26039216

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 ?M and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  9. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Nathan Andrew; McClain, Jacob; Tuell, Sara Lydia; Warner, Alex; Smith, Blair; Yun, Youngho; Mohan, Abhinav; Sushnitha, Manuela; Thomas, Susan Napier

    2015-11-01

    Tissue remodeling is a characteristic of many solid tumor malignancies including melanoma. By virtue of tumor lymphatic transport, remodeling pathways active within the local tumor microenvironment have the potential to be operational within lymph nodes (LNs) draining the tumor interstitium. Here, we show that lymphatic drainage from murine B16 melanomas in syngeneic, immune-competent C57Bl/6 mice is associated with LN enlargement as well as nonuniform increases in bulk tissue elasticity and viscoelasticity, as measured by the response of whole LNs to compression. These remodeling responses, which quickly manifest in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) after tumor inoculation and before apparent metastasis, were accompanied by changes in matrix composition, including up to 3-fold increases in the abundance of soluble collagen and hyaluronic acid. Intranodal pressures were also significantly increased in TDLNs (+1 cmH2O) relative to both non-tumor-draining LNs (-1 cmH2O) and LNs from naive animals (-1 to 2 cmH2O). These data suggest that the reorganization of matrix structure, composition, and fluid microenvironment within LNs associated with tumor lymphatic drainage parallels remodeling seen in primary malignancies and has the potential to regulate the adhesion, proliferation, and signaling function of LN-resident cells involved in directing melanoma disease progression.-Rohner, N. A., McClain, J., Tuell, S. L., Warner, A., Smith, B., Yun, Y., Mohan, A., Sushnitha, M., Thomas, S. N. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage. PMID:26178165

  10. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

  11. Key to Juniperus of Continental North America rev. 2/2011 1a. Leaves all acicular (subulate, jointed at the base) and spreading; seed cones sessile, axillary;

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    , jointed at the base) and spreading; seed cones sessile, axillary; decumbent or rarely upright shrubs (in whip- and scale-like; seed cones terminal; trees or decumbent to upright shrubs. 2a. Whip- and scale to mucronate tips and seed cones tan-brown to brownish purple. 3a. Whip- and scale-leaf margins with irregular

  12. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ With Microinvasion: Prognostic Implications, Long-Term Outcomes, and Role of Axillary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, Rahul R.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Lannin, Donald; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical-pathologic features and long-term outcomes for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) vs. DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT), to assess the impact of microinvasion. Patients and Methods: A total of 393 patients with DCIS/DCISM from our database were analyzed to assess differences in clinical-pathologic features and outcomes for the two cohorts. Results: The median follow-up was 8.94 years, and the mean age was 55.8 years for the entire group. The DCISM cohort was comprised of 72 of 393 patients (18.3%). Surgical evaluation of the axilla was performed in 58.3% (n = 42) of DCISM vs. 18.1% (n = 58) of DCIS, with only 1 of 42 DCISM (2.3%) vs. 0 of 58 DCIS with axillary metastasis. Surgical axillary evaluation was not an independent predictor of local-regional relapse (LRR), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), or overall survival (OS) in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p > 0.05). For the DCIS vs. DCISM groups, respectively, the 10-year breast relapse-free survival was 89.0% vs. 90.7% (p = 0.36), DRFS was 98.5% vs. 97.9% (p = 0.78), and OS was 93.2% vs. 95.7% (p = 0.95). The presence of microinvasion did not correlate with LRR, age, presentation, race, family history, margin status, and use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (all p > 0.05). In univariate analysis, pathology (DCIS vs. DCISM) was not an independent predictor of LRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-4.30; p = 0.36), DRFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.07-6.95; p = 0.77), or OS (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.28-3.82; p = 0.95). Conclusions: Our data imply that the natural history of DCISM closely resembles that of DCIS, with a low incidence of local-regional and distant failures. On the basis of our large dataset, the incidence of axillary metastasis in DCISM appears to be small and not appear to correlate to outcomes, and thus, microinvasion alone should not be the sole criterion for more aggressive treatment.

  13. Label free in vivo laser speckle imaging of blood and lymph vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral lymphatic vascular system is a part of the immune body system comprising a complex network of lymph vessels and nodes that are flowing lymph toward the heart. Traditionally the imaging of lymphatic vessels is based on the conventional imaging modalities utilizing contrast fluorescence materials. Given the important role of the lymphatic system there is a critical need for the development of noninvasive imaging technologies for functional quantitative diagnosis of the lymph vessels and lymph flow without using foreign chemicals. We report a label free methodology for noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymph vessels, using long-exposure laser speckle imaging approach. This approach entails great promise in the noninvasive studies of tissues blood and lymph vessels distribution in vivo.

  14. Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Chan, Maxine F; Li, Jiahe; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor draining lymph nodes are the first site of metastasis in most types of cancer. The extent of metastasis in the lymph nodes is often used in staging cancer progression. We previously showed that nanoscale TRAIL liposomes conjugated to human natural killer cells enhance their endogenous therapeutic potential in killing cancer cells cultured in engineered lymph node microenvironments. In this work, it is shown that liposomes decorated with apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and an antibody against a mouse natural killer cell marker are carried to the tumor draining inguinal lymph nodes and prevent the lymphatic spread of a subcutaneous tumor in mice. It is shown that targeting natural killer cells with TRAIL liposomes enhances their retention time within the tumor draining lymph nodes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. It is concluded that this approach can be used to kill cancer cells within the tumor draining lymph nodes to prevent the lymphatic spread of cancer. PMID:26584347

  15. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Deepali; Malde, Anila

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB]) versus intramuscular (IM) buprenorphine (2 ?g/kg) in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]). In addition, regional group RB (n = 25) received buprenorphine 2 ?g/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 ?g/kg IM. Group C (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA) requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h) compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h) and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h) (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C). Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C). Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 ?g/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors. PMID:26330716

  16. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Theberge, Valerie; Harel, Francois; Dagnault, Anne

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  17. Radical lymph node dissection for cancer of the thoracic esophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, H; Tsurumaru, M; Udagawa, H; Kajiyama, Y

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors documented the localization and frequency of lymphatic spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus and evaluated the influence of radical systematic lymph node dissection on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: From accumulated surgical experience, it was suggested that some of the patients with lymph nodal involvement from cancer could be cured by its clearance. However, it is only recently that cancer of the esophagus has been evaluated in terms of analyzing lymphatic spread and results of lymphadenectomy. METHODS: Among 1298 patients admitted to the Toranomon Hospital between 1973 and 1993, 913 (70.3%) had resections, including curative and palliative procedures. For this study, 717 patients with TNM RO (resection with no residual tumor at operation in TNM classification) were analyzed. Survival was compared between groups of patients with less extensive thoracoabdominal (two-field) dissections and extensive collothoracoabdominal (three-field) dissections. RESULTS: Comparative study revealed that 5-year survival rate for TNM RO patients after free-field dissection (55.0%) was significantly better (log rank test, p = 0.0013) than the rate after two-field dissection (38.3%). The results were particularly significant in subgroups with stage III and IV (because of nodal factor). Overall 5-year survival rate after all resections was 42.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The role of radical lymph node dissection in cancer of the thoracic esophagus evaluated. Long-term survival was compared between two groups with two- and three-field dissection. It was concluded that survival rate was significantly better in patients with extensive three-field dissection. PMID:8092902

  18. Vascular transformation of bilateral cervical lymph node sinuses: a rare entity masquerading as tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Ghosh, Aloke Kanti

    2015-03-01

    Vascular transformation of sinuses (VTS) is a rare and reactive vasoproliferative disorder infrequently affecting the cervical lymph nodes. It is characterized by effacement of nodal architecture by variable expansion of the subcapsular, intermediate, and medullary sinuses. We report a very rare and unique case of VTS in bilateral cervical lymph nodes along with angiolipomatous hamartoma in a postoperative patient of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa clinically masquerading as tumor recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, only 15 cases of VTS have been reported in cervical lymph nodes till date and associated angiolipomatous or angiomyomatous hamartoma-like area was noted only in two cases of cervical lymph node VTS. PMID:25848149

  19. Lymph node localization of non-specific antibody-coated liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, S.; Patel, H.M.

    1985-05-20

    Subcutaneously injected small unilamellar liposomes are drained into the lymphatics and localized in the regional lymph nodes, and thus they can be used for the detection of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients and for delivery of drugs to diseased lymph nodes. An aqueous phase marker, (/sup 125/I)-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a lipid phase marker, (/sup 3/H)-cholesterol, were used to study the lymph node localization of IgG-coated liposomes injected subcutaneously into mouse and rat footpads. The results show that human immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated liposomes are rapidly removed from the site of injection and are localized in the regional lymph nodes to a greater extent than control liposomes (i.e. liposomes without IgG). Free IgG was found to inhibit the uptake of IgG-coated liposomes by the lymph nodes. The localization of IgG-coated liposomes in the regional lymph nodes is influenced by charge of the liposomes. The results presented here suggest that antibody-coated liposomes may provide a more efficient way of delivering therapeutic agents to the lymph nodes in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer with lymph node involvement. Similarly, monoclonal antibody-coated liposomes containing lymphoscintigraphic material may improve the detection of lymph node metastases. 26 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Lymph flow regulates collecting lymphatic vessel maturation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Daniel T; Jiménez, Juan M; Chang, Jeremy; Hess, Paul R; Mericko-Ishizuka, Patricia; Fu, Jianxin; Xia, Lijun; Davies, Peter F; Kahn, Mark L

    2015-08-01

    Fluid shear forces have established roles in blood vascular development and function, but whether such forces similarly influence the low-flow lymphatic system is unknown. It has been difficult to test the contribution of fluid forces in vivo because mechanical or genetic perturbations that alter flow often have direct effects on vessel growth. Here, we investigated the functional role of flow in lymphatic vessel development using mice deficient for the platelet-specific receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC2) as blood backfills the lymphatic network and blocks lymph flow in these animals. CLEC2-deficient animals exhibited normal growth of the primary mesenteric lymphatic plexus but failed to form valves in these vessels or remodel them into a structured, hierarchical network. Smooth muscle cell coverage (SMC coverage) of CLEC2-deficient lymphatic vessels was both premature and excessive, a phenotype identical to that observed with loss of the lymphatic endothelial transcription factor FOXC2. In vitro evaluation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) revealed that low, reversing shear stress is sufficient to induce expression of genes required for lymphatic valve development and identified GATA2 as an upstream transcriptional regulator of FOXC2 and the lymphatic valve genetic program. These studies reveal that lymph flow initiates and regulates many of the key steps in collecting lymphatic vessel maturation and development. PMID:26214523

  1. Chemokine-Releasing Nanoparticles for Manipulation of Lymph Node Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Taissia G.; Teunis, Allison; Magni, Ruben; Luchini, Alessandra; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines (CKs) secreted by the host cells into surrounding tissue establish concentration gradients directing the migration of leukocytes. We propose an in vivo CK gradient remodeling approach based on sustained release of CKs by the crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel open meshwork nano-particles (NPs) containing internal crosslinked dye affinity baits for a reversible CK binding and release. The sustained release is based on a new principle of affinity off-rate tuning. The NPs with Cibacron Blue F3G-A and Reactive Blue-4 baits demonstrated a low-micromolar affinity binding to IL-8, MIP-2, and MCP-1 with a half-life of several hours at 37°C. The capacity of NPs loaded with IL-8 and MIP-1? to increase neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes (LNs) was tested in mice after footpad injection. Fluorescently-labeled NPs used as tracers indicated the delivery into the sub-capsular compartment of draining LNs. The animals administered the CK-loaded NPs demonstrated a widening of the sub-capsular space and a strong lymph node influx of leukocytes, while mice injected with control NPs without CKs or bolus doses of soluble CKs alone showed only a marginal neutrophil response. This technology provides a new means therapeutically direct or restore immune cell traffic, and can also be employed for simultaneous therapy delivery. PMID:25878893

  2. Evaluation of lymphatic function: abnormal lymph drainage in venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P S

    1995-09-01

    The essential function of the lymphatic system is to return to the vascular system extravascular molecules and colloids too large to re-enter directly. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy employs this principle and has proved useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic limb swelling, in the identification of subtle or incipient lymphoedema and in edema of compound origin where a lymphatic component would otherwise go unnoticed. In a study exploring the contribution of lymphatic insufficiency to poor wound healing in chronic venous leg ulceration 32 patients were compared to 22 normal control subjects using quantitative lymphoscintigraphy. In subjects less than 65 years lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limbs compared to normal limbs (p<0.0001). In those aged more than 65 years lymphatic function was lower in ulcerated limbs but not significantly so, owing to a decline in lymph drainage with age in normal controls (r = 0.62, p = 0.0001). In patients with unilateral leg ulceration lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limb compared with the contralateral leg (<65 years, p = 0.05; >65 years, p = 0.03). The finding of impaired lymph drainage with chronic venous insufficiency suggests that lymphatic pathology may be as important as venous pathology in the "chronic venous leg ulcer" and treatment should be aimed at improving lymphatic as well as venous function. PMID:8919262

  3. Expression of TYMS in lymph node metastasis from low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    DING, BINGQIAN; GAO, MING; LI, ZHENJIANG; XU, CHENYANG; FAN, SHAOKANG; HE, WEIYA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma, and to analyze the function of TYMS in the lymph node metastases from low-grade glioma. The study included 93 cases of surgically resected and pathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, form patients treated at Huaihe Hospital of Henan University (Kaifeng, China). The following clinical data was obtained from each patient: Gender, age, subjective symptoms (dizziness, headache, a feeling of pressure in the head, etc.), site of disease, tumor type, pathological stage, degree of differentiation and lymph node involvement. The surgically resected gliomas and dissected cervical lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained, and DNA was extracted from the tumor and lymph node tissues samples for polymerase chain reaction sequencing and amplification. The expression of TYMS in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma was examined. Additionally, the association between pathological features and the postoperative survival rate of the patients was analyzed. The primary lesions of all 93 cases exhibited positive TYMS expression and 43/157 (27.39%) lymph nodes exhibited positive TYMS expression. Factors that significantly influenced the postoperative survival rate of the patients, included the metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01), the number of dissected cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01) and the degree of differentiation (P<0.05). The metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was the only independent risk factor affecting postoperative disease-free survival. The risk of recurrence in patients with metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was 6.3-fold higher than in those without metastasis (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study provide a theoretical basis for accurately predicting the prognosis of patients with low-grade malignant brain glioma, reducing the conjecture involved in selecting postoperative treatment strategies and improving therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26622711

  4. Elevated expression of E-cadherin in primary breast cancer and its corresponding metastatic lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Jian, Wei; Lu, Leisheng; Zheng, Lijun; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was to investigate the E-cadherin expression patterns in primary breast cancers and metastatic lymph node. Methods: Only lymph nodes which were pathologically identified as metastases were included in this study to pair up the primary tumors. E-cadherin RNA expression levels in invasive ductal breast cancer subjects were detected. E-cadherin gene copies were normalized using beta-actin gene copies. ER, PR, cerbB2 expressions in the primary tumor were routinely examined by immunohistochemistry method. Tumor characteristics and number of metastatic lymph nodes were gathered from the pathology reports. Results: We tried to explore the relationship between E-cadherin expression in 21 primary tumors and their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes. However, the Q-RT-PCR data show that an aberrant expression existed in both primary tumors and the corresponding lymph nodes (P=0.115), in which metastatic lymph nodes showed slight higher gene copies compared with primary sites (77.77±94.74 vs 43.35±40.03, respectively). It is noteworthy that nodal E-cadherin expression was closely but negatively correlated with tumor size (P<0.01, r=-0.775) and number of metastasized lymph nodes (P<0.05, r=-0.519), as tumor size and number of metastasized lymph nodes were already clinically proven to be important prognostic factors. There was no correlation between ER, PR, cerbB2 status in primary tumors and the nodal E-cadherin expression (P>0.05). Conclusions: It is indicated that E-cadherin expression is aberrant in invasive ductal cancers and their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes. E-cadherin expression in the metastasized lymph node is closely related to tumor size and number of metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26380015

  5. Assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma using ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Natsugoe, S; Yoshinaka, H; Shimada, M; Shirao, K; Nakano, S; Kusano, C; Baba, M; Fukumoto, T; Takao, S; Aikou, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ultrasound (US) examination is useful for diagnosing lymph node metastasis. However, few reports have examined its role in the decision to perform cervical lymph node dissection in esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate cervical lymph node metastasis in 519 patients with esophageal carcinoma. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to treatment received: group 1, 153 patients who underwent curative resection of primary tumor by right thoracotomy and complete bilateral cervical lymphadenectomy; group 2, 112 patients who underwent curative resection of primary tumor by right thoracotomy but without cervical lymphadenectomy; group 3, 78 patients who underwent esophagectomy by left thoracotomy or blunt dissection with or without removal of cervical lymph nodes; group 4, 76 patients with palliative resection without cervical lymphadenectomy; and group 5, 100 patients without any surgical treatment. US diagnosis was compared with histologic findings or cervical lymph node recurrence. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis was detected in 30.8% of patients (160/519). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US diagnosis in group 1 were 74.5%, 94.1%, and 87.6%, respectively. Cervical lymph node recurrence was seen in 7 patients (4.6%) in group 1, in 4 patients (3.6%) in group 2, and 3 patients (3.8%) in group 3. Although the incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis as determined by US examination was high in groups 4 and 5, almost none of the patients died of cervical lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound examination plays a useful role in the decision to perform cervical lymph node dissection in patients with esophageal carcinoma, particularly in those with potentially curative dissection. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9923801

  6. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

  7. Tumor-induced VEGF-C overexpression in retroperitoneal lymph nodes in VX2 carcinoma-bearing rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Wen; Zhou, Yun; Lan, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yin; Feng, Yan-Ling; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the retroperitoneal lymph node (RLN) metastasis model of cervical carcinoma in rabbits and evaluate the relationship of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression and the lymph node status. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were injected with VX2 cells or RPMI solution at muscular mucosae of the myometrium 0.5 cm away from the cervix. Animals were treated with or without cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin: DDP) and sacrificed on days 15, 21, and 27 post-VX2 or RPMI injections. Tumor mass and RLNs were examined histopathologically. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the changes in VEGF-C mRNA expression. Levels of VEGF-C protein expression in tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry staining. Results Development of VX2 cervical carcinoma and the RLNs metastasis was confirmed with pathological examination. Significantly increased tumor volume was observed on days 15, 21, and 27 postinjection (P<0.05). The enlargement of RLNs was found on day 21. Expression of VEGF-C was significantly upregulated in peripheral white blood cells, tumor mass, and RLNs in an association with cancer progression. DDP resulted in a suppression of VEGF-C expression, whereas the influences on tumor mass and lymphatic metastasis were insignificant. Conclusion Elevated VEGF-C expressions in peripheral white blood cells and RLNs are associated with tumor progression and lymphatic metastasis. DDP treatment inhibits VEGF-C expression and fails to protect against metastatic cervical cancer. PMID:26604693

  8. Lymph is not a plasma ultrafiltrate: a proteomic analysis of injured patients.

    PubMed

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Moore, Ernest E; Wohlauer, Max; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C; Hansen, Kirk C

    2014-12-01

    Studies on animal models have documented a role for the water-soluble protein fraction of mesenteric lymph as a conduit from hemorrhagic shock to acute lung injury and postinjury multiple organ failure. We hypothesize that mesenteric lymph is not an ultrafiltrate of plasma and contains specific protein mediators that may predispose patients to acute lung injury/multiple organ failure. Mesenteric lymph and plasma were collected from critically ill or injured patients and from nine patients with lymphatic injuries, during semielective spine reconstruction, or immediately before organ donation. Proteomic analyses were performed through immunoaffinity depletion of the 14 most abundant plasma proteins and 1D gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled online with mass spectrometry analyses. Overall, 548 proteins were identified in the patients undergoing semielective surgery, of which 155 were uniquely present in the lymph. In addition, the postshock plasma proteome was characterized by peculiar features, suggesting that only a partial overlap exists between the plasma and mesenteric lymph from trauma patients. Differential proteins between the matched plasma and mesenteric lymph from trauma patients could be related to coagulopathy and hypercoagulability, cell lysis, proinflammatory responses and immune system activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, lymph-specific immunomodulation and vascular hypoactivity/neoangiogenesis, and energy/redox metabolic adaptation to trauma. In conclusion, the proteome of mesenteric lymph is biologically different (in qualitative and quantitative terms) than that of a mere plasma ultrafiltrate. PMID:25243428

  9. Microwave detection of metastasized breast cancer cells in the lymph node; potential application for sentinel lymphadenectomy

    E-print Network

    Kwon, Youngwoo

    Report Microwave detection of metastasized breast cancer cells in the lymph node; potential, and this study aims to unleash the electromagnetic properties of breast cancer cells, especially, metastasized cancer cells in the lymph nodes, using broad-band microwaves in attempts to detect metastases

  10. Lymph is not a Plasma Ultrafiltrate: A Proteomic Analysis of Injured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ernest E.; Wohlauer, Max; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on animal models have documented a role for the water soluble protein fraction of mesenteric lymph as a conduit from hemorrhagic shock to acute lung injury and post-injury multiple organ failure. We hypothesize that mesenteric lymph is not an ultrafiltrate of plasma and contains specific protein mediators that may predispose patients to ALI/MOF. Mesenteric lymph and plasma were collected from critically ill or injured patients and from nine patients with lymphatic injuries, during semi-elective spine reconstruction, or immediately before organ donation. Proteomic analyses were performed through immuno-affinity depletion of the 14 most abundant plasma proteins, and GeLC-MS analyses. Overall, 548 proteins were identified in the patients undergoing semi-elective surgery, of which 155 were uniquely present in the lymph. In addition, the post-shock plasma proteome was characterized by peculiar features, suggesting that only a partial overlap exists between the plasma and mesenteric lymph from trauma patients. Differential proteins between the matched plasma and mesenteric lymph from trauma patients could be related to, coagulopathy and hypercoagulability, cell lysis, pro-inflammatory responses and immune system activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, lymph-specific immunomodulation and vascular hypoactivity/neoangiogenesis, and energy/redox metabolic adaptation to trauma. In conclusion, the proteome of mesenteric lymph is biologically different (in qualitative and quantitative terms) than that of a mere plasma ultrafiltrate. PMID:25243428

  11. Telomerase activity and related properties of normal canine lymph node and canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hipple, A K; Colitz, C M H; Mauldin, G N; Mauldin, G E; Cho, D Y

    2003-09-01

    Telomerase activity (TA) and the expression of p16(INK4), telomerase reverse-transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were analysed in lymph nodes from clinically normal dogs and from dogs with lymphoma. Telomere lengths were measured in 12 histologically normal lymph nodes. These data were related to the overall survival time of the lymphoma patients given chemotherapy, in an effort to identify prognostic significance of the measured variables. There was no significant difference between TA of normal lymph nodes (n = 16) and lymphoma lymph nodes (n = 6). PCNA expression was significantly higher in lymphoma (n = 30) than in normal lymph nodes (n = 10), but TERT expression was not. Expression of p16(INK4) was not significantly different between normal and lymphoma lymph nodes. TA and p16(INK4) expression were inversely correlated within the normal lymph nodes studied. Telomere lengths in normal lymph nodes were consistent with previous studies. No variables examined had any correlation with survival of the lymphoma patients given chemotherapy. The role of p16(INK4) in the regulation of TA warrants further investigation. PMID:19379313

  12. [Enhancement of infection resistance of mice infected with Salmonella typhi by factors of immune lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, A L; Novikov, V I; Aparin, P G

    1990-09-01

    Mediators, secreted by lymph node cells shortly after immunization and draining the site of the injection of the antigen, produced a nonspecific activating effect on cells of the macrophagal series. The preventive injection of immune lymph node factors induced an increase in nonspecific resistance to S. typhi TU2 [correction of Ty2] No. [correction of N]4446. PMID:2124025

  13. Lymph Node Transplantation Results in Spontaneous Lymphatic Reconnection and Restoration of Lymphatic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Aschen, Seth Z.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Albano, Nicholas J.; Ghanta, Swapna; Weitman, Evan S.; Ortega, Sagrario; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lymph node transplantation has been shown to improve lymphatic function the mechanisms regulating lymphatic vessel reconnection and functional status of lymph nodes remains poorly understood. Methods We developed and used LacZ lymphatic reporter mice to examine the lineage of lymphatic vessels infiltrating transferred lymph nodes. In addition, we analyzed lymphatic function, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C), maintenance of T and B cell zone, and anatomic localization of lymphatics and high endothelial venules (HEVs). Results Reporter mice were specific and highly sensitive in identifying lymphatic vessels. Lymph node transfer was associated with rapid return of lymphatic function and clearance of Tc99 secondary to a massive infiltration of recipient mouse lymphatics and putative connections to donor lymphatics. T and B cell populations in the lymph node were maintained. These changes correlated with marked increases in the expression of VEGF-C in the perinodal fat and infiltrating lymphatics. Newly formed lymphatic channels in transferred lymph nodes were in close anatomic proximity to HEVs. Conclusions Transferred lymph nodes have rapid infiltration of functional host lymphatic vessels and maintain T and B cell populations. This process correlates with increased endogenous expression of VEGF-C in the perinodal fat and infiltrating lymphatics. Anatomic proximity of newly formed lymphatics and HEVs supports the hypothesis that lymph node transfer can improve lymphedema by exchanges with the systemic circulation. PMID:24469165

  14. MPEG-DSPE polymeric micelle for translymphatic chemotherapy of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Dong, Qing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Lu, Weiyue; Feng, Lingling; Xie, Cao; Xie, Zuoxu; Su, Bingxia; Liu, Min

    2015-06-20

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the major pathways for tumor formation and it is difficult to deliver chemotherapeutics at therapeutic concentrations to lymph node metastasis. This study prepared methyl poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine/doxorubicin (MPEG-DSPE/DOX) micelle for the treatment of lymph node metastasis. The MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle prepared were of spherical morphology with a particle size of 20 ± 5 nm. The uptake rates of DOX and MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle by A375 cells were 51.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The phagocytosis rate of MPEG-DSPE/Rhodamine B micelle by RAW264.7 cells was 17.2-fold lower than for Rhodamine B alone. After subcutaneous injection, MPEG-DSPE micelle underwent lymphatic absorption and accumulated in popliteal lymph nodes. MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle significantly alleviated damage to the subcutaneous tissue of the injection sites compared with DOX alone. We established a model of nude mice bearing lymph node metastasis of A375 cells. After subcutaneous injection, the weights of both the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes of the MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle group were significantly lower than in the saline and DOX groups. MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle effectively killed the tumor cells in popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. In conclusion, MPEG-DSPE micelle is a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of lymph node metastasis. PMID:25841567

  15. Model-based segmentation of pathological lymph nodes in CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornheim, Lars; Dornheim, Jana; Rössling, Ivo; Mönch, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    For the computer-aided diagnosis of tumor diseases knowledge about the position, size and type of the lymph nodes is needed to compute the tumor classification (TNM). For the computer-aided planning of subsequent surgeries like the Neck Dissection spatial information about the lymph nodes is also important. Thus, an efficient and exact segmentation method for lymph nodes in CT data is necessary, especially pathological altered lymph nodes play an important role here. Based on prior work, in this paper we present a noticeably enhanced model-based segmentation method for lymph nodes in CT data, which now can be used also for enlarged and mostly well separated necrotic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the kind of pathological variation can be determined automatically during segmentation, which is important for the automatic TNM classification. Our technique was tested on 21 lymph nodes from 5 CT datasets, among several enlarged and necrotic ones. The results lie in the range of the inter-personal variance of human experts and improve the results of former work again. Bigger problems were only noticed for pathological lymph nodes with vague boundaries due to infiltrated neighbor tissue.

  16. Lymphotoxin, but Not TNF, Is Required for Prion Invasion of Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Tracy; Frei, Nathalie; Sponarova, Jana; Schwarz, Petra; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinvasion and subsequent destruction of the central nervous system by prions are typically preceded by a colonization phase in lymphoid organs. An important compartment harboring prions in lymphoid tissue is the follicular dendritic cell (FDC), which requires both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin ? receptor (LT?R) signaling for maintenance. However, prions are still detected in TNFR1?/? lymph nodes despite the absence of mature FDCs. Here we show that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes depends on LT?R signaling. Loss of LT?R signaling, but not of TNFR1, was concurrent with the dedifferentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs) required for lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. Using luminescent conjugated polymers for histochemical PrPSc detection, we identified PrPSc deposits associated with HEVs in TNFR1?/? lymph nodes. Hence, prions may enter lymph nodes by HEVs and accumulate or replicate in the absence of mature FDCs. PMID:22912582

  17. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  18. Separation and characterization of polyphenolics from underutilized byproducts of fruit production (Choerospondias axillaris peels): inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins against glycolysis enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Zhai, Yuxin; McClements, David Julian; Liu, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins were isolated from the peel of Choerospondias axillaris fruit, which is a waste product of the food processing industry. Compositional analysis indicated that the proanthocyanidins had extension units mainly consisting of epicatechin gallate or epicatechin, and terminal units mainly consisting of catechin. Numerous polymeric forms of the molecules were detected, including monomers, dimers, and trimers. Certain fractions exhibited strong ?-amylase or ?-glucosidase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, their inhibitory activities depended on their degree of polymerization and galloylation. For example, the most bioactive fraction had ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values) of 541 and 3.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates that proanthocyanidins from C. axillaris peels can inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro and may therefore serve as antidiabetic ingredients in functional or medical foods. PMID:26442714

  19. Analysis of the barrier properties of the initial lymphatics and the toxicity of lymph fluid during inflammation

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Patrick Michael

    2007-01-01

    tumor cells to the lymph nodes and other organs. 1.3 Initiallymph formation in the initial lymphatics of most organs. Asorgans there is a combination of such pump mechanisms depending on the tissue activity. Lymph ?

  20. Comparison between perivascular and perineural ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using levobupivacaine: A prospective, randomised clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ambi, Uday; Bhanupriya, PVV; Hulkund, Shivanand Y; Prakashappa, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Ultrasound (US)-guided regional blocks are becoming increasingly popular as its use increases success rate, shortens block onset time and reduces complications. Currently, there exist two methods to perform US-guided axillary brachial plexus block (US-ABPB), the perivascular (PV) and the perineural (PN) techniques. We compared the two techniques to study the block characteristics and other variables using levobupivacaine. Methods: In this prospective, randomised trial, 60 patients were randomly allocated to receive a PV (n = 30) or PN (n = 30) US-ABPB. The local anaesthetic agent, 0.5% levobupivacaine and total volume of 36 ml of solution were identical in all the subjects. For both the groups, the musculocutaneous nerve was first located and then anaesthetised with 6 ml. Subsequently in the PV group, 30 ml was deposited dorsal to the axillary artery (6 o’clock position). In PN group, the median, ulnar and radial nerves were individually anaesthetised with volumes of 10 ml each. The onset and duration of sensory block, the onset and duration of motor block, number of failed blocks and complications were noted. Results: No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of success rate (PV - 93.33%, PN - 96.66%), sensory onset (PN: 8.07 (standard deviation [SD] ± 0.651) min and PV: 8.14 [SD ± 1.079] min; P = 0.754), motor onset (PN: 14.62 [SD ± 2.077] min and PV: 14.93 [SD ± 1.844] min; P = 0.557) and total duration of anaesthesia. No complications were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The PV technique provides a simple alternative for PN US-ABPB. In the light of emerging needling positions for PV and PN techniques, this study calls for large scale trials and much research in this area before one defines best or safe approach. PV technique may be considered as an alternative method for US-ABPB in patients with anatomical variation or difficulties in identifying the individual nerves.

  1. Compact intraoperative imaging device for sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging device that can detect near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and map sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In contrast to conventional imaging systems, this device is compact, portable, and battery-operated. It is also wearable and thus allows hands-free operation of clinicians. The system directly displays the fluorescence in its goggle eyepiece, eliminating the need for a remote monitor. Using this device in murine lymphatic mapping, the SLNs stained with indocyanine green (ICG) can be readily detected. Fluorescence-guided SLN resection under the new device was performed with ease. Ex vivo examination of resected tissues also revealed high fluorescence level in the SLNs. Histology further confirmed the lymphatic nature of the resected SLNs.

  2. Nodal Basin Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Zapf, Antonia; Mitteldorf, Christina; Satzger, Imke; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Völker, Bernward; Schön, Michael Peter; Gutzmer, Ralf; Starz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze different types of nodal basin recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for melanoma. Patients and Methods: Kaplan–Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to study 2653 patients from 3 German melanoma centers retrospectively. The estimated 5-year negative predictive value of SLNB was 96.4%. The estimated false-negative (FN) rates after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years were 2.5%, 4.6%, 6.4%, 8.7%, and 12.6%, respectively. Independent factors associated with false negativity were older age, fewer SLNs excised, and head or neck location of the primary tumor. Compared with SLN-positive patients, the FNs had a significantly lower survival. In SLN-positive patients undergoing completion lymphadenectomy (CLND), the 5-year nodal basin recurrence rate was 18.3%. The recurrence rates for axilla, groin, and neck were 17.2%, 15.5%, and 44.1%, respectively. Significant factors predicting local relapse after CLND were older age, head, or neck location of the primary tumor, ulceration, deeper penetration of the metastasis into the SLN, tumor-positive CLND, and >2 lymph node metastases. All kinds of nodal relapse were associated with a higher prevalence of in-transit metastases. The FN rate after SLNB steadily increases over the observation period and should, therefore, be estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. False-negativity is associated with fewer SLNs excised. The beneficial effect of CLND on nodal basin disease control varies considerably across different risk groups. This should be kept in mind about SLN-positive patients when individual decisions on prophylactic CLND are taken. PMID:26356697

  3. Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75?min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  4. Modes of Antigen Presentation by Lymph Node Stromal Cells and Their Immunological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hirosue, Sachiko; Dubrot, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is no longer the exclusive domain of cells of hematopoietic origin. Recent works have demonstrated that lymph node stromal cell (LNSC) populations, such as fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic and blood endothelial cells, not only provide a scaffold for lymphocyte interactions but also exhibit active immunomodulatory roles that are critical to mounting and resolving effective immune responses. Importantly, LNSCs possess the ability to present antigens and establish antigen-specific interactions with T cells. One example is the expression of peripheral tissue antigens, which are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecules with tolerogenic consequences on T cells. Additionally, exogenous antigens, including self and tumor antigens, can be processed and presented on MHC-I complexes, which result in dysfunctional activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. While MHC-I is widely expressed on cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins, antigen presentation via MHC-II is more precisely regulated. Nevertheless, LNSCs are capable of endogenously expressing, or alternatively, acquiring MHC-II molecules. Transfer of antigen between LNSC and dendritic cells in both directions has been recently suggested to promote tolerogenic roles of LNSCs on the CD4+ T cell compartment. Thus, antigen presentation by LNSCs is thought to be a mechanism that promotes the maintenance of peripheral tolerance as well as generates a pool of diverse antigen-experienced T cells for protective immunity. This review aims to integrate the current and emerging literature to highlight the importance of LNSCs in immune responses, and emphasize their role in antigen trafficking, retention, and presentation. PMID:26441957

  5. Site-specific cancer deaths in cancer of unknown primary diagnosed with lymph node metastasis may reveal hidden

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    the organs drained by those nodes. The association between lymph node CUP metastases with cancer deaths the remaining patients present with metastasis in extranodal organs.1,4 Lymph node metastases generally affordSite-specific cancer deaths in cancer of unknown primary diagnosed with lymph node metastasis may

  6. Quality of life in patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis before and after treatment with fractionated microneedle radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Adibi, Neda; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH) is a common condition with a great impact on the patient's quality of life (QOL). It is associated with serious social, emotional, and occupational distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the QOL in patients with PAH before and after treatment with fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR). Materials and Methods: We evaluated 25 patients with severe PAH. Each patient had three sessions of FMR treatment using a novel applicator at 3-week intervals. The study was based on Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) Questionnaires. Patients were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after the last session. Results: Our patients included 32% males and 68% females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of subjects was 30.2 ± 6.27 years. The mean ± SD of the DLQI before and after treatment was 12.96 ± 5.93, and 4.29 ± 2.21, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the before and after intervention (P < 0.001). No major, permanent adverse effects were shown. Conclusion: Treatment with FMR can improve the DLQI of patients with PAH.

  7. In Vitro Flower Induction from Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Axillary Buds of Endangered Medicinal Herb Swertia chirayita H. Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Barkha; Srivastava, Nidhi; Dobriyal, Anoop Kumar; Jadon, Vikash Singh

    2014-01-01

    In vitro flowering and effective micropropagation protocol were studied in Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant using axillary bud explants. The Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with benzyl amino purine (BAP) 1.0?mg?L?1 and adenine sulfate 70.0?mg?L?1 was found optimum for production of multiple shoots. In the present study, incubation of flowering cultures on BAP supplemented medium (during shoot multiplication) was found necessary for flowering (6 weeks). However, concentrations of auxins-like IBA (0–2.0?mg/L) were ineffective to form reproductive buds. Subculture duration, photoperiod, and carbon source type do have influence on the in vitro flowering. The mature purple flowers were observed when the cultures were maintained in the same medium. This is the very first report that describes in vitro flowering system to overcome problems associated with flower growth and development as well as lay foundation for fruit and seed production in vitro in Swertia chirayita. PMID:24707404

  8. Butane-2,3-dione: the key contributor to axillary and foot odor associated with an acidic note.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Kyuka, Ayumi; Shimizu, Hironori

    2015-02-01

    Human body odor, which contains several volatile organic compounds, possesses various odor qualities. To identify key volatile compounds responsible for the common unpleasant odors derived from human axillae and feet, the odor quality and intensity of 118 human axillae and feet were directly evaluated by sniffing, and odor compounds obtained from the subjects were identified. Furthermore, the sensory differences in odor intensity and quality with and without addition of butane-2,3-dione were evaluated by using the visual analog scale (VAS). An acidic odor was a common unpleasant note in human axillae and feet. Butane-2,3-dione was identified as a key compound associated with this odor. Strong positive correlations between the amount of butane-2,3-dione, and the odor intensities of axillae and feet were observed, and the addition of butane-2,3-dione solution to blended short-chain fatty-acid solutions caused significantly increased VAS values of axillary-like odor, unpleasantness, and odor intensity compared to those of each solution without added butane-2,3-dione. PMID:25676506

  9. In Vitro Flower Induction from Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Axillary Buds of Endangered Medicinal Herb Swertia chirayita H. Karst.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Kamal, Barkha; Srivastava, Nidhi; Dobriyal, Anoop Kumar; Jadon, Vikash Singh

    2014-01-01

    In vitro flowering and effective micropropagation protocol were studied in Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant using axillary bud explants. The Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with benzyl amino purine (BAP) 1.0?mg?L(-1) and adenine sulfate 70.0?mg?L(-1) was found optimum for production of multiple shoots. In the present study, incubation of flowering cultures on BAP supplemented medium (during shoot multiplication) was found necessary for flowering (6 weeks). However, concentrations of auxins-like IBA (0-2.0?mg/L) were ineffective to form reproductive buds. Subculture duration, photoperiod, and carbon source type do have influence on the in vitro flowering. The mature purple flowers were observed when the cultures were maintained in the same medium. This is the very first report that describes in vitro flowering system to overcome problems associated with flower growth and development as well as lay foundation for fruit and seed production in vitro in Swertia chirayita. PMID:24707404

  10. A standardized protocol for identifying and counting lymph nodes harvested by pelvic lymph node dissection at the time of radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Michael J.; Afshar, Kourosh; So, Alan I.; Jones, Edward C.; Gilks, Blake C.; Black, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lymph node counts have become a surrogate measure for the extent and quality of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) at radical cystectomy, but little consideration has been given to the methodology of lymph node processing. We report results from a prospective series comparing a conventional protocol for processing PLND specimens to a fat-emulsifying protocol. We hypothesized that the rate of node positivity would increase with the fat-emulsifying protocol. Methods: Patients undergoing radical cystectomy for cTis-T4aN0-1M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder were eligible for this trial. Palpable lymph nodes were isolated from the PLND specimens in the conventional protocol. The remaining tissue was then processed with fat-emulsifying solution to identify further nodes visually. Nodal counts were compared between techniques. Results: The median number of nodes counted in the PLND specimens of 26 patients was 24.5 (range: 20–40) with conventional processing and 37 (range: 24–52) with the fat-emulsifying solution (p < 0.001). Three patients had lymph node positive disease detected by conventional means, and a single patient was found to have a single positive node by the fat-emulsifying solution alone. The study was closed early after conducting a futility analysis. Conclusions: A fat-emulsifying protocol identified more lymph nodes than a conventional protocol and may be an appropriate method to standardize lymph node processing following PLND. However, we were unable to show that such a standardized approach significantly increased the rate of node positivity in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.

  11. Significance of the Extracapsular Spread of Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang Ho; Song, Chang Myeon; Ji, Yong Bae; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Yi, Ki Jong; Song, Young Soo; Park, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastatic lymph nodes is associated with aggressive tumor behavior, and is regarded as a major risk factor for local recurrence in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the significance of ECS of metastatic lymph nodes has not been well established in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to examine this question. Methods A retrospective review was performed of 335 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection from April 2001 to December 2009. We analyzed various clinical characteristics, pathologic factors, and the size, number, and ECS of foci in metastatic lymph nodes. Results On pathologic review, 201 of the patients (56.6%) had lymph node metastasis. This was significantly related to age and tumor size. ECS was noted in 64 of these 201 patients (31.8%), and was significantly related to male gender, tumor size, presence of extrathyroidal extension, metastatic lymph node size, and focus size. Recurrence occurred in 13 patients (3.9%), and the presence of ECS was significantly related to recurrence. Conclusion ECS of metastatic lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor for loco-regional recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26330926

  12. Nano-imaging of the lymph network structure with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Makoto; Gonda, Kohsuke; Takeda, Motohiro; Kamei, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kumasaka, Masutaka; Watanabe, Mika; Satomi, Susumu; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node diagnosis contributes to operative strategy in cancer surgery. During lymph node metastasis, cancer cells first reach the sentinel lymph node (SLN) via lymph flow. To perform SLN biopsy effectively, it is important that cancer cells are detected with high sensitivity in SLN connected to the tumor site. Here we present a method to visualize a high-risk area in the SLN for lymph node metastasis with a high degree of accuracy. Quantum dots (QDs), bright fluorescent nanoparticles, were endoscopically injected into the gastrointestinal wall of pigs, and their signal was specifically detected in the SLN with a laparoscopic device. Single-particle imaging under a confocal microscope showed that the QDs were distributed heterogeneously in the SLN and that their distribution marked the inflow locus of afferent lymphatic vessels where lymph node metastasis begins. Moreover, we developed a method using cellular marker conjugated QDs that visualizes specific cells in SLNs, suggesting that this method can be applied for the detection of cancer cells in sentinel lymph nodes using tumor-specific-molecular conjugated QDs. These results show that our method might significantly increase the detection rate of cancer metastasis in SLNs.

  13. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during vasodilation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    The initial equilibration of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw skin of 6 anesthetized rabbits. Papavarine (200 ug/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery of one limb with the contralateral limb as a control. There was a 1.2-fold increase in lymph flow (p < 0.01) with no significant change in the lymph-to-plasma total protein concentration ratio from prepopliteal lymphatics following papavarine. After reaching a constant, elevated lymph flow, tracer labeled albumin was infused to maintain the plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using /sup 131/I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity relative to plasma was significantly greater in the vasodilated hindlimb (0.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.13 +/- 0.05; mean +/- SE; p < 0.01). Extravascular specific activity relative to plasma was greater in the vasodilated limb (0.13 +/- 0.02 vs 0.09 +/- 0.02; p < 0.05). Thus, vasodilation increased the rates at which lymph and tissue equilibrate with plasma. Also, the difference between lymph and tissue equilibration was greater in the vasodilated hindlimb.

  14. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic tool for pathological analysis of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemiere, J.; Douady, J.; Estève, F.; Salameire, D.; Lantuejoul, S.; Lorimier, P.; Ricard, C.; van der Sanden, B.; Vial, J.-C.

    2009-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has shown a powerful potential for biomedical in vivo and ex vivo analysis of tissue sections and explants. Studies were carried out on several animal organs such as brain, arteries, lungs, and kidneys. One of the current challenges is to transfer to the clinic the knowledge and the methods previously developed in the labs at the preclinical level. For tumour staging, physicians often remove the lymph nodes that are localized at the proximity of the lesion. In case of breast cancer or melanoma, sentinel lymph node protocol is performed: pathologists randomly realize an extensive sampling of formol fixed nodes. However, the duration of this protocol is important and its reliability is not always satisfactory. The aim of our study was to determine if multiphoton microscopy would enable the fast imaging of lymph nodes on important depths, with or without exogenous staining. Experiments were first conducted on pig lymph nodes in order to test various dyes and to determine an appropriate protocol. The same experiments were then performed on thin slices of human lymph nodes bearing metastatic melanoma cells. We obtained relevant images with both endofluorescence plus second-harmonic generation and xanthene dyes. They show a good contrast between tumour and healthy cells. Furthermore, images of pig lymph nodes were recorded up to 120?m below the surface. This new method could then enable a faster diagnosis with higher efficiency for the patient. Experiments on thicker human lymph nodes are currently underway in order to validate these preliminary results.

  15. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-03-05

    The initial equilibration of /sup 125/I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 ..mu..g/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using /sup 131/I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment.

  16. Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer patients using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    MOTOORI, MASAAKI; YANO, MASAHIKO; TANAKA, KOJI; KISHI, KENTARO; TAKAHASHI, HIDENORI; INOUE, MASAHIRO; SAITO, TAKURO; SUGIMURA, KEIJIRO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; ISHIKAWA, OSAMU; SAKON, MASATO

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is the strongest prognostic factor in esophageal cancer patients who have undergone esophagectomy. The accurate diagnosis of lymph node metastasis is important, but the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy is poor. The intraoperative diagnosis based on histopathological examination of frozen tissue specimens is complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, the establishment of a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic method is essential. Exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) causes a selective accumulation of protoporphyrin IX, which is a fluorescent substrate, in cancer cells. The present study evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using ALA (ALA-PDD) for lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. A total of 292 lymph nodes were analyzed from 8 esophageal squamous cell cancer patients treated with esophagectomy. The patients were administered ALA orally prior to surgery. Excised lymph nodes were cut in half and examined by spectrometer. The diagnostic results of ALA-PDD were compared to those of the histopathological examination. Among the 292 lymph nodes, 19 nodes (6.5%) were histologically metastatic and 21 nodes (7.2%) were PDD-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-PDD were 84.2% (16/19) and 98.2% (268/273), respectively. The area of cancer nests of the PDD-negative lymph nodes was <2 mm2. Metastatic lymph nodes, including cancer nests >4 mm2, were correctly diagnosed by ALA-PDD. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ALA-PDD of lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer is feasible. Further investigation would make this method a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic tool. PMID:26722285

  17. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M.; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended coverage of pelvic lymph nodes up to the level of the common iliac nodes may be warranted in subsets of patients.

  18. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Julia S; Warren, Laura E G; Bellon, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The management of regional nodes in early-stage invasive breast cancer continues to evolve. Improved systemic therapy has contributed to better local regional control, and at the same time it has drawn more attention to its importance. Axillary dissections have decreased, in part because of the increased efficacy of systemic therapy, and also because adjuvant therapy decisions are increasingly driven by biologic characterization of the tumor rather than pathologic nodal information. The trend toward less axillary surgery and a shift toward increased reliance on systemic and radiation therapy to address nodal disease has created interesting questions that were subsequently addressed in recent trials. We review the controversies in regional nodal management, the benefits of current treatment paradigms, the balance between less surgery and more radiation, and the potential tradeoffs vs toxicity. PMID:26617208

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Lymphedema among Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors after Radical Mastectomy and Axillary Dissection in China

    PubMed Central

    Hua-Ping, Huang; Jian-Rong, Zhou; Zeng, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Lymphedema is the major complication following breast cancer treatment and can persist long periods of time and affect breast cancer survivors’ quality of life. Accurate estimation of the risk factors for lymphedema is of significant importance. In this article we report the factors for secondary lymphedema among postmenopausal breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy in China. Patients and Methods A total of 126 consecutive postmenopausal breast cancer patients who received radical mastectomy were admitted to the Chongqing Breast Cancer Center between July 2009 and June 2010. Circumferential measurement was used to diagnose lymphedema. Results Among the 126 postmenopausal women with breast cancer, 54 (42.9%) had lymphedema. Body mass index (BMI), lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were associated with lymphedema. BMI ? 25 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 7.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8–20.1) and radiotherapy (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI 2.0–9.2) were independent predictors of lymphedema. Conclusion BMI, lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were the risk factors for lymphedema among Chinese postmenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent radical mastectomy. Clinicians should provide sufficient information for patients and their caregivers to prevent this complication, especially for those who are at high risk of developing lymphedema. PMID:24715827

  20. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma urinary bladder coexisting with tuberculosis in pelvic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Murugan, P Puvai

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is usually associated with Schistosoma haematobium and chronic bladder irritation. We report a case of coexistent metastatic SCC and tuberculosis in obturator lymph nodes in radical cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Though tubercular iliac lymphadenitis and metastatic transitional carcinoma following intravesical BCG has been reported, the concurrent presence of non-transitional cell cancer and primary lymph nodal tuberculosis in regional lymph nodes is rare. This case is reported to highlight the paucity of management guidelines available presently in the treatment of such patients who require systemic chemotherapy and antitubercular therapy. PMID:24296773

  1. Label-free 3D optical imaging of microcirculation within sentinel lymph node in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain wastes originated from cancerous tissue. There is a need for an in vivo imaging method that can image the intact SLN in order to further our understanding of its normal as well as abnormal functions. We report the use of ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) to image functional microvascular and lymphatic vessel networks that innervate the intact lymph node in mice in vivo. The promising results show a potential role of UHS-OMAG in the future understanding and diagnosis of the SLN involvement in cancer development.

  2. Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-09-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes to drain wastes originated from cancerous tissue. There is a need for an in vivo imaging method that can image the intact SLN to further our understanding of its normal as well as abnormal functions. We report the use of ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) to image functional microvascular and lymphatic vessel networks that innervate the intact lymph node in mice in vivo. The promising results show a potential role of UHS-OMAG in the future understanding and diagnosis of the SLN involvement in cancer development.

  3. Vascular changes in popliteal lymph nodes due to antigen challenge in normal and lethally irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Steeber, D.A.; Erickson, C.M.; Hodde, K.C.; Albrecht, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The microvascular system of the murine popliteal lymph node was investigated using scanning electron microscopy of microcorrosion casts. Time-dependent changes in the microvasculature following regional antigen challenge in normal and lymphocyte-depleted mice were studied. Normal lymph node microvasculature exhibited a significant increase in both the vascular bed and post-capillary venules containing high-endothelium in response to antigen challenge. Lymph nodes of lymphocyte-depleted mice showed no microvascular size increase following antigen challenge and a reduction in the amount of high-endothelium was observed.

  4. Development of a handheld fluorescence imaging camera for intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Szyc, ?ukasz; Bonifer, Stefanie; Walter, Alfred; Jagemann, Uwe; Grosenick, Dirk; Macdonald, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    We present a compact fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time sentinel lymph node mapping. The device uses two near-infrared wavelengths to record fluorescence and anatomical images with a single charge-coupled device camera. Experiments on lymph node and tissue phantoms confirmed that the amount of dye in superficial lymph nodes can be better estimated due to the absorption correction procedure integrated in our device. Because of the camera head's small size and low weight, all accessible regions of tissue can be reached without the need for any adjustments. PMID:25585232

  5. Lymph Node Metastasis From 259 Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Nobuyuki; Duh, Quan-Yang; Sugino, Kiminori; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Kameyama, Kaori; Mimura, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Takami, Hiroshi; Takanashi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and pattern of lymph node metastasis (LNM) from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and the results of node dissection, and to establish the optimal strategy for neck dissection in these patients. Summary Background Data Most PTMCs carry a favorable prognosis, but a few present with palpable lymphadenopathy. Patients with LNM are at risk for nodal recurrence, although they do not have higher mortality. The frequency and pattern of LNM from PTMC and the results of node dissection are not well established. Methods The frequency and pattern of LNM from 259 PTMCs were analyzed according to the size and location of the primary tumor. Of the 259, 24 with palpable nodes underwent therapeutic node dissection and the other 235 patients without palpable nodes underwent prophylactic node dissection. The authors compared the results of node dissection between the therapeutic group and the prophylactic group, and between PTMCs 5 mm or smaller and PTMCs larger than 5 mm. The authors also compared nodal recurrence between the prophylactic group and a no-lymph-node-dissection group (155 PTMCs). Results Overall, 64.1% (166/259) and 44.5% (93/209) had node involvement of the central and ipsilateral lateral compartment, respectively. Pretracheal (43.2%), ipsilateral central (36.3%), and ipsilateral mid-lower (37.8%) jugular were more commonly involved. LNM was more frequent in the therapeutic group than in the prophylactic group (95.8% vs. 60.9% for central compartment, 83.3% vs. 39.5% for ipsilateral lateral compartment). Nodal recurrence was more common in the therapeutic group than in the prophylactic group (16.7% vs. 0.43%), but did not differ between the prophylactic group and the no-dissection group (0.43% vs. 0.65%). The tumor size did not influence nodal recurrence. Nodal recurrence preferentially occurred in ipsilateral mid-lower jugular nodes. Conclusions Patients who have PTMC presenting with palpable lymphadenopathy should have therapeutic node dissection. Prophylactic node dissection is not beneficial in those without palpable lymphadenopathy. PMID:12616125

  6. Lymph Explorer: A new GUI using 3D high-frequency quantitative ultrasound methods to

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    . Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) permits characterization of tissue microstructure using system-probability estimates and classification performance was assessed using ROC methods. For gastrointestinal nodes tissue microstructure using user- and system-independent estimates. In our studies, freshly-excised lymph

  7. HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODE REGION DELINEATION USING A HYBRID IMAGE REGISTRATION METHOD

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODE REGION DELINEATION USING A HYBRID IMAGE REGISTRATION METHOD Chia-Chi Teng1 the brain mapping. We are proposing an image registration method that maps predefined head and neck nodal

  8. Head and Neck Lymph Node Region Delineation with 3-D CT Image Registration

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Linda

    Head and Neck Lymph Node Region Delineation with 3-D CT Image Registration Chia-Chi Teng , Mary M¥ Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery¤ Department of Computer Science University of Washington

  9. the Lymphatic System 1 CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY SECTION 4: Lymph and the Lymphatic System*

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    the Lymphatic System 1 CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY SECTION 4: Lymph and the Lymphatic System* I. The Lymphatic System A. Functions 1. Immunity system and also a point of their production. 2. Return of material

  10. Some Women May Not Need More Extensive Lymph Node Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial demonstrate that ALND provided no additional survival benefit when compared with SLNB in women with small breast tumors and minimal lymph node metastasis who followed a specific treatment regimen.

  11. Inoculation dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis does not influence priming of T cell responses in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Amy J.; Marino, Simeone; Kirschner, Denise E.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inocula size on T cell priming in the lymph node and effector T cells in the lung remains controversial. In this study, we used a naïve mouse model, without the transfer of transgenic T cells, in conjunction with mathematical model to test whether infection with higher aerosolized inocula would lead to increased priming of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells in the lung-draining lymph node. Our data do not support that inoculum size has a measurable influence on T cell priming in the lymph nodes, but is associated with more cells overall in the lung, including T cells. To account for increased T cells in the lungs, we tested several possible mechanisms, and recruitment of T cells to the lungs was most influenced by inoculum dose. We also identified IL-10 as a possible mechanism to explain the lack of influence of inoculum dose on priming of T cells in the lymph node. PMID:23547119

  12. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  13. Structure-based programming of lymph-node targeting in molecular vaccines

    E-print Network

    Liu, Haipeng

    In cancer patients, visual identification of sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) is achieved by the injection of dyes that bind avidly to endogenous albumin, targeting these compounds to LNs, where they are efficiently filtered by ...

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  15. Comparative transcriptome response in swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes to viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN) transcriptome response was evaluated following viral infection using Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP). Pigs were sham-treated or infected intranasally with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2, pseudorabies...

  16. CCR7-dependent trafficking of ROR?+ ILCs creates a unique microenvironment within mucosal draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Emma C.; Houston, Stephanie; Marriott, Clare L.; Halford, Emily E.; Lucas, Beth; Cerovic, Vuk; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Milling, Simon; Withers, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of peptide:MHCII by ROR?-expressing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are enriched within gut tissue, is required for control of CD4 T-cell responses to commensal bacteria. It is not known whether ILC populations migrate from their mucosal and peripheral sites to local draining secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that ILC3s reside within the interfollicular areas of mucosal draining lymph nodes, forming a distinct microenvironment not observed in peripheral lymph nodes. By photoconverting intestinal cells in Kaede mice we reveal constitutive trafficking of ILCs from the intestine to the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, which specifically for the LTi-like ILC3s was CCR7-dependent. Thus, ILC populations traffic to draining lymph nodes using different mechanisms. PMID:25575242

  17. Nanoparticulate STING agonists are potent lymph node–targeted vaccine adjuvants

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Melissa C.

    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are agonists of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and have potential as vaccine adjuvants. However, cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP) injected s.c. shows minimal uptake into lymphatics/draining lymph nodes ...

  18. Gene expression profile changes correlated with lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Moriuchi, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Tei, Kanchu; Totsuka, Yasunori; Inoue, Nobuo

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify biomarkers for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We surveyed the expressions of 1289 cancer-related genes in 41 cases of OSCC by cDNA array analysis. We extracted genes upregulated or downregulated in their expression in association with lymph node metastasis. Of 1289 cancer-related genes, we identified 39 genes differentially expressed in OSCC with or without lymph node metastasis. Expression levels of 9 genes were lower, and those of 30 genes were higher, in node-positive cases. The genes expressed at higher levels in node-positive cases included angiogenesis-related molecules, cell adhesion molecules, and proteolytic enzymes. We suggest that these characteristic genes could provide, if verifiable, useful information for predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC. PMID:18661203

  19. Stromal cells as trend-setters for cells migrating into the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Buettner, M; Dittrich-Breiholz, O; Falk, C S; Lochner, M; Smoczek, A; Menzel, F; Bornemann, M; Bode, U

    2015-05-01

    Lymph node stromal cells are known to be immunorelevant during inflammation and tolerance. Differences between peripheral lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes are important for an efficient and effective immune defense. Stromal cells were considered to be perfectly adapted to their draining area and not changeable concerning their expression pattern. Here we show that stromal cells can change their profile after isolation and transplantation into a different draining area. Subsequently, these newly organized lymph nodes are able to induce not only a region-specific but also an antigen-specific immune response. Thus, stromal cells are trend-setters for immune cells in producing a microenvironment that allows an optimized immune defense. PMID:25354321

  20. Transcriptional profiling of stroma from inflamed and resting lymph nodes defines immunological hallmarks

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    Lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs) closely regulate immunity and self-tolerance, yet key aspects of their biology remain poorly elucidated. Here, comparative transcriptomic analyses of mouse LNSC subsets demonstrated the ...

  1. Prediction of risk factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Gang; Cai, Rong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Ou, Jin-Ming; Jin, Ye-Ning; Li, Wen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore risk factors for lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer (EGC) and to confirm the appropriate range of lymph node dissection. METHODS: A total of 202 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xinhua Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2003 and July 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Both the surgical procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. The macroscopic type was classified as elevated (type?I?or IIa), flat (IIb), or depressed (IIc or III). Histopathologically, papillary and tubular adenocarcinomas were grouped together as differentiated adenocarcinomas, and poorly differentiated and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were regarded as undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and patient and tumor characteristics were undertaken. RESULTS: The lymph node metastases rate in patients with EGC was 14.4%. Among these, the rate for mucosal cancer was 5.4%, and 8.9% for submucosal cancer. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor location, depth of invasion, morphological classification and venous invasion (?2 = 122.901, P = 0.001; ?2 = 7.14, P = 0.008; ?2 = 79.523, P = 0.001; ?2 = 8.687, P = 0.003, respectively). In patients with submucosal cancers, the lymph node metastases rate in patients with venous invasion (60%, 3/5) was higher than in those without invasion (20%, 15/75) (?2 = 4.301, P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases in EGC [P = 0.018, Exp (B) = 2.744]. Among the patients with lymph node metastases, 29 cases (14.4%) were at N1, seven cases were at N2 (3.5%), and two cases were at N3 (1.0%). Univariate analysis of variance revealed a close relationship between the depth of invasion and lymph node metastases at pN1 (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. Risk factors for metastases should be considered when choosing surgery for EGC. PMID:23716990

  2. Current Status of Optical Imaging for Evaluating Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques use visual and near infrared rays. Despite their considerably poor penetration depth, they are widely used due to their safe and intuitive properties and potential for intraoperative usage. Optical imaging techniques have been actively investigated for clinical imaging of lymph nodes and lymphatic system. This article summarizes a variety of optical tracers and techniques used for lymph node and lymphatic imaging, and reviews their clinical applications. Emerging new optical imaging techniques and their potential are also described. PMID:25598672

  3. Minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma with lymph node involvement: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangxiang; Yao, Dongwei; Zhang, Shiwei; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Liu, Tieshi; Li, Xiaogong; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas (AML), consisting of fatty tissue, blood vessels, and smooth muscular cells in various proportions, is a relatively common benign renal neoplasm. Simultaneous involvement of the kidney and lymph nodes is uncommon and might be confused with an advanced renal cancer. AML is divided into minimal fat AML and fat-predominant AML. However, minimal fat AML with lymph node involvement is extremely rare and difficult to differentiate from RCC on images. We report such a case and review the literature.

  4. Test performance of PET-CT for mediastinal lymph node staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Pattenden, Holly A; Leung, Maria; Beddow, Emma; Dusmet, Michael; Nicholson, Andrew G; Shackcloth, Michael; Mohamed, Saifullah; Darr, Adnan; Naidu, Babu; Iyer, Swetha; Marchbank, Adrian; Greenwood, Amy; West, Doug; Granato, Felice; Kirk, Alan; Ariyaratnam, Priyadharshanan; Loubani, Mahmoud; Lim, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) is one of the initial mediastinal staging modality for non-small cell lung cancer; however, the clinical utility in carcinoid tumours is uncertain. We sought to determine the test performance of PET-CT for mediastinal lymph node staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumours. We collated data from seven institutions, performing a retrospective search on pathological databases for a consecutive series of patients who underwent thoracic surgery (with lymph nodal dissection) for carcinoid tumours with preoperative PET-CT staging. PET-CT results were compared with the reference standard of pathologic results obtained from lymph node dissection and test performance reported using sensitivity and specificity. From November 1999 to January 2013, 247 patients from seven institutions underwent surgery for carcinoid tumours with a corresponding preoperative PET-CT scan. The mean age of the patients was 61 (SD 15, range 73) and 84 were male patients (34%). The pathologic subtype was typical carcinoid in 217 patients (88%) and atypical carcinoid in 30 patients (12%). Results from lymph node dissection were obtained in 207 patients. The calculated sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT to identify mediastinal lymph node disease was 33% (95% CI 4% to 78%) and 94% (95% CI 89% to 97%), respectively. Our results indicate that PET-CT has a poor sensitivity but good specificity to detect the presence of mediastinal lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumours. Mediastinal lymph node metastases cannot be ruled out with negative PET-CT uptake, and if the absence of mediastinal lymph node disease is a prerequisite for directing management, tissue sampling should be undertaken. PMID:25124060

  5. Modified sonoelastographic scale score for lymph node assessment in lymphoma – a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    ?asecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Soko?owska-D?bek, D?brówka; Biel, Anna; Chaber, Rados?aw

    2015-01-01

    Elastography is a new method of assessment of lymph node consistency. The majority of papers focus on metastases detection of head and neck or breast tumors. The typical desmoplastic reaction in connective tissue stroma in cancer, which is responsible for tissue's hardening, is seen in lymphoma less frequently. Material and methods Study of 15 patients with active Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas and 16 previously treated patients with no evidence of recurrence. A total of 60 patients suffering from reactive lymphadenopathy was the control group. The size, appearance, vascularity and elastogram of lymph node was analyzed. Results Type C elastogram correlated strongly with lymph nodes which presented at least three pathologic features in 2D image. Large lymph nodes with long axis diameter over 3 cm may have ‘cheese with holes’ appearance rather than common type C elastogram. Conclusion According to our simplified sonoelastography scoring system, type C elastogram was present mainly in patients with active lymphoma affecting lymph nodes, which showed all four features that we analyzed using conventional ultrasonography. This elastogram was also present in reactive lymphadenopathies. Distinctive for large lymph nodes in patients with active forms of lymphoma “cheese with holes” appearance, can be considered as equal with type C image, although it is corresponding to type B sonoelastographic map. PMID:26675578

  6. Neutrophil Recruitment to Lymph Nodes Limits Local Humoral Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kamenyeva, Olena; Boularan, Cedric; Kabat, Juraj; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Cicala, Claudia; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chan, June L.; Periasamy, Saravanan; Otto, Michael; Kehrl, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against bacterial pathogens. They are rapidly mobilized to sites of infection where they help marshal host defenses and remove bacteria by phagocytosis. While splenic neutrophils promote marginal zone B cell antibody production in response to administered T cell independent antigens, whether neutrophils shape humoral immunity in other lymphoid organs is controversial. Here we investigate the neutrophil influx following the local injection of Staphylococcus aureus adjacent to the inguinal lymph node and determine neutrophil impact on the lymph node humoral response. Using intravital microscopy we show that local immunization or infection recruits neutrophils from the blood to lymph nodes in waves. The second wave occurs temporally with neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow. Within lymph nodes neutrophils infiltrate the medulla and interfollicular areas, but avoid crossing follicle borders. In vivo neutrophils form transient and long-lived interactions with B cells and plasma cells, and their depletion augments production of antigen-specific IgG and IgM in the lymph node. In vitro activated neutrophils establish synapse- and nanotube-like interactions with B cells and reduce B cell IgM production in a TGF- ?1 dependent manner. Our data reveal that neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow in response to a local bacterial challenge dampen the early humoral response in the lymph node. PMID:25884622

  7. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management.

  8. Pathogenic characterization of a cervical lymph node derived from a patient with Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Katano, Harutaka; Sato, Seiichi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kinumaki, Akiko; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Sato, Yuko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of multisystem vasculitis in childhood. Although cervical lymphadenitis is one of the major symptoms in KD, lymph node biopsy is rarely performed, because KD is usually diagnosed by clinical symptoms. A cervical lymph node biopsy was taken from a girl aged 1 year and 8 months who had suspected lymphoma, but she was diagnosed with KD after the biopsy. The cervical lymph node specimen was analyzed with multivirus real-time PCR that can detect >160 viruses, and unbiased direct sequencing with a next-generation DNA sequencer to detect potential pathogens in the lymph node. Histologically, focal necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration, including neutrophils and macrophages, was observed in the marginal zone of the cervical lymph node, which was compatible with the acute phase of KD. Multivirus real-time PCR detected a low copy number of torque teno virus in the sample. Comprehensive direct sequencing of the cervical lymph node biopsy sample sequenced more than 8 million and 3 million reads from DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Bacterial genomes were detected in 0.03% and 1.79% of all reads in DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Although many reads corresponded to genomes of bacterial environmental microorganisms, Streptococcus spp. genome was detected in both DNA (77 reads) and RNA (2,925 reads) samples. Further studies are required to reveal any association of microbial or viral infection with the pathogenesis of KD. PMID:23071864

  9. Neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes limits local humoral response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kamenyeva, Olena; Boularan, Cedric; Kabat, Juraj; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Cicala, Claudia; Yeh, Anthony J; Chan, June L; Periasamy, Saravanan; Otto, Michael; Kehrl, John H

    2015-04-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against bacterial pathogens. They are rapidly mobilized to sites of infection where they help marshal host defenses and remove bacteria by phagocytosis. While splenic neutrophils promote marginal zone B cell antibody production in response to administered T cell independent antigens, whether neutrophils shape humoral immunity in other lymphoid organs is controversial. Here we investigate the neutrophil influx following the local injection of Staphylococcus aureus adjacent to the inguinal lymph node and determine neutrophil impact on the lymph node humoral response. Using intravital microscopy we show that local immunization or infection recruits neutrophils from the blood to lymph nodes in waves. The second wave occurs temporally with neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow. Within lymph nodes neutrophils infiltrate the medulla and interfollicular areas, but avoid crossing follicle borders. In vivo neutrophils form transient and long-lived interactions with B cells and plasma cells, and their depletion augments production of antigen-specific IgG and IgM in the lymph node. In vitro activated neutrophils establish synapse- and nanotube-like interactions with B cells and reduce B cell IgM production in a TGF-?1 dependent manner. Our data reveal that neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow in response to a local bacterial challenge dampen the early humoral response in the lymph node. PMID:25884622

  10. Evaluation of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes in Sarcoidosis, Sarcoid Reaction, and Malignant Lymph Nodes Using CT and FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Mi Young; Shin, So Youn; Shin, Sooyoung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sei Won; Choi, Chang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) findings of sarcoidosis, sarcoid reaction, and malignant lymph nodes (LNs) to the results of transbronchial LN aspiration and biopsy (TBNA). The TBNA results of mediastinal and hilar LNs of 152 patients in our hospital from July 2008 to March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent radiologists measured the size and attenuation of LNs on CT and assessed the probability of the 3 categories: sarcoidosis (n?=?36), sarcoid reaction (n?=?25), or malignant LNs (n?=?91). The total volume and attenuation of LNs were measured using Image J (NIH). The median maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the 3 mediastinal and hilar LNs on PET/CT was obtained. There was no significantly different CT finding between sarcoidosis and sarcoid reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that the age, total volume of LNs, and number of enlarged LNs significantly differed between sarcoid reaction and malignant LNs. Sarcoid reaction tends to be occurred in young patients (P?=?0.007), the total volume of LNs was smaller (P?=?0.04) than that of malignant LNs, and there were significantly more LNs >1?cm (P?=?0.005). The median maxSUV of the 3 highest SUVs of the LNs did not significantly differ between the 3 entities. PMID:26166096

  11. FTY720 Abrogates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Hindering Dendritic Cell Migration to Local Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanping; Li, Xing; Zhou, Qingyou; Jie, Hongyu; Lao, Xiaobin; Han, Jiaochan; He, Juan; Liu, Xinxia; Gu, Dongsheng; He, Yi; Sun, Erwei

    2015-11-01

    Because dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, modulation of their functions could serve as a novel therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that FTY720 treatment significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice via the modulation of DC functions. In FTY720-treated CIA mice, a decrease in the number of DCs in local draining lymph nodes (LNs) was observed. In vitro, FTY720 inhibited the trafficking of LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Decreased secretion of CCL19 and downregulation of CCR7 on DCs may explain the mechanisms underlying the impairment of DC migration induced by FTY720. In a DC-induced mouse arthritis model, FTY720 treatment also suppressed the incidence and severity of arthritis, which was correlated with a decrease in the migration of injected BMDCs to draining LNs. Although lower levels of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86) and I-A(q) expressed on LN DCs were observed in FTY720-treated mice, in vitro analysis showed no effect of FTY720 on LPS-stimulated BMDC maturation. Furthermore, LN cells from FTY720-treated CIA mice displayed diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to collagen II and Con A stimulation. In addition, the ratio of Th1/Th2 in the draining LNs of mice with DC-induced arthritis was decreased upon FTY720 treatment. This finding was consistent with the fact that FTY720 suppressed IL-12p70 production in cultured BMDCs. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of DC migration by FTY720 may provide a novel approach in treating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26416269

  12. Comparative evaluation of adding different opiates (morphine, meperidine, buprenorphine, or fentanyl) to lidocaine in duration and quality of axillary brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Saryazdi, Hamid; Yazdani, Alireza; Sajedi, Parvin; Aghadavoudi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no agreement about the effect of adding opioids to local anesthetics in peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different opioids with equipotent doses of lidocaine in axillary brachial plexus block using ultrasonography and nerve locator guidance. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 72 adult patients aged 18–65 years old scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the forearm and hand with axillary brachial plexus block were selected and randomly allocated to four groups. Meperidine (pethidine), buprenorphine, morphine, and fentanyl with equipotent doses were added in 40cc of 1% lidocaine in P, B, M, and F groups, respectively. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks, severity of patients’ pain, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and adverse events (such as nausea and pruritus) during perioperative period were recorded. Results: The onset time for the sensory block was similar in the four groups. The onset time for the motor block was significantly faster in morphine and pethidine groups (P = 0.006). The duration of sensory and motor blocks was not statistically different among the four groups. The quality of motor blockade was complete in 100% of patients receiving pethidine or morphine and 77.8% of patients receiving buprenorphine or fentanyl (P = 0.021). Conclusion: In the upper extremity surgeries performed under axillary brachial plexus block addition of morphine or pethidine to lidocaine may be superior to other opioids (i.e. fentanyl and buprenorphine) due to better quality and quantity of motor blockade and faster onset of the block. PMID:26645017

  13. cRGD-installed polymeric micelles loading platinum anticancer drugs enable cooperative treatment against lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Makino, Jun; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yu; Wang, Ming; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-12-28

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is correlated with decreased survival, indicating high tumor malignancy and being a potential source for subsequent fatal metastases. Targeted therapies inhibiting the formation of LNM, while eliminating established metastatic foci, could provide synergistic effects by reducing the incidence and growth of metastasis. Based on the inhibitory activity of cRGD peptide against the development of metastasis, and the LNM targeting ability of systemically injected drug-loaded polymeric micelles, herein, we studied the capability of cRGD-installed polymeric micelles incorporating the platinum anticancer drug (1,2-diaminocylohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for cooperatively inhibiting the formation and progression of LNM. As cRGD-installed DACHPt-loaded micelles (cRGD-DACHPt/m) presented similar size, drug loading and surface charge to non-conjugated micelles (MeO-DACHPt/m), the differences in the biological performance of the micelles were endorsed to the effect of the ligand. In a syngeneic melanoma model, both MeO-DACHPt/m and cRGD-DACHPt/m showed comparable antitumor activity against the primary tumors and the established metastatic foci in lymph nodes. However, cRGD-DACHPt/m significantly enhanced the efficacy against LNM draining from primary tumors through the effective inhibition of the spreading of cancer cells. This improved inhibition was associated with the ability of cRGD-DACHPt/m to reduce the migration of melanoma cells, which was higher than that of MeO-DACHPt/m, free cRGD and their combination. These results support our strategy of using cRGD-installed micelles for attaining cooperative therapies against LNM exploiting the inhibitory function of the peptide and the cytotoxic effect of the micelles. PMID:26474676

  14. Clinical characteristics of hepatoduodenal lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical features of hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis and to clarify the optimal indication of HDLN dissection. METHODS: We investigated a total of 276 patients who underwent gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy, including HDLN dissection, for gastric cancer between 1999 and 2012. Of these, 26 patients (9.4%) had HDLN metastasis. First, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, their perioperative clinical outcomes, such as postoperative complications, and prognostic outcomes between patients with and without HDLN metastasis. Second, we detected the prognostic factors, particularly in patients with HDLN metastasis. Third, we assessed the therapeutic value of HDLN dissection to determine its optimal indication. RESULTS: The five-year overall survival rate of the patients with HDLN metastasis was 29%. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the tumour location (the middle or lower stomach [P = 0.005, OR = 5.88 (95%CI: 1.61-38.1)] and pT category [T3 or T4, P = 0.017, OR = 4.45 (95%CI: 1.28-21.3)] were independent risk factors for HDLN metastasis. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified pN3 as an independent poor prognostic factor in the patients with HDLN metastasis [P = 0.021, HR = 5.17 (95%CI: 1.8-292)]. For patients who underwent radical HDLN dissection, HDLN metastasis was a prognostic indicator in pN3 gastric cancer (P < 0.0001), but not pN1-2 (P = 0.602). Furthermore, the index of therapeutic value of HDLN dissection for gastric cancer in the middle or lower stomach and the upper stomach was 3.4 and 0.0, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that HDLN dissection should be indicated for pN1 or pN2 gastric cancers located at the middle or lower stomach. PMID:26478677

  15. A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B.; Makarov, Danil V.; Gross, Cary

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

  16. Epigenetic variations in breast cancer progression to lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Guillermo; Laurito, Sergio; Marzese, Diego M; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Tello, Olga; Branham, Teresita; Campoy, Emanuel M; Roqué, María

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that contribute to the development of regional and distant metastases. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) status is the single most important prognostic factor. Metastatic cancer cells share common molecular alterations with those of the primary tumor, but in addition, they develop distinct changes that allow the cancer to progress. There is an urgent need for molecular studies which focus on identifying genomic and epigenomic markers that can predict the progression to metastasis. The objective of this study was to identify epigenetic similarities and differences between paired primary breast tumor (PBT) and LNM. We employed Methylation-Specific-MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to assess the methylation status of 33 cancer-related genes in a cohort of 50 paired PBT and LNM specimens. We found that the methylation index, which represents the degree of aberrantly methylated genes in a specimen, was maintained during the progression to LNM. However, some genes presented differential methylation profiles. Interestingly, PAX6 presented a significant negative correlation between paired PBT and LNM (p = 0.03), which indicated a switch from methylated to unmethylated status in the progression from PBT to LNM. We further identified that the methylation status of PAX6 on the identified CpG site functionally affected the expression of PAX6 at the mRNA level. Our study unraveled significant epigenetic changes during the progression from PBT to LNM, which may contribute to improved prognosis, prediction and therapeutic management of metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:25628026

  17. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of superficial lymph nodes: an alternative to fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bohelay, Gérôme; Battistella, Maxime; Pagès, Cécile; de Margerie-Mellon, Constance; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Viguier, Manuelle; Kerob, Delphine; Madjlessi, Nika; Baccard, Michel; Archimbaud, Alain; Comte, Christelle; Mourah, Samia; Porcher, Raphael; Bagot, Martine; Janin, Anne; De Kerviler, Eric; Lebbé, Céleste

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) in suspected cases of lymph node metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. All patients with cutaneous melanoma followed in Saint-Louis Hospital between 2006 and 2010 who underwent US-CNB for suspicion of melanoma lymph node metastasis were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological results of US-CNB samples were classified as melanoma, other malignancy, suspicious, inadequate, or benign. The diagnostic accuracy of US-CNB was assessed by comparison with two reference standards: histopathological examination of the radical lymph node dissection or, when this was not available, clinical and radiological follow-up. The data from 72 US-CNB were analyzed. Forty-four melanomas, 22 benign, three other malignancies, three inadequate samples, and no inconclusive specimens were diagnosed. Seventy-one US-CNB results were confirmed (98.6%). US-CNB achieved high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (respectively, 97.9, 100, and 100%). No adverse events were reported after the procedure. US-CNB provided a mean tissue volume of 16.7?mm per lymphadenopathy. US-CNB has diagnostic value similar to that of fine-needle aspiration cytology. It represents a reliable alternative method in melanoma lymph node metastasis to avoid surgery in patients who will not benefit from it. US-CNB provides relatively large samples of tissue suitable for comprehensive genomic analyses currently needed for research and personalized care of melanoma patients. PMID:25933210

  18. Activation of latent metastases in the lung after resection of a metastatic lymph node in a lymph node metastasis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lenan; Ouchi, Tomoki; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Iatrogenic induction of regional and distant cancer metastases is a risk associated with clinical resection of tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes. However, there have been no studies of this risk in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Here, we report that resection of a tumor-bearing subiliac lymph node (SiLN) enhanced lung metastasis in a mouse model of lymph node metastasis. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that metastatic tumor cells in the secondary lymph node continued to grow after resection of the SiLN, and that the probability of metastasis to the lungs was increased when the interval between SiLN inoculation and resection was reduced. Futhermore, histological analysis demonstrated that latents in the lung were stimulated to grow after resection of the SiLN. Fluorescence imaging indicated that the route of tumor cell dissemination from SiLN to the lung was the venous system located over the SiLN. We speculate that our mouse model will be useful for studying the mechanisms of tumor cell latency, with a view to improving the detection and treatment of latent metastases. PMID:25824032

  19. [A case report of surgical treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with a Hugely swollen lymph node that showed high FDG uptake].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Hisanori; Masuike, Yasunori; Noda, Takehiro; Tanida, Tsukasa; Oshima, Kazuteru; Komori, Takamichi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Morita, Shunji; Iwazawa, Takashi; Akagi, Kenzo; Yasumoto, Taku; Adachi, Shiro; Dono, Keizo

    2014-11-01

    A 74-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed with liver tumors. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) revealed hepatocellular carcinomas(HCC) in segments 8 (S8)and 5/8 (S5/8), and detected a lymph node (LN) swelling of 75 mm diameter in the posterior aspect of the pancreatic head. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was positive for the swollen LN (SUVmax 12.3), but negative for the intrahepatic HCCs. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) values were elevated, and soluble interleukin- 2 receptor levels were also increased (1,440 U/mL). Based on a diagnosis of HCCs with either LN metastasis, or with malignant lymphoma, partial hepatectomy (S8 and S5/8), lymphadenectomy (#13LN), and cholecystectomy were performed. Histopathological examination indicated well differentiated HCC in S5/8, and moderately to poorly differentiated HCC in S8, while poorly differentiated HCC was detected in the LN. Therefore, the final diagnosis was HCCs with metastasis to #13LN originating from the HCC in S8. At present, the patient is alive without further extrahepatic recurrence. The extent of FDG accumulation is related to the degree of differentiation of the HCC; furthermore, there are discrepancies between the FDG uptake in intrahepatic and extrahepatic lesions. PMID:25731447

  20. Automatic localization of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT images using fuzzy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Beig, Niha G.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Archer, Steven; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is associated with the highest cancer mortality rates among men and women in the United States. The accurate and precise identification of the lymph node stations on computed tomography (CT) images is important for staging disease and potentially for prognosticating outcome in patients with lung cancer, as well as for pretreatment planning and response assessment purposes. To facilitate a standard means of referring to lymph nodes, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has recently proposed a definition of the different lymph node stations and zones in the thorax. However, nodal station identification is typically performed manually by visual assessment in clinical radiology. This approach leaves room for error due to the subjective and potentially ambiguous nature of visual interpretation, and is labor intensive. We present a method of automatically recognizing the mediastinal IASLC-defined lymph node stations by modifying a hierarchical fuzzy modeling approach previously developed for body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) in medical imagery. Our AAR-lymph node (AAR-LN) system follows the AAR methodology and consists of two steps. In the first step, the various lymph node stations are manually delineated on a set of CT images following the IASLC definitions. These delineations are then used to build a fuzzy hierarchical model of the nodal stations which are considered as 3D objects. In the second step, the stations are automatically located on any given CT image of the thorax by using the hierarchical fuzzy model and object recognition algorithms. Based on 23 data sets used for model building, 22 independent data sets for testing, and 10 lymph node stations, a mean localization accuracy of within 1-6 voxels has been achieved by the AAR-LN system.

  1. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping after cervical injection of indocyanine green for endometrial cancer – preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Reinholz-Jaskolska, Malgorzata; Bidzinski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial cancer (EC) has an increasing incidence worldwide, with lymph node metastases as the main prognostic factor. Systemic lymphadenectomy is connected with elevated morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is intended to avoid extensive lymphadenectomy and provide significant oncologic information. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of laparoscopic SLN biopsy guided by indocyanine green (ICG) injection into the cervix in EC patients and to develop ideas to improve this method. The optimal time from dye injection to lymph node visualization was assessed. Material and methods This retrospective study was conducted between July 2014 and March 2015 in a group of 9 women with EC, at low and intermediate risk of recurrence, scheduled for total laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. All patients underwent cervical ICG injection and SLN biopsy, followed by surgery. Pelvic lymph nodes were located using an ICG endoscopic camera. Results The following data were collected: There were 9 patients with endometrial cancer at low and intermediate risk of recurrence. Median patient age was 59 years, median body mass index (BMI) 28 kg/m2, endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 9 cases, grading: G1 – 1 patient, G2 – 8 patients. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Median time from ICG injection and SLN detection during surgery was 25 min. There were no lymph nodes metastasis, all identified by the SLN protocol using ICG injection. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node mapping can play a significant role in lymph node assessment and staging in early-stage EC patients with low risk of recurrence according to the ESMO classification. The use of SLN mapping in EC is much needed and the therapeutic benefit is high. PMID:26649087

  2. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  3. Structural Aspects of the Lymphocyte Traffic in Rat Submandibular Lymph Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Albrecht, Ralph M.; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-04-01

    Modulation of lymphocyte flow in the lymphatic compartment of the lymph node may serve, in part, to promote lymphocyte sensitization during an antigenic challenge. This study was undertaken to show where this might occur by examining the structural relationships of the intranodal lymphatic pathways, blood vessels, and connective tissue support with respect to lymphocyte and lymph flow. Differently stained plastic resins were injected into the blood vessels and lymphatics of the submandibular lymph node and visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The specimens were corroded to study the three-dimensional cast structures by scanning electron microscopy. Alkali digestion was also used to prepare the reticular fiber network in the lymph node for scanning electron microscopic examination. At the hilus of the node, two to three arteries gave off arterioles running in medullary cords towards the cortex. The medullary cords, the periphery of the deep cortex, and the perifollicular zones had dense capillary networks. In contrast, the center of the follicle and the center of the deep cortex were less highly vascularized. High-endothelial venules were restricted to the perifollicular zone and the periphery of the deep cortex. At the cortico-medullary boundary, they abruptly transformed into medullary venules with a normal endothelium. The marginal sinus of the lymph node was crossed by thick reticular fibers that arose from the inner sheets of the capsule. The lymph pathway went through the marginal sinus, into the trabecular sinus, to the cortical perifollicular sinus, the dense lymphatic sinus around the deep cortex, and finally into the medullary sinus. At present, the exact functional significance of the complex lymph node lymphatic architecture is not clear. However, the highly organized structural organization may play a significant role in regulating and directing lymphocyte flow to facilitate antigen presentation.

  4. Anticoagulants influence the in vitro activity and composition of shock lymph but not its in vivo activity

    PubMed Central

    Deitch, Edwin A.; Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U.; Tiesi, Gregory; Palange, David; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, DaZhong; Feketeova, Eleonora; Feinman, Rena

    2011-01-01

    Many models of trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) involve the reinfusion of anticoagulated shed blood. Our recent observation that the anticoagulant heparin induces increased mesenteric lymph lipase activity and consequent in vitro endothelial cell cytotoxicity prompted us to investigate the effect of heparin-induced lipase activity on organ injury in vivo as well as the effects of other anticoagulants on mesenteric lymph bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate this issue, rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage had their shed blood anticoagulated with heparin, the synthetic anticoagulant arixtra or citrate. Arixtra, in contrast to heparin, did not increased lymph lipase activity or result in high levels of endothelial cytotoxicity. Yet, the arixtra-treated rats subjected to T/HS still manifested lung injury, neutrophil priming and RBC dysfunction, which was totally abrogated by lymph duct ligation. Furthermore, the injection of T/HS mesenteric lymph, but not sham-shock lymph, collected from the arixtra rats into control mice recreated the pattern of lung injury, PMN priming and RBC dysfunction observed after actual shock. Consistent with these observations, citrate anticoagulated rats subjected to T/HS developed lung injury and the injection of mesenteric lymph from the citrate-anticoagulated T/HS rats into control mice also resulted in lung injury. Based on these results, several conclusions can be drawn. First, heparin-induced increased mesenteric lymph lipase activity is not responsible for the in vivo effects of T/HS mesenteric lymph. Secondly, heparin should be avoided as an anticoagulant when studying the biology or composition of mesenteric lymph due to its ability to cause increases in lymph lipase activity that increase the in vitro cytotoxicity of these lymph samples. PMID:21558984

  5. RNA-sequencing Reveals Global Transcriptomic Changes in Nicotiana tabacum Responding to Topping and Treatment of Axillary-shoot Control Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay K.; Wu, Yongmei; Ghosh, Jayadri S.; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Fisher, Colin; Wang, Ying; Lawson, Darlene; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Removal of terminal buds (topping) and control of the formation of axillary shoots (suckers) are common agronomic practices that significantly impact the yield and quality of various crop plants. Application of chemicals (suckercides) to plants following topping is an effective method for sucker control. However, our current knowledge of the influence of topping, and subsequent suckercide applications, to gene expression is limited. We analyzed the differential gene expression using RNA-sequencing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that are topped, or treated after topping by two different suckercides, the contact-localized-systemic, Flupro® (FP), and contact, Off-Shoot-T®. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 179 were identified as common to all three conditions. DEGs, largely related to wounding, phytohormone metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, exhibited significant upregulation following topping, and downregulation after suckercide treatments. DEGs related to photosynthetic processes were repressed following topping and suckercide treatments. Moreover, topping and FP-treatment affect the expression of auxin and cytokinin signaling pathway genes that are possibly involved in axillary shoot formation. Our results provide insights into the global change of plant gene expression in response to topping and suckercide treatments. The regulatory elements of topping-inducible genes are potentially useful for the development of a chemical-free sucker control system. PMID:26670135

  6. RNA-sequencing Reveals Global Transcriptomic Changes in Nicotiana tabacum Responding to Topping and Treatment of Axillary-shoot Control Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay K; Wu, Yongmei; Ghosh, Jayadri S; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Fisher, Colin; Wang, Ying; Lawson, Darlene; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Removal of terminal buds (topping) and control of the formation of axillary shoots (suckers) are common agronomic practices that significantly impact the yield and quality of various crop plants. Application of chemicals (suckercides) to plants following topping is an effective method for sucker control. However, our current knowledge of the influence of topping, and subsequent suckercide applications, to gene expression is limited. We analyzed the differential gene expression using RNA-sequencing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that are topped, or treated after topping by two different suckercides, the contact-localized-systemic, Flupro(®) (FP), and contact, Off-Shoot-T(®). Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 179 were identified as common to all three conditions. DEGs, largely related to wounding, phytohormone metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, exhibited significant upregulation following topping, and downregulation after suckercide treatments. DEGs related to photosynthetic processes were repressed following topping and suckercide treatments. Moreover, topping and FP-treatment affect the expression of auxin and cytokinin signaling pathway genes that are possibly involved in axillary shoot formation. Our results provide insights into the global change of plant gene expression in response to topping and suckercide treatments. The regulatory elements of topping-inducible genes are potentially useful for the development of a chemical-free sucker control system. PMID:26670135

  7. Properties of recombinant Staphylococcus haemolyticus cystathionine beta-lyase (metC) and its potential role in the generation of volatile thiols in axillary malodor.

    PubMed

    Troccaz, Myriam; Benattia, Faiza; Borchard, Gerrit; Clark, Anthony J

    2008-11-01

    Enzymes implicated in cysteine and methionine metabolism such as cystathionine beta-lyase (CBL; EC 4.4.1.8), a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent carbon-sulfur lyase, have been shown to play a central role in the generation of sulfur compounds. This work describes the unprecedented cloning and characterization of the metC-cystathionine beta-lyase from the axillary-isolated strain Staphylococcus haemolyticus AX3, in order to determine its activity and its involvement in amino acid biosynthesis, and in the generation of sulfur compounds in human sweat. The gene contains a cysteine/methionine metabolism enzyme pattern, and also a sequence capable to effect beta-elimination. The recombinant enzyme was shown to cleave cystathionine into homocysteine and to convert methionine into methanethiol at low levels. No odor was generated after incubation of the recombinant enzyme with sterile human axillary secretions; sweat components were found to have an inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the generation of sulfur compounds by Staphylococci and the beta-lyase activity in human sweat are mediated by enzymes other than the metC gene or by the concerted activities of more than one enzyme. PMID:19035565

  8. A Prospective, Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A New Modality for Treating Axillary Bromhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Kyu; Jang, Hee Won; Kim, Hee Joo; Lee, Sang Geun; Lee, Kyung Goo; Kim, Sun Yae; Yi, Sang Min; Kim, Jae Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgery for bromhidrosis has a high risk of complications such as hematoma and necrosis. New nonsurgical methods may reduce the burden on surgery and the risks for the patient. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of the 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser for treating axillary bromhidrosis. Methods Eighteen bromhidrosis patients were treated with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG laser at Korea University Ansan Hospital. The post-treatment follow-up was 6 months. After the procedure, we confirmed apocrine gland destruction through histopathological examination. At each follow-up, we measured the severity of the remaining odor, postoperative pain, degree of mobility restriction, and overall satisfaction. Results After 180 days of follow-up, malodor elimination was good in 20 axillae, fair in 12 axillae, and poor in four axillae. At the end point of the study, 14 patients were totally satisfied with the laser treatment, three patients were partially satisfied, and one patient was disatisfied. Pain and limitation of mobility were significantly reduced within 1 week post-operatively, and were almost resolved within 4 weeks post-operatively. A histopathological examination revealed decreased density and significant alterations to the apocrine glands. Conclusion Subdermal coagulation treatment with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser may be a less invasive and effective therapy for axillary bromhidrosis. PMID:24882972

  9. Predicting lymph node output efficiency using systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chang; Mattila, Joshua T.; Miller, Mark; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Kirschner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture pathogens and foreign antigen (Ag) in peripheral tissues and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs), where they present processed Ag as MHC-bound peptide (pMHC) to naïve T cells. Interactions between DCs and T cells result, over periods of hours, in activation, clonal expansion and differentiation of antigen-specific T cells, leading to primed cells that can now participate in immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) has been widely adopted to analyze lymphocyte dynamics and can serve as a powerful in vivo assay for cell trafficking and activation over short length and time scales. Linking biological phenomena between vastly different spatiotemporal scales can be achieved using a systems biology approach. We developed a 3D agent-based cellular model of a LN that allows for the simultaneous in silico simulation of T cell trafficking, activation and production of effector cells under different antigen (Ag) conditions. The model anatomy is based on in situ analysis of LN sections (from primates and mice) and cell dynamics based on quantitative measurements from 2PM imaging of mice. Our simulations make three important predictions. First, T cell encounters by DCs and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire scanning are more efficient in a 3D model compared with 2D, suggesting that a 3D model is needed to analyze LN function. Second, LNs are able to produce primed CD4+T cells at the same efficiency over broad ranges of cognate frequencies (from 10?5 to 10?2). Third, reducing the time that naïve T cells are required to bind DCs before becoming activated will increase the rate at which effector cells are produced. This 3D model provides a robust platform to study how T cell trafficking and activation dynamics relate to the efficiency of T cell priming and clonal expansion. We envision that this systems biology approach will provide novel insights for guiding vaccine development and understanding immune responses to infection. PMID:23816876

  10. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and ?2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a protocol based on bony anatomy registration. Conclusions: Detailed analysis revealed considerable lymph node position variability, differential motion, and respiratory motion. Planning target volume margins can be reduced up to 27% in lung cancer patients when the carina registration replaces bony anatomy registration.

  11. GLP-1 released to the mesenteric lymph duct in mice: Effects of glucose and fat

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Lena; Kohan, Alison B.; Tso, Patrick; Ahrén, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Using a newly developed in vivo model measuring glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in gut lymphatics in mice, we quantified GLP-1 secretion in vivo after glucose versus fat ingestion with and without concomitant DPP-4 inhibition. The mesenteric lymphatic duct was cannulated in anesthetized C57BL6/J mice and lymph was collected in 30 min intervals. Glucose or fat emulsion (IntralipidR) (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 kcal) with or without DPP-4-inhibition (NVP DPP728; 10 ?mol/kg) was administered by gastric gavage. Basal intact GLP-1 levels were 0.37 ± 0.04 pmol/l (n = 61) in lymph compared to 0.07 ± 0.03 in plasma (n = 6; P = 0.04) and basal DPP-4 activity was 4.7 ± 0.3 pmol/min/?l in lymph (n = 23) compared to 22.3 ± 0.9 pmol/min/?l in plasma (n = 8; P < 0.001). Lymph flow increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 ?l/min to 2.3 ± 02 ?l/min at 30 min after glucose and fat administration, with no difference between type of challenge or dose (n = 81). Lymph GLP-1 levels increased calorie-dependently after both glucose and fat but with different time courses in that glucose induced a transient increase which had returned to baseline after 90 min whereas the lipid induced a sustained increase which was still elevated above baseline after 210 min. Lymph GLP-1 appearance during 210 min was two to three-fold higher after glucose (7.4 ± 2.3 fmol at 0.3 kcal) than after isocaloric fat (2.9 ± 0.8 fmol at 0.3 kcal; P < 0.001). The slope between caloric load and lymph GLP-1 appearance was, however, identical after glucose and fat. We conclude that lymph GLP-1 is higher than plasma GLP-1 whereas lymph DPP-4 activity is lower than plasma DPP-4 activity and that both glucose and fat clearly stimulate GLP-1 secretion calorie-dependently in vivo but with different time courses. PMID:24583245

  12. Analysis of the factors affecting lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of rectal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wu, Fan; Zhao, Hong; Dou, Lizhou; Wang, Yang; Guo, Chunguang; Wang, Guiqi; Zhao, Dongbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of rectal neuroendocrine tumors after surgical treatment. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the clinical data from 156 cases of rectal neuroendocrine tumors during the period of January 1999 to December 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival time, Cox regression analysis was performed for statistical analysis of clinicopathological factors that may be associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis, and correlation analysis was carried out using binary logistic regression. Results: The overall 5-year survival rate of the entire group was 95.7%. Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001). The incidence of lymph node metastasis was 7.7% (12/156), and logistic regression analysis showed that lymph node metastasis was related to the depth of invasion (P = 0.003) and tumor diameter (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The surgical approach of rectal neuroendocrine tumors should be selected based on a comprehensive consideration of factors such as tumor size, depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis. PMID:26722537

  13. Endometrial Cancer with Sarcoidosis in Regional Lymph Nodes: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tamauchi, Satoshi; Shimomura, Yuji; Hayakawa, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic disease commonly affecting the lungs and lymphatic system and is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Although several reports are available on cases developing both sarcoidosis and cancer metachronously, cases of simultaneous diagnosis of these diseases have rarely been reported. A 67-year-old woman diagnosed with endometrial cancer had developed systemic lymph node swelling, including bilateral hilar, paraaortic, and a few pelvic lymph nodes, as observed on preoperative imaging. During surgery, frozen sections of a paraaortic lymph node were examined, revealing noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. Next, modified radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed. Postoperative pathological analysis revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, and no metastasis but noncaseating granulomas were detected in the resected lymph nodes. Postoperatively, we identified cutaneous sarcoidosis and uveitis in the presence of a tuberculin-negative test. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patients with endometrial cancer complicated by sarcoidosis. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, and at the 1-year follow-up, the lymph node swelling due to sarcoidosis was stable, and no recurrence of the cancer was observed. This turned out to be a case of early endometrial cancer mimicking advanced cancer by sarcoidosis. Histological confirmation and additional examination for sarcoidosis are necessary in cancer patients suspected of sarcoidosis. PMID:26557079

  14. Single skip metastasis in sentinel lymph node: In an early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bara, Tivadar; Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Kadar, Zoltan; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Bara, Tivadar

    2015-09-01

    Lymph node status is considered a key prognostic and predictive factor in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Although there is a practical approach to the intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), such a procedure is not included in the European surgical protocol. In this report, we present a practical approach to SLN mapping in a representative case with early gastric cancer (EGC). A 74-year-old female was hospitalized with an endoscopically observed, superficially ulcerated tumor located in the antral region. Subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and SLN mapping was performed by injecting methylene blue dye into the peritumoral submucosal layer. An incidentally detected blue-stained lymph node located along the middle colic artery was also removed. This was detected 40 min after injection of the methylene blue. Histopathologic examination showed a pT1b-staged well-differentiated HER-2-negative adenocarcinoma. All of the 41 LNs located at the first, third, and fifth station of the regional LN compartments were found to be free of tumor cells. The only lymph node with metastasis was located along the middle colic artery and was considered a non-regional lymph node. This incidentally identified skip metastasis indicated stage IV GC. A classic chemotherapy regimen was given, and no recurrences were observed six months after surgery. In this representative case, low-cost SLN mapping, with a longer intraoperative waiting time, totally changed the stage of the tumor in a patient with EGC. PMID:26361428

  15. Endometrial Cancer with Sarcoidosis in Regional Lymph Nodes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tamauchi, Satoshi; Shimomura, Yuji; Hayakawa, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic disease commonly affecting the lungs and lymphatic system and is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Although several reports are available on cases developing both sarcoidosis and cancer metachronously, cases of simultaneous diagnosis of these diseases have rarely been reported. A 67-year-old woman diagnosed with endometrial cancer had developed systemic lymph node swelling, including bilateral hilar, paraaortic, and a few pelvic lymph nodes, as observed on preoperative imaging. During surgery, frozen sections of a paraaortic lymph node were examined, revealing noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. Next, modified radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed. Postoperative pathological analysis revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, and no metastasis but noncaseating granulomas were detected in the resected lymph nodes. Postoperatively, we identified cutaneous sarcoidosis and uveitis in the presence of a tuberculin-negative test. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patients with endometrial cancer complicated by sarcoidosis. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, and at the 1-year follow-up, the lymph node swelling due to sarcoidosis was stable, and no recurrence of the cancer was observed. This turned out to be a case of early endometrial cancer mimicking advanced cancer by sarcoidosis. Histological confirmation and additional examination for sarcoidosis are necessary in cancer patients suspected of sarcoidosis. PMID:26557079

  16. Lymph node melanocytic nevi: pathogenesis and differential diagnoses, with special reference to p16 reactivity.

    PubMed

    Piana, Simonetta; Tagliavini, Elena; Ragazzi, Moira; Zanelli, Magda; Zalaudek, Iris; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Valli, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Lymph node nevi (NN) have been occasionally described, yet little is currently known on their origin. According to a theoretical model of nevogenesis, the dissemination of nevus progenitor cells through lymphatic routes is responsible for the development of both nodal and skin nevi. The true incidence of NN is largely unknown but it has been reported to vary from 0.017% to as high as 22%. The frequency of NN nevi has increased since the introduction of sentinel lymph node mapping as a routine prognostic procedure in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and morphological findings of NN, to discuss possible pathogenetic pathways in their evolution, and to verify the consistency of p16 immunostaining in the critical differential approach between NN and melanoma metastases. We therefore morphologically and immunohistochemically evaluated a series of 60 NN from 58 patients. In 21 patients, the lymph nodes had been removed during the staging for a skin melanoma; in all these patients NN immunostaining with p16 was strongly positive and p16 proved to be a reliable marker for the crucial differential diagnosis between NN and melanoma metastasis, strongly reacting in NN and lacking in melanoma deposits. A deeper knowledge on NN could help to clarify some important topics such as lymph node metastatic melanoma with unknown primary and the current debate on the lymph node involvement from atypical spitzoid tumors. PMID:25661066

  17. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Angelette, Nik; Stout, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity. Time-pixel intensity curves were generated for 1-min postinjection. Quantification of these curves was performed using Philips QLab software. Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively. Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s. Angioarchitecture was best visualized with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound compared with power and color Doppler. Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications. PMID:21158236

  18. Biodegradation of polysiloxanes in lymph nodes of rats measured with 29Si NMR.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, B; Moore, A; Tokareva, E; Ackerman, J L; Garrido, L

    1999-03-01

    Linear and cyclic polysiloxanes and extracts (free polymer) from a silicone gel-filled implant are used to investigate the reactivity of silicones in vivo. Aqueous emulsions of polysiloxanes and controls (without polysiloxanes) are injected once (day 0, approximately 10% w/v) or six times (starting at day 0, every 14 days, approximately 3% w/v) in the right thigh of rats and the popliteal and lumbar lymph nodes are harvested (3 rats per time point and compound investigated) at 2, 16, 30, 44, 58 and 72 days after the injection. 29Si NMR spectroscopy is used to detect and evaluate the presence of polysiloxanes and their metabolites in the lymph nodes. In addition to the resonance associated with the polysiloxane injected (approximately -20 ppm), the NMR spectra of lymph nodes show new resonances that are attributed to partially hydrolyzed polysiloxanes (-5 to -15 ppm) and silica (-90 to - 120 ppm). These resonances are not present in polysiloxanes emulsions before injection or in the lymph nodes of controls. Our results demonstrate that all polysiloxanes and extracts from silicone gel-filled implants are biotransformed in the lymph nodes, but high molecular weight polymer degrades at a slower rate than oligomers. PMID:10213359

  19. Corticotropin-releasing Factor Changes the Phenotype and Function of Dendritic Cells in Mouse Mesenteric Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Li; Lu, Zhang; Xiaoteng, Wang; Yue, Hu; Bin, Lu; Lina, Meng; Zhe, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Dendritic cells (DCs) are a significant contributor to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders; however, the effects of Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on intestinal DCs are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of CRF in alterations of intestinal dendritic cell phenotype and function. Methods Mouse mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells (MLNDCs) were obtained using magnetic bead sorting. Surface expression of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) and CRF-R2 was determined by double-labeling immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and MLNDCs were subsequently exposed to CRF in the presence or absence of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 antagonists. Expression of surface molecules (MHC-I and MHC-II) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) was determined by flow cytometric and western blot analyses, and the T cell stimulatory capacity of MLNDCs was evaluated by mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results Immunofluorescent staining and quatitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that both the CRF receptors (CRF-R1 and CRF-2) are expressed on the surface of MLNDCs. Exposure to CRF increased the expression of MHC-II on MLNDCs as well as their capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation. MLNDCs treated with CRF-R1 antagonist exhibited a phenotype characterized by a less activated state and reduced surface expression of MHC-II, and consequently showed reduced capacity to stimulate T cells. In contrast, treatment of MLNDCs with CRF-R2 antagonist yielded an opposite result. Conclusions CRF can alter the phenotype and function of intestinal DCs through direct action on CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and activation of the CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 pathways yields opposing outcomes. PMID:26424042

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of human lymph nodes with endogenous lipid and hemoglobin contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Allen, Thomas J.; Plumb, Andrew; Zhang, Edward Z.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Punwani, Shonit; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-05-01

    Lymph nodes play a central role in metastatic cancer spread and are a key clinical assessment target. Abnormal node vascularization, morphology, and size may be indicative of disease but can be difficult to visualize with sufficient accuracy using existing clinical imaging modalities. To explore the potential utility of photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of lymph nodes, images of ex vivo samples were obtained at multiple wavelengths using a high-resolution three-dimensional photoacoustic scanner. These images showed that hemoglobin based contrast reveals nodal vasculature and lipid-based contrast reveals the exterior node size, shape, and boundary integrity. These two sources of complementary contrast may allow indirect observation of cancer, suggesting a future role for photoacoustic imaging as a tool for the clinical assessment of lymph nodes.

  1. [False interpretations of computed tomograms in malignant lymph node diseases of the pelvis and abdomen].

    PubMed

    Feuerbach, S; Lukas, P; Gmeinwieser, J

    1984-12-01

    In the presence of a retroperitoneal mass with loss of normal aortic and caval contours no distinction can be made by CT between metastases or malignant lymphoma and primary sarcoma or retroperitoneal fibrosis if a primary tumour is not known. A false diagnose is quite possible if intestinal loops or vessels are considered as enlarged lymph nodes. These pitfalls can be avoided by intravenous application of contrast medium and by filling of all intestinal loops with orally administered contrast medium, in special cases even via a gastric tube. Pitfalls in post-therapeutic changes, like haematoma, scar tissue or lymphocele, are confounded with tumour recurrence of recent metastases and are give false-positive results in follow-up examinations. If no regression of lymph node enlargement after therapy is observed, a distinction between active metastases and nodal induration is impossible. False-negative results are due to metastatic, but not enlarged lymph nodes and cannot be avoided by CT. PMID:6518724

  2. [Diagnostic work-up for lymph node metastases of urological tumors].

    PubMed

    Seitz, M; Bader, M; Strittmatter, F; Gratzke, C; Tilki, D; Roosen, A; Schlenker, B; Reich, O; Stief, C

    2010-03-01

    Both CT and MRI are currently the most frequently used and recommended modalities for lymph node staging of uro-oncological diseases. Their diagnostic usefulness is limited particularly for recognition of micrometastases and lymph nodes <10 mm. FDG- and choline-based PET/CT procedures also do not offer much improvement in these cases. Meanwhile however PET/CT has been included in the EAU guidelines for seminomas and is recommended for further management of residual tumors after chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging with lymphotropic monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles appears to exhibit great potential and can detect smaller metastases and micrometastases even in normal-sized lymph nodes in uro-oncological diseases. Nevertheless, Guerbet has withdrawn its application to the EMEA for marketing authorization of its product Sinerem (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). In the meantime diffusion-weighted MRI represents a promising technique and is already being evaluated in fields outside the realm of urology. PMID:20213349

  3. The reversibility of morphological changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes after peroral administration of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobina, Olga V.; Pakhomy, Svetlana S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Bugaeva, Irina O.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    The oral administration of gold nanoparticles at dose 190 mg /kg animal body weight during 8 days leads to changes in the cellular composition of the mesenteric lymph nodes, the severity and reversibility of the reaction was determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The cellular composition of the lymph nodes after the introduction of gold nanoparticle size of 1-3 nm for 8 days corresponded the control values, indicating the absence of immunotoxicity. Duration of recovery of cellular composition of the lymph nodes after administration of gold nanoparticles with size 15 nm and 50 nm does not exceed 21 days. It can be concluded that 15 nm and 50 nm nanoparticles have no immunotoxic action at oral administration.

  4. Ki-67 Expression in CRC Lymph Node Metastasis Does Not Predict Survival

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Sandra F.; Amorim, Ricardo; Mota, Sílvia Coelho; Costa, Luís; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Molecular markers may improve clinicopathologic staging and provide a basis to guide novel therapeutic strategies which target specific tumour-associated molecules according to individual tumour biology; however, so far, no ideal molecular marker has been found to predict disease progression. We tested Ki-67 proliferation marker in primary and lymph node metastasis of CRC. We observed a statistical significant difference between the positive rates of neoplastic cells positively stained by Ki-67 in both sites, with remarkable increased number of Ki-67 positive cells in primary tumor cells compared to cancer cells that invaded lymph nodes. We can speculate that the metastatic CRC in lymph node can be more resistant to the drugs that target cellular division. PMID:26448927

  5. Proteomic profiling of the mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock: Differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experiments show that upon traumatic injury the composition of mesenteric lymph changes such that it initiates an immune response that can ultimately result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). To identify candidate protein mediators of this process we carried out a quantitative proteomic study on mesenteric lymph from a well characterized rat shock model. We analyzed three animals using analytical 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Intra-animal variation for the majority of protein spots was minor. Functional clustering of proteins revealed changes arising from several global classes that give novel insight into fundamental mechanisms of MODS. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of proteins in mesenteric lymph can effectively be used to identify candidate mediators and loss of protective agents in shock models. PMID:21906351

  6. Influence of low-power laser irradiation on lymph microcirculation during increased NO production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    1999-03-01

    The experimental investigations of rat mesenteric lymph microvessels by using vital biomicroscopy with videotape system recorder, still pictures of frames and image processing system have been carried out. It is established that intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside induces differently directed changes of vascular diameter. The majority of lymph vessels are dilated. Degrees of dilation in central and valve regions of lymphangions are different. He-Ne laser irradiation of mesentery at the increase of nitric oxide synthesis after sodium nitroprusside injection stimulates phasic contractions in part of the vessels. Used dose of laser irradiation doesn't influence on intact microvessels. Sodium nitroprusside increases sensitivity of lymph microvessels to He-Ne laser irradiation.

  7. Milk Phospholipids Enhance Lymphatic Absorption of Dietary Sphingomyelin in Lymph-Cannulated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morifuji, Masashi; Higashi, Seiichiro; Oba, Chisato; Ichikawa, Satomi; Kawahata, Keiko; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Yuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Supplementation with sphingomyelin has been reported to have beneficial effects on disease prevention and health maintenance. However, compared with glycerolipids, intact sphingomyelin and ceramides are poorly absorbed. Therefore, if the bioavailability of dietary sphingomyelin is increased, then the dose administered can be reduced. This study was designed to identify molecular species of ceramide in rat lymph after the ingestion of milk sphingomyelin, and to compare the effect of purified sphingomyelin with milk phospholipids concentrate (MPL, 185 mg sphingomyelin/g) on lymphatic absorption of milk sphingomyelin. Lymph was collected hourly for 6 h from lymph-cannulated rats (n = 8/group) after the administration of a control emulsion (triolein, bovine serum albumin, and sodium taurocholate), a sphingomyelin emulsion (control + purified sphingomyelin), or a MPL emulsion (control + MPL). Molecular species of ceramide in lymph were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Molecular species of ceramide, containing not only d18:1, but also d17:1 and d16:1 sphingosine with 16:0, 22:0, 23:0, and 24:0 fatty acids (specific to milk sphingomyelin), were increased in rat lymph after the administration of milk sphingomyelin. Their molecular species were similar to those of dietary milk sphingomyelin. Recovery of ceramide moieties from dietary sphingomyelin was 1.28- to 1.80-fold significantly higher in the MPL group than in the sphingomyelin group. Our results demonstrated that dietary sphingomyelin from milk was transported to lymph as molecular species of ceramide hydrolyzed from milk sphingomyelin and co-ingestion of sphingomyelin with glycerophospholipids enhanced the bioavailability of dietary sphingomyelin. PMID:26233817

  8. Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

  9. Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gottschalk, A. G.; Roach, M. R. III; Pouliot, J.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% {+-} 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.

  10. Label-free Detection of Lymph Node Metastases with US-guided Functional Photoacoustic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Luke, Geoffrey P; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2015-11-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of ultrasonography (US)-guided spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging to depict changes in blood oxygen saturation (SO2) in metastatic lymph nodes of a mouse model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods All studies were performed by following protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at the University of Texas at Austin. Coregistered US and photoacoustic images were acquired spanning volumes containing a total of 31 lymph nodes in 17 female nu/nu mice. The mice were either healthy (three mice, five nodes) or bearing a primary tumor consisting of luciferase-labeled FaDu cells (14 mice, 26 nodes). Ten photoacoustic images acquired with optical wavelengths spanning from 680 to 860 nm were spectrally unmixed by using a linear least-squares method to obtain sPA images. After imaging, histologic analysis enabled confirmation of the presence of micrometastases. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare metastatic and normal lymph nodes, with a P value of .05 taken to indicate a significant difference. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with a receiver operator characteristic curve constructed from the background-subtracted SO2 values. Results Metastatic lymph nodes (n = 7) exhibited a significantly (P = .018) lower spatially averaged background-subtracted SO2 (mean, 5.4% ± 3.5 [standard error]) when compared with lymph nodes without metastases (mean, 13.7% ± 1.3; n = 24). This effect was observed throughout the entire volume of the nodes rather than being limited to the metastatic foci. The change in SO2, which was inversely related to the size of the metastasis, was detectable in metastases as small as 2.6 × 10(-3) mm(3). Conclusion The results show that US-guided sPA imaging is capable of depicting changes in SO2 in lymph nodes that were correlated with metastatic invasion. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25997030

  11. Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater risk of LRR than those with pN0 disease. Patients with pNmic in association with young age, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease experienced 10-year LRR rates of {approx}15-20%, warranting consideration of locoregional RT.

  12. Sentinel lymph-node biopsy after previous wide local excision for melanoma

    PubMed Central

    McCready, David R.; Ghazarian, Danny M.; Hershkop, Marlon S.; Walker, Janet A.; Ambus, Ulo; Quirt, Ian C.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To document experience with sentinel lymph-node biopsy in patients who have already undergone a wide local excision for melanoma because in many centres previous wide excision has been a contraindication for sentinel lymph-node biopsy. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A tertiary care academic cancer centre. Patients One hundred patients who presented with cutaneous melanoma (depth >1 mm or Clark level IV) after having undergone wide local excision of the primary lesion that was not situated in the head or neck. The follow-up was 3 years. Interventions Sentinel lymph-node biopsy. Patients with truncal melanoma had preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to document the nodal basins at risk. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (0.5–1 mCi in 0.5 mL) was injected intradermally around the scar, and the sentinel lymph node was excised with the aid of a hand-held gamma detector. Outcome measures Accuracy of the biopsy and false-negative rates in this setting. Results Of the 100 patients, 44 had truncal and 56 had extremity lesions. The average tumour depth was 3.47 mm and 3.07 mm respectively. Thirty-one patients had a sentinel lymph node positive for melanoma metastasis. Biopsies were positive for melanoma in 18 (41%) truncal lesions and 13 (23%) extremity lesions. There were 3 (9%) false-negative sentinel lymph-node biopsies as diagnosed by clinically evident nodal disease subsequently appearing in the nodal basin subjected to biopsy. Two occurred in patients after large rotation flap closures of truncal lesions. The third patient had a subungual melanoma of the great toe. No disease was found in the 2 nodes dissected. Two of the 3 false-negative biopsy results were obtained before serial sections and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions Sentinel lymph-node biopsies can successfully identify clinically occult nodal metastases in patients who have had previous wide local excision of a melanoma, but the false-negative rate in patients with rotation flap closures should be taken into consideration. PMID:11764876

  13. Key to Juniperus of Canada and the United States rev. 8-1-08 1a. Leaves all acicular (subulate, jointed at the base) and spreading; seed cones sessile, axillary;

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    , jointed at the base) and spreading; seed cones sessile, axillary; decumbent or rarely upright shrubs (in), both whip- and scale-like; seed cones terminal; trees or decumbent to upright shrubs. 2a. Whip-leaves with acuminate to mucronate tips and tan-brown to brownish purple seed cones. 3a. Whip- and scale-leaf margins

  14. Contemporary controversies and perspectives in the staging and treatment of patients with lymph node metastasis from melanoma, especially with regards positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sandro; Spillane, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The management of melanoma lymph node metastasis particularly when detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is still controversial. Results of the only randomized trial conducted to assess the therapeutic value of SLNB, the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-1), have not conclusively proven the effectiveness of this procedure but are interpreted by the authors and guidelines as indicating SLNB is standard of care. After surgery, interferon alpha had a small survival benefit and radiotherapy has limited effectiveness for patient at high-risk of regional recurrence. New drugs, including immune modulating agents and targeted therapies, already shown to be effective in patients with distant metastasis, are being evaluated in the adjuvant setting. In this regard, ensuring high quality of surgery through the identification of reliable quality assurance indicators and improving the homogeneity of prognostic stratification of patients entered onto clinical trials is paramount. Here, we review the controversial issues regarding the staging and treatment of melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis, present a summary of important and potentially practice changing ongoing research and provide a commentary on what it all means at this point in time. PMID:25023758

  15. Prediction of central lymph node metastasis in 392 patients with cervical lymph node-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, YINGYING; LIN, KUAILU; DONG, SIYANG; QIAO, LI; HE, QIUXIANG; ZHANG, XIAOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) is common in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors associated with CLNM in clinical lateral cervical lymph node-negative (cN0) PTMC in Eastern China. A total of 392 patients with confirmed PTMC by histological examination who underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymph node dissection (CND) between May 2011 and October 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, China) were enrolled. The clinicopathological and ultrasonographic data from the patients were analyzed retrospectively. A scoring system was developed on the basis of independent predictive factors for CLNM. Male gender, age <45 years, maximum tumor diameter >5 mm, lower lobe location, multifocal carcinoma with total tumor diameter >10 mm and extracapsular spread were independent predictive factors for CLNM according to logistic regression analysis. The clinicopathological score was statistically significant, with an index point ?2 indicating CLNM with 86.2% sensitivity and 70.4% specificity. The findings of the present study indicate that CND may be recommended to be routinely performed when the clinicopathological index point ?2. PMID:26622889

  16. Helical intensity-modulated Radiotherapy of the Pelvic Lymph Nodes with Integrated Boost to the Prostate Bed - Initial Results of the PLATIN 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy of the prostate bed are established treatment options for prostate cancer. While the benefit of an additional radiotherapy of the pelvic lymph nodes is still under debate, the PLATIN 3 prospective phase II clinical trial was initiated to substantiate toxicity data on postoperative IMRT of the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate bed. Methods From 2009 to 2011, 40 patients with high-risk prostate cancer after prostatectomy with pT3 R0/1 M0 or pT2 R1 M0 or a PSA recurrence and either?>?20% risk of lymph node involvement and inadequate lymphadenectomy or pN?+?were enrolled. Patients received two months of antihormonal treatment (AT) before radiotherapy. AT continuation was mandatory during radiotherapy and was recommended for another two years. IMRT of the pelvic lymph nodes (51.0 Gy) with a simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate bed (68.0 Gy) was performed in 34 fractions. PSA level, prostate-related symptoms and quality of life were assessed at regular intervals for 24 months. Results Of the 40 patients enrolled, 39 finished treatment as planned. Overall acute toxicity rates were low and no acute grade 3/4 toxicity occurred. Only 22.5% of patients experienced acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity. During follow-up, 10.0% late grade 2 GI and 5.0% late grade 2 GU toxicity occurred, and one patient developed late grade 3 proctitis and enteritis. After a median observation time of 24 months the PLATIN 3 trial has shown in 97.5% of all patients sufficient safety and thus met its prospectively defined aims. After a median of 24 months, 34/38 patients were free of a PSA recurrence. Conclusions Postoperative whole-pelvis IMRT with an integrated boost to the prostate bed can be performed safely and without excessive toxicity. Trial registration Trial Numbers: ARO 2009–05, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01903408. PMID:24422782

  17. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  18. Cross-sectional study examining Salmonella enterica carriage in subiliac lymph nodes of cull and feedlot cattle at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine peripheral lymph nodes, including subiliac lymph nodes, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica when trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in subiliac lymp...

  19. Misleading appearance in cervical lymph node US diagnosis - a report on sarcoidosis, Warthin tumor and squamous cell carcinoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Irina; Lenghel, Manuela; B?ciu?, Grigore; Dinu, Cristian; Botar-Jid, Carolina; Vasilescu, Dan; Dudea, Sorin M

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonography, with its various techniques (grey-scale, color Doppler, sonoelastography) offers many signs for the differentiation between benign and malignant neck lymph nodes. In spite of recent progress, the US appearance may be misleading. We present three cases in which the ultrasonographic appearance of the lymph nodes was misleading as compared to the final diagnosis established by histopathology. PMID:24791853

  20. Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically positioned collect-ing stations for antigens that are present in peripheral

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically positioned collect- ing stations for antigens that are present/or antigen-loaded DCs are transported to the LNs from distal tissues through afferent lymph ves- sels, whereas naive lymphocytes enter these organs in HIGH ENDOTHELIALVENULES (HEVs)2,3 .If lymphocytes fail

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M.; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had significantly less sweating without increased symptoms of axillary radiation skin toxicity. These results add to the evidence that the prescription of deodorants during radiation therapy for breast cancer is now questionable.

  2. Direct Delivery of a Cytotoxic Anticancer Agent into the Metastatic Lymph Node Using Nano/Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takuma; Mori, Shiro; Sakamoto, Maya; Arai, Yoichi; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Direct injection of an anticancer agent into a metastatic lymph node (LN) has not been used as a standard treatment because evidence concerning the efficacy of local administration of a drug into a metastatic LN has not been established. Here we show that the combination of intralymphatic drug delivery with nano/microbubbles (NMBs) and ultrasound has the potential to improve the chemotherapeutic effect. We delivered cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) into breast carcinoma cells in vitro and found that apoptotic processes were involved in the antitumor action. Next, we investigated the antitumor effect of intralymphatic chemotherapy with NMBs and ultrasound in an experimental model of LN metastasis using MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice exhibiting lymphadenopathy. The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with NMBs and ultrasound has the potential to improve the delivery of CDDP into target LNs without damage to the surrounding normal tissues. The present study indicates that intralymphatic drug delivery with NMBs and ultrasound will potentially be of great benefit in the clinical setting. PMID:25897663

  3. Heparin use in a rat hemorrhagic shock model induces biologic activity in mesenteric lymph separate from shock

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yong; Prescott, Lauriston M.; Deitch, Edwin A.; Kaiser, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data has shown that mesenteric lymph from rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS) but not trauma-sham shock (TSS) induces neutrophil activation, cytotoxicity, decreased red blood cell deformability and bone marrow colony growth suppression. These data have lead to the hypothesis that gut factors produced from THS enter the systemic circulation via the mesenteric lymphatics and contribute to the progression of Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) following THS. Ongoing studies designed to identify bioactive lymph agents implicated factors associated with the heparin use in the THS procedure. We investigated if heparin itself was responsible for reported toxicity to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVEC toxicity was not induced by lymph when alternate anti-coagulants (citrate and EDTA) were used in THS. HUVEC toxicity was induced by lymph after heparin but not saline or citrate injection into TSS and naïve animals and was dose dependent. Activities of both heparin-releasable lipases (lipoprotein (LPL) and hepatic (HL)) were detected in the plasma and lymph from THS and naïve animals receiving heparin but not citrate or saline. Lymph-induced HUVEC toxicity correlated with lymph lipase activities. Finally, incubation of HUVECs with purified LPL added to naïve lymph induced toxicity in vitro. These data show that heparin, not THS, is responsible for the reported lymph-mediated HUVEC toxicity through its release of lipases into the lymph. These findings can provide alternative explanations for several of the THS effects reported in the literature using heparin models thus necessitating a review of previous work in this field. PMID:21063238

  4. Can CA-125 Predict Lymph Node Metastasis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Turkish Population?

    PubMed Central

    Köro?lu, Nadiye; Y?ld?r?m, Gökhan; Ülker, Volkan; Gülk?l?k, Ahmet; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The role of single preoperative serum CA-125 levels in predicting pelvic or paraaortic lymph node metastasis in patients operated for epithelial ovarian cancer has been investigated. Methods. 176 patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma after staging laparotomy between January 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Results. The mean, geometric mean, and median of preoperative serum CA-125 levels were 632,6, 200,29, and 191,5?U/mL, respectively. The cut-off value predicting lymph node metastases in the ROC curve was 71,92?U/mL, which is significant in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.005). The preoperative log CA-125 levels were also statistically significant in predicting lymph node metastasis in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.008). Conclusions. The tumor marker CA-125, which increases with grade independent of the effect of stage in EOC, is predictive of lymph node metastasis with a high rate of false positivity in Turkish population. The high false positive rate may obscure the predictive value of CA-125. PMID:24795494

  5. DIETARY VITAMIN A ENHANCES SENSITIVITY OF THE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murine assays such as the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) and the local lymph node assay (LLNA) are popular alternatives to guinea pig models for the identification of contact sensitizers, yet there has been concern over the effectiveness of these assays to detect weak and moderat...

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative ultrasound to guide pathologists towards metastatic foci in lymph nodes

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    than 160 colorectal-, gastric-, and breast-cancer patients. Cancer-detection performance was assessed. For colorectal- and gastric-cancer nodes, the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were greater than 0.95. Slightly, and these methods were applied to a larger number of lymph nodes from colorectal-, gastric- and breast-cancer

  7. Natural killer cells actively patrol peripheral lymph nodes forming stable conjugates to eliminate

    E-print Network

    Parker, Ian

    Natural killer cells actively patrol peripheral lymph nodes forming stable conjugates to eliminate, Denver, CO, and approved May 14, 2007 (received for review March 27, 2007) Natural killer (NK) cells. motility two-photon microscopy Natural killer (NK) cells are a specialized subset of lympho- cytes capable

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Early Response Lymph Node Proteins in Mice Treated with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Gopee, Neera V.; Howard, Paul C.; Yu, Li-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to nanoparticles is inevitable from natural and anthropogenic sources. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are increasingly being used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Previous studies revealed that TiO2 levels were significantly increased in tissues (e.g., lymph nodes) after mice were injected with nanosized TiO2. To identify early response lymph node proteins to TiO2 nanoparticles, groups of mice were intradermally injected with a low dose of DeGussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles or vehicle alone. The proteomes of lymph nodes at 24 h were quantitatively analyzed using trypsin-catalyzed 16O/18O labeling in conjunction with two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry (2DLC-MS/MS). A total of 33 proteins were significantly changed (over 1.3-fold, p<0.05) in the mice treated with TiO2 nanoparticles, which accounted for approximately 1% of the total proteins identified. The differentially expressed proteins mainly involve the immune response (e.g., inflammation), lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mRNA processing, and nucleosome assembly. Regulation of functionally distinct classes of proteins could be mediated by estrogen receptor (ESR1), PPAR?, and c-Myc signalings, etc. The differentially expressed proteins identified in this experiment could represent early response proteins to TiO2 nanoparticle treatment in mouse lymph nodes. PMID:21884834

  9. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cull and fed cattle at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Category: Pre-harvest pathogen reduction Objective: To evaluate the potential association between Salmonella enterica burden within bovine subiliac lymph nodes (LNs), animal type, season, and region of harvest. Methods: Bovine LNs (n = 4,764) were collected from 12 abattoirs, 8 that primarily h...

  10. First Genomic Analysis of Dendritic Cells from Lung and Draining Lymph Nodes in Murine Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tschernig, Thomas; Hartwig, Christina; Jeron, Andreas; Dinh, Quoc Thai; Gereke, Marcus; Bruder, Dunja

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the consequence of allergic inflammation in the lung compartments and lung-draining lymph nodes. Dendritic cells initiate and promote T cell response and drive it to immunity or allergy. However, their modes of action during asthma are poorly understood. In this study, an allergic inflammation with ovalbumin was induced in 38 mice versus 42 control animals. After ovalbumin aerosol challenge, conventional dendritic cells (CD11c/MHCII/CD8) were isolated from the lungs and the draining lymph nodes by means of magnetic cell sorting followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A comparative transcriptional analysis was performed using gene arrays. In general, many transcripts are up- and downregulated in the CD8? dendritic cells of the allergic inflamed lung tissue, whereas few genes are regulated in CD8+ dendritic cells. The dendritic cells of the lymph nodes also showed minor transcriptional changes. The data support the relevance of the CD8? conventional dendritic cells but do not exclude distinct functions of the small population of CD8+ dendritic cells, such as cross presentation of external antigen. So far, this is the first approach performing gene arrays in dendritic cells obtained from lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes of asthmatic-like mice. PMID:25811019

  11. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  12. Tumor-induced lymph node alterations detected by MRI lymphography using gadolinium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Partridge, S C; Kurland, B F; Liu, C-L; Ho, R J Y; Ruddell, A

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI lymphography shows potential to identify alterations in lymph drainage through lymph nodes (LNs) in cancer and other diseases. MRI studies have typically used low molecular weight gadolinium contrast agents, however larger gadolinium-loaded nanoparticles possess characteristics that could improve the specificity and sensitivity of lymphography. The performance of three gadolinium contrast agents with different sizes and properties was compared by 3T MRI after subcutaneous injection. Mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma footpad tumors were imaged to assess tumor-induced alterations in lymph drainage through tumor-draining popliteal and inguinal LNs versus contralateral uninvolved drainage. Gadolinium lipid nanoparticles were able to identify tumor-induced alterations in contrast agent drainage into the popliteal LN, while lower molecular weight or albumin-binding gadolinium agents were less effective. All of the contrast agents distributed in foci around the cortex and medulla of tumor-draining popliteal LNs, while they were restricted to the cortex of non-draining LNs. Surprisingly, second-tier tumor-draining inguinal LNs exhibited reduced uptake, indicating that tumors can also divert LN drainage. These characteristics of tumor-induced lymph drainage could be useful for diagnosis of LN pathology in cancer and other diseases. The preferential uptake of nanoparticle contrasts into tumor-draining LNs could also allow selective targeting of therapies to tumor-draining LNs. PMID:26497382

  13. Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomized to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy.

  14. Accumulation of Immature Langerhans Cells in Human Lymph Nodes Draining Chronically Inflamed Skin

    PubMed Central

    Geissmann, F.; Dieu-Nosjean, M.C.; Dezutter, C.; Valladeau, J.; Kayal, S.; Leborgne, M.; Brousse, N.; Saeland, S.; Davoust, J.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinated migration and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) such as intraepithelial Langerhans cells (LCs) is considered critical for T cell priming in response to inflammation in the periphery. However, little is known about the role of inflammatory mediators for LC maturation and recruitment to lymph nodes in vivo. Here we show in human dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL), which features an expanded population of LCs in one draining lymph node associated with inflammatory lesions in its tributary skin area, that the Langerin/CD207+ LCs constitute a predominant population of immature DCs, which express CD1a, and CD68, but not CD83, CD86, and DC–lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)/CD208. Using LC-type cells generated in vitro in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, we further found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, as a prototype proinflammatory factor, and a variety of inflammatory stimuli and bacterial products, increase Langerin expression and Langerin dependent Birbeck granules formation in cell which nevertheless lack costimulatory molecules, DC–LAMP/CD208 and potent T cell stimulatory activity but express CCR7 and respond to the lymph node homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. This indicates that LC migration and maturation can be independently regulated events. We suggest that during DL, inflammatory stimuli in the skin increase the migration of LCs to the lymph node but without associated maturation. Immature LCs might regulate immune responses during chronic inflammation. PMID:12186835

  15. Effects of NO/sub 2/ on immune responses in pulmonary lymph of sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.

    1982-08-01

    Sheep in which the efferent duct of the caudal mediastinal lymph node was cannulated were exposed to 5 ppm NO/sub 2/, 1.5 h/d for 10 or 11 d. Immune responses were assessed by measuring the daily output of hemolytic plaque-forming cells (PFC) in pulmonary lymph, following intrabronchial immunization with horse red blood cells (HRBC) and phytohemagglutinin- (PHA) induced transformation of blood and pulmonary lymph lymphocytes. Sheep immunized 2 d after termination of NO/sub 2/ exposure had reduced outputs of PFC as compared to those seen in sheep challenged 4 d after NO/sub 2/ exposure. Animals immunized 4 d after NO/sub 2/ exposure had outputs similar to those of air control sheep.A reduction of 38-87% in the transformation index of both blood and pulmonary lymph lymphocytes was observed in sheep exposed to NO/sub 2/. These results suggest that intermittent, short-term exposure to 5 ppm NO/sub 2/ may temporarily alter pulmonary immune responsiveness.

  16. Microbiological analysis of bovine lymph nodes for the detection of Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) have been identified as a potential source of Salmonella when trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. Studies examining the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral LNs of cattle are few in number and the microbiological methods used for these ...

  17. Effects of pseudorabies virus infection on the tracheobronchial lymph node transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study represents the first swine transcriptome hiveplots created from GSEA data and provides a novel insight into the global transcriptome changes spanning the swine genome. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral iso...

  18. Recording of lymph flow dynamics in microvessels using correlation properties of scattered coherent radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedosov, I V; Tuchin, Valerii V; Galanzha, E I; Solov'eva, A V; Stepanova, T V

    2002-11-30

    The direction-sensitive method of microflow velocity measurements based on the space - time correlation properties of the dynamic speckle field is described and used for in vivo monitoring of lymph flow in the vessels of rat mesentery. The results of measurements are compared with the data obtained from functional video microscopy of the microvessel region. (laser biology and medicine)

  19. Immune complexes stimulate CCR7-dependent dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Clatworthy, Menna R.; Aronin, Caren E. Petrie; Mathews, Rebeccah J.; Morgan, Nicole; Smith, Kenneth G.C.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are critical for defence against a variety of microbes but may also be pathogenic in some autoimmune diseases. Many effector functions of antibody are mediated by Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs), which are found on most immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are important antigen presenting cells and play a central role in inducing antigen-specific tolerance or immunity1,2. Following antigen acquisition in peripheral tissues, DCs migrate to draining lymph nodes via lymphatics to present antigen to T cells. In this study we demonstrate that Fc?R engagement by IgG immune complexes (IC) stimulates DC migration from peripheral tissues to the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. In vitro, IC-stimulated murine and human DCs showed enhanced directional migration in a CCL19 gradient and increased CCR7 expression. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observed that local administration of IC resulted in dermal DC mobilisation. We confirmed that dermal DC migration to lymph nodes was CCR7-dependent and increased in the absence of the inhibitory receptor, Fc?RIIb. These observations have relevance to autoimmunity, because autoantibody-containing serum from mice and humans with SLE also increased dermal DC migration to lymph nodes in vivo, suggesting that this process may occur in lupus, potentially driving the inappropriate localisation of autoantigen-bearing DCs. PMID:25384086

  20. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast

    E-print Network

    Bigio, Irving J.

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the western world, with a reported London London, United Kingdom Abstract. The ability to provide the best treatment for breast cancer depends on establishing whether or not the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm

  1. Lymph node tuberculosis after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an atypical presentation of an uncommon complication

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Guillermo; Drake-Pérez, Marta; Rodriguez, José Luis; Yañez, Lucrecia; Insunza, Andrés; Richard, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections are uncommon complications in the haematopoietic stem cell post-transplant period. Most cases are reactivations of latent infections affecting the lung. We present an atypical case of isolated lymph node tuberculosis after an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which highlights the importance of having a high suspicion index, even in non-endemic countries. PMID:26015804

  2. Exploring molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sangwoo; Nam, Hojung; Lee, Doheon

    2011-01-01

    molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer, supported by evidences of feasible geneMolecular Cancer Research Ellsworth RE, Seebach J, Field LA, Heckman C, Kane J, Hooke JA, Love B, Shriver CD: A gene

  3. Management of sub-5?mm rectal carcinoids with lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Toh, James Wei Tatt; Henderson, Christopher; Yabe, Takako Eva; Ong, Evonne; Chapuis, Pierre; Bokey, Les

    2015-01-01

    Minute (<5?mm) and small (5–10?mm) rectal carcinoids discovered during colonoscopy are generally considered to be non-aggressive, and the management and surveillance of patients with this entity are usually limited. We present the case of a 61-year-old Chinese female with multiple sub-5?mm carcinoid tumours in the rectum without any computed tomography (CT) evidence of lymph node or distant metastases. She underwent an ultra-low anterior resection for a sessile rectal polyp with the histological appearance of a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Seven foci of minute carcinoids in the rectum and perirectal lymph node metastastic spread from the carcinoid tumours were also discovered on histopathology. There were no lymph node metastases originating from adenocarcinoma. This case report and review of the literature suggests that minute rectal carcinoids are at risk of metastasizing and that these patients should be investigated for lymph node and distant metastatic spread with CT and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy or its equivalent, as this would influence prognosis and surgical management of these patients. Findings relating to lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, high Ki-67, mitotic rate, depth of tumour invasion, central ulceration, multifocal tumours and size are useful in predicting metastases and may be used in scoring tools. Size alone is not a good predictor of metastastic spread. PMID:25342710

  4. Tumor-induced lymph node alterations detected by MRI lymphography using gadolinium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, S. C.; Kurland, B. F.; Liu, C.-L.; Ho, R. J. Y.; Ruddell, A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI lymphography shows potential to identify alterations in lymph drainage through lymph nodes (LNs) in cancer and other diseases. MRI studies have typically used low molecular weight gadolinium contrast agents, however larger gadolinium-loaded nanoparticles possess characteristics that could improve the specificity and sensitivity of lymphography. The performance of three gadolinium contrast agents with different sizes and properties was compared by 3T MRI after subcutaneous injection. Mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma footpad tumors were imaged to assess tumor-induced alterations in lymph drainage through tumor-draining popliteal and inguinal LNs versus contralateral uninvolved drainage. Gadolinium lipid nanoparticles were able to identify tumor-induced alterations in contrast agent drainage into the popliteal LN, while lower molecular weight or albumin-binding gadolinium agents were less effective. All of the contrast agents distributed in foci around the cortex and medulla of tumor-draining popliteal LNs, while they were restricted to the cortex of non-draining LNs. Surprisingly, second-tier tumor-draining inguinal LNs exhibited reduced uptake, indicating that tumors can also divert LN drainage. These characteristics of tumor-induced lymph drainage could be useful for diagnosis of LN pathology in cancer and other diseases. The preferential uptake of nanoparticle contrasts into tumor-draining LNs could also allow selective targeting of therapies to tumor-draining LNs. PMID:26497382

  5. Three-dimensional High-frequency Characterization of Cancerous Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. 3D ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to tissue fixation to recover orientation after sectioning for 3D histological evaluation. Backscattered echo signals were processed using 3D cylindrical regions-of-interest to yield four QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure (i.e., effective scatterer size, acoustic concentration, intercept, and slope). QUS estimates were computed following established methods using two scattering models. In this study, 46 lymph nodes acquired from 27 patients diagnosed with colon cancer were processed. Results revealed that fully-metastatic nodes could be perfectly differentiated from cancer-free nodes using slope or scatterer-size estimates. Specifically, results indicated that metastatic nodes had an average effective scatterer size (i.e., 37.1 ± 1.7 um) significantly larger (p <0.05) than that in cancer-free nodes (i.e., 26 ± 3.3 um). Therefore, the 3D QUS methods could provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures. PMID:20133046

  6. In-vitro investigations of the native fluorescence of lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Wolfgang; Dreyer, Thomas; Bohle, Rainer M.; Pollich, Beate; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Schwemmle, Konrad

    1996-01-01

    In in vitro illumination of HE stained frozen sections of healthy lymph nodes with different excitation wavelengths (365-546 nm) results, at least, in three different fluorescence emission peaks located at ca. 460, 545 and 592 nm. These might correspond to NADH, flavins, and protoporphyrin. Lymph nodes invaded by cancer cells resulted in the same spectra; they differ, however, in intensity. The HE stained cryosections can also be used for determining the spatial distribution of the endogenous fluorophores. In accordance with results obtained previously, cancer tissue of lymph nodes exhibit a small fluorescence intensity only. The adjacent healthy tissue shows a rather high intensity in comparison to normal values. Furthermore, necrotic tumor cells at different stages including its final degradation products (minute debris) can be detected by using a double illumination technique. HE stained frozen sections were illuminated concomitantly with a halogen lamp (bright-field transmitted light technique) and an Hg high-pressure lamp with an appropriate filter (395-440 nm) (incident light fluorescence technique). The minute debris can be seen in an area in which the histological image shows hardly anything. The fluorescence intensity observed in healthy tissue adjacent to the tumor, seems to decrease with progression of necrosis. Thus, autofluorescence studies on lymph nodes seem to be able to detect metastasis and the different stages of necrosis more clearly than the methods used conventionally.

  7. Portable widefield imaging device for ICG-detection of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govone, Angelo Biasi; Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Carvalho, André Lopes; Capuzzo, Renato de Castro; Magalhães, Daniel Varela; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis is one of the major cancer complications, since the malignant cells detach from the primary tumor and reaches other organs or tissues. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymphatic structure to be affected by the malignant cells, but its location is still a great challenge for the medical team. This occurs due to the fact that the lymph nodes are located between the muscle fibers, making it visualization difficult. Seeking to aid the surgeon in the detection of the SLN, the present study aims to develop a widefield fluorescence imaging device using the indocyanine green as fluorescence marker. The system is basically composed of a 780nm illumination unit, optical components for 810nm fluorescence detection, two CCD cameras, a laptop, and dedicated software. The illumination unit has 16 diode lasers. A dichroic mirror and bandpass filters select and deliver the excitation light to the interrogated tissue, and select and deliver the fluorescence light to the camera. One camera is responsible for the acquisition of visible light and the other one for the acquisition of the ICG fluorescence. The software developed at the LabVIEW® platform generates a real time merged image where it is possible to observe the fluorescence spots, related to the lymph nodes, superimposed at the image under white light. The system was tested in a mice model, and a first patient with tongue cancer was imaged. Both results showed the potential use of the presented fluorescence imaging system assembled for sentinel lymph node detection.

  8. Electrosurgical operation of vulvar carcinoma with postoperative irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Weghaupt, K.

    1988-02-01

    The results of treatment in the department of 607 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva between 1952 and 1980 is described and analyzed. The absolute 5-year cure rate in these patients was 60.3%. Particular attention was given to lymph node status (TNM system) in the analysis of the last 141 patients treated. The absolute 5-year survival rate was 67% for the N0-N1 patients and 43% for the N2-N3 patients. Patients were treated uniformly by means of electrosurgical operation and postactinic irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Operative lymphadenectomy was performed only in 5% of cases when the diameter of inguinal lymph nodes was greater than 2 cm. This simple surgical technique, in combination with irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes, gives excellent results and avoids the complications associated with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Owing to its combination of electrosurgical operation of the vulva and irradiation of the inguinal regions as a standard procedure, the treatment involves extremely low strain on the patient and is almost free of complications. This seems to be particularly important as the results of our treatment are not less satisfactory than those of more aggressive procedures.

  9. Detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel nodes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction correlates with tumor thickness and is predictive of micrometastatic disease in the lymph node basin.

    PubMed

    Blaheta, H J; Schittek, B; Breuninger, H; Sotlar, K; Ellwanger, U; Thelen, M H; Maczey, E; Rassner, G; Bueltmann, B; Garbe, C

    1999-07-01

    The sentinel node has been reported to be representative for the presence or absence of metastatic melanoma in the draining lymph node basin. In this study, for the first time sentinel nodes and adjoining nonsentinel nodes were analyzed for micrometastatic disease using tyrosinase reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in comparison with standard immunohistochemistry. Successful identification of the sentinel nodes using a gamma probe-guided surgery was achieved in 73 (92%) of 79 patients with cutaneous stage I and II melanoma (tumor thickness > or =0.75 mm). A total of 794 regional lymph nodes, 148 sentinel nodes, and 646 adjoining nonsentinel nodes were evaluated. Tyrosinase RT-PCR was shown to increase the sensitivity for melanoma cell detection in sentinel nodes significantly (49% positivity) as compared with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against HMB-45 antigen and S-100 protein (18% positivity). Examination of sentinel nodes was highly predictive in determining the presence of regional lymph node micrometastasis by immunohistochemistry (99%) and RT-PCR (89%). Interestingly, detection of nodal micrometastasis by RT-PCR showed a strong positive correlation with tumor thickness of primary cutaneous melanoma. These results suggest the clinical significance and emphasize the importance of tyrosinase RT-PCR for detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel nodes. PMID:10403306

  10. Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels.

    PubMed

    Noh, Young-Il; Rho, Minsuk; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2012-10-01

    Until now, even though intensive research has been dedicated to the primo vascular system (PVS) during these years, no statistical data on primo vessels and primo vessels in lymph flow have been available. Recently, the general morphological features of primo vessels in lymph vessels around the abdominal aorta were identified from microdissections of tissues from New Zealand White rabbits, and with Alcian blue staining, primo vessels in lymphatic vessels could be definitely identified under a digital microscope. The micro-dissected specimens in situ reveal rod-shaped nuclei stained by Acridine orange. The blue-stained nuclei, which were distributed in a broken-lined stripe, formed a tube structure of about 20 ?m in diameter. The distance between the nuclei of two cells on neighboring aligned stripes, which is also the diameter of the micro tube, was measured to be about 5?10 ?m. The average length of the primo vessels was 2.4 mm, with the longest being 5.6 mm. The average size of the primo vessel was 50 ?m, and the average diameters of the primo and the lymph vessels were 26.0 ?m and 258.5 ?m, respectively. Occasionally, without the use of Alcian blue staining, milk-white transparent primo vessels were observed floating in lymph vessels. Thus, we suggest that the PVS might also have an important function connected with the lymph system. We also expect the traditional Korean meridian system to leave its invisible world during the last thousands of years and soon enter the visible scientific world. PMID:23040099

  11. IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens of colorectal cancer predicts lymph node metastasis and TNM stage

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qingzhu; Huang, Xiaoping; Fu, Bo; Liu, Jianghuan; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Qiao; Zhao, Tong

    2015-01-01

    IMP3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage and is a good independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression status and clinical implication of IMP3 in biopsy specimens have not yet been studied. We aim to address whether the presence of IMP3 expression in preoperative biopsies of CRC could predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. In this study, we examined IMP3 expression in paired biopsy and resection specimens of 71 CRC and analyzed the correlation of IMP3 expression with clinicopathological parameters. In the biopsy specimens, IMP3 positive expression was observed in 56 of 71 cases (78.9%) whereas negative expression was observed in 15 of 71 cases (21.1%). In the resection specimens, IMP3 positive expression was detected in 83.1% cases (59/71) whereas negative expression was detected in 16.9% cases (12/71). The absolute concordance rate between biopsy and resection specimens was 90.1% (64/71). The Spearman correlation test documented the existence of a strong linear correlation between the percentage of IMP3-positive cells in the biopsy and resection specimen (r = 0.629; P < 0.001). IMP3 expression in resection specimens was significantly related to histological grade (P = 0.043), T classification (P = 0.035), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.007), tumor border (P = 0.049) and tumor budding (P = 0.012). IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P = 0.005) and tumor budding (P = 0.001). In conclusion, IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens could be used to predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in CRC patients. PMID:26617820

  12. Ultrasound morphology of inguinal lymph nodes may not herald an associated pathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among patients undergoing follow-up after surgery for melanoma, ultrasound (US) very often reveals lymph nodes in groin area, that do not show clear characters of a metastatic lesion yet that have atypical US features, which could result in diagnostic uncertainty. We evaluated such lesions among a cohort of patients. Methods The study population consisted of patients who presented consecutively to our facility for a control between 1 January 2009 and 30 July 2010 and who had undergone surgery for a melanoma, at least 6 months earlier, in areas draining to lymph nodes of the groin but choosing – for this study - the opposite side to the natural drainage. The following parameters of the US performed on the lymph nodes were evaluated: number and size, aspects of the outline, including any extroflexion of the outline and contours morphology, homogeneity and thickness of the cortex and aspects of the hilus, characteristics of the vascularisation of the lymph node at color-power Doppler. A second US examination was performed on the same area after at least 12 months. Results and conclusions We found a very high number of patients (42/124) with lymph nodes that did not appear to be fully normal at US examination, particularly those with structural alterations in the hilus and slight loss of physiologic curvature of the outlines, with moderate thickening of the cortex. Of the 124 patients, who were followed for at least one year, 42 showed these characteristics, and none of these showed any progression to malignancy at follow-up. Based on these results, we can conclude that focusing excessively on such US findings could lead to the inappropriate performance of additional diagnostic tests, with a consequent increase in management costs and a worsening of the quality of life for these patients. PMID:23078807

  13. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  14. Nomogram to Predict Occult N2 Lymph Nodes Metastases in Patients With Squamous Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Long; Jiang, Shanshan; Lin, Yongbin; Yang, Han; Xie, Zehua; Lin, Yaobin; Long, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients without distant metastases, occult involvement of N2 lymph nodes would be of the utmost importance in determining both treatment and survival. The key to optimal treatment strategies relied on accurate diagnosis, in particular accurate clinical tumor staging. Patients with clinical N0 or N1 staging preoperatively had a sizeable risk to have occult N2 lymph nodes metastases. From November 2004 to March 2007, the entire database in a tertiary hospital of all patients with a pathologic diagnosis of squamous NSCLC underwent anatomical pulmonary resection and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection were retrospectively collected and reviewed. A nomogram was developed on the basis of a multivariable logistic regression model with a combination of all potential variables. In order to surmount the potential of overestimating predictive performance, both bootstrapping for internal validation and an independent external validation set were employed. A nomogram incorporating the significant risk factors was created to predict the probability of occult N2 lymph nodes metastases. The calibration plot for the probability of occult N2 lymph nodes metastases showed an optimal agreement between the predicted probabilities by nomogram and actual observed probabilities. An objective and accurate nomogram predictive model for occult N2 lymph nodes metastases was drawn up and validated internally and externally in patients with squamous NSCLC. The nomogram model, as a robust tool in predicting occult N2 lymph nodes involvement, could be involved in a cost-effective application of specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26579815

  15. Automatic identification of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT scans using multi-atlas organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joanne; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Station-labeling of mediastinal lymph nodes is typically performed to identify the location of enlarged nodes for cancer staging. Stations are usually assigned in clinical radiology practice manually by qualitative visual assessment on CT scans, which is time consuming and highly variable. In this paper, we developed a method that automatically recognizes the lymph node stations in thoracic CT scans based on the anatomical organs in the mediastinum. First, the trachea, lungs, and spines are automatically segmented to locate the mediastinum region. Then, eight more anatomical organs are simultaneously identified by multi-atlas segmentation. Finally, with the segmentation of those anatomical organs, we convert the text definitions of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map into patient-specific color-coded CT image maps. Thus, a lymph node station is automatically assigned to each lymph node. We applied this system to CT scans of 86 patients with 336 mediastinal lymph nodes measuring equal or greater than 10 mm. 84.8% of mediastinal lymph nodes were correctly mapped to their stations.

  16. The measurement of skin lymph flow by isotope clearance--reliability, reproducibility, injection dynamics, and the effect of massage

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, P.S.; Simmonds, R.; Rezvani, M.; Robbins, M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Ryan, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The measurement of skin lymph flow was investigated using an isotope clearance technique (ICT). Multiple lymph flow determinations were undertaken in the skin of anaesthetized large white pigs to test for reproducibility, ascertain the most suitable tracer, study the influence of injection dynamics, and observe the effect of massage as a stimulus to lymph flow. Blood clearance of tracer was also investigated. Results demonstrated that lymphatic clearance is a monoexponential function with good reproducibility under controlled laboratory conditions. 99mTc-colloid (TCK17 Cis) compared favorably with 131I-human serum albumin as a tracer and both performed better than colloid gold (198Au). Lymph flow was significantly faster in one pig than in the other. No difference existed between left and right sides or between caudal and rostral sites on each flank, but clearance was significantly slower in thigh than flank skin. Sub-epidermal injections cleared faster and more consistently than either deep or subcutaneous injections. Neither injection volume nor needle tract backflow of tracer influenced results, but local massage significantly enhanced clearance. Escape of 99mTc-colloid by the blood was negligible. These results indicate that skin lymph flow can be reliably measured when conditions are controlled. Extrinsic factors such as massage strongly influence lymph flow. Greater sensitivity in detecting degrees of lymphatic insufficiency may be achieved if a standardized stimulus to lymph flow is administered during isotope clearance measurement.

  17. Translocation of particles from lung lobes or the peritoneal cavity to regional lymph nodes in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bice, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Knowing the clearance pathways from the lung for inhaled materials is important to our understanding of the kinetics of particle clearance from the lung and other defense mechanisms, such as development of immune reaction to inhaled antigens. To determine the pathways and amounts of particles translocated to regional lymph nodes, radiolabeled fused aluminosilicate particles were instilled into specific lung lobes or injected into the peritoneal cavity of beagle dogs and the dogs were necropsied 34, 182, or 365 d later. Individual lung lobes cleared particles to one of two lymph nodes, and specific lymph nodes accumulated particles from one to three lung lobes. Lymph nodes that collected particles from the lung included the left mediastinal node, left tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN), right TBLN, left middle TBLN, and right middle TBLN. The destinations for translocated particles were primarily the nodes proximate to the tracheal bifurcation. Particles injected into the peritoneal cavity were translocated mainly to mesenteric lymph nodes and left sternal and right sternal lymph nodes, with a small percentage of the particles going also to the left TBLN. 17 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Increased malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) is associated with macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely accepted that specific immunological parameters in solid malignancies are associated with patient’s prognosis. Recently a correlation of macrophage polarization with histomorphological parameters could also be shown in oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). The observed tumor derived peripheral immune tolerance could be associated with the macrophage polarization in regional tumor draining lymph nodes. So far there are no studies analyzing the macrophage polarization in cervical lymph nodes of oscc patients. In the present study we aimed to correlate macrophage polarization in different anatomical lymph node compartments of patients diagnosed with oscc with histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor (T-, N-, L-, V-, Pn-status, grading). Methods Tumor free (n?=?37) and metastatic (n?=?17) lymph nodes of T1 and T2 oscc patients were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1 positive cells. Samples were digitized using whole slide imaging and the number of cells expressing the aforementioned markers in the region of interest quantitatively analyzed. Results The malignancy of the primary tumor (defined by T-, L-, Pn-status, grading) correlated with the lymph node macrophage polarization. L1 and Pn1 tumor cases displayed a significantly (p?lymph nodes. G3 cases presented a significantly (p?lymph nodes compared to T1 tumors. Metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes did not differ regarding their macrophage polarization. Conclusions The current study revealed for the first time an influence of oscc on the macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes. Markers of malignant behavior in the primary tumor were associated with a shift of macrophage polarization in lymph nodes from the anti-tumoral M1 type to the tumor-promoting M2 type. As tumor free and metastatic lymph nodes did not differ in terms of their macrophage polarization pattern, there must be other factors influencing the location for lymph node metastasis formation. PMID:25042135

  19. Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for stage IIIb mixed germ cell testicular cancer after chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Dong Soo; Chang, Sung-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, especially when performed with the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical), has shown excellent cosmetic results with similar oncologic outcomes to those of open surgery. In this study, we present a case of robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection performed in an 18-year-old man who was diagnosed with a stage IIIb mixed germ cell tumor and who was initially treated with radical orchiectomy, followed by chemotherapy. This case shows that robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is technically feasible, safe, and cosmetically favorable, even when performed on patients with high-stage disease or after chemotherapy. PMID:26175874

  20. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by fine needle aspiration cytology of an isolated cervical lymph node: case report.

    PubMed

    Beljan, Renata; Sundov, Dinka; Luksi?, Boris; Solji?, Violeta; Burazer, Marina Pilji?

    2010-03-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with an isolated, painless, slightly enlarged right laterocervical lymph node without any other signs and symptoms of disease. Laboratory test including hematological and biochemical parameters were normal. A cervical ultrasonography demonstrated one lymph node (10 mm) on the right laterocervical side and one small reactive lymph node on the left laterocervical side. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears revealed a polymorphic population of cells composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes, epitheloid cells, plasma cell, tingible body macrophages and macrophages infiltrated with Leishmania amastigotes. Treatment was initiated with Stiboglukonat Na (Pentostam) and led to a full recovery. PMID:20432756

  1. Quantitative proteome profiling of lymph node-positive vs. -negative colorectal carcinomas pinpoints MX1 as a marker for lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael; Rau, Tilman T; Metodieva, Gergana; Geppert, Carol I; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lausen, Berthold; Metodiev, Metodi V

    2014-12-15

    We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to measure the abundance of more than 9,000 proteins in 19 individually dissected colorectal tumors representing lymph node metastatic (n = 10) and nonmetastatic (n = 9) phenotypes. Statistical analysis identified MX1 and several other proteins as overexpressed in lymph node-positive tumors. MX1, IGF1-R and IRF2BP1 showed significantly different expression in immunohistochemical validation (Wilcoxon test p = 0.007 for IGF1-R, p = 0.04 for IRF2BP1 and p = 0.02 for MX1 at the invasion front) in the validation cohort. Knockout of MX1 by siRNA in cell cultures and wound healing assays provided additional evidence for the involvement of this protein in tumor invasion. The collection of identified and quantified proteins to our knowledge is the largest tumor proteome dataset available at the present. The identified proteins can give insights into the mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and may act as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets after further prospective validation. PMID:24771638

  2. Quantitative proteome profiling of lymph node positive vs. negative colorectal carcinomas pinpoints MX1 as a marker for lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Croner, Roland S.; Stürzl, Michael; Rau, Tilman; Metodieva, Gergana; Geppert, Carol I.; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lausen, Berthold; Metodiev, Metodi V.

    2014-01-01

    We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to measure the abundance of more than 9,000 proteins in 19 individually dissected colorectal tumors representing lymph node metastatic (n=10) and non-metastatic (n=9) phenotypes. Statistical analysis identified MX1 and several other proteins as overexpressed in lymph node positive tumors. MX1, IGF1-R and IRF2BP1 showed significantly different expression in IHC validation (Wilcoxon test p=0.007 for IGF1-R, p=0.04 for IRF2BP1, and p=0.02 for MX1 at the invasion front) in the validation cohort. Knockout of MX1 by siRNA in cell cultures and wound healing assays provided additional evidence for the involvement of this protein in tumor invasion. The collection of identified and quantified proteins to our knowledge is the largest tumor proteome dataset available at the present. The identified proteins can give insights in the mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis in CRC and may act as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets after further prospective validation. PMID:24771638

  3. Microscopic lymph node tumor burden quantified by macroscopic dual-tracer molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Barth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node biopsy (LNB) is employed in many cancer surgeries to identify metastatic disease and stage the cancer, yet morbidity and diagnostic delays associated with LNB could be avoided if non-invasive imaging of nodal involvement was reliable. Molecular imaging has potential in this regard; however, variable delivery and nonspecific uptake of imaging tracers has made conventional approaches ineffective clinically. A method of correcting for non-specific uptake with injection of a second untargeted tracer is presented, allowing tumor burden in lymph nodes to be quantified. The approach was confirmed in an athymic mouse model of metastatic human breast cancer targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, a cell surface receptor overexpressed by many cancers. A significant correlation was observed between in vivo (dual-tracer) and ex vivo measures of tumor burden (r = 0.97, p < 0.01), with an ultimate sensitivity of approximately 200 cells (potentially more sensitive than conventional LNB). PMID:25344739

  4. The migration of lymphocytes across the vascular endothelium in lymph nodes: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nishi, M; Hamada, N; Nomura, H; Mastueda, M; Aiko, T

    1979-03-01

    Endothelial cells of Postcapillary Venules (PCV) and the passage of lymphocytes through the wall of PCV were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in mesenteric lymph nodes of rats. Individual endothelial cells of PCV in the lymph node did not have flat surface or were not typically cubic, but swelled at the central part assuming a foot ball-like shape. Circulating lymphocytes are considered to migrate into lymphatic tissues through the wall of PCV from the blood stream. Two hypotheses, inter-endothelial cell passage and intra-endothelial cell passage, have been proposed. The three-dimensional studies on lymphocytes passing the wall with SEM confirmed that migrating lymphocytes pushes their way through the intercellular space with pressing the adjoining endothelial cells from beginning to end, supporting the former hypothesis. Invasion of lymphocytes into endothelial cells were not observed. PMID:449406

  5. The CLEC-2–podoplanin axis controls fibroblastic reticular cell contractility and lymph node microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Astarita, Jillian L.; Cremasco, Viviana; Fu, Jianxin; Darnell, Max C.; Peck, James R.; Nieves-Bonilla, Janice M.; Song, Kai; Woodruff, Matthew C.; Gogineni, Alvin; Onder, Lucas; Ludewig, Burkhard; Weimer, Robby M.; Carroll, Michael C.; Mooney, David J.; Xia, Lijun; Turley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    In lymph nodes, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form a collagen-based reticular network that supports migratory dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells and transports lymph. A hallmark of FRCs is their propensity to contract collagen, yet this function is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that podoplanin (PDPN) regulated actomyosin contractility in FRCs. Under resting conditions, when FRCs are unlikely to encounter mature DCs expressing the PDPN receptor, CLEC-2, PDPN endowed FRCs with contractile function and exerted tension within the reticulum. Upon inflammation, CLEC-2 on mature DCs potently attenuated PDPN-mediated contractility, resulting in FRC relaxation and reduced tissue stiffness. Disrupting PDPN function altered the homeostasis and spacing of FRCs and T cells, resulting in an expanded reticular network and enhanced immunity. PMID:25347465

  6. Lipid nanoparticle vectorization of indocyanine green improves fluorescence imaging for tumor diagnosis and lymph node resection.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Fabrice P; Berger, Michel; Guillermet, Stéphanie; Josserand, Véronique; Guyon, Laurent; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Vinet, Françoise; Texier, Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence imaging is opening a new era in image-guided surgery and other medical applications. The only FDA approved contrast agent in the near infrared is IndoCyanine Green (ICG), which despites its low toxicity, displays poor chemical and optical properties for long-term and sensitive imaging applications in human. Lipid nanoparticles are investigated for improving ICG optical properties and in vivo fluorescence imaging sensitivity. 30 nm diameter lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are loaded with ICG. Their characterization and use for tumor and lymph node imaging are described. Nano-formulation benefits dye optical properties (6 times improved brightness) and chemical stability (>6 months at 4 degrees C in aqueous buffer). More importantly, LNP vectorization allows never reported sensitive and prolonged (>1 day) labeling of tumors and lymph nodes. Composed of human-use approved ingredients, this novel ICG nanometric formulation is foreseen to expand rapidly the field of clinical fluorescence imaging applications. PMID:22888743

  7. Histology and ultrastructure of the lymph nodes of the buffalo (Bos bubalus).

    PubMed

    Zidan, M; Pabst, R

    2015-06-01

    Pre-scapular, femoral and mesenteric lymph nodes from five buffalo calves and five buffalo bulls were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The nodes were surrounded with a thin capsule of dense connective tissue and smooth muscles. Subcapsular and trabecular lymphatic sinuses were lined with endothelial cells resting on a basement membrane. The cortex was formed by lymphoid follicles and inter-follicular lymphocytes. Primary and secondary follicles were observed. The medulla was made up of medullary cords of lymphocytes separated by lymphatic sinuses. These sinuses were lined with a discontinuous epithelium and interestingly crossed by reticular fibres. High endothelial venules were found in the paracortical area. Several lymphocytes were observed infiltrating the wall of these venules. The lymph nodes of the Egyptian water buffalo showed a typical structure compared with the majority of mammals, with no age-related structural variation. PMID:24810142

  8. Simultaneous Bilateral Submental Lymph Node Flaps for Lower Limb Lymphedema Post Leg Charles Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ran; Lin, Miffy Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We summarize the case of a 59-year-old woman with left lower limb lymphedema for 4 years post hysterectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. She underwent the Charles procedure on her left leg 2 years before being referred to our hospital and developed several cellulitis episodes and progressive lymphedema affecting her left toes and thigh. Bilateral vascularized submental lymph node flaps were transferred to her left ankle and thigh, respectively. After a 5-month follow-up, the leg became softer and lighter without relapsing cellulites, and the circumferential reduction rates at 15 cm above knee, 15 cm below knee, and 10 cm above ankle were 23.3%, 50%, and 22.2%, respectively. The patient was satisfied with the functional recovery and discontinued use of compression garment postoperatively. PMID:26495226

  9. Passive transfer of experimental autoimmune myasthenia by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Passive transfer of experimental autoimmune myasthenia (EAM) was performed with lymph node cells from donor guinea pigs immunized with purified acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from Torpedo californica. Recipient animals revealed the same clinical signs and electromyographic patterns as observed in actively challenged animals. These phenomena are parallel to the clinical manifestations of the human disease myasthenia gravis, in which cellular response to AChR was recently demonstrated. PMID:1165476

  10. Multiple primary malignant paraganglioma of the head and neck with lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yeti?er, Sertaç; Ramadan, Saime

    2015-01-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck are usually benign tumors. Malignant form is quite rare and criteria for malignancy are not clear. Clinical, biochemical and histological features of malignant forms are not sufficient to reliably distinguish them from benign tumors and malignancy is established only in the presence of distant metastasis. Herein, we report a patient with glomus jugulare on the right, glomus vagale and glomus caroticum tumors on the left side with cervical lymph node metastasis on the right side. PMID:26211865

  11. Pathological findings on peripheral nerves, lymph nodes, and visceral organs of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Liu, T C; Qiu, J S

    1984-09-01

    Pathological findings in a) 103 autopsies, b) biopsy material of peripheral nerve tissue from 210 tuberculoid patients, and c) inguinal lymph nodes from 106 leprosy cases are presented. Overall, lesions in peripheral nerves were most common in the ulnar (85.7% in the TT type, 98.3% in LL), peroneal (77.8% in TT, 97.9% in LL), median (80% in TT, 90.2% in LL), radial (66.6% in TT, 82% in LL), and the great auricular, tibial and supraorbital nerves. The ratio of bilateral nerve involvement in the same nerve was higher than unilateral involvement (approximately 5:1). Lesions of the peripheral nerve ganglion were seen in the LL type (22 cases, 61.1%) and the TT type (8 cases, 53.3%). These have seldom been mentioned in past literature. Superficial lymph nodes were most commonly affected in all types of leprosy. Lymph nodes in the hepatic and splenic portal areas were sometimes involved in lepromatous or borderline cases. Between the two polar types of leprosy, the lesions in the lymph nodes showed gradual transitions in a spectrum-like pattern which were similar to the changes in the lesions in the skin. In lepromatous leprosy, lesions could be found in 85.3% of the cases in the liver, 41.1% in the spleen, 86.7% in the testes, approximately 50% in the upper respiratory tract (including 36.4% in the nasopharynx), and 34.4% in the adrenal gland. Three cases had ophthalmologic lesions. In borderline leprosy, biphasic lesions of leprosy were found in various internal organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6541205

  12. Lymph flow pattern in pleural diaphragmatic lymphatics during intrinsic and extrinsic isotonic contraction.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral rat diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, endowed with intrinsic spontaneous contractility, were in vivo filled with fluorescent dextrans and microspheres and subsequently studied ex vivo in excised diaphragmatic samples. Changes in diameter and lymph velocity were detected, in a vessel segment, during spontaneous lymphatic smooth muscle contraction and upon activation, through electrical whole-field stimulation, of diaphragmatic skeletal muscle fibers. During intrinsic contraction lymph flowed both forward and backward, with a net forward propulsion of 14.1 ± 2.9 ?m at an average net forward speed of 18.0 ± 3.6 ?m/s. Each skeletal muscle contraction sustained a net forward-lymph displacement of 441.9 ± 159.2 ?m at an average velocity of 339.9 ± 122.7 ?m/s, values significantly higher than those documented during spontaneous contraction. The flow velocity profile was parabolic during both spontaneous and skeletal muscle contraction, and the shear stress calculated at the vessel wall at the highest instantaneous velocity never exceeded 0.25 dyne/cm(2). Therefore, we propose that the synchronous contraction of diaphragmatic skeletal muscle fibers recruited at every inspiratory act dramatically enhances diaphragmatic lymph propulsion, whereas the spontaneous lymphatic contractility might, at least in the diaphragm, be essential in organizing the pattern of flow redistribution within the diaphragmatic lymphatic circuit. Moreover, the very low shear stress values observed in diaphragmatic lymphatics suggest that, in contrast with other contractile lymphatic networks, a likely interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms be based on a mechanical and/or electrical connection rather than on nitric oxide release. PMID:26519032

  13. Characterization of a human homologue of the murine peripheral lymph node homing receptor

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lymphocyte trafficking is a fundamental aspect of the immune system that allows B and T lymphocytes with diverse antigen recognition specificities to be exposed to various antigenic stimuli in spatially distinct regions of an organism. A lymphocyte adhesion molecule that is involved with this trafficking phenomenon has been termed the homing receptor. Previous work (Lasky, L., T. Yednock, M. Singer, D. Dowbenko, C. Fennie, H. Rodriguez, T. Nguyen, S. Stachel, and S. Rosen. 1989. Cell. 56:1045-1055) has characterized a cDNA clone encoding a murine homing receptor that is involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes. This molecule was found to contain a number of protein motifs, the most intriguing of which was a carbohydrate binding domain, or lectin, that is apparently involved in the adhesive interaction between murine lymphocytes and peripheral lymph node endothelium. In this study, we have used the murine cDNA clone to isolate a human homologue of this peripheral lymph node-specific adhesion molecule. The human receptor was found to be highly homologous to the murine receptor in overall sequence, but showed no sequence similarity to another surface protein that may be involved with human lymphocyte homing, the Hermes glycoprotein. The extracellular region of the human receptor contained an NH2 terminally located carbohydrate binding domain followed by an EGF-like domain and a domain containing two repeats of a complement binding motif. Transient cell transfection assays using the human receptor cDNA showed that it encoded a surface glycoprotein that cross reacted with a polyclonal antibody directed against the murine peripheral lymph node homing receptor. Interestingly, the human receptor showed a high degree of sequence homology to another human cell adhesion glycoprotein, the endothelial cell adhesion molecule ELAM. PMID:2663882

  14. Cervical Lymph Nodes, Thyroiditis and Ophthalmopathy: The Pleomorphic Face of an Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghys, Christophe; Depierreux, Michel; Ozalp, Elçin; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) presenting with a clinical course suggestive of fibrosing thyroiditis and endocrine ophthalmopathy associated with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. This clinical presentation should prompt a search for associated systemic disorders, including an IgG4-RD. The clue to the exact diagnosis of the underlying disease is histological examination showing an IgG4 plasmatocytic infiltrate in the inflammatory organs involved. PMID:25759802

  15. Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.; Delp, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    There are only a few reports of the influence of imposed flow on an active lymph pump under conditions of controlled intraluminal pressure. Thus, the mechanisms are not clearly defined. Rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic ducts were isolated, cannulated and pressurized. Input and output pressures were adjusted to impose various flows. Lymphatic systolic and diastolic diameters were measured and used to determine contraction frequency and pump flow indices. Imposed flow inhibited the active lymph pump in both mesenteric lymphatics and in the thoracic duct. The active pump of the thoracic duct appeared more sensitive to flow than did the active pump of the mesenteric lymphatics. Imposed flow reduced the frequency and amplitude of the contractions and accordingly the active pump flow. Flow-induced inhibition of the active lymph pump followed two temporal patterns. The first pattern was a rapidly developing inhibition of contraction frequency. Upon imposition of flow, the contraction frequency immediately fell and then partially recovered over time during continued flow. This effect was dependent on the magnitude of imposed flow, but did not depend on the direction of flow. The effect also depended upon the rate of change in the direction of flow. The second pattern was a slowly developing reduction of the amplitude of the lymphatic contractions, which increased over time during continued flow. The inhibition of contraction amplitude was dependent on the direction of the imposed flow, but independent of the magnitude of flow. Nitric oxide was partly but not completely responsible for the influence of flow on the mesenteric lymph pump. Exposure to NO mimicked the effects of flow, and inhibition of the NO synthase by N (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine attenuated but did not completely abolish the effects of flow.

  16. Lymphadiposal Flaps and Lymphaticovenular Anastomoses for Severe Leg Edema: Functional Reconstruction for Lymph Drainage System.

    PubMed

    Koshima, Isao; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Hara, Hisako; Ohshima, Azusa; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Todokoro, Ken; Seki, Yukio; Iida, Takuya; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background?Collecting lymphatics have lymph-drainage function with contraction of smooth muscle cells. Patients with edema have lost this drainage function due to degeneration of smooth muscle cells. Lymphaticovenular (LV) anastomosis salvages smooth muscle cells from reversible degeneration (mild edema), but muscle cells cannot be recovered from irreversible degeneration (severe edema). Therefore, in severe edema, LV anastomoses cannot reestablish the drainage function of the lymphatic system.To overcome this weakness of LV bypass methods for severe edema, new methods were instituted for repair of this missing drainage function using a lymphadiposal flap from the contralateral foot for hemilateral edema, or transfer of lateral thoracic lymph nodes for bilateral edema. Methods?A total of 13 cases were repaired with lymphadiposal flaps and additional LV anastomoses. These cases have frequent phlegmon or cellulitis or resisted to previous LV anastomoses and/or compression therapy. The ages ranged from 15 to 75 years. There were four cases of primary edema and nine cases of secondary edema. Results?Regarding the lymphadiposal flap (n?=?8), three cases showed an excellent response (37.5%; no need for compression therapy), four cases had a good response (50%; improvement with compression), one case showed no change (12.5%; no improvement), and there were no cases of deterioration. Regarding the lateral thoracic lymph nodes transfer (n?=?5), two cases had a good response (40%), three showed no improvement (60%), and there were no cases of deterioration. Conclusion?It is concluded that lymphadiposal flap or lymph nodes transfer is suitable for severe edema having frequent cellulitis in unilateral or bilateral lower extremities resisting previous LV anastomoses and/or compression therapy. PMID:26258914

  17. Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Rong, Long-Fei; Shi, Chuan-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Lin; Wen, Hao; He, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis. METHODS: Metastatic lymph node (MLN), normal lymph node (NLN) and tumor tissues of 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected during the operation and validated by pathological examinations. RNAs were extracted from MLN, NLN, and cancer tissues separately. RNA quantity and quality were measured with a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and RNA integrity was assessed by standard denaturing agarose electrophoresis. Agilent Feature Extraction Software (Version 11.0.1.1) was used to analyze acquired array images. Four differently expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 26 subsets of MLN, NLN, and tumor tissues. RESULTS: Of 33045 lncRNAs, 1133 were differentially expressed in MLN compared with NLN, of which 260 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Five hundred and forty-five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in MLN compared with tumor tissues, of which 460 were up-regulated and 85 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Compared with NLN and cancer tissues, 14 lncRNAs were specifically up-regulated and 5 specifically down-regulated in MLN. AK307796, ENST00000425785, and AK021444 were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated in MLN and ENST00000465846 specifically down-regulated in MLN by qRT-PCR in 26 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: The specifically expressed lncRNAs in MLN may exert a partial or key role in the progress of lymph nodes metastasis of CRC. PMID:25009386

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ariyoshi, Y; Shimahara, M; Miyatake, S; Kawabata, S; Ono, K; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, A

    2009-07-01

    We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all. PMID:19395269

  19. CT-Guided Radioactive {sup 125}I Seed Implantation Therapy of Symptomatic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongmin; Lu, Jian; Gong, Ju; Zhang, Liyun; Xu, Yingjia; Song, Shaoli; Chen, Kemin; Liu, Fenju; Gang, Huang

    2013-04-12

    PurposeThis study explored the clinical efficacy of CT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation in treating patients with symptomatic retroperitoneal lymph node metastases.MethodsTwenty-five patients with pathologically confirmed malignant tumors received CT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation to treat metastatic lymph nodes. The diameter of the metastatic lymph nodes ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Treatment planning system (TPS) was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional image of the tumor and then calculate the corresponding quantity and distribution of {sup 125}I seeds.ResultsFollow-up period for this group of patients was 2–30 months, and median time was 16 months. Symptoms of refractory pain were significantly resolved postimplantation (P < 0.05), and Karnofsky score rose dramatically (P < 0.05). Most patients reported pain relief 2–5 days after treatment. Follow-up imaging studies were performed 2 months later, which revealed CR in 7 patients, PR in 13 patients, SD in 3 patients, and PD in 2 patients. The overall effective rate (CR + PR) was 80 %. Median survival time was 25.5 months. Seven patients died of recurrent tumor; 16 patients died of multiorgan failure or other metastases. Two patients survived after 30 months follow-up. Two patients reported localized skin erythema 1 week postimplantation, which disappeared after topical treatment.ConclusionsCT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation, which showed good palliative pain relief with acceptable short-term effects, has proved in our study to be a new, safe, effective, and relatively uncomplicated treatment option for symptomatic retroperitoneal metastatic lymph nodes.

  20. Ultrasonic dissection system technology in breast cancer: a case-control study in a large cohort of patients requiring axillary dissection.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, F; Basso, S M M; Santeufemia, D A; Bonamini, M; Chiara, G B

    2013-11-01

    In the sentinel node era, axillary dissection (ALND) for breast cancer (BC) is required much less frequently than in the past. However, complications, such as prolonged drainage output and seroma formation, are still observed. Harmonic dissection devices (HDDs) are widely used in laparoscopic and minimally invasive surgery to reduce collateral damage during tissue dissection, but its usefulness in breast surgery is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HDDs compared to that of conventional dissection in performing ALND. One hundred thirty-nine women (median age 61 years, range 34-71 years) with confirmed pT1-2 primary infiltrating ductal BC undergoing curative surgery were enrolled in the study. The population was prospectively randomized between two age- and stage-matched arms: group A (cases)-68 (48.9 %) patients (HDD technique), versus group B (controls)-71 (51.1 %) patients (conventional technique). In group B, skin flaps were obtained using a scalpel, scissors, and electrocautery which was never used for ALND. In group A, for each operation time, the HDDs were used exclusively. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and drainage output were (A vs. B) 95 ± 22 versus 109 ± 25 min, 56 ± 12 versus 86 ± 15 mL, and 412 ± 83 versus 456 ± 69 mL, respectively (p < 0.01). Twenty-nine (20.9 %) patients developed an axillary seroma: 9 (13.2 %) and 20 (28.2 %) for groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.030). Our study confirms that in patients with BC requiring ALND the use of HDDs is more time efficient than conventional surgery, and reduces intraoperative bleeding, the amount of drainage, and the risk of seroma formation. These results may lead to several short- and long-term advantages. Thus, a careful evaluation of the cost-benefits of nontraditional tools, such as HDDs, should be performed in all patients undergoing modified radical or partial mastectomy and ALND for BC. PMID:24186056

  1. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging to localize tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Handgraaf, Henricus J M; Boogerd, Leonora S F; Verbeek, Floris P R; Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Hardwick, James C H; Baeten, Coen I M; Frangioni, John V; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    Tumor involvement at the resection margin remains the most important predictor for local recurrence in patients with rectal cancer. A careful description of tumor localization is therefore essential. Currently, endoscopic tattooing with ink is customary, but visibility during laparoscopic resections is limited. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) could be an improvement. In addition to localize tumors, ICG can also be used to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The feasibility of this new technique was explored in five patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Intraoperative tumor visualization was possible in four out of five patients. Fluorescence signal could be detected 32±18 minutes after incision, while ink could be detected 42 ± 21 minutes after incision (p = 0.53). No recurrence was diagnosed within three months after surgery. Ex vivo imaging identified a mean of 4.2 ± 2.7 fluorescent lymph nodes, which were appointed SLNs. One out of a total of 83 resected lymph nodes contained a micrometastasis. This node was not fluorescent. This technical note describes the feasibility of endoscopic tattooing of rectal cancer using ICG:nanocolloid and NIR fluorescence imaging during laparoscopic resection. Simultaneous SLN mapping was also feasible, but may be less reliable due to neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:25950124

  2. Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression on lymph node metastasis in human cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, RUI; CHANG, YUAN; LIU, ZHAO; LIU, YANFENG; GUO, SEN; YU, JIAN; WANG, JIAYONG

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and its role in metastasis in vitro. A total of 65 biopsy samples of cholangiocarcinoma, plus the FRH-0201 cell line, were investigated. The expression of VEGF-C in the human cholangiocarcinoma specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effect of VEGF-C on tumor cell migration and proliferation was measured by MTT and Transwell assays in the FRH-0201 cell line. According to the IHC results, the biopsies of human cholangiocarcinoma were stained positively for VEGF-C, with a positive rate of 75.4% (49/65). Moreover, VEGF-C was expressed at a higher level in the patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis. In vitro, VEGF-C exhibited marked growth stimulation below the concentration of 5 ng/ml and was able to promote cholangiocarcinoma cell migration significantly. These findings suggested that VEGF-C may be a useful factor to predict lymph node metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma tissues and indicat