Sample records for ii collected chemical

  1. Genealogical Collections II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkel, Lowell M., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this special issue describe resource materials and research tools available for genealogical research. The topics covered include the use of government records, materials contained in Illinois public library collections and archives, the organization of genealogical collections, and library services offered to genealogists. (CLB)

  2. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  3. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng’s bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its overdose, and its pharmacokinetics. PMID:19689273

  4. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  5. World War II Poster Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Government Publications Department of the Northwestern University Library provides this browsable and searchable image base of over 200 posters related to World War II. Several powerful search options are available (especially in the advanced search mode, which supports numerous Boolean, truncation, and proximity operators, as well as field searching on ten separate fields). In addition, posters can be browsed by date, title, or topic (unfortunately, topics are not separately delineated at this time). Each retrieved poster is accompanied by a full cataloged record that includes artist, title, publisher, date, format, and a short caption, among other items. Clicking on the thumbnail image enlarges the image. The Library intends to make all of its over 300 posters available at this site.

  6. Collective surfing of chemically active particles.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures. PMID:24724685

  7. Collective Surfing of Chemically Active Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures.

  8. World War I and II Poster Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    War posters from World War I and II encouraged the people of the nations at war to buy war bonds, plant gardens, ration, enlist, or work extra hard for the sake of the war effort. A collection of these posters can be found in abundance on the library website of the University of North Texas. The library has over 600 war posters, and fortunately, 493 of them are digitized. Some are quaint by today's standards, but some, like the fifth record on the homepage, entitled "Deliver Us From Evil: Buy War Bonds," has an eerie haunting quality to it. In the search box underneath the introduction to the poster collection, type in Geisel to see a poster by a familiar artist and author, encouraging Americans to "Starve the Squander Bug." Visitors should click on the thumbnail to see those "squander bugs" in full detail.

  9. Chemical Abundances in Three Population II Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piercarlo Bonifacio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the abundance analysis of three Pop II stars. Chapter one is a historical review aimed at illustrating how the present-day concepts on stellar populations and the formation of the chemical elements came about. Chapter 2 describes the current views on the chemical an dynamical history of the Galaxy. Chapter 3 contains a

  10. [Chemical constitutents of Podocarpus imbricatus BI. (II)].

    PubMed

    Gu, S; Zhang, D; Xu, L; Yang, S

    1997-03-01

    From Podocarpus imbricatus five compounds were isolated and identified as 2"-O-rhamnosylvitexin (I), hinokiflavone (II), ecdysterone (III), beta-sitosteryl heptadecoate (IV) and daucosterol(V) on the basis of spectral studies (UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS) and chemical reactions. I, II, III, IV are obtained from this plant for the first time, and IV is obtained as beta-sitosteryl odd number carboxylic ester for the first time. PMID:10743187

  11. 76 FR 7841 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Request for...INFORMATION CONTACT: Cassandra Vail, Toxics Release Inventory Program Division...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. Title: Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (Form...

  12. 75 FR 36067 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Chemical-Specific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical-Specific Rules, TSCA Section...This ICR, entitled: ``Chemical-Specific Rules, TSCA Section...identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor...information contact: Karen Chu, Chemical Control Division...

  13. Algrebraic formulation of collective models. II. Collective and intrinsic submanifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1980-04-15

    A general procedure is given for decomposing N-particle configuration space into orbits of a kinematical collective group and a smooth transversal. EValuation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, in terms of vector fields tangent to the orbit and to the transversal, gives the decomposition of the kinetic energy into collective and intrinsic parts. By such geometric means, the essence of the various transformations of coordinates is revealed in a simple coordinate free way. Specifically considered are the kinematical collective groups SO(3) and GL/sub +/(3,R). It is also shown that, with center-of-mass motion removed, N-particle configuration space can be considered as an orbit of the group GL/sub +/(3,R) x SO(N-1). This decomposition of the configuration space is observed to induce a corresponding decomposition of the N-particle Hilbert space into irreducible subspaces with respect to both interesting spectrum generating algebras for collective motion and of the symmetric group. Thus the connection is established with the algebraic approach to the microscopic realization of collective states, with full respect for the Pauli principle.

  14. Collective effects in the PEP-II B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.

    1995-10-01

    The expected major collective effects in the PEP-II B-factory are discussed and thresholds presented. Broadband and narrow band impedance values are reviewed. Instabilities not related to impedance are discussed.

  15. Chemical Abundances in Three Population II Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Piercarlo

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the abundance analysis of three Pop II stars. Chapter one is a historical review aimed at illustrating how the present-day concepts on stellar populations and the formation of the chemical elements came about. Chapter 2 describes the current views on the chemical an dynamical history of the Galaxy. Chapter 3 contains a brief description of two classes of Pop II stars: blue HB stars and extremely metal-poor G-type stars. The stars which are the object of this thesis belong to these two classes. Feige 86 is a field HB star which has an anomalous chemical composition. We shall argue, in chapter 6, that it represents a Pop II analogue of the Pop I CP stars. Instead CS 22881-39 and CS 22885-96 are ``normal'' G-type giants whose peculiarity is that the iron abundance is some two orders of magnitude below that of the most metal poor globular clusters. This metal deficiency is taken as evidence that these stars were formed out of extremely metal-poor gas, and is not attributed to some sort of atmospheric peculiarity as is the case for the anomalous abundances of Feige 86. Chapter 4 reviews some of the methods used to fix the atmospheric parameters of B-type and G-type stars. Chapter 5 is devoted to the study of the far UV spectrum of the Pop I B-type star Iota Her. The reason for performing this study, and for including it in this thesis, is to provide a ``standard'' spectrum against which the spectrum of ``peculiar'' objects, such as Feige 86, may be compared. This ``standard'' spectrum also provides an ideal test ground for the spectrum synthesis code used throughout this work. Chapter 6 describes the abundance analysis of Feige 86. Chapter 7 describes the abundance analysis of CS 22881-39 and CS 22885-96. In the appendices we provide plots of the UV spectra of Iota Her and Feige 86.

  16. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  17. Territorial biodiversity and consequences on physico-chemical characteristics of pollen collected

    E-print Network

    Territorial biodiversity and consequences on physico-chemical characteristics of pollen collected France, the physico- chemical composition of honey bee-collected pollen, the territorial biodiversity%). agrosystem / honeybee / floral biodiversity / pollen analysis / chemical analysis 1. INTRODUCTION Since 1962

  18. Chemical syntheses and characterizations of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijuan Zhao

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is mainly concerned with the chemical syntheses and property characterizations of a series of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. We have synthesized ZnTe and Cr doped ZnTe nanoparticles, ZnSe:en precursor nanoribbon arrays, and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and tetrapods nanocrystals using simple chemical methods. Structures and compositions of the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),

  19. 75 FR 68370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...training program to improve security in the chemical industry sector. Information is automatically collected...The training is designed for the general chemical facility employee. U.S. chemical industry direct employment is about...

  20. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral...achieve an international ban on chemical weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits...

  1. Network Theory II: Stochastic Petri Nets, Chemical Reaction Networks

    E-print Network

    Baez, John

    inverses! So, we only evolve forwards in time in stochastic physics. #12;Suppose we have a Petri netNetwork Theory II: Stochastic Petri Nets, Chemical Reaction Networks and Feynman Diagrams John Baez, Jacob Biamonte, Brendan Fong #12;A Petri net is a way of drawing a finite set S of species, a finite set

  2. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaiah Olatunde Oladeji

    1999-01-01

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then

  3. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis - especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca(2+) and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca(2+) content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca(2+) content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available to other analytical instruments for measuring concentrations of substances other than Ca(2+).

  4. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available to other analytical instruments for measuring concentrations of substances other than Ca2+.

  5. Chemical characterisation and cytotoxic effects in A549 cells of urban-air PM10 collected in Torino, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Schilirò; Luca Alessandria; Raffaella Degan; Deborah Traversi; Giorgio Gilli

    2010-01-01

    Human type II alveolar cells (A549) were exposed to aqueous- and organic-solvent PM10 extracts to evaluate their effects on cell proliferation, proinflammatory cytokine release and cytotoxicity (assayed by lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, activity). PM10 samples collected in Torino (northwest Italy) were analysed for inorganic chemical species (bioavailable iron and secondary particulates) and endotoxins, which are potentially inflammatory promoters in human airways.

  6. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040) AGENCY...is soliciting comments concerning Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040), Profit...Number: 1545-1976. Form Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)....

  7. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A < 37 ?m, and 37 < B < 50 ?m) before elemental analysis. Major, minor and trace elements namely, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from <0.3 ?g g-1 (Sb) to 14.6 ± 0.6% (Ca). Ions concentrations in the soluble fraction measured at mg g-1 levels were in the order Cl- > Na+ ? SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  8. Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection Bibliography - Volume II: English and European Languages (2000)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaista Wahab

    2000-01-01

    In December 1995, the first volume of this bibliography was published. Volume I included all the Pashto and Dari language titles that were in the Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection at that time. Volume II includes English and European language materials. This volume contains titles that were added to the Collection prior to January 1998.\\u000aThe Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection is

  9. 1 The Petro Problem The Petro Chemical Corporation manufactures two types of chemicals, I and II. One ton

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    1 The Petro Problem The Petro Chemical Corporation manufactures two types of chemicals, I and II, and yields a net profit of 5 dollars. One ton of Chemical II requires 1 unit of A, 1 unit of B, 2 units of C, and yields a net profit of 4 dollars. Available are 70 units of A, 100 units of B, and 120 units of C

  10. 75 FR 8367 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; REDS-II-Does Pre-Donation Behavioral Deferral Increase the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; REDS--II--Does Pre-Donation Behavioral Deferral Increase the...OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: REDS-II Does Pre-Donation Behavioral Deferral Increase the...

  11. CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, leadCHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

  12. 76 FR 67208 - Agency Information Collection Activities Under Review; Title II of the Americans With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1190-0009] Agency Information Collection Activities Under Review; Title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990/Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  13. 77 FR 1084 - Agency Information Collection Activities Under Review; Title II of the Americans With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1190-0009] Agency Information Collection Activities Under Review; Title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990/Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  14. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ZOOPLANKTON SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING PHASE II OF THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from 146 lakes in the northeastern United States, collected during Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS-II) were analyzed for abundance of each species and each size class of zooplankton. n estimate of sampling and counting error was provided by replication of lake sa...

  15. COLLECTIVE PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leber

    1958-01-01

    Fundamental principles and criteria are presented for use in the design ; of shelters to provide adequate and equal protection from chemical, biological, ; and radiological warfare agents in both gaseous and particulate form. Design ; criteria, drawings, and layouts are included for shelters, decontamination ; facilities, and ventilation systems. (Ca.);

  16. METEORLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA COLLECTED IN THE UNITED STATES TO INFER DRY DEPOSITION OF TRACE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division is responsible for the operation of a prototype network developed to collect meteorological and surface condition data. The network of meteorological and chemical filterpack monitoring stations has been in operation since the summ...

  17. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration...and Forms AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice...59892

  18. Effect of Collection Distance on the Lattice Structure of Anatase Titania Nanoparticles Prepared by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Sun; Takashi Egawa; Liangying Zhang; Xi Yao

    2002-01-01

    Anatase titania nanoparticles are prepared at 700°C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and the nanoparticles are collected by thermophoretic collection method. The effect of collection distance on the lattice structure of the nanoparticles is investigated, followed by discussion. The results show that the collection distance exerts a significant influence on the lattice structure of the nanoparticles. With decreasing collection

  19. Chemical syntheses and characterizations of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lijuan

    This thesis is mainly concerned with the chemical syntheses and property characterizations of a series of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. We have synthesized ZnTe and Cr doped ZnTe nanoparticles, ZnSe:en precursor nanoribbon arrays, and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and tetrapods nanocrystals using simple chemical methods. Structures and compositions of the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and field emission experiments are also carried out. ZnTe and Cr doped ZnTe nanoparticles (ZnTe:Cr) have been synthesized by colloidal nano-synthesis method. The characterizations by XRD, XRF, and TEM show that the synthesized ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr crystals have cubic structure and Cr is incorporated into ZnTe. The magnetic properties of ZnTe:Cr are investigated. A hysteresis is observed in the magnetization versus magnetic field measurements below 10K. The detailed analyses suggest that the hysteresis is possibly originated from the magnetic short-range orders of Zn1-xCrxTe compounds in the sample. Vertically-aligned ZnSe:en precursor nanoribbon arrays have been grown directly on Zn foil via a simple solvothermal procedure. The nanoribbons are 100 ˜ 300 nm in width and several nanometers in thickness. Their lengths are about a few micrometers. The conversion of the ZnSe:en nanoribbon arrays to ZnSe nanoribbon arrays with wurtzite structures is achieved by a thermal annealing in N2 atmosphere. Upon the release of en, the morphology of the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays is well-preserved and the crystallinity of the ribbons is improved. Uniform field emissions were observed from ZnSe nanoribbons. Results show that the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays are good field emitters in comparison with many other nanostructures as having a low turn-on field of 5 V/mum and a high field enhancement factor of 1382. CdSe tetrapod nanocrystals have been synthesized using a simple nano-synthesis method by controlling the protonic acidity of the cadmium OA-TOP precursor. The crystal structure of the tetrapods is determined by HRTEM analysis, which shows that the tetrapod has a zinc blende core and four wurtzite arms. The possible growth mechanism in our experiment is discussed. The electronic structure of tetrapod is calculated in comparison with the spherical dot, indicating that for our tetrapod samples the ground state is dominated by the core diameter and only for the states above the fourth excited state the "arm diameter" effect becomes important. The steady state and transient optical properties of CdSe tetrapods and QDs are studied in details. No qualitative differences are detected. The field emission properties of CdSe tetrapods with different arm lengths are also investigated in details, showing that the longer the arm length, the lower the turn-on field, and the higher the enhancement factor.

  20. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical, Hydrogen Peroxide and Fe(II) in the Sea Surface Microlayer (SML) Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaonna, Y.; Tachibana, C.; Kasaba, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) covers upper 1 to 1000 ?m deep boundary layer of the ocean, where important biogeochemical processes take place. Photo-chemical reactions are activated by sunlight, so it is assumed that more photo-chemical reactions occur in SML than underlying bulk seawater (bulk). We initiated a study to understand chemical changes occurring in the SML by studying photochemical formation of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical (OH), both of which react with various organic substances and determine their lifetimes. Since OH can be formed by reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), Fe(II) photoformation was also studied. We collected SML samples using a widely-used glass plate method and bulk samples by using a polyethylene bottles near the coast of Okinawa Island, Japan. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the SML were about twice those of bulk seawater samples. Hydrogen peroxide formation in the SML samples was ca. 2.8 times faster than the bulk seawater samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) and OH photoformation kinetics was similar for both SML and bulk samples. Although it was predicted that more OH could be formed from reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), OH formation kinetics was similar in both SML and bulk, suggesting that either Fe(II) did not react with hydrogen peroxide or reaction is very slow, possibly by forming a complex with organic compounds in the SML and bulk.

  1. Cu(II) Removal from lithium bromide refrigerant by chemical precipitation and electrocoagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hefa Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A combination of chemical precipitation and electrocoagulation was used to remove Cu(II) from lithium bromide refrigerant, and factors affecting the treatment efficiency were also studied. The corrosion inhibitor, Li2CrO4, was first precipitated from the refrigerant by reaction with Ba(OH)2, which also increased the refrigerant alkalinity to 30.0meq\\/L. Significant Cu(II) and Fe(II,III) removals also occurred through adsorption and co-precipitation. The pretreated

  2. Chemical speciation of elements in stack-collected, respirable-size coal fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansen. L. D

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the delineation of the chemical speciation of the elements in coal fly ash collected in the stack after the electrostatic precipitator. The association of elements with the aluminosilicate glass or surface salts, the association of cations and anions on the surface of ash particles, and the oxidation states of non-metal and transition metals are discussed.

  3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTABLE ORGANIC MATTER FROM AMBIENT AEROSOLS COLLECTED IN BOISE, ID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine fraction (2.5 micron) ambient air aerosols were collected in Boise, ID between November, 1986, and February, 1987. wo composite samples of extractable organic matter (EOM) were prepared with partial resolution of chemicals from Boise's wood smoke (WS) and mobile source (MS) ...

  4. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline

    E-print Network

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: BP oil spill Deepwater Horizon oil spill Hopane analysis Fingerprinting Tar balls a b s t r a c t We compare

  5. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

  6. Chemical modification of chitin with polypyrrole for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Rathinam; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2015-07-01

    This study described the possibility of using chemically modified chitin with polypyrrole (PPy-g-Ch) as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution. The PPy-g-Ch was characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. The influence of various parameters such as pH, dosage, co-ions, contact time and concentration on the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was investigated. Among the various isotherm models studied, the Freundlich isotherm model fitted well to the equilibrium data. The magnitude of ?G(0), ?H(0) and ?S(0) indicated the feasibility, spontaneity and the endothermic nature of the adsorption process, respectively. The kinetic process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the PPy-g-Ch has been tested for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from a real water sample spiked with Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions. PMID:25841369

  7. Directed transport by surface chemical potential gradients for enhancing analyte collection in nanoscale sensors.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Amit; Hess, Henry

    2015-05-13

    Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport. PMID:25817944

  8. Substrate stiffness regulates cadherin-dependent collective migration through myosin-II contractility

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mei Rosa; Besser, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical microenvironment is known to influence single-cell migration; however, the extent to which mechanical cues affect collective migration of adherent cells is not well understood. We measured the effects of varying substrate compliance on individual cell migratory properties in an epithelial wound-healing assay. Increasing substrate stiffness increased collective cell migration speed, persistence, and directionality as well as the coordination of cell movements. Dynamic analysis revealed that wounding initiated a wave of motion coordination from the wound edge into the sheet. This was accompanied by a front-to-back gradient of myosin-II activation and establishment of cell polarity. The propagation was faster and farther reaching on stiff substrates, indicating that substrate stiffness affects the transmission of directional cues. Manipulation of myosin-II activity and cadherin–catenin complexes revealed that this transmission is mediated by coupling of contractile forces between neighboring cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the mechanical environment integrates in a feedback with cell contractility and cell–cell adhesion to regulate collective migration. PMID:23091067

  9. The NCGC Pharmaceutical Collection: A comprehensive resource of clinically approved drugs enabling repurposing and chemical genomics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Wang, Yuhong; Yasgar, Adam; Shinn, Paul; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule compounds approved for use as drugs may be “repurposed” for new indications and studied to determine the mechanisms of their beneficial and adverse effects. A comprehensive collection of all small-molecule drugs approved for human use would be invaluable for systematic repurposing across human diseases, particularly for rare and neglected diseases, for which the cost and time required for development of a new chemical entity are often prohibitive. Previous efforts to build such a comprehensive collection have been limited by the complexities, redundancies, and semantic inconsistencies of drug naming within and among regulatory agencies worldwide; a lack of clear conceptualization of what constitutes a drug; and a lack of access to physical samples. We report here the creation of a definitive, complete, and nonredundant list of all approved molecular entities as a freely available electronic resource and a physical collection of small molecules amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:21525397

  10. Chemical Speciation of PM-2.5 Collected During Prescribed Burns of the Coconino National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M.; Chavez, J.; Valazquez, S.

    2001-12-01

    In 1997, the EPA promulgated regulations for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5) due to concerns that PM-2.5 can contribute to pulmonary disease. A major source of PM-2.5 is smoke from forest fires (natural or prescribed). The use of prescribed fire is expected to increase in the next decade as a method for restoring wildland ecosystems. The fire-suppression policy of the past century has left forests overgrown with heavy fuel loads, increasing the likelihood of catastrophic fire. Prescribed fire, combined with mechanical thinning, is a method-of-choice to reduce this fuel load. The apparent conflict between the intentional use of fire and air quality can be addressed by increasing our understanding of PM-2.5 and its toxicity. To this end, we will monitor the chemical composition of PM-2.5 generated during three prescribed fires of the Coconino National Forest in October 2001. PM-2.5 will be collected using a battery-operated chemical speciation sampler (MetOne SuperSASS) positioned to collect smoke during the fire. Samples will be taken during the ignition and combustion phases, as well as the day after the burn. Each sampling period will collect 3 filters (PTFE, nylon + MgO denuder, and quartz), which will be analyzed (Research Triangle International) respectively for mass and elements, ions, and total, organic, and elemental carbon. In addition, a fourth PTFE filter will be collected and analyzed at NAU for lead isotope ratios using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results will be correlated to meteorological factors collected during the burns (relative humidity, wind speed, air stability, and surface temperature, etc.) and to characteristics of the burn itself (fuel load, fuel type, fire type, combustion phase, etc.). Results will be compared to the national database collected in EPA's PM-2.5 speciation trends monitoring network (STN).

  11. The induction plasma chemical reactor: Part II. Kinetic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. Zhao; J. Mostaghimi; M. I. Boulos

    1990-01-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for the prediction of the concentration gelds in an rf plasma reactor. A sample calculation for a SiCl4\\/H2 system is then performed. The model considers the mixing processes along with the kinetics of seven reactions involving the decomposition of these reactants. The results obtained are compared to those assuming chemical equilibrium. The predictions indicate

  12. The Chemical Composition of Spanish Myrtle Oils. Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Spanish wild-growing myrtle leaves, flowers, unripe and ripe fruits was examined by GC\\/MS. About 130 constituents were present in the various oils, from which 80 components could be identified and quantified. The yields of the hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves, 0.4–0.5%; flowers, 0.4%; unripe fruits,

  13. A Coupled Dynamical and Chemical Model of Starless Cores of Magnetized Molecular Clouds. II. Chemical Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Shematovich; D. S. Wiebe; B. M. Shustov; Zhi-Yun Li

    2003-01-01

    Dense cores of molecular clouds are the basic units of isolated low-mass star formation. They have been observed extensively in various molecule lines and dust continuum with the aim of revealing their chemical and dynamical state. In a previous paper, we formulated a coupled dynamical and chemical model for data interpretation and carried out an initial investigation focusing on the

  14. Adsorption of Pb(II) From Aqueous Solutions by Chemically Modified Zeolite Supported Carbon Nanotubes: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Venkata Ramana; D. Harikishore Kumar Reddy; B. Naresh Kumar; K. Seshaiah; G. Purna Chandra Rao; Chungsying Lu

    2012-01-01

    Zeolite supported carbon nanotubes (ZCNTs) were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. The physical and chemical properties such as surface area, pore diameter, surface functional groups and total acidic and basic sites of the ZCNTs were studied. They were employed as adsorbent to study the adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The adsorption of Pb(II), increase

  15. Chemical pollutants in field-collected canvasback tissues, eggs, and food materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.; Stendell, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 studies began on the levels of environmental pollutants in canvasback tissues, eggs, and food items. The purpose of the studies were to determine if the levels of toxic chemicals found in canvasbacks were of the magnitude to cause problems affecting reproduction and survival. Overall, levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCB's were low in canvasbacks and their eggs. Some individual birds, however, laid eggs with elevated residues of DDE (12.1 ppm) or PCB's (28.6 ppm). There was no significant difference between eggshell thicknesses of 1972-73 and pre-1946 collections. About 12% of the canvasbacks analyzed had elevated levels of blood lead with reduced ALAD enzyme activity. Adult canvasbacks collected from the Chesapeake Bay in 1975 had moderate to high levels of cadmium in their kidneys. Cadmium, in excessive amounts is very toxic and can curtail spermatogenesis in male birds. Although no single toxic chemical found in wild canvasbacks appears to be a major factor in population declines, the cumulative effects of sublethal levels of all the pollutants may render birds susceptible to disease, hunting pressure or predation.

  16. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Report: Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Abe Lederman

    2007-01-08

    This report contains the comprehensive summary of the work performed on the SBIR Phase II project (“Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections”) at Deep Web Technologies (http://www.deepwebtech.com). We have successfully completed all of the tasks defined in our SBIR Proposal work plan (See Table 1 - Phase II Tasks Status). The project was completed on schedule and we have successfully deployed an initial production release of the software architecture at DOE-OSTI for the Science.gov Alliance's search portal (http://www.science.gov). We have implemented a set of grid services that supports the extraction, filtering, aggregation, and presentation of search results from numerous heterogeneous document collections. Illustration 3 depicts the services required to perform QuickRank™ filtering of content as defined in our architecture documentation. Functionality that has been implemented is indicated by the services highlighted in green. We have successfully tested our implementation in a multi-node grid deployment both within the Deep Web Technologies offices, and in a heterogeneous geographically distributed grid environment. We have performed a series of load tests in which we successfully simulated 100 concurrent users submitting search requests to the system. This testing was performed on deployments of one, two, and three node grids with services distributed in a number of different configurations. The preliminary results from these tests indicate that our architecture will scale well across multi-node grid deployments, but more work will be needed, beyond the scope of this project, to perform testing and experimentation to determine scalability and resiliency requirements. We are pleased to report that a production quality version (1.4) of the science.gov Alliance's search portal based on our grid architecture was released in June of 2006. This demonstration portal is currently available at http://science.gov/search30 . The portal allows the user to select from a number of collections grouped by category and enter a query expression (See Illustration 1 - Science.gov 3.0 Search Page). After the user clicks “search” a results page is displayed that provides a list of results from the selected collections ordered by relevance based on the query expression the user provided. Our grid based solution to deep web search and document ranking has already gained attention within DOE, other Government Agencies and a fortune 50 company. We are committed to the continued development of grid based solutions to large scale data access, filtering, and presentation problems within the domain of Information Retrieval and the more general categories of content management, data mining and data analysis.

  17. A new sampler for collecting separate dry and wet atmospheric depositions of trace organic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Don T.; Cessna, Allan J.; Gurprasad, Narine P.; Banner, James

    Studies conducted in Saskatchewan and elsewhere have demonstrated the atmospheric transport of agricultural pesticides and other organic contaminants and their deposition into aquatic ecosystems. To date these studies have focused on ambient concentrations in the atmosphere and in wet precipitation. To measure the dry deposition of organic chemicals, a new sampler was designed which uses a moving sheet of water to passively trap dry particles and gasses. The moving sheet of water drains into a reservoir and, during recirculation through the sampler, is passed through an XAD-2 resin column which adsorbs the trapped organic contaminants. All surfaces which contact the process water are stainless steel or Teflon. Chemicals collected can be related to airborne materials depositing into aquatic ecosystems. The sampler has received a United States patent (number 5,413,003 - 9 May 1996) with the Canadian patent pending. XAD-2 resin adsorption efficiencies for 10 or 50 ?g fortifications of ten pesticides ranged from 76% for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino- S-triazine) to 110% for triallate [ S-(2,3,3-trichloro-2-phenyl)bis(1-methylethyl)carbamothioate], dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) and toxaphene (chlorinated camphene mixture). Field testing using duplicate samplers showed good reproducibility and amounts trapped were consistent with those from high volume and bulk pan samplers located on the same site. Average atmospheric dry deposition rates of three chemicals, collected for 5 weeks in May and June, were: dicamba, 69 ng m -2 da -1; 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 276 ng m -2 da -1: and, ?-HCH ( ?-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-hexachlorocyclohexane), 327 ng m -2 da -1.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as well as the rock samples were characterized to evaluate the geochemical changes over the experimental period. Preliminary results from the analysis are presented in the report. More detailed interpretation of the results will be presented in the technical report at the end of Phase II.

  19. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L?1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for ?-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L?1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  20. Occurrence of classes I and II integrons in Enterobacteriaceae collected from Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mai M.; Amer, Fatma A.; Allam, Ayman A.; El-Sokkary, Rehab H.; Gheith, Tarek; Arafa, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrons are genetic units characterized by the ability to capture and incorporate gene cassettes, thus can contribute to the emergence and transfer of antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the presence and distribution of class I and class II integrons and the characteristics of the gene cassettes they carry in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from nosocomial infections at Zagzig University Hospital in Egypt, (2) to determine their impact on resistance, and (3) to identify risk factors for the existence of integrons. Relevant samples and full clinical history were collected from 118 inpatients. Samples were processed; isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. Integrons were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized into class I or II by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Integron-positive isolates were subjected to another PCR to detect gene cassette, followed by gene cassette sequencing. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recognized, 41 of them (53.9%) were integron-positive; 39 strains carried class I and 2 strains carried class II integrons. Integrons had gene cassettes encoding different combinations and types of resistance determinants. Interestingly, blaOXA129 gene was found and ereA gene was carried on class I integrons. The same determinants were carried within isolates of the same species as well as isolates of different species. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). No risk factors were associated for integron carriage. We conclude that integrons carrying gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance are significantly present among Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infection in our hospital. Risk factors for acquisition remain to be identified.

  1. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments Florence Guéguen a , Peter Stille a,*, Volke Dietze b airborne particles collected with passive air samplers. Industrial and traffic sites are similarly

  2. A novel chemical footprinting approach identifies critical lysine residues involved in the binding of receptor-associated protein to cluster II of LDL receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Ebberink, Eduard H T M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2015-05-15

    Tandem mass tags (TMTs) were utilized in a novel chemical footprinting approach to identify lysine residues that mediate the interaction of receptor-associated protein (RAP) with cluster II of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP). The isolated RAP D3 domain was modified with TMT-126 and the D3 domain-cluster II complex with TMT-127. Nano-LC-MS analysis revealed reduced modification with TMT-127 of peptides including Lys256, Lys270 and Lys305-Lys306 suggesting that these residues contribute to cluster II binding. This agrees with previous findings that Lys256 and Lys270 are critical for binding cluster II sub-domains [Fisher, Beglova and Blacklow (2006) Mol. Cell 22, 277-283]. Cluster II-binding studies utilizing D3 domain variants K256A, K305A and K306A now showed that Lys306 contributes to cluster II binding as well. For full-length RAP, we observed that peptides including Lys60, Lys191, Lys256, Lys270 and Lys305-Lys306 exhibited reduced modification with TMT in the RAP-cluster II complex. Notably, Lys60 has previously been implicated to mediate D1 domain interaction with cluster II. Our results suggest that also Lys191 of the D2 domain contributes to cluster II binding. Binding studies employing the RAP variants K191A, K256A, K305A and K306A, however, revealed a modest reduction in cluster II binding for the K256A variant only. This suggests that the other lysine residues can compensate for the absence of a single lysine residue for effective complex assembly. Collectively, novel insight has been obtained into the contribution of lysine residues of RAP to cluster II binding. In addition, we propose that TMTs can be utilized to identify lysine residues critical for protein complex formation. PMID:25728577

  3. Integrated chemical–physical processes modelling—II. simulating aeration treatment of anaerobic digester supernatants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Musvoto; M. C. Wentzel; G. A. Ekama

    2000-01-01

    A three phase (aqueous\\/solid\\/gas) mixed weak acid\\/base kinetic model is developed to simulate the physical and chemical processes that occur on aeration of anaerobic digester supernatant. Included in the model are the kinetic reactions for (i) weak acid\\/base dissociations (water, carbonate, ammonium, phosphate, and short-chain fatty acids), (ii) precipitation of struvite, newberyite, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcium and magnesium carbonate and

  4. Chemical composition of rainwater collected at two sampling sites in the city of Rijeka.

    PubMed

    Alebi?-Jureti?, A; Sojat, V

    1998-09-01

    This study compares the chemical composition of rainwater samples collected at two sampling sites, the first situated in the Rijeka city centre and the second in a suburban site 120 m above the sea level. The rainwater samples were analysed for precipitation weighted average concentrations of hydrogen, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The results suggest that the local washout of the atmosphere enhanced the rainwater acidity in the city centre which also received significant marine contributions of sulphate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium content. Rainwater in the suburban site was affected by soil dust and/or fertilizers used in the nearby gardens, resulting in partial neutralization with rising of pH value. While the content of S-SO4 was practically equal at both sites, the quantities of N-NO3 and N-NH4 nearly doubled at the suburban site. PMID:10376356

  5. Chemical-garden formation, morphology, and composition. II. Chemical gardens in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Stodieck, Louis S

    2011-04-01

    We studied the growth of metal-ion silicate chemical gardens under Earth gravity (1 g) and microgravity (?g) conditions. Identical sets of reaction chambers from an automated system (the Silicate Garden Habitat or SGHab) were used in both cases. The ?g experiment was performed on board the International Space Station (ISS) within a temperature-controlled setup that provided still and video images of the experiment downlinked to the ground. Calcium chloride, manganese chloride, cobalt chloride, and nickel sulfate were used as seed salts in sodium silicate solutions of several concentrations. The formation and growth of osmotic envelopes and microtubes was much slower under ?g conditions. In 1 g, buoyancy forces caused tubes to grow upward, whereas a random orientation for tube growth was found under ?g conditions. PMID:21391639

  6. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I, fractioned concentrations are still under investigation, and will be reported and discussed during the meeting. For seasonal variation, in general, concentrations of halogens were the lowest in summer and higher in fall and winter, reflecting air mass movement and wind speed around Okinawa, Japan.

  7. CHAOS I. Direct Chemical Abundances for H II Regions in NGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W.; Moustakas, John; Johnson-Groh, Mara

    2015-06-01

    The CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project leverages the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with the broad spectral range and sensitivity of the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) to measure “direct” abundances (based on observations of the temperature-sensitive auroral lines) in large samples of H ii regions in spiral galaxies. We present LBT MODS observations of 62 H ii regions in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628, with an unprecedentedly large number of auroral lines measurements (18 [O iii] ?4363, 29 [N ii] ?5755, 40 [S iii]?6312, and 40 [O ii] ??7320, 7330 detections) in 45 H ii regions. Comparing derived temperatures from multiple auroral line measurements, we find: (1) a strong correlation between temperatures based on [S iii] ?6312 and [N ii] ?5755 and (2) large discrepancies for some temperatures based on [O ii] ??7320, 7330 and [O iii] ?4363. Both of these trends are consistent with other observations in the literature, yet, given the widespread use and acceptance of [O iii] ?4363 as a temperature determinant, the magnitude of the T[O iii] discrepancies still came as a surprise. Based on these results, we conduct a uniform abundance analysis prioritizing the temperatures derived from [S iii] ?6312 and [N ii] ?5755, and report the gas-phase abundance gradients for NGC 628. Relative abundances of S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are constant across the galaxy, consistent with no systematic change in the upper IMF over the sampled range in metallicity. These alpha-element ratios, along with N/O, all show small dispersions (? ? 0.1 dex) over 70% of the azimuthally averaged radius. We interpret these results as an indication that, at a given radius, the interstellar medium in NGC 628 is chemically well-mixed. Unlike the gradients in the nearly temperature-independent relative abundances, O/H abundances have a larger intrinsic dispersion of ?0.165 dex. We posit that this dispersion represents an upper limit to the true dispersion in O/H at a given radius and that some of that dispersion is due to systematic uncertainties arising from temperature measurements.

  8. Adsorption/desorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2012-02-01

    Waste materials from industries such as food processing may act as cost effective and efficient biosorbents to remove toxic contaminants from wastewater. This study aimed to establish an optimized condition and closed loop application of processed orange peel for metals removal. A comparative study of the adsorption capacity of the chemically modified orange peel was performed against environmentally problematic metal ions, namely, Cd 2+, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+, from aqueous solutions. Chemically modified orange peel (MOP) showed a significantly higher metal uptake capacity compared to original orange peel (OP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectra of peel showed that the carboxylic group peak shifted from 1637 to 1644 cm -1 after Pb (II) ions binding, indicated the involvement of carboxyl groups in Pb(II) ions binding. The metals uptake by MOP was rapid and the equilibrium time was 30 min at constant temperature and pH. Sorption kinetics followed a second-order model. The mechanism of metal sorption by MOP gave good fits for Freundlich and Langmuir models. Desorption of metals and regeneration of the biosorbent was attained simultaneously by acid elution. Even after four cycles of adsorption-elution, the adsorption capacity was regained completely and adsorption efficiency of metal was maintained at around 90%.

  9. Collection and Chemical Composition of Phloem Sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange)

    PubMed Central

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them. PMID:25014027

  10. Properties of chemically modified Ni(II)-Fe(II) hybrid hemoglobins. Ni(II) protoporphyrin IX as a model for a permanent deoxy-heme.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, N; Morimoto, H; Kitagawa, T

    1986-11-20

    Chemical modifications, NES-Cys(beta 93), des-Arg(alpha 141), and both modifications on the same molecule, were made to Ni-Fe hybrid hemoglobins, and their effect on individual subunits was investigated by measuring oxygen equilibrium curves, the Fe(II)-N epsilon (His F8) stretching Raman lines, and light-absorption spectra. The oxygen equilibrium properties indicated that modified Ni-Fe hybrid hemoglobins remain good models for the corresponding deoxy ferrous hemoglobins, although K1, the dissociation equilibrium constant for the first oxygen to bind to hemoglobin, was decreased by the chemical modifications. Resonance Raman spectra of deoxy alpha 2 (Fe) beta 2 (Ni) and light-absorption spectra of deoxy alpha 2 (Ni) beta 2 (Fe), revealed that the state of alpha hemes in both hybrid hemoglobins underwent a transition from a deoxy-like state to an oxy-like state caused by these chemical modifications when K1 was about 3 mm Hg (1 mm Hg approximately 133.3 Pa). On the other hand, the state of beta hemes in hybrid hemoglobins was little affected, when K1 was larger than 1 mm Hg. Modified alpha 2 (Fe) beta 2 (Ni) gave a Hill coefficient greater than unity with a maximum of 1.4 when K1 was about 4 mm Hg. The two-state model predicts that the K1 value at the maximum Hill coefficient should be much larger than this value. For oxygen binding to unmodified alpha 2 (Ni) beta 2 (Fe), oxygen equilibrium data suggested no structural change, while the spectral data showed a structural change around Ni(II) protoporphyrin IX in the alpha subunits. A similar situation was encountered with modified alpha 2 (Ni) beta 2 (Fe), although K1 was decreased as a result of the structural changes induced by the modifications. PMID:3560220

  11. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the US EPA, the ToxCast Phase II chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen for developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed in 96-well plates from late-blastula stage (6hr pos...

  12. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  13. Topoisomerase I and II inhibitors: chemical structure, mechanisms of action and role in cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhenkova, L. G.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Shtil, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The review summarizes and analyzes recent published data on topoisomerase I and II inhibitors as potential antitumour agents. Functions and the mechanism of action of topoisomerases are considered. The molecular mechanism of interactions between low-molecular-weight compounds and these proteins is discussed. Topoisomerase inhibitors belonging to different classes of chemical compounds are systematically covered. Assays for the inhibition of topoisomerases and the possibilities of using the computer-aided modelling for the rational design of novel drugs for cancer chemotherapy are presented. The bibliography includes 127 references.

  14. Changes in the molecular structure of a Type II-S kerogen (Monterey Formation, U.S.A.) during sequential chemical degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M Höld; N. J Brussee; S Schouten; J. S Sinninghe Damsté

    1998-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis and sequential chemical degradation were combined to study the molecular composition of an immature Type II-S kerogen from the Miocene Monterey Formation. Firstly, base hydrolysis was performed in order to hydrolyse ester bonds, in the second step aliphatic ethers were cleaved and in the third step sulfur–sulfur and sulfur–carbon bonds in the kerogen were broken. Linear and isoprenoid

  15. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seeds Collected from Three Locations in Edo State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    The study was initiated to ascertain some physical and chemical characteristics of the breadfruit seed collected from three locations (Benin City in Oredo, Egor in Egor, and NIFOR in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas) in Edo State, Nigeria. 150 units of well-matured seeded breadfruits were harvested, the fruits were opened and the following physical characters were determined; weight of fruits,

  16. Relationships between chemical structure and rat repellency. II. Compounds screened between 1950 and 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowles, W.A.; Adomaitis, V.A.; DeWitt, J.B.; Pratt, J.J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Over 4,600 compounds, chiefly organic types, were evaluated using both a food acceptance test (Part A) and a barrier penetration bioassay (Part B), to correlate relationships between chemical structure and rodent repellency.These chemicals are indexed and classified according to the functional groups present and to the degree of substitution within their molecular structures. The results of reduction in foot consumption for each compound appraised are calculated and their K values listed in Table I.The repellent activities of the functional groups represented, alone or in combinations, are expressed in Table II by a Functional Group Repellency Index. A ranking of these indices suggests that acyclic and heteroyclic compounds containing tri- or pentavalent nitrogen would be a parent compound of choice for synthesizing novel repellents. Other molecular arrangements, spatial configurations and combinations of functional groups are compared.There were 123 active, interesting or promising compounds included in the 699 having K values of 85 or greater, which were selected for the barrier appraisal study. These chemicals were formulated in selective solvents at several concentrations and applied to burlap. Small foot bags were fashioned using the fabric impregnated with the candidate formulation, and exposed to rodent attack following storage periods of varying intervals. The results of these tests are listed in Table III. Again, those compounds containing nitrogen in the functional groupings indicated a high order of effectiveness. Several commercial patents covering rodent repellents were issued using the data from the food acceptance and barrier studies.Organizations and cooperators which supplied samples for the program are listed in Appendix I. The Wiswesser cipher for compounds in Table I is used in Appendix II to facilitate location of chemicals by sample code number as they appear under the index headings, and for computer storage and analysis.

  17. Relationships between chemical structure and rat repellency: II. compounds screened between 1950 and 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowles, Walter A.; Adomaitis, V.A.; DeWitt, J.B.; Pratt, J.J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Over 4,600 compounds, chiefly organic types, were evaluated using both a food acceptance test (Part A) and a barrier penetration bioassay (Part B), to correlate relationships between chemical structure and rodent repellency. These chemicals are indexed and classified according to the functional groups present and to the degree of substitution within their molecular structures. The results of reduction in food consumption for each compound appraised are calculated and their K values listed in Table 1. The repellent activities of the functional groups represented, alone or in combinations, are expressed in Table II by a Functional Group Repellency Index.. A ranking of these indices suggests that acyclic and heteroyclic compounds containing tri- or pentavalent nitrogen would be a parent compound of choice for synthesizing novel repellents. Other molecular arrangements, spatial configurations and combinations of functional groups are compared. There were 123 active, interesting or promising compounds included in the 699 having K values of 85 or greater, which were selected for the barrier appraisal study. These chemicals were formulated in selective solvents at several concentrations and applied to burlap. Small food bags were fashioned using the fabric impregnated with the candidate formulation, and exposed to rodent attack following storage periods of varying intervals. The results of these tests are listed in Table III. Again, those compounds containing nitrogen in the functional groupings indicated a high order of effectiveness. Several commercial patents covering rodent repellents were issued using the data from the food acceptance and barrier studies. Organizations and cooperators which supplied samples for the program are listed in Appendix I. The Wiswesser cipher for compounds in Table I is used in Appendix II to facilitate location of chemicals by sample code number as they appear under the index headings, and for computer storage and analysis.

  18. Dissecting the chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures governing RNA polymerase II trigger loop closure by synthetic nucleic acid analogues

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Butler, Kyle Vincent; Chong, Jenny; Wengel, Jesper; Kool, Eric T.; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The trigger loop (TL) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a conserved structural motif that is crucial for Pol II catalytic activity and transcriptional fidelity. The TL remains in an inactive open conformation when the mismatched substrate is bound. In contrast, TL switches from an inactive open state to a closed active state to facilitate nucleotide addition upon the binding of the cognate substrate to the Pol II active site. However, a comprehensive understanding of the specific chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures that are essential to this TL conformational change remains elusive. Here we employed synthetic nucleotide analogues as ‘chemical mutation’ tools coupling with ?-amanitin transcription inhibition assay to systematically dissect the key chemical interactions and structural signatures governing the substrate-coupled TL closure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II. This study reveals novel insights into understanding the molecular basis of TL conformational transition upon substrate binding during Pol II transcription. This synthetic chemical biology approach may be extended to understand the mechanisms of other RNA polymerases as well as other nucleic acid enzymes in future studies. PMID:24692664

  19. Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Polkowska, ?aneta; B?a?, Marek; Klimaszewska, Kamila; Sobik, Mieczys?aw; Ma?ek, Stanis?aw; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into account the type of land use and characteristics of pollutant emission, sampling sites were divided into the following categories: rural, coastal urban and inland urban stations. Selected anions and cations as well as formaldehyde and sum of phenols were determined. The average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content) values in dew samples ranged from 0.83 to 3.93 between individual stations with 10.9 meq/L as the highest daily value of TIC measured. The average TIC values observed in dew at all stations were at a similar level (2.46 meq/L) when compared with hoarfrost (2.86 meq/L). However, these values were much higher in comparison with other kinds of atmospheric water like precipitation (wet only; 0.37 meq/L) or fog/cloud (1.01 meq/L). The pH values of dew water ranged from 5.22 to 7.35 for urban coastal stations, from 5.67 to 8.02 for urban inland stations and from 4.16 to 8.76 for dew samples collected in the rural area. HCHO was found in 97 % of dew samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 5.40 meq/L. Excluding stations near the seashore, where the contribution of Na+ and Cl- increased, the most important ions were sulphates. A very low contribution of NO3- and noticeable increase of Ca2+ which were not observed in the case of precipitation and fog water, were typical in all stations. The contribution of ammonium ion was two times higher at rural stations as a result of agricultural ammonia emissions. The strongest correlations were noticed between the sum of acidifying anions SO42- + NO3- and Ca2+ ion for all urban and rural stations. A very strong correlation was also observed for Na+ and Cl- ions in urban coastal stations, as a natural consequence of the location of these stations close to the sea. It was proved that thermal stratification, direction of circulation and local breeze circulation control the atmospheric chemistry at ground level, where dew is formed. The highest TIC values at urban stations were associated with anticyclonic weather, while at rural sites with cyclonic weather situations. The chemistry of dew water in urban coastal stations was closely related to local breeze circulation in the warm season, mainly in the form of diurnal breeze causing a significant increase of the concentration of Na+ and Cl-ions. Thus, dew can be a good indicator of the atmospheric pollution level at a given site. Taking into account both high TIC values and the annual water equivalent estimated at around 50 mm, dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition, responsible for an additional 60 % of pollutant input into the ground when compared with precipitation.

  20. Odor and chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 1 - project overview and collection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have received numerous criticisms due to their emissions of odorous air and chemicals. Hence, there is a significant need for odor emission factors and identification of principle odorous chemicals. Odor emission factors are used as inputs to odor setback models, while chemica...

  1. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems. Volume II. Third Edition. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    Proper installations, inspections, operations, maintenance and repairs of wastewater collection, conveyance and treatment facilities have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs, and the effectiveness of these facilities. This manual is the second volume of a two-part program designed to provide wastewater collection system…

  2. Guidelines for Community Relations Personnel. Criminal Justice Research. Prevention and Control of Collective Violence, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, W. Thomas; Knoblauch, Richard L.

    The objective of this study is to provide local law enforcement agencies with guidelines for the collection and dissemination of elements of information required for sound decision making in response to the threat or actual initiation of collective violence. Informal, semi-structured interviews in fourteen selected cities and six State police…

  3. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

    2006-01-01

    Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

  4. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  5. Copper(II) diamino acid complexes: quantum chemical computations regarding diastereomeric effects on the energy of complexation.

    PubMed

    Zuilhof, Han; Morokuma, Keiji

    2003-08-21

    [reaction: see text] Quantum chemical calculations were used to rationalize the observed enantiodifferentiation in the complexation of alpha-amino acids to chiral Cu(II) complexes. Apart from Cu(II)[bond]pi interactions and steric repulsions between the anchoring cholesteryl-Glu moiety and an aromatic amino acid R group, hydrogen bonding also plays a role. In fact, in the case of tryptophan, C[double bond]O...H[bond]N hydrogen bonding between the glutamate moiety and the tryptophan N[bond]H group compensates for the loss of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding and diminished Cu(II)[bond]pi interactions. PMID:12916986

  6. Mortality comparisons of chemical workers hired before, during, and after World War II (1941-1945).

    PubMed

    Bond, G G; Lipps, T E; Cook, R R

    1989-01-01

    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated by period of hire for 37,682 male chemical workers in order to test the hypothesis that employees hired during World War II (1941-1945) were at increased risk for selected causes of death. One recent study of refinery workers reported that those hired during the war years had experienced greater mortality from external causes (accidents, homicides, and suicides), alcoholism, and cancers of several sites relative to employees hired before or after the war. In the present study, employees were divided into three period-of-hire subcohorts: prior to 1941, 1941-1945 (World War II), and 1946 and after. Comparison of observed mortality among these subcohorts through 1982 was made with expected levels based on age- and calendar year-specific U.S. white male rats. Neither hourly nor salaried employees hired during the war showed evidence of higher mortality from homicide, suicide, alcoholism, or any of the selected cancer types suggested from the refinery study. Hourly, but not salaried, war years new hires experienced excessive mortality from only those accidents involving motor vehicles. Possible reasons for the discrepant findings between this and the earlier study of refinery workers are discussed, with methodological differences being dismissed. PMID:2929620

  7. Dissociation of I II in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers: experiment, modeling, and pre-dissociation by electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Waichman, K.; Dahan, Z.; Rybalkin, V.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-06-01

    The dissociation of I II molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results obtained in a supersonic COIL for the gain, temperature and I II dissociation fraction at the optical axis. The suggested mechanism combines the recent scheme of Azyazov and Heaven (AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)), where I II(A' 3? 2u), I II(A 3? 1u) and O II(a1? g, v) are significant dissociation intermediates, with the "standard" chain branching mechanism of Heidner et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)), involving I(2P 1/2) and I II(X1? + g, v). In addition, we examined a new method for enhancement of the gain and power in a COIL by applying DC corona/glow discharge in the transonic section of the secondary flow in the supersonic nozzle, dissociating I II prior to its mixing with O II(1?). The loss of O II(1?) consumed for dissociation was thus reduced and the consequent dissociation rate downstream of the discharge increased, resulting in up to 80% power enhancement. The implication of this method for COILs operating beyond the specific conditions reported here is assessed.

  8. Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Krovat, Eva M; Langer, Thierry

    2003-02-27

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were elaborated for angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1)) antagonists using both a quantitative and a qualitative approach (Catalyst HypoGen and HipHop algorithms, respectively). The training sets for quantitative model generation consisted of 25 selective AT(1) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 nM to 150 microM. Additionally, a qualitative pharmacophore hypothesis was derived from multiconformational structure models of the two highly active AT(1) antagonists 4u (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) and 3k (IC(50) = 0.7 nM). In the case of the quantitative model, the best pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of a five-features model (Hypo1: seven points, one hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic, a hydrogen bond acceptor, a negative ionizable function, and an aromatic plane function). The best qualitative model consisted of seven features (Hypo2: 11 points, two aromatic rings, two hydrogen bond acceptors, a negative ionizable function, and two hydrophobic functions). The obtained pharmacophore models were validated on a wide set of test molecules. They were shown to be able to identify a range of highly potent AT(1) antagonists, among those a number of recently launched drugs and some candidates presently undergoing clinical tests and/or development phases. The results of our study provide confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore models to retrieve structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity by virtual screening. PMID:12593652

  9. Supercooled water and the kinetic glass transition. II. Collective dynamics Francesco Sciortino,1

    E-print Network

    Sciortino, Francesco

    the simulated system and the theoretical predictions. Indeed, if the experimentally observed non-Arrhenius has been reached, allowing the calculation of the collective properties, for which the noise level

  10. Type II Cepheids in the Milky Way disc. Chemical composition of two new W Virginis stars: DD Vel and HQ Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; Kovtyukh, V.; Bono, G.; François, P.; Saviane, I.; Yegorova, I.; Genovali, K.; Inno, L.; Galazutdinov, G.; da Silva, R.

    2015-07-01

    Context. A robust classification of Cepheids into their different sub-classes and, in particular, between classical and Type II Cepheids, is necessary to properly calibrate the period-luminosity relations and for populations studies in the Galactic disc. Type II Cepheids are, however, very diverse, and classifications based either on intrinsic (period, light curve) or external parameters (e.g., [Fe/H], | z |) do not provide a unique classification. Aims: We want to ascertain the classification of two Cepheids, HQ Car and DD Vel, that are sometimes classified as classical Cepheids and sometimes as Type II Cepheids. Methods: To achieve this goal, we examine both their chemical composition and the presence of specific features in their spectra. Results: We find emission features in the H? and in the 5875.64 Å He I lines that are typical of W Vir stars. The [Na/Fe] (or [Na/Zn]) abundances are typical of thick-disc stars, while BL Her stars are Na-overabundant ([Na/Fe] > +0.5 dex). Finally, the two Cepheids show a possible (HQ Car) or probable (DD Vel) signature of mild dust-gas separation that is usually observed only in long-period type II Cepheids and RV Tau stars. Conclusions: These findings clearly indicate that HQ Car and DD Vel are both Type II Cepheids from the W Vir sub-class. Several studies have reported an increase in the Cepheids' abundance dispersion towards the outer (thin) disc. A detailed inspection of the Cepheid classification, in particular for those located in the outer disc, will indicate whether this feature is real or simply an artefact of the inclusion of type II Cepheids belonging to the thick disc in the current samples. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (prog. ID: 060.A-9120 and 082.D-0901).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks.

    PubMed

    Tangalos, G E; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Alpers, C N; Shelobolina, E S; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Roden, E E

    2010-06-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)(am)] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe-S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. delta(56)Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were approximately 0. These near-zero bulk delta(56)Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero delta(56)Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (delta(56)Fe approximately -1.5 to -0.5 per thousand) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)(am) by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)(am) are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)(am) of approximately -2 per thousand. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-delta(56)Fe minerals during BIF genesis. PMID:20374296

  12. Salivary influences upon levels of certain chemical constituents in forage residues collected from esophageally cannulated sheep 

    E-print Network

    Radde, Kenneth Albert

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the reouiremente for +he degree o+ NAS vR Oi' SCI NCE January 1967 Range Science SALIVARY INFLU. . NC, 'S UPON LEVELS OF CERTAIN CHEHICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FORAGE R SIDUES COLLECT D FROH ESOPHAGEALLY CANNULATED SHEEP A Thesis By Kenneth... and changes in the ash, water soluble carbohydrates, and total nitrogen of esophageally collected forage residues. 4o Yiean scuares from analysis of variance of ash levels of uncontaminated s liva 4l i/eights of esophageally collected forage residues. 42...

  13. Search for extraterrestrial point sources of high energy neutrinos with AMANDA-II using data collected in 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Boersma, D.J.; Boeser, S.; Hauschildt, T.; Kowalski, M.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Resconi, E.; Schlenstedt, S.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Sulanke, K. H.; Tarasova, O.; Walter, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H. [DESY, D-15735, Zeuthen (Germany); Ahrens, J.; Becka, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)] [and others

    2005-04-01

    The results of a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos in the northern hemisphere using data collected by AMANDA-II in the years 2000, 2001, and 2002 are presented. In particular, a comparison with the single-year result previously published shows that the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 2.2. The muon neutrino flux upper limits on selected candidate sources, corresponding to an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} neutrino energy spectrum, are included. Sky grids were used to search for possible excesses above the background of cosmic ray induced atmospheric neutrinos. This search reveals no statistically significant excess for the three years considered.

  14. Search for extraterrestrial point sources of high energy neutrinos with AMANDA-II using data collected in 2000-2002

    E-print Network

    The AMANDA Collaboration; M. Ackermann

    2004-12-14

    The results of a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos in the northern hemisphere using data collected by AMANDA-II in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 are presented. In particular, a comparison with the single-year result previously published shows that the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 2.2. The muon neutrino flux upper limits on selected candidate sources, corresponding to an E^{-2} neutrino energy spectrum, are included. Sky grids were used to search for possible excesses above the background of cosmic ray induced atmospheric neutrinos. This search reveals no statistically significant excess for the three years considered.

  15. Search for extraterrestrial point sources of high energy neutrinos with AMANDA-II using data collected in 2000 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Bay, R.; Bartelt, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K. H.; Becker, J. K.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Boersma, D. J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Collin, B.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D. F.; Davour, A.; de Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Ekström, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Groß, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Harenberg, T.; Hauschildt, T.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kampert, K. H.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kestel, M.; Kohnen, G.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Mio?inovi?, P.; Morse, R.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Neunhöffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Ögelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodríguez Martino, J.; Sander, H. G.; Schinarakis, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R. G.; Sulanke, K. H.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y. R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.

    2005-04-01

    The results of a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos in the northern hemisphere using data collected by AMANDA-II in the years 2000, 2001, and 2002 are presented. In particular, a comparison with the single-year result previously published shows that the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 2.2. The muon neutrino flux upper limits on selected candidate sources, corresponding to an E-2? neutrino energy spectrum, are included. Sky grids were used to search for possible excesses above the background of cosmic ray induced atmospheric neutrinos. This search reveals no statistically significant excess for the three years considered.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Avanti International AV-118 Acrylic Chemical Grout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to the infiltration of water from the surrounding environments. Wastewater facilities are not only wet, but also experience hydrostatic pressure conditions un...

  17. Aerosols Collected at a Tropical Marine Environment: Size-Resolved Chemical Composition Using IC, TOC, and Thermal-Optical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-García, F.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Repollet-Pedrosa, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Ramírez-Santa Cruz, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-05-01

    Size-resolved chemical characterization was performed on aerosol samples collected at two different marine sites in the tropics: Dian Point (DP), Antigua and Cape San Juan (CSJ), Puerto Rico. A 13-stage Dekati low- pressure impactor (Dp 0.1 to 10 ?m), a 10-stage micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (Dp 0.054 to 18 ?m), and stacked-filter units (Dp < 1.7 ?m) were used to collect the samples. Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, acetate, formate, malonate, and oxalate were determined using ion chromatography (IC). Thermal-optical analysis (TOA) was used to determine the concentrations of aerosol total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC). Five-day back trajectories calculated using NOAA's HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model identified air masses coming from the North Atlantic (maritime air), Northwest Africa (desert dust), and North America (anthropogenic pollution). Size-resolved chemical characterization of aerosol samples using IC and TOA confirmed that aerosols become aged as they are transported to the Caribbean and their composition depends on the air mass origin. Gravimetric analyses showed that average fine mass concentrations for CSJ station were higher than for DP station (CSJ: 1.9 ?g m-3; DP: 1.2 ?g m-3). The aerosol chemical composition changed with air masses of different origin and with different pollution levels. In both locations the predominant water-soluble ions in the fine aerosol fraction were Cl-, Na+, and SO42-. Sulphate was observed in higher concentrations during the polluted case and particulate organic matter concentrations were higher for the maritime case. During desert dust events an increase in Ca2+ and Mg2+ of 4 and 2 times, respectively, was observed mainly in the coarse mode. Results for the size-resolved chemical composition and complete aerosol chemical apportionment including the residual mass will be presented.

  18. Luminescence properties of II\\/VI semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals at collective and single scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Vion; Carlos Barthou; Laurent Coolen; Paul Bennaloul; Vu Duc Chinh; Pham Thuy Linh; Vu Thi Bich; Pham Thu Nga; Agnès Maître

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal nanocrystals are crystalline spheres of semiconductors of a few nanometers, obtained by chemical synthesis. At this size scale, lower than Bohr radius of the exciton, emission properties are dominated by quantum confinement effects and depend crucially on the nanocrystal radius, which can be controlled by adjusting the synthesis parameters. Nanocrystals present high photostability and good quantum efficiency, even at

  19. Chemical Kinetic Data Base for Propellant Combustion. II. Reactions Involving CN, NCO, and HNCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Wing

    1992-07-01

    This paper contains evaluated chemical kinetic data on single step elementary reactions involving small polyatomic molecules which are of importance in propellant combustion. The work consists of the collection and evaluation of mechanistic and rate information and the use of various methods for the extrapolation and estimation of rate data where information does not exist. The conditions covered range from 500-2500 K and 1017-1022 particles cm-3. The results of the second year's effort add to the existing data base reactions involving CN, NCO, and HNCO with each other and the following species: H, H2, H2O, O, OH, HCHO, CHO, CO, NO, NO2, HNO, HNO2, HCN, and N2O.

  20. TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

  1. User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

    This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

  2. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  3. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford A. Megerle; Douglas R. Adkins; Gregory C. Frye-Mason

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an

  4. Extragalactic Chemical Abundances: Do H II Regions and Young Stars Tell the Same Story? The Case of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pietrzy?ski, Grzegorz; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    We have obtained new spectrophotometric data for 28 H II regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 300, a member of the nearby Sculptor Group. The detection of several auroral lines, including [O III] ?4363, [S III] ?6312, and [N II] ?5755, has allowed us to measure electron temperatures and direct chemical abundances for the whole sample. We determine for the first time in this galaxy a radial gas-phase oxygen abundance gradient based solely on auroral lines, and obtain the following least-square solution: 12 + log(O/H) = 8.57(±0.02) - 0.41(±0.03)R/R 25, where the galactocentric distance is expressed in terms of the isophotal radius R 25. The characteristic oxygen abundance, measured at 0.4 × R 25, is 12 + log(O/H) = 8.41. The gradient corresponds to -0.077 ± 0.006 dex kpc-1, and agrees very well with the galactocentric trend in metallicity obtained for 29 B and A supergiants in the same galaxy, -0.081 ± 0.011 dex kpc-1. The intercept of the regression for the nebular data virtually coincides with the intercept obtained from the stellar data, which is 8.59(±0.05). This allows little room for depletion of nebular oxygen onto dust grains, although in this kind of comparison we are somewhat limited by systematic uncertainties, such as those related to the atomic parameters used to derive the chemical compositions. We discuss the implications of our result with regard to strong-line abundance indicators commonly used to estimate the chemical compositions of star-forming galaxies, such as R 23. By applying a few popular calibrations of these indices based on grids of photoionization models on the NGC 300 H II region fluxes, we find metallicities that are higher by 0.3 dex (a factor of 2) or more relative to our nebular (Te based) and stellar ones. We detect Wolf-Rayet stellar emission features in ~1/3 of our H II region spectra, and find that in one of the nebulae hosting these hot stars the ionizing field has a particularly hard spectrum, as gauged by the "softness" parameter ? = (O+/O++)/(S+/S++). We suggest that this is related to the presence of an early WN star. By considering a larger sample of extragalactic H II regions we confirm, using direct abundance measurements, previous findings of a metallicity dependence of ?, in the sense that softer stellar continua are found at high metallicity. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under program 077.B-0269.

  5. Chemical Characterization and Removal of Carbon-14 from Irradiated Graphite II - 13023

    SciTech Connect

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Cleaver, James; LaBrier, Daniel; McCrory, Shilo; Smith, Tara E. [Idaho State University: 1776 Science Center Dr., Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States)] [Idaho State University: 1776 Science Center Dr., Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (C-14), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates C-14 is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented last year and updated here is to identify the chemical form of C-14 in irradiated graphite and develop a practical method by which C-14 can be removed. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam{sup R}, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of C-14 precursor) and neutron-irradiated (10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s). Finer grained NBG-25 was not exposed to liquid nitrogen prior to irradiation at a neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 14} /cm{sup 2}/s. Characterization of pre- and post-irradiation graphite was conducted to determine the chemical environment and quantity of C-14 and its precursors via the use of surface sensitive characterization techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological features of graphite samples. The concentration, chemical composition, and bonding characteristics of C-14 and its precursors were determined through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis Spectroscopy (EDX). Results of post-irradiation characterization of these materials indicate a variety of surface functional groups containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. During thermal treatment, irradiated graphite samples are heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon were performed at 900 deg. C and 1400 deg. C to evaluate the selective removal of C-14. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 volume % oxygen at temperatures 700 deg. C and 1400 deg. C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of C-14. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient C-14 removal. (authors)

  6. STRUCTURE AND FEEDBACK IN 30 DORADUS. II. STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, E. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Baldwin, J. A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, G. J., E-mail: pelleger@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We use our new optical-imaging and spectrophotometric survey of key diagnostic emission lines in 30 Doradus, together with CLOUDY photoionization models, to study the physical conditions and ionization mechanisms along over 4000 individual lines of sight at points spread across the face of the extended nebula, out to a projected radius 75 pc from R136 at the center of the ionizing cluster NGC 2070. We focus on the physical conditions, geometry, and importance of radiation pressure on a point-by-point basis, with the aim of setting observational constraints on important feedback processes. We find that the dynamics and large-scale structure of 30 Dor are set by a confined system of X-ray bubbles in rough pressure equilibrium with each other and with the confining molecular gas. Although the warm (10,000 K) gas is photoionized by the massive young stars in NGC 2070, the radiation pressure does not currently play a major role in shaping the overall structure. The completeness of our survey also allows us to create a composite spectrum of 30 Doradus, simulating the observable spectrum of a spatially unresolved, distant giant extragalactic H II region. We find that the highly simplified models used in the 'strong line' abundance technique do in fact reproduce our observed line strengths and deduced chemical abundances, in spite of the more than one order of magnitude range in the ionization parameter and density of the actual gas in 30 Dor.

  7. The reaction ensemble method for the computer simulation of chemical and phase equilibria. II. The Br2 Cl2 BrCl system

    E-print Network

    Lisal, Martin

    of reaction and phase equilib- ria is of great interest in the chemical industry.1 The com- bined occurrenceThe reaction ensemble method for the computer simulation of chemical and phase equilibria. II. The Br2 Cl2 BrCl system Martin Li´sal E. Ha´la Laboratory of Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemical

  8. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  9. Biogeography of Actinomycete Communities and Type II Polyketide Synthase Genes in Soils Collected in New Jersey and Central Asia?

    PubMed Central

    Wawrik, Boris; Kutliev, Djumaniyaz; Abdivasievna, Urinova A.; Kukor, Jerome J.; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kerkhof, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are believed to be comprised of thousands of different bacterial species. One prevailing idea is that “everything is everywhere, and the environment selects,” implying that all types of bacteria are present in all environments where their growth requirements are met. We tested this hypothesis using actinomycete communities and type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes found in soils collected from New Jersey and Uzbekistan (n = 91). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using actinomycete 16S rRNA and type II PKS genes was employed to determine community profiles. The terminal fragment frequencies in soil samples had a lognormal distribution, indicating that the majority of actinomycete phylotypes and PKS pathways are present infrequently in the environment. Less than 1% of peaks were detected in more than 50% of samples, and as many as 18% of the fragments were unique and detected in only one sample. Actinomycete 16S rRNA fingerprints clustered by country of origin, indicating that unique populations are present in North America and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of type II PKS gene fragments cloned from Uzbek soil revealed 35 novel sequence clades whose levels of identity to genes in the GenBank database ranged from 68 to 92%. The data indicate that actinomycetes are patchily distributed but that distinct populations are present in North American and Central Asia. These results have implications for microbial bioprospecting and indicate that the cosmopolitan actinomycete species and PKS pathways may account for only a small proportion of the total diversity in soil. PMID:17337547

  10. Chemical trends of defect formation and doping limit in II-VI semiconductors: The case of CdTe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Huai Wei; S. B. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Using first-principles band structure methods we studied the general chemical trends of defect formation in II-VI semiconductors. We systematically calculated the formation energies and transition energy levels of intrinsic and extrinsic defects and defect complexes in the prototype CdTe and investigated the limiting factors for p-type and n-type doping in this material. Possible approaches to significantly increase the doping limits

  11. Role of VI\\/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. N. Urgessa; O. S. Oluwafemi; J. R. Botha

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH? to Zn2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI\\/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30nm are obtained,

  12. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of the structure of a new paramagnetic dimeric palladium(II,III) complex with creatine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitewa, Mariana; Enchev, Venelin; Bakalova, Tatyana

    2002-05-01

    The structure and coordination mode of the newly synthesized dimeric paramagnetic Pd(II,III) complex are studied using magneto-chemical, EPR and IR spectroscopic methods. In order to perform reliable assignment of the IR bands, the structure and IR spectrum of the free creatine were calculated using ab initio method. For calculation of the configuration of its deprotonated and doubly deprotonated forms the semiempirical AM1 method was used.

  13. Hygroscopic and Chemical Properties of Aerosols collected near a Copper Smelter: Implications for Public and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected near an active copper smelter were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g. arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18–0.55 µm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10–0.32 µm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

  14. Use of chemically derivatized n-type silicon photoelectrodes in aqueous media: photooxidation of iodide, hexacyanoiron(II), and hexaammineruthenium(II) at ferrocene-derivatized photoanodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarsly, A.B.; Walton, E.G.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1980-05-07

    A procedure is described for the chemical derivatization of the surface of n-type semiconductor photoanodes to yield photosensitive interfaces for use in a large number of thermodynamically uphill oxidation processes. (1,1'-ferrocenediyl)dichlorosilane was used to derivatize n-type Si to yield a photoanode that can be used under conditions where the naked (nonderivatized) n-type Si undergoes photoanodic corrosion yielding an insulating SiO/sub x/ surface layer. The results of use of this derivatized n-type Si in aqueous solutions to investigate the photooxidation of iodide, hexacyanoiron(II), and hexaammineruthenium(II) are reported. This type photoelectrode has an operation range that is nearly ideal from the point of solar energy conversion. (BLM)

  15. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgessa, Z. N.; Oluwafemi, O. S.; Botha, J. R.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH- to Zn2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H+ and OH- in the solution.

  16. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C????-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. PMID:23523118

  17. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  18. Chemically Modified Plastic Tube for High Volume Removal and Collection of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaitas, Angelo; Kim, Gwangseong

    2015-01-01

    In this preliminary effort, we use a commercially available and chemically modified tube to selectively capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood stream by immobilizing human anti-EpCAM antibodies on the tube's interior surface. We describe the requisite and critical steps required to modify a tube into a cancer cell-capturing device. Using these simple modifications, we were able to capture or entrap about 85% of cancer cells from suspension and 44% of cancer cells from spiked whole blood. We also found that the percentage of cells captured was dependent on the tube's length and also the number of cancer cells present. It is our strong belief that with the utilization of appropriate tube lengths and procedures, we can ensure capture and removal of nearly the entire CTC population in whole blood. Importantly after a patient’s entire blood volume has circulated through the tube, the tube can then be trypsinized to release the captured live CTCs for further analysis and testing. PMID:26176235

  19. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas. PMID:22661315

  20. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  1. Computation of the physio-chemical properties and data mining of large molecular collections.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ailan; Diller, David J; Dixon, Steven L; Egan, William J; Lauri, George; Merz, Kenneth M

    2002-01-15

    Very large data sets of molecules screened against a broad range of targets have become available due to the advent of combinatorial chemistry. This information has led to the realization that ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and toxicity issues are important to consider prior to library synthesis. Furthermore, these large data sets provide a unique and important source of information regarding what types of molecular shapes may interact with specific receptor or target classes. Thus, the requirement for rapid and accurate data mining tools became paramount. To address these issues Pharmacopeia, Inc. formed a computational research group, The Center for Informatics and Drug Discovery (CIDD).* In this review we cover the work done by this group to address both in silico ADME modeling and data mining issues faced by Pharmacopeia because of the availability of a large and diverse collection (over 6 million discrete compounds) of drug-like molecules. In particular, in the data mining arena we discuss rapid docking tools and how we employ them, and we describe a novel data mining tool based on a ID representation of a molecule followed by a molecular sequence alignment step. For the ADME area we discuss the development and application of absorption, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and solubility models. Finally, we summarize the impact the tools and approaches might have on the drug discovery process. PMID:11913384

  2. Mutagenic activity and chemical analysis of airborne particulates collected in Pisa (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Vellosi, R.; Fiorio, R.; Rosellini, D.; Bronzetti, G. (Istituto di Mutagenesi e Differenziamento, Pisa (Italy)); Vannucchi, C.; Ciacchini, G.; Giaconi, V. (Unita Operativa Chimica Ambientale, Pisa (Italy)); Bianchi, F. (Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa (Italy))

    1994-03-01

    In the last few years there has been much concern about the problem connected to the exposure to mutagens present in the environment of industrialized countries. Particularly, the mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter has been studied by many investigators and correlated with elevated lung cancer mortality rates. In most cases the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome test has been used for these studies. This short-term test, which is the most validated among the short-term genotoxicity tests, provides an important indication on the carcinogenic potential of environmental pollutants. That are complex mixtures containing a wide variety of compounds potentially capable of causing additive, antagonistic or synergistic genotoxic response in living organisms. Several studies have suggested that diverse factors, such as traffic and meteorological conditions, could affect the levels of pollutants in the air. In our work, we have investigated three different areas in Pisa, where the intensity and the kind of the road traffic were different. Airborne particles have been collected during a year and the genotoxic activity has been studied using TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils of five Tagetes species collected in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Armas, Kaylin; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The leaves and inflorescences of five species of Tagetes, family Asteraceae, were collected from different locations in Mérida state, Venezuela, and their essential oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Several differences were observed in the composition of these oils, mainly regarding the major components, which for T. caracasana were trans-ocimenone (64.3%) and cis-tagetone (13.7%), and for T. erecta, piperitone (35.9%) and terpinolene (22.2%). High amounts of trans-anethole (87.5%) and estragole (10.7%) were observed in T. filifolia, while T. subulata essential oil contained terpinolene (26.0%), piperitenone (13.1%) and limonene (10.8%). For T. patula, two different oil samples were analyzed, leaves (TPL) and inflorescences (TPI). The TPL oil showed terpinolene (20.9%) and piperitenone (14.0%) as main components, while the TPI sample was composed mainly of beta-caryophyllene (23.7%), terpinolene (15.6%) and cis-beta-ocimene (15.5%). PMID:23074915

  4. The chemical composition of atmospheric deposition collected from six Louisiana sites from 1983 to 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, L. M.; Feagley, S. E.

    Since 1983, precipitation samples have been collected weekly from six Louisiana sites. Analyses performed included pH, EC, Ca 2+, Na +, Mg 2+, K +, NH 4+, Cl, NO 3-, SO 42-, PO 43-, and precipitation amount. These data were used to determine quarterly and yearly regional trends in precipitation chemistry and deposition. Concentrations of K + (< 0.2 mg? -1), Mg 2+ (< 0.02 mg? -1) and PO 43- (< 0.5 mg? -1) were below detection limits more than 90% of the time. Calcium, Na +, NH 4+, SO 42-, and Cl - had the highest deposition during the spring at most sites. The highest EC values were found in the summer, while the lowest were in the fall. Nitrate deposition was highest in the summer and lowest in the fall. Sulfate and NH 4+ had the least deposition in the fall for most sites. The most acidic pH values were in the summer for all six sites. The lowest precipitation amounts were in the summer and fall, while the highest were in the winter. Yearly deposition amounts of nutrients were not sufficient to meet major crop requirements. Sulfur was deposited in quantities to meet one-half to one-third of its requirement in cotton, rice, soybeans, and wheat.

  5. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR NARCOTIC CHEMICALS AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CRITERIA. II. MIXTURES AND SEDIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic M. Di Toro; Joy A. McGrath

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented for developing sediment quality guidelines (SQG) for narcotic chemicals in general and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular. The guidelines can be applied to any individual or mixture of narcotic chemicals including PAHs using only the chemical's octanol\\/water partition coefficient. They are derived using the final chronic values for type I narcotics developed from a database

  6. Chemical characteristics of rainwater collected at a western site of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 in Ghore El-Safi area western side of Jordan nearby the Dead Sea. Rainwater samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, NH 4+, HCO 3-, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd). The highest concentration of elements is observed at the beginning of the rainfall season when large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere scavenged by rain. The majority of rainwater had a neutral or alkaline character as a result of neutralization caused by the alkaline local dusts which contain large amount of CaCO 3. The pH ranged from 4.8 to 8.2 with a mean value of 6.9 ± 0.65 which was in alkaline range considering 5.6 as the neutral pH of cloud water with atmospheric CO 2 equilibrium. In the total 35 rain events, only three events were observed in acidic range (< 5.6) which occurred after continuous rains. The equivalent concentration of components followed the order: Ca 2+ > HCO 3- > Cl - > Mg 2+ > NO 3- > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Na + > K +. Rainwater chemistry was analyzed using Factor Component Analysis to find the possible sources of the measured species. Three components that accounted for 84% of the total variance were extracted sea salts spray (Na+, Cl - and Mg 2+), and soil particles (natural origin), (Mg 2+, Ca 2+ and HCO 3-) and biomass burning (NH 4+). The results obtained in this study are compared with those other studies conducted at different sites in the world. In general, the results of this study suggested that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local anthropogenic sources (potash factory and agricultural activities in Ghore El-Safi area) rather than natural and marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from long distance transport, local industry and traffic sources.

  7. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of Cu(II). Study of the ionic copper(II) and bis(glycinate)-copper(II) accumulation by Lemna species

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, F.; Kouba, J. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Na sadkach (Czechoslovakia))

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, the authors examined the accumulation of copper(II) in, and its toxic effect on, duckweed, a plant which exhibits extremely high concentration factors. The effect of copper(II) was investigated by adding it to the minimal medium in two forms: CuSO{sub 4} and (Cu(Gly){sub 2}). The neutral (2:1) tetracoordinated bis(glycinate)-copper(II) complex is constituted by two five-membered rings bonded to the central copper atom with the cis configuration. This complex was chosen to model the function of a neutral species (eliminating the charge effect) involving a nontoxic ligand, for which - in contrast to the hydrated Cu{sup 2+} species - direct permeation through the cell wall is conceivable.

  8. Initial chemical and biological characterization of hydrotreated solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, W.C.; Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Craun, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of both chemical and biomedical research performed on a solvent refined coal (SRC-II) research material (distillate blend) which was produced by the pilot plant facility at Fort Lewis, Washington. Samples of this distillate blend were subjected to research-scale hydrotreatment by Universal Oil Products, Inc., prior to chemical and biological analysis at PNL. The samples are considered to be, in general, generically representative of raw or hydrotreated materials which might be produced by demonstration or commercial-scale facilities. The above described feedstock and hydrotreated materials were analyzed for chemical composition both prior to and after chemical fractionation. The fractionation procedure used was an acid-base-neutral solvent extraction. The fractions produced, as well as the unfractionated materials, were subjected to microbial mutagenesis testing (Ames assay) and to further chemical analysis. The principal components of the unmodified distillate blend are two and three ringed aromatic and heteroatomic species together with high concentrations of phenolic and polynuclear aromatic components relative to typical levels found in petroleum crudes. The Ames assay mutagenic response for the unfractionated material, as well as the fractions produced by the solvent separation, was reduced considerably in the hydrotreated materials compared to that of the feedstock. Total mutagenic response for the hydrotreated products was approximately 1% of that in the untreated feedstock. The concentrations of two important genetically active compound classes, the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the primary aromatic amines, were considerably reduced in both of the hydrotreated products compared to the feedstock.

  9. Thymine vanadyl(II) compound as a diabetic drug model: chemical spectroscopic and antimicrobial assessments.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Y; Refat, Moamen S

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel bifunctionalized thymine vanadyl(II) compound. The solid vanadyl(II) compound has been characterized by elemental analyses (CHN), Raman laser, infrared spectra, molar conductivity, electronic spectra, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies. Electronic and magnetic measurements have confirmed that the speculated geometry of vanadyl(II) compound is square pyramidal geometry. The microbial test was performed for the vanadyl complex against some kinds of bacteria and fungi. The results suggested that [VO(Thy)2] adduct has an anti-diabetic profile. PMID:24785088

  10. Thymine vanadyl(II) compound as a diabetic drug model: Chemical spectroscopic and antimicrobial assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Y.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel bifunctionalized thymine vanadyl(II) compound. The solid vanadyl(II) compound has been characterized by elemental analyses (CHN), Raman laser, infrared spectra, molar conductivity, electronic spectra, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies. Electronic and magnetic measurements have confirmed that the speculated geometry of vanadyl(II) compound is square pyramidal geometry. The microbial test was performed for the vanadyl complex against some kinds of bacteria and fungi. The results suggested that [VO(Thy)2] adduct has an anti-diabetic profile.

  11. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Mortelmans; Steve Haworth; Timothy Lawlor; William Speck; Beth Tainer; Errol Zeiger

    1986-01-01

    This publication includes data of Salmonella mutagenicity results on 270 coded chemicals, encompassing 329 tests performed by three laboratories under contract to the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The preincubation modification of the Salmonella\\/mammalian microsome assay was used to test chemicals in up to five Salmonella strains in the presence and absence of rat and hamster liver S-9. With a few

  12. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER USING POWDERED CARBON. NO. II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt Lake City municipal wastewater was treated in a nominal 100 gpm pilot plant by chemical coagulation-precipitation, powdered activated carbon adsorption and granular media filtration. Chemical-primary sludge was gravity thickened and vacuum filter dewatered. Spent carbon was ...

  13. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR A NATIONAL STUDY OF CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FISH - II. PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods and a quality assurance plan have been developed to determine the concentration of a select group of bioaccumulatable chemicals in fish tissue. he analytes include PCBs and 21 pesticides and industrial chemicals. he methodology has been used to conduct a survey...

  14. Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of the first water soluble Cu(ii)@hemicryptophane complex.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Aline; Collin, Solène; Bucher, Christophe; Maurel, Vincent; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Martinez, Alexandre

    2015-02-21

    A hemicryptophane ligand soluble in water at neutral pH was obtained thanks to the derivatization of the cyclotribenzylene unit with three carboxylate groups. The corresponding Cu(ii) complex was then synthesized and its spectroscopic and electrochemical properties in water were investigated, showing that water solubilisation retains the geometry of the complex around the metal center but strongly affects its redox properties, compared to previously reported Cu(ii)@hemicryptophane complexes soluble in organic solvents. PMID:25536454

  15. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE II REPORT, SEPT.1998-JULY 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.YAGER,K.A.BLANKENHORN,D. (KEYSPAN R AND D INITIATIVE)

    1999-08-01

    Based upon the previous Phase I research program aimed at looking for ways of recycling the KeySpan-generated wastes, such as waste water treatment sludge (WWTS) and bottom ash (BA), into the potentially useful cementitious materials called chemically bonded cement (CBC) materials, the emphasis of this Phase II program done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, in a period of September 1998 through July 1999, was directed towards the two major subjects: One was to assess the technical feasibility of WWTS-based CBC material for use as Pb-exchange adsorbent (PEA) which remediates Pb-contaminated soils in the field; and the other was related to the establishment of the optimum-packaging storage system of dry BA-based CBC components that make it a promising matrix material for the steam-cured concrete products containing sand and coarse aggregate. To achieve the goal of the first subject, a small-scale field demonstration test was carried out. Using the PEA material consisting of 30 wt% WWTS, 13 wt% Type I cement and 57 wt% water, the PES slurry was prepared using a rotary shear concrete mixer, and then poured on the Pb-contaminated soil. The PEA-to-soil ratio by weight was a factor of 2.0. The placed PEA slurry was blended with soil using hand mixing tools such as claws and shovels. The wettability of soils with the PEA was very good, thereby facilitating the soil-PEA mix procedures. A very promising result was obtained from this field test; in fact, the mount of Pb leached out from the 25-day-aged PEA-treated soil specimen was only 0.74 mg/l, meeting the requirement for EPA safe regulation of < 5 mg/l. In contrast, a large amount (26.4 mg/l) of Pb was detected from the untreated soil of the same age. Thus, this finding demonstrated that the WWTS-based CBC has a potential for use as PEA material. Regarding the second subject, the dry-packed storage system consisting of 68.7 wt% BA, 13.0 wt% calcium aluminate cement (CAC), 13.0 wt% Type I portland cement and 5.3 wt% sodium polyphosphate (NaP), was designed in response to the identification of the most effective CBC formulation in strengthening the steam-cured concrete specimens. Using this storage system with the material cost of 6.32 cents/lb, the 80 C-20 hour-steam-cured concrete specimens displayed the compressive strength of 3980 psi, tensile splitting of 416 psi, flexural strength of 808 psi, and modulus of elasticity of 3.16 x 10{sup 6} psi. Furthermore, the specimens had a good resistance to acid erosion and a lower permeability of water, compared with those of the conventional Type I cement concrete specimens. Consequently, the cost-effective BA-based CBC gave the promise of being a potentially useful material for fabricating high-performance precast concrete products, such as building blocks, pipes, and slabs.

  16. Immobilization of high concentrations of soluble Mn(II) from electrolytic manganese solid waste using inorganic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Du, Bing; Hou, Deyin; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo; Wang, Jun; Dan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Electrolytic manganese solid waste (EMSW) is a by-product of electrolytic manganese production and generally contains a high concentration of soluble Mn(II) (2000-3000 mg/L). Millions of tons of EMSW are stored in China, and the environmental pollution caused by manganese in this waste product is concerning. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the immobilization of manganese from industrial solid waste because manganese is absent from toxicological identification standards, and there is a lack of relevant quality standards in China. The objectives of this study were to immobilize soluble Mn(II) using chemical reagents, to analyze the immobilization mechanism, and to identify the most economical reagents. We investigated the immobilization degrees of soluble Mn(II) achieved by the reagents quicklime (CaO), carbonates (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3), phosphates (Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, NH4H2PO4, and Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), and caustic magnesia (MgO) both individually and in combination. Our results showed that the use of 9 % CaO+ 5 % NaHCO3, 9 % CaO+ 5 % Na3PO4, 10 % MgO alone, or with 1-5 % NaHCO3 or 1-5 % Na2CO3 can reduce the amount of Mn(II) leached to 100 mg/kg when the eluate pH was in the range of 6-9. The most economical reagent treatments were determined using K-means cluster analysis. Analysis of the immobilization mechanism showed that CaO?+?NaHCO3 may be favorable for immobilizing soluble Mn(II) as precipitation and oxidation products because the addition of NaHCO3 releases OH(-) and buffers the system. PMID:25728200

  17. STRUCTURE-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS CAUSING TYPE(II) NARCOSIS SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several structure-activity relationships have been published for estimating the lethality of nonpolar nonelectrolytes to fish. The vast majority of non-reactive industrial chemicals produce toxicity symptoms consistent with narcosis. However, researchers have found that many chem...

  18. Characterizing Materials Sources and Sinks; Current Approaches: Part II. Chemical and Physical Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses methods for characterizing chemical emissions from material sources, including laboratory, dynamic chamber, and full-scale studies. Indoor sources and their interaction with sinks play a major role in determining indoor air quality (IAQ). Techniques for evalua...

  19. Biological and chemical detection of fumonisins produced on agar medium by Fusarium verticillioides isolates collected from corn in Sohag, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Nasr, M B; Obied-Allah, M R A

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is among the most common Fusarium species corn pathogens worldwide, and has been recognized as a fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) producer. In the present work, extracts of 58 F. verticillioides isolates from corn samples collected from Sohag Governorate, Egypt, were tested for their biotoxicity and production of fumonisin toxins. Forty-four Fusarium verticillioides isolates out of 58 tested produced FB1 or FB1 and FB2 (15 and 29 isolates, respectively) on potato-sucrose agar medium, detected by TLC, whereas the other 14 isolates did not produce fumonisin toxins. HPLC crude extract analysis confirmed the results from TLC plates. Brine shrimp larvae as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeuroginosa showed low bio-sensitivity towards the F. verticillioides crude extract toxicity, whereas the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, especially B. subtilis, showed higher sensitivity towards the tested Fusarium crude extracts. These results enabled us to bio-evaluate and chemically detect fumonisin mycotoxins using a simple agar medium technique. PMID:23760819

  20. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Mortelmans, K.; Haworth, S.; Lawlor, T.; Speck, W.; Tainer, B.; Zeiger, E.

    1986-01-01

    This publication includes data of Salmonella mutagenicity results on 270 coded chemicals, encompassing 329 tests performed by three laboratories under contract to the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The preincubation modification of the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay was used to test chemicals in up to five Salmonella strains in the presence and absence of rat and hamster liver S-9. With a few exceptions, inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility was good.

  2. Copper(II) removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres.

    PubMed

    Prodromou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency of a biomass by-product (cactus fibres) regarding the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated before and after its chemical treatment. The chemical treatment of the biomass by-product included phosphorylation and MnO2-coating. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, Cu(II) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that the MnO2-coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity, followed by the non-treated and phosphorylated material. Regarding the effect of ionic strength/salinity on the adsorption, in contrast to the removal efficiency of the phosphorylated product, which is significantly affected, the MnO2-coated and non-treated material don't show any effect, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reaction is in all cases endothermic and relatively fast, particularly the adsorption on the MnO2-coated product. The results of the present study indicate that for the removal of bivalent metal-ions from contaminated waters the MnO2-coated material is expected to be the most effective adsorbent and an alternative to MnO2 resins for the treatment of environmentally relevant waters. PMID:24334902

  3. Insertion of a magnesium(II)-octacarboranyl(hexylsulfanyl) porphyrazine into liposomes: a physico-chemical study

    E-print Network

    Anna Salvati; Sandra Ristori; Daniela Pietrangeli; Julian Oberdisse; Luca Calamai; Giacomo Martini; Giampaolo Ricciardi

    2007-09-07

    The synthesis, characterization and liposome insertion of a novel magnesium(II) carboranyl-porphyrazine, i.e. [2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octakis- (1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboranyl)-hexylthio-5,10,15,20- porphyrazine]magnesium(II) complex, MgHECSPz, is described. MgHECSPz was designed to improve the potentiality in multiple approach anticancer therapy. Liposomal formulations with different surface charge were prepared as delivering agents. The obtained loaded vectors were characterized by DLS, SAXS, SANS and \\zeta potential measurements in order to define the overall properties and structural details of loaded liposomes.

  4. Resonance line of B II in IUE spectra of chemically peculiar stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leckrone, D.S.

    1981-11-15

    High-dispersion IUE spectroscopic observations of the B II resonance line at 1362.46 A are presented for six HgMn stars (kappa Cnc, ..mu.. Lep, 46 Draiola, CrB, HR 4072, and chi Lup), two magnetic peculiar stars (..cap alpha../sup 2/ CVn and HD 32633), and one normal B9.5 V star (..nu.. Cap). The B II line is present in great strength in kappa Cnc. It is absent from the five other HgMn stars. It is probably present, though unresolved and weak, in the magnetic stars. Its strength in ..nu.. Cap is consistent with a normal boron abundance.

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM A COLLECTION OF OCIMUM SPECIES (NCRPIS, AMES, USA); INVESTIGATION OF THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES AND EFFECTS ON FUNGAL POLYAMINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station conserves germplasm of aromatic plants, including extensive collections of Ocimum providing valuable sources of key genes for developing new basil cultivars. We conducted chemical analyses of essential oils of 73 Ocimum accessions, comparing our...

  6. Seed chemical composition variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds are nutritious containing high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemic...

  7. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  8. Orientation of chemical bonds at type-II heterointerfaces probed by polarized optical spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    region containing the interface and, there- fore, the transition oscillator strength will be strongly af,4 In type-II heterostructures with large band offsets, the ra- diative recombination is indirect in real of the heterostructure, which is retained under deloc

  9. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II,III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

  10. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

  11. Physico-chemical studies in the removal of Sr(II) from aqueous solutions using activated sericite.

    PubMed

    Lalhmunsiama; Tiwari, Diwakar; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    Sericite, a mica based natural clay, was annealed at 800 °C for 4 h followed by acid activation using 3.0 mol/L of HCl at 100 °C in order to obtain activated sericite (AS). The activation of sericite causes a significant increase in specific surface area. Further, SEM images of the AS showed a disordered and heterogeneous surface structure with mesopores on its surface whereas the pristine sericite possessed a compact layered structure. The materials were further employed in the removal of Sr(II) from aqueous solutions in a batch reactor system. Removal of Sr(II) was studied as a function of pH, concentration of adsorbate, contact time, background electrolyte concentrations and dose of adsorbents using pristine sericite and AS. The removal of Sr(II) was favoured increasing the pH of the solution and the extent of Sr(II) removal was increased with increasing the sorbate concentration. Equilibrium sorption data obtained with pristine sericite were fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm whereas the sorption data collected using AS better fitted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The time dependence sorption data showed that the uptake of Sr(II) was very rapid and an apparent sorption equilibrium was achieved within 30 min and 60 min of contact for sericite and AS, respectively. The kinetic data were modelled to the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order rate kinetics and sorption capacities as well as rate constants were evaluated. Increase in background electrolyte concentrations NaNO3 (0.001-0.1 mol/L) indicated that the presence of NaNO3 caused to decrease the percent removal of Sr(II) by sericite and AS. Furthermore, fixed-bed column reactor operations were performed to obtain the breakthrough data. The breakthrough data were fitted well to the non-linear Thomas equation. Therefore, the present study suggested that AS can be adequately applied for the removal of Sr(II) from the aquatic environment. PMID:26048059

  12. Retention of single crystals of two Co(II) complexes during chemical reactions and rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Shaikh M; Mohammad, Akbar

    2014-09-14

    Monomeric [Co(II)(hep-H)(H2O)4]SO4 [1]SO4 and [Co(II)(hep-H)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 [2](NO3)2 have been developed from 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine (hep-H) and CoSO4·7H2O/Co(NO3)2·6H2O, respectively, at 298 K. On exposure to heat (120 °C), the light orange single crystal of [1]SO4 transforms to a pink single crystal corresponding to the neutral sulfato bridged dimeric complex [(Co(II)(hep-H)(H2O)2(?2-sulfato-O,O'))2](3). However, the orange single crystal of [2](NO3)2 transforms to the single crystal of monomeric [Co(II)(hep-H)2(NO3)]NO3 [4]NO3 (orange) upon exposure to heat (110 °C) where one of the NO3(-) counter anions in [2](NO3)2 moves to the coordination sphere. The facile SCSC transformations of [1]SO4 (orange) ? 3 (pink) and [2](NO3)2 (orange) ? [4]NO3 (orange) involve intricate multiple bond breaking and bond forming processes without losing the crystallinity. Moreover, the immersion of the pink single crystal of 3 in 1 N HCl results in a green single crystal of ionic monomeric [Co(II)(H2O)6]·SO4[5]SO4, which indeed demonstrates the unprecedented unique two-step SCSC transformations. PMID:25033219

  13. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace elements have led to the development of many analytical procedures which now permit the measurement of a wide range of elements in peat samples such as lead and lead isotope ratios, mercury, arsenic, antimony, silver, molybdenum, thorium, uranium, rare earth elements. Radiometric methods (the carbon bomb pulse of (14)C, (210)Pb and conventional (14)C dating) are combined to allow reliable age-depth models to be reconstructed for each peat profile. PMID:15152318

  14. Liquid-flame combustion II: Some physical and chemical characteristics of the burning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris M. Khusid; Valery A. Mansurov

    1997-01-01

    To gain further insight into the nature of the liquid-flame structure (LFS), which is characteristic of compressed solid mixtures, containing tetrazole (64 wt%) and sodium tetrazolate monohydrate, a number of physical and chemical characteristics of the liquid flame was studied. The temperature distribution on the surface of the LFS and the temperature profile in a combustion wave were investigated using

  15. Acidbase properties of cyanobacterial surfaces. II: Silica as a chemical stressor influencing cell surface reactivity

    E-print Network

    Konhauser, Kurt

    of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 3-13 Earth Science Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., 1997). At the same time, their surface layers serve as the primary interface be- tween bacterium. They are studded with organic chemical functional groups that serve as ligands for the sorption of metals (e

  16. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Larrick; R. A. Paasch; T. M. Hall; D. Schneidmiller

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were

  17. ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART II. CHEMICAL STABILITY UNDER FOUR STORAGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to assess the long-term chemical stability of dilute standard pesticide solutions of 4 compound classes. The solutions were studied under 4 storage conditions: freezer at -15C; refrigerator at 3C; ambient temperature in the dark; and ambient temperature on ...

  18. THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIR II. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL HAIRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowell A. Goldsmith; Howard P. Baden

    1971-01-01

    The direct measurement of the ultrasonically determined modulus of elasticity (UME) has been extended to chemically modified hair and to pathological hairs. Single hairs are equilibrated at 75% relative humidity and studied with simultaneous stress-strain tests and direct measurements of the UME. Disulfide reduction with IM dithiothreitol produced more extensible hairs in which the UME retains its characteristic relationship to

  19. Iso-chemical potential trajectories in the P-T plane for He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maytal, B.; Nissen, J. A.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    Trajectories of constant chemical potential in the P-T plane serve as an integral formulation of London's equation. The trajectories are useful for analysis and synthesis of fountain effect pump performance. A family of trajectories is generated from available numerical codes.

  20. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL: VOLUME II. SPENT SORBENT PROCESSING FOR DISPOSAL/UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the processing of spent calcium-based sulfur sorbents (limestones or dolomites) from an atmospheric-pressure, chemically active fluid bed (CAFB) gasification process, using a regenerative sulfur sorbent process that produces low- to intermediate-Btu gas. Data...

  1. Chemical chaperones improve transport and enhance stability of mutant ?-glucosidases in glycogen storage disease type II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshika Okumiya; Marian A. Kroos; Laura Van Vliet; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Ans T. Van der Ploeg; Arnold J. J. Reuser

    2007-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII; Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by lysosomal acid ?-glucosidase (A?Glu) deficiency and manifests predominantly as skeletal muscle weakness. Defects in post-translational modification and transport of mutant A?Glu species are frequently encountered and may potentially be corrected with chaperone-mediated therapy. In the present study, we have tested this

  2. On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Mazzocchi; Davide Gardini; Pier Luigi Traverso; Maria Giulia Faga; Alida Bellosi

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined\\u000a and their non-toxicity was demonstrated. In this Part II, some features critical to biomedical applications were investigated:\\u000a (i) the wetting behaviour against aqueous media, including physiological solutions; (ii) the chemical stability in water and\\u000a in physiological solutions; and (iii) the wear resistance, measured under

  3. Chemical priming for spinal cord injury: a review of the literature part II—potential therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin M. Mortazavi; Ketan Verma; Aman Deep; Fatemeh B. Esfahani; Patrick R. Pritchard; R. Shane Tubbs; Nicholas Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Spinal cord injury is a complex cascade of reactions secondary to the initial mechanical trauma that puts into action the\\u000a innate properties of the injured cells, the circulatory, inflammatory, and chemical status around them, into a non-permissive\\u000a and destructive environment for neuronal function and regeneration. Priming means putting a cell, in a state of “arousal”\\u000a towards better function. Priming can

  4. Vapor adsorption on coal- and wood-based chemically activated carbons (II) adsorption of organic vapors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H Lee; P. J Reucroft

    1999-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to determine the adsorption properties and evaluate the adsorption capacities of several coal- and wood-based chemically activated carbons using the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) characteristic adsorption analysis. Limiting micropore volumes (W0), determined from CCl4 and acetone adsorption isotherms at room temperature, were generally in good agreement with the development of surface area. An effect of adsorbate polarity

  5. [Physico-chemical properties and structure of oligomycin SC-II, produced by Streptomyces virginiae 17].

    PubMed

    Danilenko, A N; Bibikova, M V; Spiridonova, I A; Grammatikova, N E; Katlinski?, A V

    2012-01-01

    Under the screening programme for antibiotics with antifungal and immunosuppressive activities, Streptomyces virginiae 17 producing an oligomycin complex was isolated. Separation of the complex by HPLC showed that it contained two components at a ratio of 8:2. The physico-chemical characteristics of the components were investigated. The structure of oligomycin was assessed by 13C NMR and 1H NMR. PMID:23700929

  6. Kinetics and mechanisms of high-temperature creep in silicon carbide: II, chemically vapor deposited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Carter; J. Bentley; R. F. Davis

    1984-01-01

    Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide was subjected to constant compressive stresses (110 to 220 MN\\/m²) at high temperatures (1848 to 2023 K) in order to determine the controlling steady-state creep mechanisms under these conditions. An extensive TEM study was also conducted to facilitate this determination. The strong preferred crystallographic orientation of this material causes the creep rate to be

  7. Chemicals and Energy from Medical Polymer Wastes II. Maleated Pyrolysis Products in IPP\\/LLDPE Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Vasile; Rudolph D. Deanin; Mihaela Mihaies; Christian Roy; Abdelkader Chaala; Wenguang Ma

    1997-01-01

    A way for high valorisation of the waxy product resulted from the pyrolysis of disposable syringes it has been proposed. The waxy product has been chemically modified with maleic anhydride and then has been tested in the processing of IPP\\/ LLDPE blends on a Haake-Buchler rheometer or on a Werner and Pfeiderer ZSM-30 corotating twin screw extruder.The compatibility of components

  8. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  9. Chemical evolution of dehydrogenases: Amino acid pentacyanoferrate (II) as possible intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaluddin; Nath, Mala; Deopujari, Sushama W.

    1989-03-01

    Dehydrogenation of ascorbic acid and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) with methylene blue using complexes of the type [Fe(II)(CN)5 (L)] n- (wheren=3 or 4; L=glycine, histidine, imidazole, and triglycine) as catalyst have been studied at pH 9.18. Similar kinetic behavior was observed for the dehydrogenation of ascorbic acid as well as for NADH; both reactions showed first order dependency on the substrates. First order dependence was observed only at lower concentrations of methylene blue; at higher concentrations of methylene blue, the reactions were independent of methylene blue. The order with respect to catalyst varied between 0.3 0.5. A tentative mechanism which conforms to the observed kinetics has been proposed. It is believed that on the primitive earth when the reducing potential of the atmosphere was not high enough, lower oxidation state iron complexes like [Fe(II)(CN)5(L)] n- might have been involved in dehydrogenase-type activity.

  10. Atomic data for Zn II - Improving Spectral Diagnostics of Chemical Evolution in High-redshift Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Kisielius, Romas; Ferland, Gary J; Bogdanovich, Pavel; Som, Debopam; Lykins, Matt L

    2015-01-01

    Damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorbers in quasar spectra provide the most sensitive tools for measuring element abundances of distant galaxies. Estimation of abundances from absorption lines depends sensitively on the accuracy of the atomic data used. We have started a project to produce new atomic spectroscopic parameters for optical/UV spectral lines using state-of-the-art computer codes employing very broad configuration interaction basis. Here we report our results for Zn II, an ion used widely in studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) as well as DLA/sub-DLAs. We report new calculations of many energy levels of Zn II, and the line strengths of the resulting radiative transitions. Our calculations use the configuration interaction approach within a numerical Hartree-Fock framework. We use both non-relativistic and quasi-relativistic one-electron radial orbitals. We have incorporated the results of these atomic calculations into the plasma simulation code Cloudy, and applied them to a lab plasma a...

  11. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by chemically modified maize straw.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Zhang, Shufen; Kou, Zinong; Zhai, Shangru; Ma, Wei; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-22

    A new regenerable adsorbent was successfully prepared by modifying maize straw (MS) with succinic anhydride in xylene. The succinylated-maize straw (S-MS) was characterized by FTIR, solid-state MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and point of zero charge analysis. NaS-MS was successfully obtained after deprotonating the carboxylic acid groups of S-MS by Na2CO3 solution. Batch experiments were carried out with NaS-MS for the removal of Cd(II). The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, and ?S) were also calculated from data obtained from experiments performed to study the effect of temperatures. NaS-MS could be regenerated at least five times in saturated NaCl solution without any loss. Furthermore, ?97% of adsorbed Cd(II) ions could be recovered as the metal oxide. Finally, the adsorption mechanism of NaS-MS was discussed. PMID:25439883

  12. Synthesis, physico-chemical properties and biological analysis of newly obtained copper(II) complexes with pyrazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Grazul, Magdalena; Besic-Gyenge, Emina; Maake, Caroline; Ciolkowski, Michal; Czyz, Malgorzata; Sigel, Roland K O; Budzisz, Elzbieta

    2014-06-01

    Three new copper(II) complexes containing two different pyrazole bound ligands (1, 2) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, LSI-MS (liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry) and elemental analysis. (1)H NMR spectra of the organic ligands have been recorded. We describe the influence of these complexes on particular cancer cell lines and DNA structure by MTT-assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], APA (acid phosphatase activity)-assay or CD-spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis methods, together with their physico-chemical properties such as lipophilicity and stability in aqueous solution. The cytotoxic effect on HUVEC (endothelial cells) for the most active complex 4 has been also investigated. Moreover, the ability of these complexes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells has been assessed by using fluorescence microscopy. Our results indicate that dichloridobis{1-[amino(thioxo)methyl]-5-hydroxy-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-?N2}copper(II) is the most potent complex among the tested complexes. PMID:24662465

  13. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 870 ?m dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+ emissions match well with the dust emission, implying a close link to their chemical evolution in the RMSs. We found that the abundance of N2H+ is one order of magnitude lower than that in other surveys of infrared dark clouds, and a positive correlation between the abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The fractional abundance of N2H+ with respect to H2 seems to decrease as a function of NL. These observed trends could be interpreted as an indication of enhanced destruction of N2H+, either by CO or through dissociative recombination with electrons produced by central UV photons.

  14. Chemical sensitivity of sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy II: Speciation of disulfide functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behyan, Shirin; Hu, Yongfeng; Urquhart, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy is sensitive to sulfur speciation; however, the overlapping energy position of the white line in the spectra of thiols and disulfides can be problematic for speciation. We have acquired highly resolved sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra of a group of disulfides with aliphatic and unsaturated ligand groups. Spectral transitions were assigned by the aid of Improved Virtual Orbital (IVO) ab initio calculations. These results confirm how molecular symmetry and the ligand group can affect the NEXAFS spectra, and show how the NEXAFS spectra of thiols and disulfides can be used for chemical speciation.

  15. The resonance line of B II in IUE spectra of chemically peculiar stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of eight chemically peculiar stars including Kappa Cnc and Mu Lep, and of one normal comparison star, Nu Cap, in the vicinity of 1362 A. The reported data were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer during the first 15 months of its operation. The initial reduction of the data, which were originally described in a qualitative summary by Leckrone (1980), was affected by a serious error in the calibration of the instrument's intensity transfer function. This error has been corrected in the currently presented data. The results of spectrum syntheses of the 1362 A feature are also described for several of the stars.

  16. 78 FR 36580 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Import/Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...Declaration for List I and List II Chemicals; DEA Forms 486 and 486A ACTION: 30-Day Notice...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form number: DEA Forms 486 and 486A. Component:...

  17. 77 FR 62532 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Import/Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...Declaration for List I and List II Chemicals; DEA Forms 486 and 486A ACTION: 30-Day Notice...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form number: DEA Forms 486 and 486A. Component:...

  18. 78 FR 19312 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Import/Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...Declaration for List I and List II Chemicals, DEA Forms 486 and 486A ACTION: 60-Day Notice...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), will be submitting the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form Number: DEA Forms 486 and 486A. Component:...

  19. 77 FR 47666 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Import/Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...Declaration for List I and List II Chemicals; DEA Forms 486 and 486A ACTION: 60-Day Notice...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), will be submitting the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form Number: DEA Forms 486 and 486A. Component:...

  20. Chemical Processes in Protoplanetary Disks II. On the importance of photochemistry and X-ray ionization

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T J; Aikawa, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of photochemistry and X-ray ionization on the molecular composition of, and ionization fraction in, a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. We use a sophisticated physical model, which includes a robust treatment of the radiative transfer of UV and X-ray radiation, and calculate the time-dependent chemical structure using a comprehensive chemical network. In previous work, we approximated the photochemistry and X-ray ionization, here, we recalculate the photoreaction rates using the explicit UV wavelength spectrum and wavelength-dependent reaction cross sections. We recalculate the X-ray ionization rate using our explicit elemental composition and X-ray energy spectrum. We find photochemistry has a larger influence on the molecular composition than X-ray ionization. Observable molecules sensitive to the photorates include OH, HCO+, N2H+, H2O, CO2 and CH3OH. The only molecule significantly affected by the X-ray ionization is N2H+ indicating it is safe to adopt existi...

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-07-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were ?-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and ?-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined. PMID:25554361

  2. Impact of Lewis base on chemical reactivity and separation efficiency for hydrated fourth-row transition metal (II) complexes: an ONIOM DFT/MM study.

    PubMed

    He, Dingsheng; Ma, Ming

    2014-04-24

    In this paper, two-layer ONIOM combinations of high-level quantum mechanics (QM) and inexpensive molecular mechanics (MM) are successfully used to investigate the structural characters of metal (M, all the transition metals in the fourth period)-H2O-Lewis base (A(-)) complexes. Global and local descriptors of chemical reactivity and selectivity from conceptual density functional theory are employed to show the properties of the active complexes of M(H2O)2A2 and to study the effect of the Lewis base for the separation of transition metal ions. It is shown that chemical potential, hardness, electrophilicity, as well as the dual and multiphilic descriptors are adequate for characterizing the global and local reactivity trends of the M(H2O)2A2 complex. It is found that the reactivity is well localized at the metallic center in M(H2O)2A2 and the dual descriptor (?fM(r)) can also be used to characterize the directional attack of the electrophile and nucleophile except for the selectivity of the reaction. On the basis of the values of ?M and ?sk, and the sign of ?fM(r), the selectivity of the nucleophilic reagent (R(-)) for M(II) in M(H2O)2A2 (from high to low) follows this order: Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Fe(II) ? Mn(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(II). The Lewis base (A(-)) improves chemical reactivity and selectivity because of changing the reaction path and forming an intermediate, which possesses the higher antibonding character and the larger HOMO/LUMO gap. NBO or AIMALL analysis and Frontier orbital theory results presented here provided more theoretical support for the above reactivity and selectivity studies. PMID:24694190

  3. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, part II: Chemical characterization and transformation of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Jia, Yuling; Denbleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Fraser, Matthew P.; Allen, David T.; Collins, Donald R.; Michel, Edward; Pudota, Jayanth; Sullivan, David; Zhu, Yifang

    Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO x concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO x concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO x closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution. Concentrations of most carbonyl species decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. However, concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein increased farther downwind of SH-71, suggesting chemical generation from the oxidation of primary vehicular emissions. The behavior of particle-bound organic species was complex and further investigation of the size-segregated chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) at increasing downwind distances from roadways is warranted. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations generally exhibited concentrations that decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC) increased from upwind concentrations immediately downwind of SH-71 and continued to increase further downwind from the roadway. This behavior may have primarily resulted from condensation of semi-volatile organic species emitted from vehicle sources with transport downwind of the roadway.

  4. Chemical evolution in the early phases of massive star formation. II. Deuteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, T.; Shirley, Y. L.; Beuther, H.; Semenov, D.; Linz, H.; Albertsson, T.; Henning, Th.

    2015-07-01

    The chemical evolution in high-mass star-forming regions is still poorly constrained. Studying the evolution of deuterated molecules allows distinguishing between subsequent stages of high-mass star formation regions based on the strong temperature dependence of deuterium isotopic fractionation. We observed a sample of 59 sources including 19 infrared dark clouds, 20 high-mass protostellar objects, 11 hot molecular cores and 9 ultra-compact Hii regions in the (3-2) transitions of the four deuterated molecules, DCN, DNC, DCO+, and N2D+ as well as their non-deuterated counterparts. The overall detection fraction of DCN, DNC, and DCO+ is high and exceeds 50% for most of the stages. N2D+ was only detected in a few infrared dark clouds and high-mass protostellar objects. This may be related to problems in the bandpass at the transition frequency and to low abundances in the more evolved, warmer stages. We find median D/H ratios of 0.02 for DCN, 0.005 for DNC, 0.0025 for DCO+, and 0.02 for N2D+. While the D/H ratios of DNC, DCO+, and N2D+ decrease with time, DCN/HCN peaks at the hot molecular core stage. We only found weak correlations of the D/H ratios for N2D+ with the luminosity of the central source and the FWHM of the line, and no correlation with the H2 column density. In combination with a previously observed set of 14 other molecules (Paper I), we fitted the calculated column densities with an elaborate 1D physico-chemical model with time-dependent D-chemistry including ortho- and para-H2 states. Good overall fits to the observed data were obtained with the model. This is one of the first times that observations and modeling were combined to derive chemically based best-fit models for the evolution of high-mass star formation including deuteration. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II.

    E-print Network

    Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II. Increased fertilizer use greatly. It was apparent well before the rapid expansion in fertilizer use that inexpensive ways to evaluate the fertility

  6. Acid base properties of cyanobacterial surfaces. II: Silica as a chemical stressor influencing cell surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, S. V.; Smith, D. S.; Owttrim, G. W.; Konhauser, K. O.

    2008-03-01

    Bacteria grow in complex solutions where the adsorption of aqueous species and nucleation of mineral phases on the cell surface may interfere with membrane-dependent homeostatic functions. While previous investigations have provided evidence that bacteria may alter their surface chemical properties in response to environmental stimuli, to our knowledge no effort has been made to evaluate surface compositional changes resulting from non-nutritional chemical stresses within a quantitative framework applicable to surface complexation modeling. We consider here the influence of exposure to silica on cyanobacterial surface chemistry, particularly in light of the propensity for cyanobacteria to become silicified in geothermal environments. Using data modeled from over 50 potentiometric titrations of the unsheathed cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, we find that both abiotic geochemical and biotic biochemical-assimilatory factors have important and different effects on cell surface chemistry. Changes in functional group distribution that resulted from growth by different nitrogen assimilation pathways were greatest in the absence of dissolved silica and less important in its presence. Furthermore, out of the three nitrogen assimilation pathways investigated, in terms of surface functional group distribution, nitrate-reducing cultures were least sensitive, and ammonium-assimilating cultures were most sensitive, to changes in media silica concentration. When functional group distributions were plotted as a function of silica concentration, it appears that, with higher silica concentrations, basic groups (p Ka > 7) increase in concentration relative to acidic groups (p Ka < 7), and the total ligand densities (on a per-weight basis) decreased. The results imply a decrease in both the magnitude and density of surface charge as the net result of growth at high silica concentrations. Thus, Anabaena sp. appears to actively respond to growth in silicifying solutions by altering its surface properties in a manner that is likely to be manifested in nature by facilitated surface attachment. We conclude that potentiometric titrations reveal a Gram-negative bacterial surface whose properties are dynamic with respect to both nutrient and geochemical stressors.

  7. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND X-RAY IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri, E-mail: catherine.walsh@qub.ac.uk [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We investigate the impact of photochemistry and X-ray ionization on the molecular composition of, and ionization fraction in, a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. We use a sophisticated physical model, which includes a robust treatment of the radiative transfer of UV and X-ray radiation, and calculate the time-dependent chemical structure using a comprehensive chemical network. In previous work, we approximated the photochemistry and X-ray ionization; here, we recalculate the photoreaction rates using the explicit UV wavelength spectrum and wavelength-dependent reaction cross sections. We recalculate the X-ray ionization rate using our explicit elemental composition and X-ray energy spectrum. We find that photochemistry has a larger influence on the molecular composition than X-ray ionization. Observable molecules sensitive to the photorates include OH, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH. The only molecule significantly affected by the X-ray ionization is N{sub 2}H{sup +}, indicating that it is safe to adopt existing approximations of the X-ray ionization rate in typical T Tauri star-disk systems. The recalculation of the photorates increases the abundances of neutral molecules in the outer disk, highlighting the importance of taking into account the shape of the UV spectrum in protoplanetary disks. A recalculation of the photoreaction rates also affects the gas-phase chemistry due to the adjustment of the H/H{sub 2} and C{sup +}/C ratios. The disk ionization fraction is not significantly affected by the methods adopted to calculate the photochemistry and X-ray ionization. We determine that there is a probable 'dead zone' where accretion is suppressed, present in a layer, Z/R {approx}< 0.1-0.2, in the disk midplane, within R Almost-Equal-To 200 AU.

  8. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn R. Anspaugh; Yvonne E. Ricker; Stuart C. Black; R. Frank Grossman; David L. Wheeler; Bruce W. Church; Virgil E. Quinn

    1990-01-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively.

  9. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function: I. Compounds that Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding how different environmental chemicals and drug-like molecules impact mitochondrial function rep...

  10. Episome-carried Surface Antigen K88 of Escherichia coli II. Isolation and Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stirm, Stephan; Ørskov, Frits; Ørskov, Ida; Mansa, Bendt

    1967-01-01

    The K88 antigen was carried by episomal transfer to D282, a nonmotile Escherichia coli strain without K antigen. D520, obtained by this episomal transfer, was used for the extraction of K88 antigen. It was shown by the agar gel precipitation technique that some K88 antigen was released from D520 into suspending aqueous medium. The amount of liberated material was increased by gentle heating (60 C) or treatment in a Waring Blendor. The antigen was obtained from the extracts in a purified form by making use of its insolubility between pH 3.5 and 5.5 and of its high sedimentation rate (S020,w = 36.7S). The homogeneity of the material was demonstrated by agar gel precipitation with D520 antiserum, by analytical ultracentrifugation, and by moving-boundary electrophoresis. Chemical analysis revealed that K88 is a pure protein containing all the common amino acids with the exception of cysteine-cystine. Purified K88 selectively precipitated the K88 antibodies from D520 antiserum and was shown to be immunogenic in rabbits. Images PMID:4960185

  11. Processes involved in salt-dome development II: thermal, gravitational, and chemical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I.; O'Brien, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    The quantitative investigation of processes involved in salt dome development include thermal, gravitational, and chemical effects of uprising salt domes. The authors find that (a) there must be a positive-temperature anomaly occurring around the upper flanks of a salt dome but that organic maturation is typically so low that the resulting enhanced maturation is still insignificant for hydrocarbon generation, (b) there must be a negative temperature anomaly occurring around the lower flanks of a salt dome that significantly inhibits overmaturation of hydrocarbons and so enlarges the hydrocarbon window, (c) the magnitude of the negative gravity anomaly associated with a salt dome, that is predicted by an equilibrium model of gravitational instability is much smaller than the observed values, implying that salt domes are inhibited in their development either by lateral sediment strength, under compaction of the overlying or surrounding sediments, or by the available supply of salt, (d) the 4 major current suggestions for cap-rock formation discussed in the literature have serious deficiencies; none of them is capable of supplying enough anhydrite for the observed thicknesses of cap rocks. Permeability enhancement by 2 orders of magnitude is required for any of these processes to be viable. A method for producing such an enhancement is based on fluid characteristics in generalized sandstone and shale section.

  12. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Ricker, Y E; Black, S C; Grossman, R F; Wheeler, D L; Church, B W; Quinn, V E

    1990-11-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953. PMID:2211112

  13. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: II. Model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    Pesticides have adverse health effects and can be transported over long distances to contaminate sensitive ecosystems. To address problems caused by environmental pesticides we developed a multimedia multi-pollutant modeling system, and here we present an evaluation of the model by comparing modeled results against measurements. The modeled toxaphene air concentrations for two sites, in Louisiana (LA) and Michigan (MI), are in good agreement with measurements (average concentrations agree to within a factor of 2). Because the residue inventory showed no soil residues at these two sites, resulting in no emissions, the concentrations must be caused by transport; the good agreement between the modeled and measured concentrations suggests that the model simulates atmospheric transport accurately. Compared to the LA and MI sites, the measured air concentrations at two other sites having toxaphene soil residues leading to emissions, in Indiana and Arkansas, showed more pronounced seasonal variability (higher in warmer months); this pattern was also captured by the model. The model-predicted toxaphene concentration fraction on particles (0.5-5%) agrees well with measurement-based estimates (3% or 6%). There is also good agreement between modeled and measured dry (1:1) and wet (within a factor of less than 2) depositions in Lake Ontario. Additionally this study identified erroneous soil residue data around a site in Texas in a published US toxaphene residue inventory, which led to very low modeled air concentrations at this site. Except for the erroneous soil residue data around this site, the good agreement between the modeled and observed results implies that both the US and Mexican toxaphene soil residue inventories are reasonably good. This agreement also suggests that the modeling system is capable of simulating the important physical and chemical processes in the multimedia compartments.

  14. US Alien Property Custodian patent documents: A legacy prior art collection from World War II – Part 2. Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. White

    2008-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on the origins, history and profile of Alien Property Custodian (APC) documents. The APC was responsible for administering American property, including patents, seized from nationals of enemy and enemy-occupied countries during World War II. Part 1 covered the wartime organization and activities of the APC, vesting orders and the agency’s patent

  15. Chemically tailoring coal to fluorescent carbon dots with tuned size and their capacity for Cu(II) detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Yu, Chang; Li, Mingyu; Wang, Xiuna; Yang, Junyu; Zhao, Zongbin; Eychmüller, Alexander; Sun, Y-P; Qiu, Jieshan

    2014-12-10

    The desired control of size, structure, and optical properties of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) is critical for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential application. Herein, a top-down strategy to chemically tailor the inexpensive coal to fluorescent CDs by a combined method of carbonization and acidic oxidation etching is reported. The size and optical properties of the as-made CDs are tuned by controlling the structures of graphitic crystallites in the starting precursor. The coal-derived CDs exhibit two different distinctive emission modes, where the intensity of the short-wavelength emission is significantly enhanced by partial reduction treatment. The evolution of the electronic structure and the surface states analysis show that two different types of fluorescence centers, nano-sized sp(2) carbon domains and surface defects, are responsible for the observed emission characteristics. The reduced CDs are demonstrated as an effective fluorescent sensing material for label-free and selective detection of Cu(II) ions with a detection limit as low as 2.0 nM, showing a great promise for real-world sensor applications. PMID:25048718

  16. Shop 'til you drop II: Collective Adaptive Behavior of Simple Autonomous Trading Agents in Simulated `Retail' Markets

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    to exhibit market-level behaviors that are similar to those of human markets, explanations of how that groups of simple agents can exhibit human-like collective market behaviors. We note that, while it is often tempting to o er explanations of human market behavior in terms of the mental states of the agents

  17. Reducing Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Concentrations at Wastewater Collection Systems and Treatment Facilities using Chemical Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dornelle S. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater collection systems and treatment facilities are known for emitting offensive odors that cause neighboring residents to complain. One of the main odor compound contributors is hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Presently, H2S removal from wastewater facilities is mainly being accomplished by biological means relying heavily on the use of microorganisms. However, the use of microorganisms requires a more consistent and stable

  18. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  19. Divergent Chemical Cues Elicit Seed Collecting by Ants in an Obligate Multi-Species Mutualism in Lowland Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsa Youngsteadt; Patricia Guerra Bustios; Coby Schal; Walter S. Leal

    2010-01-01

    In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems,

  20. Combining chemical reduction with an electrochemical technique for the simultaneous detection of Cr(vi), Pb(ii) and Cd(ii).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jichao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Erkang

    2009-02-01

    This work herein reports the approach for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions including cadmium (Cd(ii)), lead (Pb(ii)), and chromium (Cr(vi)) using a bismuth film electrode (BFE) by anodic stripping voltammertry (ASV). The BFE used was plated in situ. Due to the reduction of Cr(vi) with H(2)O(2) in the acid medium, on one hand, the Cr(iii) was produced and Cr(vi) was indirectly detected by monitoring the content of Cr(iii) using square-wave ASV. On the other hand, Pb(ii) was also released from the complex between Pb(ii) and Cr(vi). Furthermore, the coexistence of the Cd(ii) was also simultaneously detected with Pb(ii) and Cr(vi) in this system as a result of the formation of an alloy with Bi. The detection limits of this method were 1.39 ppb for Cd(ii), 2.47 ppb for Pb(ii) and 5.27 ppb for Cr(vi) with a preconcentration time of 120 s under optimal conditions (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity of this method can be improved by controlling the deposition time or by using a cation-exchange polymer (such as Nafion) modified electrode. PMID:19173049

  1. Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, A.L.; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

  2. Comparison of the chemical composition of Valerianaparviflora essential oils collected in the Venezuelan Andes in two different seasons.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sammy; Rondón, María; Rojas, Janne; Morales, Antonio; Rojas-Fermin, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Valerianaparviflora (Trevir) BM Vadillo, an endemic species of the Venezuelan Andes, collected from the same location in two different seasons (dry and rainy) of the year, were analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil obtained during the dry season showed linalool (11.9%), eugenol (8.9%), p-menth-l-en-9-al (8.7%) and ?-terpineol (7.7%) as main components, while the oil obtained from the rainy season collection showed o-xylol (16.2%), 3-methyl isovaleric acid (10.6%) and geranial (9.5%) as major compounds. Some of the differences in the composition of these oils might be due to the climatic conditions at the time of harvesting. PMID:25973503

  3. Chemical characterization of individual particles and residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals collected on board research aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Glen, A.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Liu, P.; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2013-06-01

    Ambient particles and the dry residuals of mixed-phase cloud droplets and ice crystals were collected during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) near Barrow, Alaska, in spring of 2008. The collected particles were analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to identify physico-chemical properties that differentiate cloud-nucleating particles from the total aerosol population. A wide range of individually mixed components was identified in the ambient particles and residuals including organic carbon compounds, inorganics, carbonates, and black carbon. Our results show that cloud droplet residuals differ from the ambient particles in both size and composition, suggesting that both properties may impact the cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols in mixed-phase clouds. The percentage of residual particles which contained carbonates (47%) was almost four times higher than those in ambient samples. Residual populations were also enhanced in sea salt and black carbon and reduced in organic compounds relative to the ambient particles. Further, our measurements suggest that chemical processing of aerosols may improve their cloud-nucleating ability. Comparison of results for various time periods within ISDAC suggests that the number and composition of cloud-nucleating particles over Alaska can be influenced by episodic events bringing aerosols from both the local vicinity and as far away as Siberia.

  4. Investigation of the maximum quantum yield of PS II in Haematococcus pluvialis cell cultures during growth: effects of chemical or high-intensity light treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Chih; Cho, Man-Gi; Riznichenko, Galina; Rubin, Andrey B; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the increase in photosynthetic quantum yield that occurs in advance of increased microalgal growth. Haematococcus pluvialis was cultivated under normal conditions; the number of cells, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)), and optical density were measured. We observed an increase in F(v)/F(m) approximately 72h prior to the cell growth phase. To confirm the relationship between photosynthetic yield and growth, samples were treated with several chemicals under high-intensity light illumination and control conditions to inhibit photosystem II and induce a decrease in the quantum photosynthetic yield. The samples were exposed to high-intensity light at an irradiance of 400?mol photonsm(-2)s(-1) for varied amount of time and were treated with chemicals such as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, nigericin sodium salt and valinomycin. We observed that both the photooxidation of photosystem II reaction centers and the formation of transmembrane electrochemical gradients led to an initial decrease in fluorescence yield after the onset of high-intensity light illumination. We also observed that treatment of high-intensity light illuminated cells with antibiotics after adaptation to moderate light intensities caused a difference in photosynthetic activity. In conclusion, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II is obtained prior to the cell growth phase and can therefore be used as a prediction parameter for cell growth. PMID:21592814

  5. Binary classification of a large collection of environmental chemicals from estrogen receptor assays by quantitative structure-activity relationship and machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qingda; Rotroff, Daniel M; Judson, Richard S

    2013-12-23

    There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. The ToxCast and Tox21 programs have tested ?8200 chemicals in a broad screening panel of in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and antagonist activity. The present work uses this large data set to develop in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using machine learning (ML) methods and a novel approach to manage the imbalanced data distribution. Training compounds from the ToxCast project were categorized as active or inactive (binding or nonbinding) classes based on a composite ER Interaction Score derived from a collection of 13 ER in vitro assays. A total of 1537 chemicals from ToxCast were used to derive and optimize the binary classification models while 5073 additional chemicals from the Tox21 project, evaluated in 2 of the 13 in vitro assays, were used to externally validate the model performance. In order to handle the imbalanced distribution of active and inactive chemicals, we developed a cluster-selection strategy to minimize information loss and increase predictive performance and compared this strategy to three currently popular techniques: cost-sensitive learning, oversampling of the minority class, and undersampling of the majority class. QSAR classification models were built to relate the molecular structures of chemicals to their ER activities using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), and support vector machines (SVM) with 51 molecular descriptors from QikProp and 4328 bits of structural fingerprints as explanatory variables. A random forest (RF) feature selection method was employed to extract the structural features most relevant to the ER activity. The best model was obtained using SVM in combination with a subset of descriptors identified from a large set via the RF algorithm, which recognized the active and inactive compounds at the accuracies of 76.1% and 82.8% with a total accuracy of 81.6% on the internal test set and 70.8% on the external test set. These results demonstrate that a combination of high-quality experimental data and ML methods can lead to robust models that achieve excellent predictive accuracy, which are potentially useful for facilitating the virtual screening of chemicals for environmental risk assessment. PMID:24279462

  6. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Vermont SIRI MSDS Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Vermont Safety Information Resources, Inc., this searchable material safety data sheets collection can be searched by company or compound name. Visitors can also search for toxicology reports by chemical name, chemical trade name, or the CAS or RTECS number.

  8. Chemical and colloidal analyses of natural seep water collected from the exploratory studies facility inside Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Cizdziel, James V; Guo, Caixia; Steinberg, Spencer M; Yu, Zhongbo; Johannesson, Karen H

    2008-02-01

    Yucca Mountain is being considered as a geological repository for the USA's spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. Numerous groundwater seeps appeared during March 2005 within the exploratory studies facility (ESF), a tunnel excavated in the mountain. Because of the relevance to radionuclide transport and unsaturated zone-modeling studies, we analyzed the seep samples for major anions and cations, rare earth elements, and colloids. Major ion species and elemental concentrations in seep samples reflect interaction of the water with the volcanic rock and secondary calcites. Elemental fractograms from flow-injection field-flow fractionation ICP-MS scans detected Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Si, Sr, W, and U at void fractions, suggesting they may be present in the form of dissolved anions. Colloids approximately 10 nm in hydrodynamic diameter, possibly calcite, were also present in the seepage samples. Geochemical calculations indicate, however, these may be an artifact (not present in the groundwater) which arose because of loss of CO2 during sample collection and storage. PMID:17505890

  9. Structural and kinetic analysis of the chemical rescue of the proton transfer function of carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Duda, D; Tu, C; Qian, M; Laipis, P; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Silverman, D N; McKenna, R

    2001-02-13

    Histidine 64 in human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) functions in the catalytic pathway of CO(2) hydration as a shuttle to transfer protons between the zinc-bound water and bulk water. Catalysis of the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water, measured by mass spectrometry, is dependent on this proton transfer and was decreased more than 10-fold for H64A HCA II compared with wild-type HCA II. The loss of catalytic activity of H64A HCA II could be rescued by 4-methylimidazole (4-MI), an exogenous proton donor, in a saturable process with a maximum activity of 40% of wild-type HCA II. The crystal structure of the rescued complex at 1.6 A resolution shows 4-MI bound in the active-site cavity of H64A HCA II, through pi stacking interactions with Trp 5 and H-bonding interactions with water molecules. In this location, 4-MI is about 12 A from the zinc and approximates the observed "out" position of His 64 in the structure of the wild-type enzyme. 4-MI appears to compensate for the absence of His 64 and rescues the catalytic activity of the H64A HCA II mutant. This result strongly suggests that the out conformation of His 64 is effective in the transfer of protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and solution. PMID:11327835

  10. Chemically modified reaction centers of photosystem II: Exchange of pheophytin a with 7-deformyl-7-hydroxymethyl-pheophytin b.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, Alexey A; Shkuropatova, Valentina A; Makhneva, Zoya K; Moskalenko, Andrey A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

    2014-11-01

    The native pheophytin a (Pheo a) in isolated reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII RCs) has been chemically exchanged with extraneous 7-deformyl-7-hydroxymethyl-Pheo b (7(1)-OH-Pheo b) which differs from Pheo a by the C-7 substituent (hydroxymethyl instead of methyl). The two pigments have similar reduction potentials in vitro [M. Meyer, Dissertation, Universität München, 1997], while their absorption spectra show small but distinct differences in the visible region. The resulting 7(1)-OH-Pheo b-modified reaction center preparations were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography, electronic absorption and light-induced Fourier transform infra red absorption difference spectroscopies, together with photoaccumulation of the reduced pheophytin electron acceptor and NaBH4-treatment. About 70% of the total Pheo a molecules are found to be replaced by 7(1)-OH-Pheo b molecules in modified preparations, indicating that both the photochemically active (PheoD1) and inactive (PheoD2) binding sites were subjected to pigment exchange. The 7(1)-OH-Pheo b molecule located at the PheoD1 site is able to functionally replace the native Pheo a, participating in primary charge separation as an electron acceptor. The Qx absorption band of this modified pheophytin molecule is localized at ~546nm; its Qy band is blue-shifted with respect to the absorption of other reaction center core pigments, being located at ~665nm. The Qy and Qx optical transitions of the 7(1)-OH-Pheo b molecule exchanged into the PheoD2 site are identified at 677 and 543.5nm, respectively. The photochemically active double-modified PSII RCs additionally containing 7-deformyl-7-hydroxymethyl-13(1)-deoxo-13(1)-hydroxy-Pheo b at the PheoD2 site were obtained by treatment of the 7(1)-OH-Pheo b-modified RCs with NaBH4. PMID:25172518

  11. Manganese (II) induces chemical hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase: Implication in manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongoh [Laboratory of Biomedicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Suk [Laboratory of Physiology, College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Daekyu; Lee, Youna; Hong, Sungchae; Choi, Jungyun; Han, Songyi [Laboratory of Biomedicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Yujin; Kim, Jung-Ae [Laboratory of Physiology, College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Mi Kim, Young [Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yunjin [Laboratory of Biomedicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jungy@pusan.ac.kr

    2009-03-15

    Manganese (II), a transition metal, causes pulmonary inflammation upon environmental or occupational inhalation in excess. We investigated a potential molecular mechanism underlying manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation. Manganese (II) delayed HIF-1{alpha} protein disappearance, which occurred by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (HPH), the key enzyme for HIF-1{alpha} hydroxylation and subsequent von Hippel-Lindau(VHL)-dependent HIF-1{alpha} degradation. HPH inhibition by manganese (II) was neutralized significantly by elevated dose of iron. Consistent with this, the induction of cellular HIF-1{alpha} protein by manganese (II) was abolished by pretreatment with iron. Manganese (II) induced the HIF-1 target gene involved in pulmonary inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in lung carcinoma cell lines. The induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Manganese-induced VEGF promoted tube formation of HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that HIF-1 may be a potential mediator of manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  12. Molecular Co(II) and Co(III) heteroarylalkenolates as efficient precursors for chemical vapor deposition of Co3O4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Büyükyazi, Mehtap; Hegemann, Corinna; Lehnen, Thomas; Tyrra, Wieland; Mathur, Sanjay

    2014-10-20

    Two new cobalt precursors, Co(II)(PyCHCOCF3)2(DMAP)2 (1) and Co(III)(PyCHCOCF3)3 (2), based on Co(II) and Co(III) centers were synthesized using a redox active ligand system. The different chemical configurations of 1 and 2 and differential valence states of cobalt were confirmed by crystal structure determination and comprehensive analytical studies. Whereas 1 could not be studied by NMR due to the paramagnetic nature of the central atom, 2 was unambiguously characterized by multinuclear 1D and 2D NMR experiments in solution. Both compounds are efficient precursors for catalyst-free growth of Co3O4 nanowires on Si and Al2O3 substrates by a chemical vapor deposition process. The different valence states of cobalt species influenced their chemical decomposition pathways in the gas phase; for instance, 1 was partially oxidized (Co(2+) ? Co(3+)), and 2 underwent reduction (Co(3+) ? Co(2+)) to form pure cobaltite in both cases that verified the metal-ligand redox interplay. Co3O4 nanowires with nanometric diameters (50-100 nm) were obtained irrespective of the chosen cobalt precursor. Investigations on the humidity sensing behavior of CVD deposits demonstrated their potential as promising sensor materials. PMID:25275501

  13. Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

  14. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp.) and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L.) pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50). The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold) higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50?=?7.42 ± 0.12 ?g/ml), than the floral corn pollen (EC50?=?212 ± 13.6% ?g/ml). After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including biotin (56.7 ?g/100 g), invert sugar (19.9 g/100 g), vitamin A and ? carotene (1.53 mg/100 g). Conclusions Bee pollen derived from corn (Z. mays), a non-toxic or edible plant, provided a better free radical scavenging activity than floral corn pollen. PMID:22513008

  15. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Collective properties of neutron-star X-ray binary populations of galaxies. II. Pre-low-mass X-ray binary properties, formation rates, and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadkamkar, H. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080 (India); Ghosh, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-04-01

    We continue our exploration of the collective properties of neutron-star X-ray binaries in the stellar fields (i.e., outside globular clusters) of normal galaxies. In Paper I of this series, we considered high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In this paper (Paper II), we consider low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whose evolutionary scenario is very different from that of HMXBs. We consider the evolution of primordial binaries up to the stage where the neutron star just formed in the supernova explosion of the primary is in a binary with its low-mass, unevolved companion, and this binary has circularized tidally, producing what we call a pre-low-mass X-ray binary (pre-LMXB). We study the constraints on the formation of such pre-LMXBs in detail (since these are low-probability events), and calculate their collective properties and formation rates. To this end, we first consider the changes in the binary parameters in the various steps involved, viz., the common-envelope phase, the supernova, and the tidal evolution. This naturally leads to a clarification of the constraints. We then describe our calculation of the evolution of the distributions of primordial binary parameters into those of pre-LMXB parameters, following the standard evolutionary scenario for individual binaries. We display the latter as both bivariate and monovariate distributions, discuss their essential properties, and indicate the influences of some essential factors on these. Finally, we calculate the formation rate of these pre-LMXBs. The results of this paper will be used in a subsequent one to compute the expected X-ray luminosity function of LMXBs.

  17. Use of chemically derivatized n-type silicon photoelectrodes in aqueous media: photooxidation of iodide, hexacyanoiron(II), and hexaammineruthenium(II) at ferrocene-derivatized photoanodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew B. Bocarsly; Erick G. Walton; Mark S. Wrighton

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is described for the chemical derivatization of the surface of n-type semiconductor photoanodes to yield photosensitive interfaces for use in a large number of thermodynamically uphill oxidation processes. (1,1'-ferrocenediyl)dichlorosilane was used to derivatize n-type Si to yield a photoanode that can be used under conditions where the naked (nonderivatized) n-type Si undergoes photoanodic corrosion yielding an insulating SiO\\/sub

  18. Wear Mechanisms of Carbon-Based Refractory Materials in SiMn Tap-Holes—Part II: In Situ Observation of Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkamp, J. D.; Pistorius, P. Chris; Tangstad, M.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here is to determine to what extent chemical reactions between carbon-based refractory and slag or metal in the tap-hole of a SiMn furnace can contribute to wear of tap-hole refractory. The results of the study are reported in two parts. In Part I, thermodynamic calculations suggested that reaction between silicomanganese slag and carbon-based tap-hole refractory is possible, and experiments with nominally pure materials support this. However, practical refractory materials are by no means pure materials and contain secondary phases and porosity which can be expected to affect reaction with slag. In Part II, such reactions are examined experimentally, in cup and wettability tests, using commercially available carbon block and cold-ramming paste refractory materials and mainly industrial SiMn slag. Clear evidence was found of chemical reaction at approximately 1870 K (approximately 1600 °C), forming SiC and, it appears, metal droplets. Both carbon block and ramming paste refractory reacted with slag, with preferential attack on and penetration into the binder phase rather than aggregate particles. The two types of carbon-based refractory materials showed similar extents of chemical reaction observed as wetting and penetration in the laboratory tests. The differences in refractory life observed practically in industrial furnaces should therefore be attributed to wear mechanisms other than pure chemical wear as studied in this work.

  19. The chemical abundances of the stellar populations in the Leo I and II dSph galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosler, Tammy L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2007-06-01

    We have obtained calcium abundances and radial velocities for 102 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and 74 RGB stars in the Leo II dSph using the low-resolution spectrograph (LRIS) on the Keck I 10-m telescope. We report on the calcium abundances [Ca/H] derived from the strengths of the CaII triplet absorption lines at 8498, 8542 and 8662 Å in the stellar spectra using a new empirical CaII triplet calibration to [Ca/H]. The two galaxies have different average [Ca/H] values of -1.34 +/- 0.02 for Leo I and -1.65 +/- 0.02 for Leo II with intrinsic abundance dispersions of 1.2 and 1.0 dex, respectively. The typical random and total errors in derived abundances are 0.10 and 0.17 dex per star. For comparison to the existing literature, we also converted our CaII measurements to [Fe/H] on the scale of Carretta and Gratton (1997) though we discuss why this may not be the best determinant of metallicity; Leo I has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.34 and Leo II has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.59. The metallicity distribution function of Leo I is approximately Gaussian in shape with an excess at the metal-rich end, while that of Leo II shows an abrupt cut-off at the metal-rich end. The lower mean metallicity of Leo II is consistent with the fact that it has a lower luminosity, hence lower the total mass than Leo I; thus, the evolution of Leo II may have been affected more by mass lost in galactic winds. Our direct and independent measurement of the metallicity distributions in these dSph will allow a more accurate star-formation histories to be derived from future analysis of their colour-magnitude diagrams(CMDs). Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. E-mail: tlbosler@yahoo.com

  20. A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14) by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Ethnobotanical Collection from the Libyan territories of the botanist Alessandro Trotter is included in the Oratio Comes Botanical Museum at the Faculty of Agraria at the University Federico II in Naples. Trotter explored different territories of Libya, mainly Tripolitania, between 1912-1924, collecting plant specimens and the drugs most frequently sold in the markets. The Libyan herbarium currently includes over 2300 sheets of mounted and accessioned plants. The drugs, mostly acquired by Trotter from Tripolitanian markets, were identified and packed in 87 paper sheets or boxes. Trotter added ethnobotanical information for each species when available. Methods A database of the herbarium species and the drugs has been carried out, after a taxonomic update. Nomenclature has been revised according to the African flowering plants database and the World Checklist of selected plant families, and a comparison with currently available ethnopharmacological data from North African has been attempted. Results In this study, ethnopharmacological data related to about 80 species of flowering plants and to 4 lichens are presented. The plants are mainly from Mediterranean or Sub-Saharan habitats and belong to 37 different families; Lamiaceae was the most cited family, with 10 accessions. Generally, the aerial parts of the plants are the most frequently used (28 species), followed by leaves (15 species), flowers and seeds (9 species), fruits (7 species) and hypogean organs (roots, rhizomes, tubers: 5 species). Plants were generally processed in very simple ways: infusion or decoction of the plants were prepared and orally administered or used for topical applications. A wide range of conditions was treated, ranging from mental disorders to skin affections. All the organs of human body are considered, but the pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory system and those related to traumatic accidents were the most frequently mentioned. The comparison with the recent ethnopharmacological research in Maghreb and its neighboring countries reveals a high correspondence; almost all the plants cited by Trotter are still used in the folk medicine of at least one of the North African countries, and the therapeutic uses of each plant appear consistent over time. Conclusions The information collected by Trotter is an important contribution to tracing plant utilization in Libyan folk medicine over the last century. PMID:22264313

  1. Nano-cellular microstructure evolution in ion-induced chemical vapor deposition (II-CVD) of copper

    E-print Network

    Ross, Francis L. (Francis LaFayette), 1968-

    2003-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the microstructure produced in ion-induced chemical vapor deposition (11-CVD) of copper from copper(I)hexafluoroacetylacetonatevinyltrimethylsilane (Cu(I)hfacVTMS) gas precursor is reported. ...

  2. Physico-chemical property of rare earths-effects on the energy regulation of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Liu; Hao, Huang; Chao, Liu; Min, Zhou; Fashui, Hong

    2009-08-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) from Arabidopsis thaliana treated by lanthanum (La(3+)), cerium (Ce(3+)), and neodymium (Nd(3+)) were isolated to investigate the effects of 4f electron characteristics and alternation valence of rare earth elements (REEs) on PSII function regulation comparatively. Results showed that REE treatment could induce the generous expression of LhcII b in A. thaliana and increase the content of light-harvesting complex II and its trimer on the thylakoid membrane significantly. Meanwhile, the light absorption in the red and blue region and fluorescence quantum yield near 683 nm were obviously increased; oxygen evolution rate was greatly improved too, suggesting that REEs could enhance the efficiency of light absorption, regulate excitation energy distribution from photosystem I (PSI) to PSII, and thus increase the activity of photochemical reaction and oxygen evolution accordingly. The efficiency order of the four treatments was Ce(3+) > Nd(3+) > La(3+) > control. PMID:19221699

  3. Phenotype-driven chemical screening in zebrafish for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration identifies multiple pathways potentially involved in metastatic invasion

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Viviana E.; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Lee, Minnkyong; Bupp, Sujata; Xu, Lisha; Shinn, Paul; Crawford, Nigel P.; Inglese, James; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, high-throughput chemical screening has become the dominant approach for discovering novel compounds with therapeutic properties. Automated screening using in vitro or cultured cell assays have yielded thousands of candidate drugs for a variety of biological targets, but these approaches have not resulted in an increase in drug discovery despite major increases in expenditures. In contrast, phenotype-driven screens have shown a much stronger success rate, which is why we developed an in vivo assay using transgenic zebrafish with a GFP-marked migrating posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) to identify compounds that influence collective cell migration. We then conducted a high-throughput screen using a compound library of 2160 annotated bioactive synthetic compounds and 800 natural products to identify molecules that block normal PLLp migration. We identified 165 compounds that interfere with primordium migration without overt toxicity in vivo. Selected compounds were confirmed in their migration-blocking activity by using additional assays for cell migration. We then proved the screen to be successful in identifying anti-metastatic compounds active in vivo by performing orthotopic tumor implantation assays in mice. We demonstrated that the Src inhibitor SU6656, identified in our screen, can be used to suppress the metastatic capacity of a highly aggressive mammary tumor cell line. Finally, we used CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish to genetically validate predicted targets of compounds. This approach demonstrates that the migrating PLLp in zebrafish can be used for large-scale, high-throughput screening for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration and, potentially, anti-metastatic compounds. PMID:25810455

  4. Phenotype-driven chemical screening in zebrafish for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration identifies multiple pathways potentially involved in metastatic invasion.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Viviana E; Varshney, Gaurav K; Lee, Minnkyong; Bupp, Sujata; Xu, Lisha; Shinn, Paul; Crawford, Nigel P; Inglese, James; Burgess, Shawn M

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, high-throughput chemical screening has become the dominant approach for discovering novel compounds with therapeutic properties. Automated screening using in vitro or cultured cell assays have yielded thousands of candidate drugs for a variety of biological targets, but these approaches have not resulted in an increase in drug discovery despite major increases in expenditures. In contrast, phenotype-driven screens have shown a much stronger success rate, which is why we developed an in vivo assay using transgenic zebrafish with a GFP-marked migrating posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) to identify compounds that influence collective cell migration. We then conducted a high-throughput screen using a compound library of 2160 annotated bioactive synthetic compounds and 800 natural products to identify molecules that block normal PLLp migration. We identified 165 compounds that interfere with primordium migration without overt toxicity in vivo. Selected compounds were confirmed in their migration-blocking activity by using additional assays for cell migration. We then proved the screen to be successful in identifying anti-metastatic compounds active in vivo by performing orthotopic tumor implantation assays in mice. We demonstrated that the Src inhibitor SU6656, identified in our screen, can be used to suppress the metastatic capacity of a highly aggressive mammary tumor cell line. Finally, we used CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish to genetically validate predicted targets of compounds. This approach demonstrates that the migrating PLLp in zebrafish can be used for large-scale, high-throughput screening for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration and, potentially, anti-metastatic compounds. PMID:25810455

  5. Atomic data for S II—toward better diagnostics of chemical evolution in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielius, Romas; Bogdanovich, Pavel [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A. Goštauto 12, LT-01108 (Lithuania); Kulkarni, Varsha P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ferland, Gary J.; Lykins, Matt L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line spectroscopy is a powerful tool used to estimate element abundances in both the nearby and distant universe. The accuracy of the abundances thus derived is naturally limited by the accuracy of the atomic data assumed for the spectral lines. We have recently started a project to perform new extensive atomic data calculations used for optical/UV spectral lines in the plasma modeling code Cloudy using state of the art quantal calculations. Here, we demonstrate our approach by focussing on S II, an ion used to estimate metallicities for Milky Way interstellar clouds as well as distant damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorber galaxies detected in the spectra of quasars and gamma-ray bursts. We report new extensive calculations of a large number of energy levels of S II, and the line strengths of the resulting radiative transitions. Our calculations are based on the configuration interaction approach within a numerical Hartree-Fock framework, and utilize both non-relativistic and quasirelativistic one-electron radial orbitals. The results of these new atomic calculations are then incorporated into Cloudy and applied to a lab plasma, and a typical DLA, for illustrative purposes. The new results imply relatively modest changes (?0.04 dex) to the metallicities estimated from S II in past studies. These results will be readily applicable to other studies of S II in the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  6. Chemical modifications of the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II by nitrogen oxides (NO, HNO2, HOONO)--evaluation by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, C; Dendane, M; Laprévote, O; Serani, L; Das, B C; Bouchemal-Chibani, N; Doan, B T; Gillet, B; Karim, A; Carayon, A; Payen, D

    1998-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin II are natural regulators of blood pressure. Under aerobic conditions, NO is transformed into its higher oxides (N2O4, NO2, NO/NO2 or N2O3) and oxoperoxonitrate (currently named peroxynitrite) by coupling with superoxide. Previous studies have shown that these reactive nitrogen species should be involved in vivo in the transformation of cysteine and tyrosine into the corresponding nitrosothiol and 3-nitrotyrosine. In the present study, attention has been focused on the relative reactivities of HNO2, peroxynitrite, and NO in the presence of dioxygen, towards the arginine and tyrosine residues of the peptide angiotensin II. Nitration of the tyrosine residue is clearly the main reaction with peroxynitrite. By contrast, besides 20% of nitration of the tyrosine residue, NO in the presence of dioxygen leads to nitrosation reactions with the arginine residue similar to those observed with HNO2 at pH 5, possibly through the intermediate N2O3 reactive species. Angiotensin II is converted for the most part to peptides having lost either a terminal amine function or the whole guanido group, leading respectively to citrulline-containing angiotensin II or to a diene derivative. Identification established mainly by tandem mass spectrometry of peptidic by-products allows us to propose a cascade of nitrosations of all the amine functions of the arginine residue. Further in vivo studies show that transformations of the arginine residue in angiotensin II do not alter its vasoconstrictive properties, whereas nitration of the tyrosine residue totally inhibits them. PMID:9578472

  7. Solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) in environmental samples on chemically modified Amberlite XAD-4 with a proper Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Berrin; Macit, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    A new chelating resin, Amberlite XAD-4 loaded with N,N-bis(salicylidene)cyclohexanediamine (SCHD), was synthesized and characterized. The resin Amberlite XAD-4-SCHD was used for selective separation, preconcentration, and determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) ions in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Effects of pH, concentration, and volume of elution solution; flow rate of elution; and sample solution, sample volume, and interfering ions for the recovery of the analytes were investigated. These metal ions can be desorbed with 0.5-M HNO3 (recovery, 98%-101%). The sorption capacity was found between 1.38×10(-1) and 3.58×10(-1) mmol/g. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed procedure, the certified reference materials, BCR-032 (Moroccan phosphate rock) and BCR-715 (industrial effluent wastewater), were analyzed. The detection limits of the method were found to be 0.11, 1.91, and 0.43 ?g/L for Cu(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II), respectively. The method was applied to the extraction and the recovery of copper, lead, and nickel in wastewater and other water samples. PMID:20237836

  8. Characterization of Chemical Sputtering Using the Mark II DIMES Porous Plug Injector in Attached and Semi-detached Divertor Plasmas of DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, A. G. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies; Davis, J. W. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies; Stangeby, P. C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Boedo, J. A. [University of California, San Diego; Bray, B. D. [General Atomics, San Diego; Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Haasz, A. A. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies; Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mu, Y. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies; Petrie, T. W. [General Atomics, San Diego; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California, San Diego; Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); West, W. P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Whyte, D. G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Wong, C. P. C. [General Atomics, San Diego

    2009-01-01

    An improved, self-contained gas injection system for the divertor material evaluation system (DIMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. To minimize perturbation to local plasma, the Mark II porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane through a porous graphite surface at the outer strike point at a rate precisely controlled by a micro-orifice flow restrictor to be approximately equal as that predicted for intrinsic chemical sputtering. Effective photon efficiencies resulting from CH(4) are found to be 58 +/- 12 in an attached divertor (n(e) similar to 1.5 x 10(13)/cm(3), T(e) similar to 25 eV, T(surf)similar to 450 K), and 94 +/- 20 in a semi-detached cold divertor (n(e) similar to 6.0 x 10(13)/cm(3), T(e) similar to 2-3 eV, T(surf) similar to 350 K). These values are significantly more than previous measurements in similar plasma conditions, indicating the importance of the injection rate and local re-erosion for the integrity of this analysis. The contribution of chemical versus physical sputtering to the source of C(+) at the target is assessed through simultaneous measurement of CII line, and CD plus CH-band emissions during release of CH(4) from the Pill, then compared with that seen in intrinsic sputtering. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation: II. Spore and Parasporal Protein Formation in Bacillus cereus var. Alesti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. ELIZABETH YOUNG; PHILIP C. FITZ-JAMES

    1959-01-01

    The development of both the spore and parasporal protein crystal of Bacillus cereus var. alesti was followed using chemical and cytological techniques. The changes which led to the formation of the fore-spore were similar to those already described for Bacillus cereus. However, adjacent to the developing fore-spore a small inclusion became discernible in phase contrast. This protein inclusion dur- ing

  10. Biological profiling of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library in Primary Human Cell Co-Culture Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA?s ToxCast research project was developed to address the need for high-throughput testing of chemicals and a pathway-based approach to hazard screening. Phase I of ToxCast tested over 300 unique compounds (mostly pesticides and antimicrobials). With the addition of Ph...

  11. Frontispiece: Cage-like Copper(II) Silsesquioxanes: Transmetalation Reactions and Structural, Quantum Chemical, and Catalytic Studies.

    PubMed

    Bilyachenko, Alexey N; Dronova, Marina S; Yalymov, Alexey I; Lamaty, Frédéric; Bantreil, Xavier; Martinez, Jean; Bizet, Christelle; Shul'pina, Lidia S; Korlyukov, Alexander A; Arkhipov, Dmitry E; Levitsky, Mikhail M; Shubina, Elena S; Kirillov, Alexander M; Shul'pin, Georgiy B

    2015-06-01

    Silsesquioxane Metallacycles The synthesis of cage copper(II) silsesquioxanes, as well as structural, DFT, and topological studies, are described, along with different catalytic applications, in a Full Paper by A.?N. Bilyachenko, F. Lamaty, A.?A. Korlyukov, M.?M. Levitsky, G.?B. Shul'pin et?al. For more details on this multidisciplinary contribution to the chemistry of metallasiloxanes, see page?8758?ff. PMID:26017160

  12. Environmental chemical data for perishable sediments and soils collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, and along the Louisiana Delta following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.; Shi, Honglan; Karstensen, Krista A.; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005, nearly one month after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri University of Science and Technology deployed to southern Louisiana to collect perishable environmental data resulting from the impacts of these storms. Perishable samples collected for this investigation are subject to destruction or ruin by removal, mixing, or natural decay; therefore, collection is time-critical following the depositional event. A total of 238 samples of sediment, soil, and vegetation were collected to characterize chemical quality. For this analysis, 157 of the 238 samples were used to characterize trace element, iron, total organic carbon, pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of deposited sediment and associated shallow soils. In decreasing order, the largest variability in trace element concentration was detected for lead, vanadium, chromium, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Lead was determined to be the trace element of most concern because of the large concentrations present in the samples ranging from 4.50 to 551 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Sequential extraction analysis of lead indicate that 39.1 percent of the total lead concentration in post-hurricane sediment is associated with the iron-manganese oxide fraction. This fraction is considered extremely mobile under reducing environmental conditions, thereby making lead a potential health hazard. The presence of lead in post-hurricane sediments likely is from redistribution of pre-hurricane contaminated soils and sediments from Lake Pontchartrain and the flood control canals of New Orleans. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 49.1 mg/kg. Although Arsenic concentrations generally were small and consistent with other research results, all samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Level of 0.39 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.30 mg/kg. Comparing the mean mercury concentration present in post-hurricane samples with regional background data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Dataset, indicates that mercury concentrations in post-hurricane sediment generally are larger. Sequential extraction analysis of 51 samples for arsenic indicate that 54.5 percent of the total arsenic concentration is contained in the extremely mobile iron-manganese oxide fraction. Pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl Arochlor concentrations in post-hurricane samples were small. Prometon was the most frequently detected pesticide with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 193 micrograms per kilogram (µg/kg). Methoxychlor was present in 22 samples with a concentration ranging from 3.5 to 3,510 µg/kg. Although methoxychlor had the largest detected pesticide concentration, it was well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s High-Priority Screening Level for residential soils. Arochlor congeners were not detected for any sample above the minimum detection level of 7.9 µg/kg.

  13. Study on the control of pore sizes of membranes using chemical methods Part II. Optimization factors for preparation of membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Zhou; Zhan Wang; Yanli Liang; Jinmiao Yao

    2008-01-01

    An orthogonal table and a linear multi-regression model were used to optimize the preparation procedure of polyvinylidene fluoride\\/polymethyl acrilate\\/cellulose acetate (PVDF\\/PMMA\\/CA) blend ultrafiltration membrane, which was prepared via combination of the phase-inversion process and chemical reaction. The pure water flux, the feed solution flux of BSA, the observed retention of BSA, the pore size distribution and SEM images of the

  14. Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods. II. Identification of acidic volatile decomposition products of corn oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Kawada; R. G. Krishnamurthy; B. D. Mookherjee; S. S. Chang

    1967-01-01

    Chemical identification of the volatile decomposition products (VDP) produced by fats and oils under conditions of deep fat\\u000a frying is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of thermal oxidation, for the study of their effects upon human\\u000a nutrition, and for their contribution to the deep fat fried flavor of foods. The acidic VDP produced by corn oil maintained\\u000a at

  15. Sesame oil. II. Some chemical and physical properties of the oils from different varieties of sesame seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. T. Menezes; Pierre Budowski; F. G. Dollear

    1950-01-01

    Summary  Four varieties of sesame seed, grown in South Carolina, Nebraska, and Nicaragua, were solvent extracted in a pilot-plant and\\u000a the oils examined with respect to their physical and chemical characteristics. Only slight variations were found in these\\u000a constants and in the composition of the oils.\\u000a \\u000a The oils were refined, bleached, hydrogenated to shortening consistency, and deodorized. The refining losses were

  16. Structure of synthetic monoclinic Na-rich birnessite and hexagonal birnessite: II. Results from chemical studies and EXAFS spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EWEN SILVESTER; ALAIN MANCEAU; VICTOR A. DRITS

    Solution chemical techniques were used to study the conversion of synthetic Na-rich buserite (NaBu) to hexagonal (H 1 -exchanged) birnessite (HBi) at low pH. The low-pH reaction is broadly characterized by the exchange of structural Na 1 with solution H 1 and the partial loss of Mn 21 to the aqueous phase. The desorption of Na 1 in two temporally

  17. Lysimeter study with a cambic arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: II. Input-output budgets and soil chemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Sogn; G. Abrahamsen; A. O. Stuanes

    1993-01-01

    The effects of artificial precipitation with different pH levels on soil chemical properties and element flux were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1\\/2 yr with 125 mm yr-1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H2SO4 added. pH levels of 6.1,

  18. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with controllable AsxSb1-x interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    InAs/GaSb type II superlattices were grown on (100) GaSb substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A plane of mixed As and Sb atoms connecting the InAs and GaSb layers was introduced to compensate the tensile strain created by the InAs layer in the SL. Characterizations of the samples by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction demonstrate flat surface morphology and good crystalline quality. The lattice mismatch of approximately 0.18% between the SL and GaSb substrate is small compared to the MOCVD-grown supperlattice samples reported to date in the literature. Considerable optical absorption in 2- to 8-?m infrared region has been realized. PACS: 78.67.Pt; 81.15.Gh; 63.22.Np; 81.05.Ea PMID:22373387

  19. Single particle chemical composition, state of mixing and shape of fresh and aged Saharan dust in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, Konrad; Emmel, Carmen; Ebert, Martin; Lieke, Kirsten; Müller-Ebert, Dörthe; Schütz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is focussed to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. During the SAMUM 2006 field campaign at Tinfou, southern Morocco, chemical and mineralogical properties of fresh desert aerosol was measured. The winter campaign of Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment II in 2008 was based in Praia, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde. This second field campaign was dedicated to the investigation of transported Saharan Mineral Dust. Ground-based and airborne measurements were performed in the winter season, where mineral dust from the Western Sahara and biomass burning aerosol from the Sahel region occurred. Samples were collected with a miniature impactor system, a sedimentation trap, a free-wing impactor, and a filter sampler. Beryllium discs as well as carbon coated nickel discs, carbon foils, and nuclepore and fiber filters were used as sampling substrates. The size-resolved particle aspect ratio and the chemical composition are determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of single particles. Mineralogical bulk composition is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. In Morocco, three size regimes are identified in the aerosol: Smaller than 500 nm in diameter, the aerosol consists of sulfates and mineral dust. Larger than 500 nm up to 50 µm, mineral dust dominates, consisting mainly of silicates, and - to a lesser extent - carbonates and quartz. Larger than 50 µm, approximately half of the particles consist of quartz. Time series of the elemental composition show a moderate temporal variability of the major compounds. Calcium-dominated particles are enhanced during advection from a prominent dust source in Northern Africa (Chott El Djerid and surroundings). More detailed results are found in Kandler et al. (2009) At Praia, Cape Verde, the boundary layer aerosol consists of a superposition of mineral dust, marine aerosol and ammonium sulfate, soot, and other sulfates as well as mixtures of these components. During low-dust periods, the aerosol is dominated by sea salt. During dust events, mineral dust dominates the particle mass (more than 90 %). Particles smaller 500 nm in diameter always show a significant abundance of ammonium sulfate. Comparing a high dust period at Cape Verde with the total data from Morocco, it is found that the atomic ratio distributions of Al/Si, K/Si and Fe/Si for the single particles are very similar for the dust component. This indicates that the dominating silicate minerals are the same. In contrast, the content of calcium rich minerals at Cape Verde is significantly lower than in Morocco which is in agreement with the source regions for the Cape Verde dust (E Mali and W Niger) derived from trajectory analysis. The sulfur content of super-micron aerosol particles at Cape Verde scales with the particle surface, indicating the presence of sulfate coatings. For the submicron particles, the sulfur content scales with particle volume, which can be attributed to the large amount of particles identified as ammonium sulfate. In contrast to findings in Japan (Zhang et al., 2006), no internal mixtures between pristine seasalt and mineral dust are present during this dust period at Cape Verde. However, for a significant number of particles a small amount of sodium and chlorine is associated with internal mixtures of dust and sulfate, what may indicate that these particles started as internal mixture of dust with a sea water droplet before taking up more sulfur from the gas phase. In general, the shape of the particles in Morocco and Cape Verde is rather similar: The distributions of the two-dimensional aspect ratio of an ellipse fitted to each particle's shape for the total aerosol show no significant differences. A median value of 1.6 is found for both locations. References Kandler, K., Schütz, L., Deutscher, C., Hofmann, H., Jäckel, S. and co-authors 2009. Tellus 61B, 32-50. Zhang, D., Iwasaka, Y., Matsuki, A., Ueno, K. and Matsuzaki, T. 2006. Atmos. Environ. 40, 1205-1215. Financial support by the Deutsche Forsch

  20. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (II): Applications to formation and combustion reactions of liquid organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM), which was recently developed for evaluating condensed-phase thermodynamics by quantum chemical calculations (Nakai and Ishikawa, 2014), was applied to formation and combustion reactions of simple organic molecules. The conventional ideal gas model (IGM) considerably overestimated the entropies of the liquid molecules. The HSM could significantly improve this overestimation; mean absolute deviations for the Gibbs energies of the formation and combustion reactions were (49.6, 26.7) for the IGM and (9.7, 5.4) for the HSM in kJ/mol.

  1. The Most Metal-poor Stars. II. Chemical Abundances of 190 Metal-poor Stars Including 10 New Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Christlieb, N.; Asplund, M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] <= -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] <= -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] <= -3.5. We identify a sample of "normal" metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to "normal" stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T eff, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 281.D-5015).

  2. Modification of carbon screen-printed electrodes by adsorption of chemically synthesized Bi nanoparticles for the voltammetric stripping detection of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mara Olivares-Marín; Eduardo Pinilla Gil

    2009-01-01

    A simple procedure for the chemical synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles and subsequent adsorption on commercial screen-printed carbon electrodes offer reliable quantitation of trace zinc, cadmium and lead by anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry in nondeareated water samples. The influence of two hydrodynamic configurations (convective cell and flow cell) and the effect of various experimental variables upon the stripping signals at the

  3. Crystal structure and physico-chemical properties of diaquabis(1,10-phenanthroline)manganese(II) disaccharinate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, V. T.; Yilmaz, F.; Topcu, Y.; Andac, Ö.; Güven, K.

    2001-01-01

    A novel manganese complex, [Mn(phen) 2(H 2O) 2](sac) 2·H 2O, was synthesized by the reaction of [Mn(sac) 2(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O with 1,10-phenantroline in aqueous solution and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral evidence, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system, space group P-1, with Z=2. The saccharinate ions do not coordinate the central metal, instead are present as the complementary anions. In the complex cation, Mn(II) is coordinated by two phen and two aqua ligands, and exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination with a high-spin configuration. The presence of lattice and coordinate water molecules are also confirmed by thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  4. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - II. AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ga?an, Cezary; Miko?ajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ˜ 0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ˜ 8.

  5. Antagonists reversibly reverse chemical LTD induced by group I, group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Lodge, David; Tidball, Patrick; Mercier, Marion S; Lucas, Sarah J; Hanna, Lydia; Ceolin, Laura; Kritikos, Minos; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Sherwood, John L; Bannister, Neil; Volianskis, Arturas; Jane, David E; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L

    2013-11-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are implicated in many neurological and psychiatric diseases and are the targets of therapeutic agents currently in clinical development. Their activation has diverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS) that includes an involvement in synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that the brief exposure of hippocampal slices to dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) can result in a long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, this LTD could be fully reversed by mGlu receptor antagonists in a manner that was itself fully reversible upon washout of the antagonist. Here, 15 years after the discovery of DHPG-LTD and its reversible reversibility, we summarise these initial findings. We then present new data on DHPG-LTD, which demonstrates that evoked epileptiform activity triggered by activation of group I mGlu receptors can also be reversibly reversed by mGlu receptor antagonists. Furthermore, we show that the phenomenon of reversible reversibility is not specific to group I mGlu receptors. We report that activation of group II mGlu receptors in the temporo-ammonic pathway (TAP) and mossy fibre pathway within the hippocampus and in the cortical input to neurons of the lateral amygdala induces an LTD that is reversed by LY341495, a group II mGlu receptor antagonist. We also show that activation of group III mGlu8 receptors induces an LTD at lateral perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus and that this LTD is reversed by MDCPG, an mGlu8 receptor antagonist. In conclusion, we have shown that activation of representative members of each of the three groups of mGlu receptors can induce forms of LTD than can be reversed by antagonists, and that in each case washout of the antagonist is associated with the re-establishment of the LTD. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23542080

  6. Pesticide, heavy metal, and other chemical residues in infant and toddler total diet samples--(II)--August 1975-July 1976.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R D; Manske, D D; New, D H; Podrebarac, D S

    1981-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, initiated the Total Diet Study in 1964 to monitor residues of pesticides and other chemicals ingested in the average diet of the United States' heartiest eater, the young adult male. In August 1974, one-third of the adult market baskets were replaced with infant and toddler market baskets. Averages and ranges of residues for this second in a series of infant and toddler baskets, for August 1975--July 1976, are reported. Included are results of determinations for zinc, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, and mercury. Results of recovery studies conducted with compounds of each residue type are also presented. PMID:6895107

  7. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures. II. Chemical and physical properties.

    PubMed

    A?kar, Dur?ica; Subari?, Drago; Babi?, Jurislav; Mili?evi?, Borislav; Jozinovi?, Antun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures on chemical and physical properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetanhydride and azelaic acid and acetanhydride in 4, 6 and 8% (w/w). Total starch content, resistant starch content, degree of modification, changes in FT-IR spectra, colour, gel texture and freeze-thaw stability were determined. Results showed that resistant starch content increased by both investigated modifications, and degree of modification increased proportionally to amount of reagents used. FT-IR analysis of modified starches showed peak around 1,740 cm(-1), characteristic for carbonyl group of ester. Total colour difference caused by modifications was detectable by trained people. Adhesiveness significantly increased, while freeze-thaw stability decreased by both investigated modifications. PMID:25114336

  8. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn R. Anspaugh; Bruce W. Church

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective

  9. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  10. Semiochemicals and social signaling in the wild European rabbit in Australia: II. Variations in chemical composition of chin gland secretion across sampling sites.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R A; Richardson, B J; Claus, S C; Wyllie, S G

    2002-12-01

    The volatile components of the chin gland secretion of the wild European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), were investigated with the use of gas chromatography. Studies of the chemical nature of this secretion by previous workers demonstrated that it was important in the maintenance of social structure in this species. This study identified 34 different volatile components that consist primarily of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Especially common are a series of alkyl-substituted benzene derivatives that provide most of the compound diversity in the secretion. Samples of chin gland secretion collected from animals at three different geographical locations, separated by more than 100 km, showed significant differences in composition. This work suggests that variation among populations needs to be considered when undertaking semiochemical research. Alternate nonparametric methods are also used for the analysis of chromatographic data. PMID:12564804

  11. Evaluation of capillary gas chromatography for pesticide and industrial chemical residue analysis. II. Comparison of quantitative results obtained on capillary and packed columns.

    PubMed

    Fehringer, N V; Walters, S M

    1986-01-01

    Results of pesticide and industrial chemical residue determinations, using both capillary and packed column gas chromatography (GC), in 3 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratories have been compiled and compared. Samples consisted of food products collected for routine residue screening by the respective laboratories. Extracts were prepared by conventional multiresidue methodology. Capillary column systems and operating conditions were selected at the discretion of each laboratory and were therefore variable, although split/splitless injectors in the split mode were used with prescribed precautions in all cases. Packed column systems were operated as specified in the FDA Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM). Overall correlation between the 2 systems, expressed as the average ratio of packed column result to capillary column result, was 0.99 for 120 determinations in 41 samples. The higher resolving power of the capillary systems allowed quantitation of several residues that were incompletely separated and therefore unquantifiable using the packed columns. Capillary column GC with the split injection technique, used with appropriate precautions, was found to be both reliable and advantageous for regulatory determination of pesticide and industrial chemical residues in foods and feeds. PMID:3949710

  12. THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roederer, Ian U. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kang, Sung-ju [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Thom, Christopher, E-mail: julie@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: iur@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: sjkang@iastate.edu, E-mail: cthom@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-11-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R {approx}15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R {approx}35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < -3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< - 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire {approx}500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

  13. Collecting Volcanic Gas Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Steven Ingebritsen (lower right, in blue hat) kneels in the warm mud as he collects samples of the gases emitted from the fumaroles on the north side of Crater Rock on Mount Hood. The samples are taken back to the laboratory for an analysis of the gases' chemical composition. By routinely collecting...

  14. Maintaining an Arthropod Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, provides insight into what it takes to maintain an arthropod collection. The article contains advice to students for setting up and maintaining a small-scale collection, including what tools are needed, safe alternatives to chemicals for killing and preserving specimens and some of the techniques the museum uses to protect specimens that students may want to adopt.

  15. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Church, B W

    1986-07-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of "infinite exposure," "estimated exposure," and "1-yr effective biological exposure" are explained. PMID:3332000

  16. Collecting Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This basic guide provides information about starting and maintaining a rock collection. Topics include starting a collection, identifying specimens, where and how to collect, and how to house and document a collection.

  17. Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) chemical signals. II. A replication with naturally breeding adults and a test of the Cowles and Phelan hypothesis of rattlesnake olfaction.

    PubMed

    Duvall, D

    1981-12-01

    The capacity of naturally breeding western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus) to discriminate and respond to conspecific and control chemical cues was examined. Lizards were presented with markings and exudates of male and female donors, as well as cologne (a pungency control) and water, in a successive discrimination procedure. Behavioral actions quantified after exposure to the different chemical cue types included lingual extrusions (tongue flicks and substrate licks), rapid nasal inhalations, and the performance of push-up visual displays. Initial latencies to lingual investigation of the different extracts and markings also were recorded as a measure of the extent to which nasal olfaction would switch on the tongue-Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal olfactory) system. Although no sex differences in total levels of response were noted, males and females exhibited significant lingual discriminations equally to exudates collected from male or female conspecifics. Push-up visual displays also were noted in response to conspecific markings. Cologne-marked surfaced, however, elicited nonsignificant levels of lingual investigation and push-up displaying. Latencies to initial tongue flicks, but not substrate licks, were significantly shorter when any material other than water was present. Therefore, as suggested by Cowles and Phelan ('58), nasal olfaction may indeed be more of a "quantitative," distance sensing system that responds to the presence of any pungent substance by initiating further investigation via the tongue-Jacobson's organ system. The latter appears to be more "qualitative," or discriminating, as indexed by relatively greater levels of lingual investigation of conspecific markings than cologne. No differences were noted in rapid nasal inhalation activity. The results suggest that pheromone markings, along the ground or other surfaces, may be important to spacing and territorial maintenance in nature. This could occur through direct pheromone effects on signal recipients, or indirectly, through the stimulation of increased push-up activity, which could make lizards more visible to one another. PMID:7338721

  18. 77 FR 28853 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Usability Data Collections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...required or regulated. The results of the data collected will be used to guide NIST research. Steps will be taken to ensure anonymity of respondents in each activity covered under this request. II. Method of Collection NIST will collect this...

  19. Belle II distributing computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokovny, P.

    2015-05-01

    The next generation B factory experiment Belle II will collect huge data samples which are a challenge for the computing system. To cope with the high data volume and rate, Belle II is setting up a distributed computing system based on existing technologies and infrastructure, plus Belle II specific extensions for workflow abstraction. This paper describes the highlights of the Belle II computing and the current status. We will also present the experience of the latest MC production campaign in 2014.

  20. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

    1993-05-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

  1. Subject Indexing and Citation Indexing--Part I: Clustering Structure in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection [and] Part II: An Evaluation and Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    These two articles discuss clustering structure in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection, which is derived from the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE file. The exhaustivity of four subject representations and two citation representations is examined, and descriptor-weight thresholds and similarity thresholds are used to compute…

  2. Development of a method for collection of ileal digesta in finishing pigs and determination of lysine availability in direct solvent cottonseed meal by chemical and chick growth assays

    E-print Network

    Corley, Jimmie Ray

    1976-01-01

    ) Collection appliances attached to the pig . 28 Bolt plate showing the PVC washers and nuts (A), outside plate (B), PVC bolts (C), PVC tubing (D), and PVC bolt with 3. 5 cm flange (B) . 30 Figure Page 13 (A) Primary incision site. (B) ?leal fistula... cannula 3. ability to place the collected digests into the cecum through the cecal cannula 4. freedom from excessive leakage of digests around the cannulae. If satisfactory performance was not observed in these guidelines, two or more of the pigs were...

  3. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for Americium-240 II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: Plutonium-242(Calcium-48,5n)(285)114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Part I discusses the study of a new nuclear reaction and chemical separation procedure for the production of 240Am. Thin 242Pu, natTi, and natNi targets were coincidently activated with protons from the 88-Inch Cyclotron, producing 240Am, 48V, and 57Ni, respectively. The radioactive decay of these isotopes was monitored using high-purity Ge gamma ray detectors in the weeks following irradiation. The excitation function for the 242 Pu(p, 3n)240Am nuclear reaction was measured to be lower than theoretical predictions, but high enough to be the most viable nuclear reaction for the large-scale production of 240 Am. Details of the development of a chemical separation procedure for isolating 240Am from proton-irradiated 242Pu are discussed. The separation procedure, which includes two anion exchange columns and two extraction chromatography columns, was experimentally investi- gated using tracer-level 241Am, 239Pu, and model proton-induced fission products 95Zr, 95Nb, 125Sb, and 152Eu. The separation procedure was shown to have an Am/Pu separation factor of >2x10 7 and an Am yield of ˜70%. The separation procedure was found to purify the Am sample from >99.9% of Eu, Zr, Nb, and Sb. The procedure is well suited for the processing of ˜1 gram of proton-irradiated 242Pu to produce a neutron-induced fission target consisting of tens of nanograms of 240Am. Part II describes the use of the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron for the study of the 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285114 nuclear re- action. The new, neutron-deficient, superheavy element isotope 285114 was produced in 48Ca irradiations of 242Pu targets at a center-of-target beam energy of 256 MeV ( E* = 50 MeV). The alpha decay of 285114 was followed by the sequential alpha decay of four daughter nuclides, 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, and 269 Sg. 265Rf was observed to decay by spontaneous fission. The measured alpha-decay Q-values were compared with those from a macroscopic-microscopic nuclear mass model to give insight into superheavy element shell effects. The 242Pu(48Ca, 5n)285114 cross section was 0.6-0.2 +1.3 pb.

  4. An integrated approach to organise major risks control in hazardous chemical establishments

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    An integrated approach to organise major risks control in hazardous chemical establishments E. PLOT accident risks of hazardous establishments under the scope of Seveso II directive. The method is currently of collecting major hazard within the European community indicates that the human contribution represents 64

  5. Responsible Collecting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, examines how to responsibly collect and keep specimens. The article discusses the reasons why collecting specimens is important and the behaviors and attitudes that define responsible collecting for both scientists and students.

  6. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Conkle; D. M. Tucker; G. Moore

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders

  7. Criteria to average out the chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR when irradiated with BABA I, BABA II, and C7 radiofrequency pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Stephane Mananga, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Floquet-Magnus expansion is used to study the effect of chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR of rotating solids. The chemical shift interaction is irradiated with two types of radiofrequency pulse sequences: BABA and C7. The criteria for the chemical shift anisotropy to be averaged out in each rotor period are obtained. PMID:24060139

  8. Chemical composition of oleo-gum-resin from Ferula gummosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein T. Jalali; Zahra J. Ebrahimian; Dmitry V. Evtuguin; Carlos Pascoal Neto

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of oleo-gum-resin from Ferula gummosa collected in the northern part of Iran has been studied. The fraction of oleo-gum-resin soluble in ethanol (ca 67wt.%) is composed by three major fractions: (i) monoterpenes and monoterpenoids (ca 15wt.% fraction), (ii) sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids (ca 30wt.%) and (iii) triterpenes and triterpenoids (ca 55wt.%). The major families of terpenes and terpenoids

  9. Techniques used in the analysis of data collected by the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON). II. Frequency domain analysis & data merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Howe, R.; Isaak, G. R.; McLeod, C. P.; Miller, B. A.; New, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) consists of 6 solar observatories dedicated to the collection of full-disc solar Doppler velocity data -- these data are sensitive to the lowest spatial degrees of oscillation (0 <= l <= 4). In Paper I of this series, we described the calibration of raw data from the BiSON instruments to produce solar velocity residuals representing the oscillations of the Sun's surface. In this paper, we discuss the combination of velocity residuals into time series -- including a thorough discussion of the treatment of data overlaps between sites -- and the analysis of the power spectra computed from such time series to derive the characteristics of the acoustic modes.

  10. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. PMID:25510831

  11. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss. Method Essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5?ml/kg b.w) was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50?mg/kg (b.w) was used as a standard drug. Results The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w), pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were ?-cadinene (12.92%), ?-pinene (10.3%), myrcene (8.64%), ?-caryophyllene (8.23%), germacrene D (5.18%) and limonene (2.36%). Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI) occurred from 20-80?mg/kg (b.w) and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80?mg/kg (b.w), but PWI decreased at 160?mg/kg, which may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5?±?1.72415?mg/kg (b.w). Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use. PMID:23217213

  12. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY...Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-terrorism...

  13. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus is disclosed for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical

  14. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  15. Collection and chemical derivatization of airborne phosgene with 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine and determination by high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Rando, R.J.; Poovey, H.G. (Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Section of Bioenvironmental Research); Chang, Shau-nong (Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    As an alternative to currently available measurement methods, Chromosorb coated with 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine (PYP) was evaluated for collection/derivatization of phosgene gas. Solid sorbent tubes contained 100 mg of 2.5% PYP coated on Chromosorb. Phosgene reacts with two equivalents of PYP to form a substituted urea derivative which is desorbed with acetonitrile and determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection. In comparison to the 4,4[prime]-nitrobenzyl pyridine in diethylphthalate colorimetric technique, the recovery of phosgene from the sorbent tube was quantitative from 0.02 to 1 ppm phosgene and was unaffected by humidity. The limit of detection for a 20 L air sample was estimated to be 0.005 ppm. The utility of the method was further improved by demonstrating the use of triphosgene (bis-(trichloromethyl)-carbonate) in the synthesis of the urea derivative used for standardization, thus eliminating the need for working with gaseous phosgene in preparing analytical standards.

  16. Chemical and Physical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is a chemical reaction between sugar and sulfuric acid. The demonstration (a discrepant event) compares the way sugar and water interact when combined (physical change) to the way sugar and sulfuric acid interact when combined (chemical change). In part II, students are given additional substances and changes to observe.

  17. Chemical & Biochemical Engineering 441 (14:155:441) Chemical Engineering Kinetics

    E-print Network

    Chemical & Biochemical Engineering 441 (14:155:441) Chemical Engineering Kinetics Fall 2013 Tuesday is emphasized. The relationship of reaction mechanisms to rate laws is investigated. Prerequisites: 14:155:304: Transport Phenomena in Chemical Eng. II 14:155:307: Chemical Engineering Analysis II 01:160:328: Physical

  18. Application of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in chemical characterization of antiwear films generated by ZDDP Part II: the effect of detergents and dispersants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanfeng Yin; M. Kasrai; G. M. Bancroft; K. Fyfe; M. L. Colaianni; K. H. Tan

    1997-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been used to study the chemical nature of the antiwear films generated on steel surfaces using zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs), in the presence of detergents and dispersants. The spectra were recorded both in total electron yield (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FY) modes, to investigate the chemical nature of P,S, Ca and O on

  19. Design of I2-II-IV-VI4 Semiconductors through Element-substitution: the Thermodynamic Stability Limit and Chemical Trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyou; Wang, Congcong; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xin-Gao; Walsh, Aron; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-03-01

    Through element substitution in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4orCu2ZnSnSe4, a class of I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductors can be designed as novel functional materials. Using the first-principles calculations, we show that this element-substitution design is thermodynamically limited, i.e., although I2-II-IV-VI4 with I =Cu, Ag, II =Zn, Cd, Hg, IV =Si, Ge, Sn and VI =S, Se, Te are stable quaternary compounds, those with II =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, IV =Ti, Zr, Hf, and VI =O are unstable against the phase-separation into the competing binary and ternary compounds. Three main phase-separation pathways are revealed. In general, we show that if the secondary II-VI or I2-IV-VI3 phases prefer to have non-tetrahedral structures, then the I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductors tend to phase separate. This finding can be used as a guideline for future design of new quaternary semiconductors.

  20. Structures of the I-, II- and H-methane clathrates and the ice-methane clathrate phase transition from quantum-chemical modeling with force-field thermal corrections.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Annika; Ojamäe, Lars

    2011-06-16

    Methane hydrates with the three clathrate structures I, II, and H are studied by quantum-chemical methods. Hybrid density-functional theory B3LYP computations using periodic boundary conditions are combined with force-field methods for the thermal energy effects to calculate energetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties. The pressure dependencies for the crystal structures, lattice energies, and guest molecule interactions are derived. The quantum-chemical geometry optimizations predict too small cell volumes as compared to experimental data, but by including zero-point energy and thermal energy effects, we find the cell volumes increase and the correct densities are obtained. The phase transition from MH-I to ice Ih and methane was computed and found to occur at about 9.7 MPa. PMID:21341763

  1. Microbial and chemical transformation studies of the bioactive marine sesquiterpenes (S)-(+)-curcuphenol and -curcudiol isolated from a deep reef collection of the Jamaican sponge Didiscus oxeata.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Khalid A; Yousaf, Muhammad; Hamann, Mark T; Avery, Mitchell A; Kelly, Michelle; Wipf, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Microbial and chemical transformation studies of the marine sesquiterpene phenols (S)-(+)-curcuphenol (1) and (S)-(+)-curcudiol (2), isolated from the Jamaican sponge Didiscus oxeata, were accomplished. Preparative-scale fermentation of 1 with Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis (ATCC 2628) has resulted in the isolation of six new metabolites: (S)-(+)-15-hydroxycurcuphenol (3), (S)-(+)-12-hydroxycurcuphenol (4), (S)-(+)-12,15-dihydroxycurcuphenol (5), (S)-(+)-15-hydroxycurcuphenol-12-al (6), (S)-(+)-12-carboxy-10,11-dihydrocurcuphenol (7), and (S)-(+)-12-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocurcuphenol (8). Fourteen-days incubation of 1 with Aspergillus alliaceus (NRRL 315) afforded the new compounds (S)-(+)-10beta-hydroxycurcudiol (9), (S)-(+)-curcudiol-10-one (10), and (S)-(+)-4-[1-(2-hydroxy-4-methyl)phenyl)]pentanoic acid (11). Rhizopus arrhizus (ATCC 11145) and Rhodotorula glutinus (ATCC 15125) afforded (S)-curcuphenol-1alpha-D-glucopyranoside (12) and (S)-curcudiol-1alpha-D-glucopyranoside (13) when incubated for 6 and 8 days with 1 and 2, respectively. The absolute configuration of C(10) and C(11) of metabolites 7-9 was established by optical rotation computations. Reaction of 1 with NaNO(2) and HCl afforded (S)-(+)-4-nitrocurcuphenol (14) and (S)-(+)-2-nitrocurcuphenol (15) in a 2:1 ratio. Acylation of 1 and 2 with isonicotinoyl chloride afforded the expected esters (S)-(+)-curcuphenol-1-O-isonicotinate (16) and (S)-(+)-curcudiol-1-O-isonicotinate (17), respectively. Curcuphenol (1) shows potent antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and S. aureus with MIC and MFC/MBC ranges of 7.5-25 and 12.5-50 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 also display in vitro antimalarial activity against Palsmodium falciparium (D6 clone) with MIC values of 3600 and 3800 ng/mL, respectively (selectivity index >1.3). Both compounds were also active against P. falciparium (W2 clone) with MIC values of 1800 (S.I. >2.6) and 2900 (S.I. >1.6) ng/mL, respectively. Compound 14 shows anti-hepatitis B virus activity with an EC(50) of 61 microg/mL. PMID:12444675

  2. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  3. TOPoS . II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Klessen, R. S.; François, P.; Molaro, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Zaggia, S.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Hammer, F.; Koch, A.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; Steffen, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. In the course of the Turn Off Primordial Stars (TOPoS) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. These stars are very common among the stars of extremely low metallicity and provide important clues to the star formation processes. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Aims: We want to provide the most complete chemical inventory for these six stars in order to constrain the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the abundance patterns. Methods: We analyse both X-Shooter and UVES spectra acquired at the VLT. We used a traditional abundance analysis based on OSMARCS 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres and the turbospectrum line formation code. Results: Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0 ? [Ca/H] <-2.1 and 7.12 ? A(C) ? 8.65. For star SDSS J1742+2531 we were able to detect three Fe i lines from which we deduced [Fe/H] = -4.80, from four Ca ii lines we derived [Ca/H] = -4.56, and from synthesis of the G-band we derived A(C) = 7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3?) upper limit of [Fe/H] < -5.0 and measure the Ca abundance, with [Ca/H] = -5.0, and carbon, A(C) = 6.90, suggesting that this star could be even more metal-poor than SDSS J1742+2531. This makes these two stars the seventh and eighth stars known so far with [Fe/H] < -4.5, usually termed ultra-iron-poor (UIP) stars. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li) < 1.8 for both stars. Conclusions: Our measured carbon abundances confirm the bimodal distribution of carbon in CEMP stars, identifying a high-carbon band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. The abundance pattern of the UIP stars shows a large star-to-star scatter in the [X/Ca] ratios for all elements up to aluminium (up to 1 dex), but this scatter drops for heavier elements and is at most of the order of a factor of two. We propose that this can be explained if these stars are formed from gas that has been chemically enriched by several SNe, that produce the roughly constant [X/Ca] ratios for the heavier elements, and in some cases the gas has also been polluted by the ejecta of a faint SN that contributes the lighter elements in variable amounts. The absence of lithium in four of the five known unevolved UIP stars can be explained by a dominant role of fragmentation in the formation of these stars. This would result either in a destruction of lithium in the pre-main-sequence phase, through rotational mixing or to a lack of late accretion from a reservoir of fresh gas. The phenomenon should have varying degrees of efficiency. Based on observations obtained at ESO Paranal Observatory, programme 091.D-0288, 091.D-0305, 189.D-0165.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A28

  4. Development of a specific and highly sensitive optical chemical sensor for determination of Hg(II) based on a new synthesized ionophore.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Ali R; Ensafi, Ali A; Karimi, K; Sharghi, H

    2013-10-01

    A novel optode for determination of Hg(II) ions is developed based on immobilization of a recently synthesized ionophore, 7-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-2H-1,13,4,7,10 benzodioxatriaza cyclopentadecine-3,11(4H,12H)-dione, in a PVC membrane. Dioctyl sebacate was used as a plasticizer, sodium tetraphenylborate as an anionic additive and ETH5294 as a chromoionophore. The response of the optode was based on the complexation of Hg(II) with the ionophore in the membrane phase, resulting an ion exchange process between Hg(II) in the sample solution and H(+) in the membrane. The effects of pH and amounts of the ionophore, chromoionophore, ionic additive and type of plasticizer on the optode response were investigated. The selectivity of the optode was studied in the present of several cations. The optode has a linear response to Hg(II) in the range of 7.2×10(-13)-4.7×10(-4) mol L(-1) with detection limit of 0.18 pmol L(-1). The optode was successfully applied to the determination of Hg(II) in real samples. PMID:23910329

  5. Collection understanding

    E-print Network

    Chang, Michelle T.

    2004-09-30

    slideshows and variably gridded thumbnails are elaborated below. The Online Picasso Project [Mallen 2004] (a collection of Picasso?s life and works, consisting of approximately 7,000 images, from 1881-1973) was used as the image test collection. 28... research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  6. Pseudo-first-order reaction of chemically and biologically formed green rusts with HgII and C??H??N?O?: effects of pH and stabilizing agents (phosphate, silicate, polyacrylic acid, and bacterial cells).

    PubMed

    Remy, P-Ph; Etique, M; Hazotte, A A; Sergent, A-S; Estrade, N; Cloquet, C; Hanna, K; Jorand, F P A

    2015-03-01

    The kinetics of Hg(II) and methyl red (MR) reduction by hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1) and by hydroxysulfate green rust (GR2) were studied in the presence of naturally occurring organic and inorganic ligands (phosphate, polyacrylic acid, bacterial cells, silicate). The reducing ability of biogenic hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1bio), obtained after microbial reduction of lepidocrocite by Shewanella putrefaciens, was also investigated and compared to those of chemically synthesized GR1 and GR2 (GR1ab and GR2ab). Pseudo first-order rate constants (kobs) of Hg(II) reduction (at pH 7.0, 8.2, and 9.5) and MR reduction (at pH 7.0) were determined and were normalized to the structural Fe(II) content of GRs (kFeII) and to the estimated concentration of surface Fe(II) sites (kS). The kS values ranged from 0.3 L mmol(-1) min(-1) to 43 L mmol(-1) min(-1) for the Hg reduction, and from 0.007 L mmol(-1) min(-1) to 3.4 L mmol(-1) min(-1) for the MR reduction. No significant discrepancy between GRab and GRbio was observed in term of reactivity. However, the reduction kinetics of MR was generally slower than the Hg(II) reduction kinetics for all tested GRs. While a slight difference in Hg(II) reduction rate was noted whatever the pH values (7.0, 8.2, or 9.5), the reduction of MR was significantly affected in the presence of ligands. A decrease by a factor of 2-200, depending on the type of ligand used, was observed. These data give new insights into the reactivity of GRs in the presence of co-occurring organic and inorganic ligands, and have major implications in the characterization of contaminated systems as well as water treatment processes. PMID:25543237

  7. GUIDELINES FOR DISPOSAL OF CHEMICAL WASTE Excess Chemicals and Chemical Wastes

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    GUIDELINES FOR DISPOSAL OF CHEMICAL WASTE wstPS.DOC Excess Chemicals and Chemical Wastes · Toxic and toxics are not present (e.g., heavy metals). If you do the need for additional labels. · Waste Chemicals - - Call EHSO at x2723 for collection. (If the label

  8. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  9. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  10. CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

  11. Comprehensive investigation of the corrosion state of the heat exchanger tubes of steam generators. Part II. Chemical composition and structure of tube surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homonnay, Z.; Kuzmann, E.; Varga, K.; Németh, Z.; Szabó, A.; Radó, K.; Makó, K. É.; Kövér, L.; Cserny, I.; Varga, D.; Tóth, J.; Schunk, J.; Tilky, P.; Patek, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a project dealing with the comprehensive study of the corrosion state of the steam generators of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, surface properties (chemical and phase compositions) of the heat exchanger tubes supplied by the power plant were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The work presented in this series provides evidence that chemical decontamination of the steam generators by the AP-CITROX technology does exert a detrimental effect on the chemical composition and structure of the protective oxide film grown-on the inner surfaces of heat exchanger piping. As an undesired consequence of the decontamination technology, a 'hybrid' structure of the amorphous and crystalline phases is formed in the outermost surface region (within a range of 11 ?m). The constituents of this 'hybrid' structure exhibit great mobility into the primary coolant under normal operation of the VVER type reactor.

  12. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  13. Collection understanding 

    E-print Network

    Chang, Michelle T.

    2004-09-30

    research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  14. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  15. Spoon Collective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Spoon Collective houses descriptive information, discussion archives, paper archives, and links to Websites for three dozen listservs related to the discussion of philosophy, sociology, political science, and literary theory. Some of the topics for the lists include Postcolonialism, Poststructuralism, Feminism, Marxism, and Cultural Studies. Thirteen of the lists are dedicated to the work of influential thinkers, including Jean Baudrillard, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger. All content at the Spoon Collective can be searched aggregately.

  16. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  17. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 49, NUMBER 3 1 AUGUST 1968 Critical Solution Behavior in a Binary Mixture of Gaussian Molecules. II

    E-print Network

    Stillinger, Frank

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 49, NUMBER 3 1 AUGUST 1968 Critical Solution Behavior. Recently the series method was also applied by us! to the study of the critical solution behavior singular behavior. The scaling laws provide plausible relations among the various critical exponents

  18. Indonesian medicinal plants. II. Chemical structures of Pongapinones A and B, two new phenylpropanoids from the bark of Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, I; Zhang, R; Hori, K; Tsuchiya, K; Shibuya, H

    1992-08-01

    Two new phenylpropanoids named pongapinone A (1) and pongapinone B (2) were isolated from the bark of Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), an Indonesian medicinal plant, and their chemical structures have been elucidated on the basis of their physicochemical properties. Pongapinone A (1) was found to inhibit interleukin-1 production. PMID:1423757

  19. Ab initio all-electron calculation of absolute volume deformation potentials of IV-IV, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors: The chemical trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hua Li; X. G. Gong; Su-Huai Wei

    2006-01-01

    We calculate systematically the absolute volume deformation potential (AVDP) of the Gamma8v valence band maximum (VBM) and the Gamma6c conduction band minimum (CBM) states for all group IV, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors. Unlike previous calculations that involve various assumptions, the AVDPs are calculated using a recently developed approach that is independent of the selection of the reference energy levels. We

  20. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  1. Chemical defence in ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). II. Amount of reflex fluid, the alkaloid adaline and individual variation in defence in 2-spot ladybirds ( Adalia bipunctata )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. de Jong; Graham J. Holloway; Paul M. Brakefield; Helene de Vos

    1991-01-01

    Summary 2-spot ladybirds secrete alkaloid (adaline)-rich defence fluid (reflex blood) in response to predator attack. Reflex fluid was collected from individual ladybirds and weighed and the alkaloid content measured by GC. The amount of fluid produced built up rapidly following winter hibernation in animals feeding on aphids. The concentration of adaline in the fluid was highest in the first bleeding

  2. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept—Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. Aichlmayr; D. B. Kittelson; M. R. Zachariah

    2002-01-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1W engines, respectively. Also, temperature–pressure trajectories and ignition delay

  3. Microalgae for use in tropical aquaculture II: Effect of salinity on growth, gross chemical composition and fatty acid composition of three species of marine microalgae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Renaud; D. L. Parry

    1994-01-01

    The influence of salinity on the growth, gross chemical composition and fatty acid composition of three species of marine microalgae,Isochrysis sp.,Nannochloropsis oculata andNitzschia (frustulum), was investigated. There was no significant change in growth rate ofIsochrysis sp. andN. (frustulum) over the experimental range of salinity (10–35 ppt), whileN. oculata had a significantly slower growth rate only at 35 ppt. The ash

  4. Carnival Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-24

    "Come to the carnival" is a common refrain in New Orleans during the month of February, and this intoxicating collection from Tulane University pays homage to this wonderful cultural tradition. The collection includes over 1,500 float designs from the "Golden Age" of carnival by notable designers such as Jennie Wilde, B.A. Wikstrom, and Charles Briton. Support for the project comes from the late Charles L. "Pie" Dufour who left funds to continue the preservation of these rare and unique ephemeral materials. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they may wish to start with fanciful designs like the 1870 "Twelfth Night Revelers" float or the 1891 "Atlanteans" design. Also, visitors can select the work of a particular float designer or krewe of note. Also, visitors can search the entire collection by keyword.

  5. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND STELLAR HALO. II. SODIUM, IRON-PEAK, AND NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, M. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Chiba, M., E-mail: miho.ishigaki@ipmu.jp, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We present chemical abundance analyses of sodium, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements for 97 kinematically selected thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo stars with metallicities -3.3 < [Fe/H] <-0.5. The main aim of this study is to examine chemical similarities and differences among metal-poor stars belonging to these old Galactic components as a clue to determine their early chemodynamical evolution. In our previous paper, we obtained abundances of {alpha} elements by performing a one-dimensional LTE abundance analysis based on the high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) spectra obtained with the Subaru/HDS. In this paper, a similar analysis is performed to determine abundances of an additional 17 elements. We show that, in metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx}-2, the abundance ratios of many elements in the thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo subsamples are largely similar. In contrast, in higher metallicities ([Fe/H] {approx}> -1.5), differences in some of the abundance ratios among the three subsamples are identified. Specifically, the [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] ratios in the inner and outer halo subsamples are found to be lower than those in the thick disk subsample. A modest abundance difference between the two halo subsamples in this metallicity range is also seen for the [Na/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios. In contrast to that observed for [Mg/Fe] in our previous paper, [Eu/Fe] ratios are more enhanced in the two halo subsamples rather than in the thick disk subsample. The observed distinct chemical abundances of some elements between the thick disk and inner/outer halo subsamples with [Fe/H] >-1.5 support the hypothesis that these components formed through different mechanisms. In particular, our results favor the scenario that the inner and outer halo components formed through an assembly of multiple progenitor systems that experienced various degrees of chemical enrichments, while the thick disk formed through rapid star formation with an efficient mixing of chemical elements. The lower [Na/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] observed in stars with the outer halo kinematics may further suggest that progenitors with longer star formation timescales contributed to the buildup of the relatively metal-rich part of stellar halos.

  6. Case study II: application of the divalent cation bridging theory to improve biofloc properties and industrial activated sludge system performance-using alternatives to sodium-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew J; Sobeck, David C; Owens, Steven J; Szabo, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the divalent cation bridging theory (DCBT) as a tool in the chemical selection process at an activated sludge plant to improve settling, dewatering, and effluent quality. According to the DCBT, to achieve improvements, the goal of chemical selection should be to reduce the ratio of monovalent-to-divalent (M/D) cations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of using magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] as an alternative to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant. Floc properties and treatment plant performance were measured for approximately one year during two periods of NaOH addition and Mg(OH)2 addition. A cost analysis of plant operation during NaOH and Mg(OH)2 use was also performed. During NaOH addition, the M/D ratio was 48, while, during Mg(OH)2 addition, this ratio was reduced to an average of approximately 0.1. During the Mg(OH)2 addition period, the sludge volume index, effluent total suspended solids, and effluent chemical oxygen demand were reduced by approximately 63, 31, and 50%, respectively, compared to the NaOH addition period. The alum and polymer dose used for clarification was reduced by approximately 50 and 60%, respectively, during Mg(OH)2 addition. The dewatering properties of the activated sludge improved dewatering as measured by decreased capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), along with an increase in cake solids from the SRF test. This corresponded to a reduction in the volume of solids thickened by centrifuges at the treatment plant, which reduced the disposal costs of solids. Considering the costs for chemicals and solids disposal, the annual cost of using Mg(OH)2 was approximately 30,000 dollars to 115,000 dollars less than using NaOH, depending on the pricing of NaOH. The results of this study confirm that the DCBT is a useful tool for assessing chemical-addition strategies and their potential effect on activated sludge performance. PMID:15508426

  7. Chemical process control education and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wayne Bequette; Babatunde A. Ogunnaike

    2001-01-01

    Chemical process control textbooks and courses differ significantly from their electrical or mechanical control equivalents. The primary goals of this article are to i) emphasize the distinctly challenging characteristics of chemical processes, ii) present a typical process control curriculum and iii) discuss how chemical process control courses can be revised to better meet the needs of a typical BSc-level chemical

  8. Collecting Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  9. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  10. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  12. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  13. Evaluation of A MBER force field parameters for copper(II) with pyridylmethyl-amine and benzimidazolylmethyl-amine ligands: A quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanyan; Su, Yanwei; Li, Xichen; Wang, Yan; Chen, Guangju

    2008-04-01

    We present the theoretical evaluations on the two new sets of A MBER force field parameters for the two copper(II) nucleases, Cu(BPA)Cl 2 (BPA = bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) and Cu(IDB)Cl 2 (IDB = N, N-bis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine) based on the DFT/B3LYP level of theory, incorporating with atomic charges calculated by the RESP method. The new force field parameters have been successfully applied in the testing molecular dynamic simulations for the nuclease-DNA combining systems. The developed force field parameters in this work can be applied in DNA-binding modeling for other artificial copper nucleases with same Cu-N type environments.

  14. Prepared for presentation at the Pacifichem 2005 Conference December 15-20, 2005 Symposium: Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents for Antiterrorism Purposes Analysis of Chemical Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals using a Mobile Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Hart; Marcus B. Wise; Rob R. Smith; Wayne H. Griest

    2005-01-01

    The Block II Chemical Biological Mass Spectrometer (CBMS II) has been developed to provide a chemical and biological agent detection capability for military reconnaissance vehicles such as the Joint Services Lightweight Nuclear Biological Chemical Reconnaissance System and the Stryker Reconnaissance Vehicle. The chemical agent detection and identification capabilities of the instrument have been optimized for the analysis of persistent chemical

  15. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications II. Users Manual and Program Description. 2; Users Manual and Program Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1996-01-01

    This users manual is the second part of a two-part report describing the NASA Lewis CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications) program. The program obtains chemical equilibrium compositions of complex mixtures with applications to several types of problems. The topics presented in this manual are: (1) details for preparing input data sets; (2) a description of output tables for various types of problems; (3) the overall modular organization of the program with information on how to make modifications; (4) a description of the function of each subroutine; (5) error messages and their significance; and (6) a number of examples that illustrate various types of problems handled by CEA and that cover many of the options available in both input and output. Seven appendixes give information on the thermodynamic and thermal transport data used in CEA; some information on common variables used in or generated by the equilibrium module; and output tables for 14 example problems. The CEA program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77. CEA should work on any system with sufficient storage. There are about 6300 lines in the source code, which uses about 225 kilobytes of memory. The compiled program takes about 975 kilobytes.

  16. WR bubbles and He II emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Y.; Rauw, G.; Manfroid, J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Vreux, J.-M.

    2003-09-01

    We present the very first high quality images of the He Ii lambda 4686 emission in three high excitation nebulae of the Magellanic Clouds. A fourth high excitation nebula, situated around the WR star BAT99-2, was analysed in a previous letter. Using VLT FORS data, we investigate the morphology of the ring nebulae around the early-type WN stars BAT99-49 & AB7. We derive the total He Ii fluxes for each object and compare them with the most recent theoretical WR models. Whilst the ionization of the nebula around BAT99-49 can be explained by a WN star of temperature 90-100 kK, we find that the He Ii emission measure of the nebula associated with AB7 requires an He+ ionizing flux larger than predicted for the hottest WN model available. Using H? , [O I]ii and He I lambda 5876 images along with long-slit spectroscopy, we investigate the physical properties of these ring nebulae and find only moderate chemical enrichment. We also surveyed seven other LMC WR stars but we failed to detect any He Ii emission. This holds also true for BAT99-9 which had been proposed to excite an He Ii nebula. Four of these surveyed stars are surrounded by a ring nebula, and we use the FORS data to derive their chemical composition: the nebula around BAT99-11 shows a N/O ratio and an oxygen abundance slightly lower than the LMC values, while the nebula around BAT99-134 presents moderate chemical enrichment similar to the one seen near BAT99-2, 49 and AB7. Comparing the WR stars of the LMC, BAT99-2 and 49 appear unique since similar stars do not reveal high excitation features. The third high excitation nebula presented in this paper, N44C, does not harbor stars hotter than mid-O main sequence stars. It was suggested to be a fossil X-ray nebula ionized by the transient LMC X-5. Our observations of N44C reveal no substantial changes in the excitation compared to previous results reported in the literature. Therefore, we conclude that either the recombination timescale of the X-ray nebula has been underestimated or that the excitation of the nebula is produced by another, yet unknown, mechanism. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile (ESO No. 68.C-0238(A,B)).

  17. 78 FR 52215 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...operations. II. Method of Collection The current, paper-based reporting system ensures the protection of a submitters anonymity and secure submission of the report by way of the U.S. Postal Service. III. Data Title: NASA Safety Reporting...

  18. 78 FR 34675 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...operations. II. Method of Collection The current, paper-based reporting system ensures the protection of a submitters anonymity and secure submission of the report by way of the U.S. Postal Service. III. Data Title: NASA Safety Reporting...

  19. 77 FR 69659 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...operations. II. Method of Collection The current, paper-based reporting system ensures the protection of a submitters anonymity and secure submission of the report by way of the U.S. Postal Service. III. Data Title: NASA Safety Reporting...

  20. 75 FR 53349 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract: The purpose of this survey is to assimilate lunar regolith stimulant requirements as well as Apollo sample requests for the ETDP and Constellation projects and test facilities. II. Method of Collection Electronic. III....

  1. 75 FR 65673 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The purpose of this survey is to assimilate lunar regolith stimulant requirements as well as Apollo sample requests for the ETDP and Constellation projects and test facilities. II. Method of Collection Electronic. III....

  2. Experimental and quantum-chemical studies of 1H, 13C and 15N NMR coordination shifts in Pd(II) and Pt(II) chloride complexes with methyl and phenyl derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Pazderski, Leszek; Tousek, Jaromír; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech; Sz?yk, Edward

    2007-12-01

    1H, 13C and 15N NMR studies of platinide(II) (M=Pd, Pt) chloride complexes with methyl and phenyl derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline [LL=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmbpy); 4,4'-diphenyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dpbpy); 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmphen); 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dpphen)] having a general [M(LL)Cl2] formula were performed and the respective chemical shifts (delta1H, delta13C, delta15N) reported. 1H high-frequency coordination shifts (Delta1Hcoord=delta1Hcomplex-delta1Hligand) were discussed in relation to the changes of diamagnetic contribution in the relevant 1H shielding constants. The comparison to literature data for similar [M(LL)(XX)], [M(LL)X2] and [M(LL)XY] coordination or organometallic compounds containing various auxiliary ligands revealed a large dependence of delta1H parameters on inductive and anisotropic effects. 15N low-frequency coordination shifts (Delta15Ncoord=delta 15Ncomplex-delta15Nligand) of ca 88-96 ppm for M=Pd and ca 103-111 ppm for M=Pt were attributed to both the decrease of the absolute value of paramagnetic contribution and the increase of the diamagnetic term in the expression for 15N shielding constants. The absolute magnitude of Delta15Ncoord parameter increased by ca 15 ppm upon Pd(II)-->Pt(II) transition and by ca 6-7 ppm following dmbpy-->dmphen or dpbpy-->dpphen ligand replacement; variations between analogous complexes containing methyl and phenyl ligands (dmbpy vs dpbpy; dmphen vs dpphen) did not exceed+/-1.5 ppm. Experimental 1H, 13C, 15N NMR chemical shifts were compared to those quantum-chemically calculated by B3LYP/LanL2DZ+6-31G**//B3LYP/LanL2DZ+6-31G*, both in vacuo and in DMSO or DMF solution. PMID:18044804

  3. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  4. Terrorism and Security Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The National Academies Press (NAP) offers the full text of several publications related to bioterrorism, laboratory safety, and cryptography, among other topics, for browsing online. Although not all of the titles are new, NAP has collected them on one page for easy access in light of current events. The 26 titles include Airline Passenger Security Screening: New Technologies and Implementation Issues (1996), Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response (1999), Firepower in the Lab: Automation in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism (2001), Improving Civilian Medical Response to Chemical or Biological Terrorist Incidents: Interim Report on Current Capabilities (1998), Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: Proceedings (1995) and Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding Bombs and the Bomb Makers (1998). Users can perform keyword searches within each publication.

  5. Retrospective mortality study of workers in three major U. S. refineries and chemical plants. Part II: Internal comparisons by geographic site, occupation, and smoking history

    SciTech Connect

    Hanis, N.M.; Shallenberger, L.G.; Donaleski, D.L.; Sales, E.A.

    1985-05-01

    A cohort of 21,698 U.S. refinery and chemical plant workers was observed for eight years to determine if there were interplant or other variations in causes of mortality. Plant populations in three geographic locations were combined to develop an internal standard for comparing subgroups within the total cohort. At no one geographic site were consistently different rates for all major causes of death observed. The adjusted mortality rates for potentially exposed workers were slightly greater than those for nonexposed workers for most causes examined. Smokers incurred a higher risk of mortality from many causes of death when compared with nonsmokers, regardless of occupational category. After controlling for smoking, there remained a slight excess in mortality for potentially exposed as compared with nonexposed workers.

  6. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  7. Herschel Observations of Extraordinary Sources: Analysi sof the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey toward Orion KL II. Chemical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Favre, C.; Blake, G. A.; Herbst, E.; Anderson, D. E.; Hassel, G. E.

    2015-06-01

    We present chemical implications arising from spectral models fit to the Herschel/HIFI spectral survey toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL). We focus our discussion on the eight complex organics detected within the HIFI survey utilizing a novel technique to identify those molecules emitting in the hottest gas. In particular, we find the complex nitrogen bearing species CH3CN, C2H3CN, C2H5CN, and NH2CHO systematically trace hotter gas than the oxygen bearing organics CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, which do not contain nitrogen. If these complex species form predominantly on grain surfaces, this may indicate N-bearing organics are more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing species. Another possibility is that hot (Tkin ? 300 K) gas phase chemistry naturally produces higher complex cyanide abundances while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex organics. We compare our derived rotation temperatures and molecular abundances to chemical models, which include gas-phase and grain surface pathways. Abundances for a majority of the detected complex organics can be reproduced over timescales ?105 years, with several species being underpredicted by less than 3?. Derived rotation temperatures for most organics, furthermore, agree reasonably well with the predicted temperatures at peak abundance. We also find that sulfur bearing molecules that also contain oxygen (i.e., SO, SO2, and OCS) tend to probe the hottest gas toward Orion KL, indicating the formation pathways for these species are most efficient at high temperatures. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Chemical Warfare and Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allister Vale; Sally Bradberry; Paul Rice; Timothy C Marrs

    2003-01-01

    The acquisition of chemical weapons by about twenty countries, and by terrorists, has increased the likelihood of their use. In World War I, chlorine, cyanide, phosgene and sulphur mustard were used. Nerve agents were available during World War II, but were not used. Sulphur mustard was used in the Iran-Iraq War. More recently, the release of sarin by terrorists in

  9. FACULTY LEGISLATION LIBRARY MATTERS (pages II-400 through II-499)

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    its own. PUBLIC SERVICES: Externally-oriented services extended to library users including circulation, reference, etc. Each library has its own public services staff. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT: A service providedFACULTY LEGISLATION Page LIBRARY MATTERS (pages II-400 through II-499) General Library System

  10. University of Wisconsin Digital Collections: The Science Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Wisconsin-Madison Digital Collections Center

    The Science Collection brings together writings about scientific research conducted by University of Wisconsin faculty and staff; and unique or valuable items related to science held by the University of Wisconsin Libraries. Subcollections include a Botany Department Teaching Collection (images), an electronic edition of Thermophilic Microorganisms and Life at High Temperatures (1978) by Thomas D. Brock, a collection of veterinary anatomical illustrations derived from the Handbuch der Anatomie der Tiere fur Kunstler, or Handbook of Animal Anatomy for Artists (1898, 1911-1925) and the Journal of Chemical Education.

  11. 75 FR 59294 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...Procurement Quota for Controlled Substances and Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Procurement Quota for Controlled Substances and Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Schedule I or II or the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

  12. 78 FR 9429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...Procurement Quota for Controlled Substances and Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Procurement Quota for Controlled Substances and Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Schedule I or II or the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

  13. Pamphlet Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In a welcome move to researchers and historians, the British Library of Political and Economic Science (BLPES) has created an online guide to its large pamphlet collection, containing some 90,000 pamphlets, many from the 19th and early 20th centuries. While covering a number of important public and political issues in British history, the collection also contains a fair amount of European and International materials, including a large number of German-language pamphlets, as well as materials on Latin American trade unions, the League of Nations, pacifism, the two World Wars, and conflict in the Middle East. Users can browse the guide by fifteen topics (e.g., Issues in British history, political parties, social policy, poor laws, transport, etc.) or search the online catalog by subject keyword, author, title, or issuing body. The guide lists pamphlet author, title, and classmark, while the online catalog also includes publisher, pages, location, and other notes. As an added bonus, the majority of pamphlets listed in the social policy and transport guides have been digitized and are available in .pdf format.

  14. A fresh look at dense hydrogen under pressure. II. Chemical and physical models aiding our understanding of evolving H-H separations.

    PubMed

    Labet, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2012-02-21

    In order to explain the intricate dance of intramolecular (intra-proton-pair) H-H separations observed in a numerical laboratory of calculationally preferred static hydrogen structures under pressure, we examine two effects through discrete molecular models. The first effect, we call it physical, is of simple confinement. We review a salient model already in the literature, that of LeSar and Herschbach, of a hydrogen molecule in a spheroidal cavity. As a complement, we also study a hydrogen molecule confined along a line between two helium atoms. As the size of the cavity/confining distance decreases (a surrogate for increasing pressure), in both models the equilibrium proton separation decreases and the force constant of the stretching vibration increases. The second effect, which is an orbital or chemical factor, emerges from the electronic structure of the known molecular transition metal complexes of dihydrogen. In these the H-H bond is significantly elongated (and the vibron much decreased in frequency) as a result of depopulation of the ?(g) bonding molecular orbital of H(2), and population of the antibonding ?(u)? MO. The general phenomenon, long known in chemistry, is analyzed through a specific molecular model of three hydrogen molecules interacting in a ring, a motif found in some candidate structures for dense hydrogen. PMID:22360243

  15. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL II. Chemical Implications

    E-print Network

    Crockett, Nathan R; Neill, Justin L; Favre, Cécile; Blake, Geoffrey A; Herbst, Eric; Anderson, Dana E; Hassel, George E

    2015-01-01

    We present chemical implications arising from spectral models fit to the Herschel/HIFI spectral survey toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL). We focus our discussion on the eight complex organics detected within the HIFI survey utilizing a novel technique to identify those molecules emitting in the hottest gas. In particular, we find the complex nitrogen bearing species CH$_{3}$CN, C$_{2}$H$_{3}$CN, C$_{2}$H$_{5}$CN, and NH$_{2}$CHO systematically trace hotter gas than the oxygen bearing organics CH$_{3}$OH, C$_{2}$H$_{5}$OH, CH$_{3}$OCH$_{3}$, and CH$_{3}$OCHO, which do not contain nitrogen. If these complex species form predominantly on grain surfaces, this may indicate N-bearing organics are more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing species. Another possibility is that hot (T$_{\\rm kin}$$\\sim$300 K) gas phase chemistry naturally produces higher complex cyanide abundances while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex organics. We compare our derived rotation temperatures ...

  16. Sensory effects of capsaicin congeners. Part II: Importance of chemical structure and pungency in desensitizing activity of capsaicin-type compounds.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, J; Jancsó-Gábor, A

    1976-01-01

    The characteristic insensitivity of sensory nerve endings to chemically induced pain brought about by capsaicin could be reproduced on the rat's eye by pungent vanillylamides, homovanilloyl-alkylamides and piperine, while homovanilloyl-cycloalkylamides, -azacycloalkylamides, - alkylesters, -alkyl-homovanillylamides, undecenoyl-3-aminopropranololand zingerone were practically ineffective in this respect. Desensitizing potency was not parallel with the stimulating effect of the compounds, e.g. the strongly pungent homovanilloyl-octylester failed to desensitize the receptors, while the less pungent homovanilloyl-dodecylamide proved to be a more potent desensitizing agent than capsaicin itself. It is concluded that the inverse position of the acylamide linkage does not modify, while its replacement by an esteric group completely abolishes the desensitizing activity. In contrast to the stimulating effect, in desensitizing action the presence of an alkyl chain is essential and its optimal length corresponds to 10-12 C atoms. On the basis of these results the possible molecular interactions at the site of action are discussed. PMID:947170

  17. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    ?This study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (?m) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-?m particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-?m. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 ?m) and the fine particle-size fraction (<63 ?m) were approximately equal in samples at depths greater than 10 cm below the sediment water interface. Chemical analyses included both size fractions of freeze-dried samples. Chemical analyses included determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-?m particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-?m particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all of the sediment samples. In UKL, the correlation between concentrations of total P and total Fe in sediment is poor (R2<0.1). The correlation between the concentrations of total P and P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides is good (R2=0.43) in surface sediment (0.5-4.5 cm below the sediment water interface) but poor (R2<0.1) in sediments at depths between 10 cm and 30 cm. Phosphorus associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides is considered bioavailable because it is released when sediment conditions change from oxidizing to reducing, which causes dissolution of Fe oxides.

  19. Multielement chemical and statistical analyses from a uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in and near the Elkhorn Mountains, Jefferson County, Montana; Part II, Stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suits, V.J.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-two stream-sediment samples, collected from an area south of Helena, Jefferson County, Montana, were sieved into two size fractions (50 ppm for the fine fraction) were encountered in samples from the Warm Springs Creek drainage area, along Prickly Pear Creek near Welmer and Golconda Creeks and along Muskrat Creek. All groups showed a significant correlation at the 99 percent confidence level (r between 0.73 and 0.77) between U and Th. Uranium was found to correlate significantly only with Th (as mentioned above) and with -Ni in the fine fraction of the volcanics group. U correlates significantly with -Al2O3, Ba, organic C, -K2O, -Sr and Y in both size fractions for the Boulder batholith. Correlations between U and each of several elements differ for the fine and coarse fractions of the Boulder batholith group, suggesting that the U distribution in these stream sediments is in large part controlled by grain size. Correlations were found between U and CaO, Cr, Fe203, -Na2O, Sc, -SiO2, TiO2, Yb and Zr in the coarse fraction but not in the fine fraction. U correlates weakly (to the 90% confidence level, crc<.37) with -Co and -Cu in the fine but not the coarse fraction. These results are compared to a previous study in the northern Absaroka mountains. Correlation coefficients between all other elements determined from these samples are also shown in Tables 12 to 15.

  20. Hemingway Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ernest Hemingway was a red-blooded man of letters, and one of the 20th century's most celebrated and demonized writers. In 1968, Mary Hemingway arranged to have his papers donated to the Kennedy Library. Over the past several decades, materials related to Hemingway's long career have continued to become part of this very extensive collection. The Kennedy Library has created this specific page to provide both researchers and members of the general public with some basic information about their holdings, along with offering access to a selection of these papers. The photograph galleries are a real treat, as they cover everything from Hemingway's youth in Oak Park all the way up to his last days in Idaho.

  1. Gillray Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gillray, James, 1756-1815

    Throughout history, illustrators and others have seen fit to accurately skewer politicians, religious leaders, and countless others through their creative drawings and words. Born in 1756, English illustrator James Gillray was part of this honorable tradition. He reigned supreme during a period that became known as the "golden age of English caricature," and he "chronicled and ridiculed the politicians and ruling class of his day." This collection of his work comes courtesy of Dickson Q. Brown (Princeton class of 1895) who donated 313 prints to the Princeton University Library. Visitors to the site won't want to miss his "A bouquet of the last century" or his highly effective "A peep into the cave of Jacobinism." Overall, it's a delightful set of images, and one that effectively demonstrates the power of such pieces of art and political commentary.

  2. I. Synthesis of group 13 fluoroalkoxide complexes and the chemical vapor deposition of indium oxide films. II. Synthesis of gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miinea, Liliana Angela

    A synthetic route to indium fluoroalkoxide complexes was developed and fluorine-doped indium oxide films were prepared from one of the new complexes by chemical vapor deposition. The reaction of indium amide complexes with fluorinated alcohols was found to be a convenient synthetic route to indium fluoroalkoxide complexes. In[N-t-Bu(SiMe3)]3 reacted with (CF3)Me2COH to give the dimer [In{mu-OCMe 2(CF3)}{OCMe2(CF3)}2] 2. In contrast, reactions involving the more acidic alcohols (CF 3)2MeCOH and (CF3)2CHOH yielded products containing t-BuNH2, which was derived from the amide ligands of the starting material. Reactions of (CF3) 2MeCOH and (CF3)2CHOH with In(tmp)3 (tmp = the anion derived from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and In(NEt 2)3 gave In[OCH(CF3)2]3(Htmp), [H2tmp][In{OCR(CF3)2}4] (R = H or Me), and mer-In[OCMe(CF3)2]3(py) 3. Polycrystalline indium oxide films were deposited at 400-550°C in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition process from In[OCMe(CF3 )2]3(H2N-t-Bu) and O2 precursors. The films deposited at ?500°C contained 2-3 atom % fluorine while the film deposited at 550°C had no detectable fluorine incorporation. Films deposited on quartz (˜3600-A thickness) showed >85% transmittance in the 400-800 nm region, and resistivities of 2.56 x 10 -1-2.02 x 10-2 O cm were measured for the as-deposited films. The observed transmittance is in the range reported previously for doped and undoped In2O3, while the resistivity values are higher than those reported for tin, fluorine or sulfur-doped indium oxide. The work on the synthesis of indium fluoroalkoxide complexes prompted an examination of the synthesis of related aluminum and gallium fluoroalkoxide complexes. Aluminum and gallium fluoroalkoxide complexes of formula M(ORf) 3(HNMe2) [M = Al, Rf = CH(CF3)2, CMe 2(CF3) or CMe(CF3)2; M = Ga, Rf = CMe 2(CF3) or CMe(CF3)2] were prepared by reacting the corresponding metal dimethylamide complexes with fluorinated alcohols. An attempt was made to prepare gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes for possible use as precursors to gallium sulfide films. Reactions of GaH 3L (L = NMe3 or quinuclidine) with 1 or 2 equivalents of t-BuSH and GaH3-xClx(quin) with 1 or 2 equivalents of LiS-t-Bu produced mixtures of products. GaH(S- t-Bu)2(NMe3) and GaH2(S- t-Bu)(quin) were isolated as crystalline solids from the product mixtures. The complexes Ga(S-t-Bu)3L (L = NMe 3 or quinuclidine) were synthesized from GaH3L and a slight excess of t-BuSH.

  3. Bioactivity-guided navigation of chemical space.

    PubMed

    Bon, Robin S; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-08-17

    A central aim of biological research is to elucidate the many roles of proteins in complex, dynamic living systems; the selective perturbation of protein function is an important tool in achieving this goal. Because chemical perturbations offer opportunities often not accessible with genetic methods, the development of small-molecule modulators of protein function is at the heart of chemical biology research. In this endeavor, the identification of biologically relevant starting points within the vast chemical space available for the design of compound collections is a particularly relevant, yet difficult, task. In this Account, we present our research aimed at linking chemical and biological space to define suitable starting points that guide the synthesis of compound collections with biological relevance. Both protein folds and natural product (NP) scaffolds are highly conserved in nature. Whereas different amino acid sequences can make up ligand-binding sites in proteins with highly similar fold types, differently substituted NPs characterized by particular scaffold classes often display diverse biological activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that (i) ligand-binding sites with similar ligand-sensing cores embedded in their folds would bind NPs with similar scaffolds and (ii) selectivity is ensured by variation of both amino acid side chains and NP substituents. To investigate this notion in compound library design, we developed an approach termed biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS). BIOS employs chem- and bioinformatic methods for mapping biologically relevant chemical space and protein space to generate hypotheses for compound collection design and synthesis. BIOS also provides hypotheses for potential bioactivity of compound library members. On the one hand, protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) is used to identify ligand binding sites with high subfold similarity, that is, high structural similarity in their ligand-sensing cores. On the other hand, structural classification by scaffold trees (for example, structural classification of natural products or SCONP), when combined with software tools like "Scaffold Hunter", enables the hierarchical structural classification of small-molecule collections in tree-like arrangements, their annotation with bioactivity data, and the intuitive navigation of chemical space. Brachiation (in a manner analogous to tree-swinging primates) within the scaffold trees serves to identify new starting points for the design and synthesis of small-molecule libraries, and PSSC may be used to select potential protein targets. The introduction of chemical diversity in compound collections designed according to the logic of BIOS is essential for the frequent identification of small molecules with diverse biological activities. The continuing development of synthetic methodology, both on solid phase and in solution, enables the generation of focused small-molecule collections with sufficient substituent, stereochemical, and scaffold diversity to yield comparatively high hit rates in biochemical and biological screens from relatively small libraries. BIOS has also allowed the identification of new ligand classes for several different proteins and chemical probes for the study of protein function in cells. PMID:20481515

  4. [Craniofacial abnormalities in the Charité Virchow Collection].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J; Soost, F; Krietsch, P

    1998-05-01

    On 27 June 1899 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) inaugurated the Museum of Pathology at the Charité Hospital. The collection comprised 23,500 pathologic-anatomical specimens. Most of the collection was destroyed in World War II. About 2000 samples were saved. Meanwhile the stock has increased to about 9000 objects. The development, contents and structure of the famous Virchow Collection are described with special reference to craniofacial deformities. PMID:9658810

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  6. Prokudin-Gorskii Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Born in the town of Murom, Russia, Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii was educated as a chemist and dedicated his life to the advancement of photography. He spent many years documenting the Russian Empire, and he was even outfitted with a railroad car-darkroom provided by Tsar Nicholas II. Along with this equipment, the Tsar also gave him access to certain restricted areas. After Prokudin-Gorskii died in 1944, his sons sold his collection of photographs, glass negatives, and sepia-tone prints to the Library of Congress in 1948. This site allows visitors to view these images, which include photographs of prominent religious structures, public works, industrial areas, and people in traditional dress. Visitors can also look over some of the thematic albums, which include his travels to Central Asia in 1911 and his journey along the Oka River south of Moscow in 1912.

  7. The Margo Duggan Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margo Duggan served in the United States Marine Corps during World War II, and after the war was over she started working as a civilian employee of the United States Trust Territories Administration in 1949. Over the next five years, she worked on a number of the Marshall, Mariana, and Caroline Islands and over at the Trust Territory headquarters in Hawai'i. She took a number of photographs during her time, and they document an important moment in the history of Micronesia. The University of Hawaii at Manoa's Library created this site, and visitors can view over 1,000 of the images she created. Curious visitors can read a brief biography of Duggan here and also look over the "About" page to learn more how the collection came to the university. The majority of the images here document life in Micronesia, and visitors can look through them via title, category, date, location, or reference number.

  8. Collective Behavior Adrian Kuhn

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    Collective Behavior Adrian Kuhn Software Composition Group University of Bern www propose to extend programming languages with the notion of collective behavior. Collective behavior associates custom behavior with collection instances, based on the type of its elements. However, collective

  9. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  10. Metabolite profiling of dasatinib dosed to Wistar Han rats using automated dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongzhou; Kang, Ping; Rahavendran, Sadayappan V

    2012-01-01

    To characterize and enable efficient rat pharmacokinetic (PK) screening in early drug discovery, automated sampling of blood time points are routinely employed. With the development of dried blood spot (DBS) technology for drug level quantitation, an opportunity exists for the automated collection of rat PK time points using DBS. DBS, as an alternative sample collection technique has led to the increased collection of PK study samples for the quantitative analyses of drug candidates in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the feasibility of using DBS samples for drug metabolite profiling including both phase I and phase II metabolites has not been well established. This work reports the study of metabolite profiling of dasatinib dosed to Wistar Han rats using automated DBS collection. Automated DBS and plasma collection using a rat AccuSampler (VeruTech AB, Sweden) was employed using dasatinib as a model compound. The DBS and plasma samples were extracted by methanol and acetonitrile and both plasma and DBS extracts were analyzed using a Sciex API4000 Qtrap mass spectrometer coupled to a Shimazdzu HPLC system. Dasatinib and its metabolites were analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and MRM trigger enhanced product ion scan (MRM-EPI). Both phase I oxidative metabolites and phase II glucuronide conjugates and sulfate conjugates were detected from both rat plasma and DBS samples. Overall, comparable metabolite profiles including phase I oxidative and phase II glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were observed from both extracts of plasma and DBS samples when using the untreated DBS cards for dasatinib. Chemically treated DBS cards such as DMPK-A and DMPK-B cards may affect the dasatinib metabolites. Similar PK parameters were obtained for dasatinib from both plasma and DBS samples, after correcting for blood to plasma ratio. The results obtained from this study suggest that collection of study samples by DBS can be used for metabolite profiling, however, the availability of limited samples may be a concern for multiple injections. PMID:22578880

  11. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...DHS-2012-0059] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National...Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) for an additional...or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information...

  12. 77 FR 31584 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Program Evaluation Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...strictly voluntary opinions and will not collect information that is required or regulated. Steps will be taken to assure anonymity of respondents in each activity covered under this request. II. Method of Collection NIST will collect this...

  13. 75 FR 37815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Two-Year Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...Information Collection Activities: Two-Year Extension of an Existing Information Collection...Services Administration (HRSA) publishes periodic summaries of proposed projects being...collection request. First, a couple of tables in Parts I and II have been...

  14. Chemical emergency preparedness program: chemical profiles. Interim guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The document, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is part of the USEPA National Air Toxics Strategy. The document is provided in support of EPA Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program (CEPP) which deals with accidental release of acutely toxic chemicals. For each acutely toxic chemical listed in the CEPP guidance document (report number PB86-155256), a chemical profile is available. A chemical profile is a collection of information on the chemical identity hazardous identity, physical/chemical characteristics, fire and explosive hazard, reactivity, health hazard, use, and precautions for handling and use of the chemical. The information is presented in the format that conforms as closely as possible to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended format for a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).

  15. Collective patterns and decision-making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Deneubourg; S. Goss

    1989-01-01

    Autocatalytic interactions between the members of an animal group or society, and particularly chemically or visually mediated allelomimesis, can be an important factor in the organisation of their collective activity. Furthermore, the interactions between the individuals and the environment allow different collective patterns and decisions to appear under different conditions, with the same individual behaviour. While most clearly demonstrable in

  16. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  17. Chemical Master versus Chemical Langevin for First-Order Reaction Networks

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    Chemical Master versus Chemical Langevin for First-Order Reaction Networks Desmond J. Higham Raya;1 Motivation A system of chemical reactions at thermal equilibrium is traditionally modelled as a collection in typical chemical reactions, the RRE is a per- fectly adequate model. However, there are some application

  18. 75 FR 52768 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...training program to improve security in the chemical industry sector. Information is automatically collected...The training is designed for the general chemical facility employee. U.S. chemical industry direct employment is about...

  19. Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin Slesnick

    2004-01-01

    Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

  20. CHEMICAL TIME-SERIES SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for chemical time-series sampling has its roots in the same fundamental relationships as govern well hydraulics. Samples of ground water are collected as a function of increasing time of pumpage. The most efficient pattern of collection consists of logarithmically s...

  1. Chemical studies of Erysimum cheiranthoides L. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-Huan Lei; Ying-Li Ma; Bao-Shan Tai; Zhe-Xion Jin; Qi Kong; Shoji Yahara; Toshihiro Nohara

    1999-01-01

    Two new cardiac glycosides were isolated along with one known aglycone of cardenolides from the seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides. The new ones were characterized by spectral methods as strophanthidin, 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-3-O-acethyldigitoxopyranoside strophanthidin, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhanmopyranosyl (1?4)-?-D-3-O-acethyl-digitoxopyranoside, named cheiranthosides i and e, respectively.

  2. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions, II*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S. H.; Eyring, H.

    1970-01-01

    The first-order and zero-order kinetics of heterogeneous reactions coupled with the diffusion process are studied. The differential equations of these reaction systems are solved for the cases in which the fluid is not stirred and the fluid is well stirred. It is shown that both the rate constants and the diffusion coefficient can be determined in various ways depending on the experimental conditions. PMID:5263761

  3. 76 FR 24056 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...Domestic Chemical Diversion Control Act of 1993 DEA Forms 510 and 510a AGENCY: Department of...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has submitted the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form number: DEA Forms 510 and 510a. Component:...

  4. 75 FR 38834 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...Requested: Application for Import Quota for Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Collection: Application for Import Quota for Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...desire to import the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

  5. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  6. Subject and Citation Indexing. Part I: The Clustering Structure of Composite Representations in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection. Part II: The Optimal, Cluster-Based Retrieval Performance of Composite Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two articles discuss the clustering of composite representations in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection from the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE file. Clustering is evaluated as a function of the exhaustivity of composite representations based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and citation indexes, and evaluation of retrieval…

  7. Non-planar chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sokolowski, Sara S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-10

    A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.

  8. Chemical Hygiene Plan The purpose of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to outline laboratory work

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    that fume hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly D. Provisions for laboratory workerChemical Hygiene Plan I. Policy The purpose of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to outline community are protected from health hazards associated with chemicals with which they work. II. Authority

  9. Chemical tracking at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., has developed a chemical tracking system to support compliance with the Emergency Planning and community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at the Rocky Flats Plant. This system, referred to as the EPCRA Chemical Control system (ECCS), uses bar code technology to uniquely identify and track the receipt, distribution, and use of chemicals. Chemical inventories are conducted using hand-held electronic scanners to update a site wide chemical database on a VAX 6000 computer. Information from the ECCS supports preparation of the EPCRA Tier II and Form R reports on chemical storage and use.

  10. Chemical Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

  11. Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Glasby

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32 000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11 000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained

  12. 21 CFR 1313.24 - Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters. 1313.24 Section 1313.24...IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.24 Waiver of 15-day advance...

  13. 21 CFR 1313.24 - Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters. 1313.24 Section 1313.24...IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.24 Waiver of 15-day advance...

  14. 21 CFR 1313.24 - Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Waiver of 15-day advance notice for chemical exporters. 1313.24 Section 1313.24...IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.24 Waiver of 15-day advance...

  15. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  16. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  17. Synthesis, structure and cytotoxic activity of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) chloride complexes with acetamidrazones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Ponticelli; M. Teresa Cocco; Cenzo Congiu; Valentina Onnis; Sandra Ianelli; Francesco Cossu

    2001-01-01

    CoII, NiII and CuII chloride complexes with acetamidrazone derivatives (L1)–(L8) have been prepared, by reacting the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand in a 1:2 ratio, and characterised by chemical analysis and physical measurements. The ligand behaviour and the geometry have been assigned on the basis of i.r. spectroscopy, electronic reflectance spectra and molar conductivity values and only, where possible,

  18. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR DIGITAL COLLECTIONS Introduction

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    ; contributes to an existing digital collection, bring together materials in different formats or repositories catalog, MetaLib or SFX for discovery Files in the digital repository that are being held as a darkCOLLECTION DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR DIGITAL COLLECTIONS Introduction The University of Chicago

  19. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Relative Corrosion of Metals in Contact With Alternative-Chemical Treated Wood Figure III.1 Wood Contents Background 12 II.3 Efficacy 27 II.4 Depletion/Leaching 34 II.5 Corrosion 43 II.6 Mechanical Properties 51 II Extraction of Heavy Metals by Centrifugation in Chartherm process (From Chartherm Web Page 1999). Figure III

  20. 129I interlaboratory comparison: Phase II results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Roberts; M. W. Caffee

    2000-01-01

    Large discrepancies seen in a Phase I 129I Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) interlaboratory comparison have prompted a subsequent Phase II comparison. In Phase II of the 129I AMS interlaboratory comparison, three separate laboratories prepared AgI from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maple leaves). Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method; each of these methods being considerably different.

  1. Bright Ideas for Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, Luke D.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2009-01-01

    Small-molecule fluorescent probes embody an essential facet of chemical biology. Although numerous compounds are known, the ensemble of fluorescent probes is based on a modest collection of modular “core” dyes. The elaboration of these dyes with diverse chemical moieties is enabling the precise interrogation of biochemical and biological systems. The importance of fluorescence-based technologies in chemical biology elicits a necessity to understand the major classes of small-molecule fluorophores. Here, we examine the chemical and photophysical properties of oft-used fluorophores, and highlight classic and contemporary examples in which utility has been built upon these scaffolds. PMID:18355003

  2. Anthropological Collections Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article explains the meticulous care and tracking that goes into storing the 530,000 items in the museum's anthropology collection. Along with discussing the inherent differences between the items in each of the collection's three subdivisions (archaeology, ethnology, and biological anthropology), the article covers the nature of collections, preserving anthropology collections and computerizing collections management

  3. /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR and IR spectroscopic study of a series of carbonyl(4-substituted pyridine)(meso-tetraphenylporphinato)iron(II) complexes. Correlations between NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligand and Taft parameters of the pyridine substituent

    SciTech Connect

    Box, J.W.; Gray, G.M.

    1987-08-26

    The results of a /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR and IR spectroscopic study of a series of carbonyl(4 substituted pyridine)(meso-tetraphenylporphinato)iron(II) (Fe(TPP)(CO)(py-4-X)) complexes are presented. Good to excellent linear correlations between the /sup 13/ and /sup 17/O NMR chemical shifts and the IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligand are observed as the pyridine substituent is varied. Good to excellent linear correlations are also observed between these NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching frequencies and the NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching force constants for the trans carbonyls of a series of cis-Mo(CO)/sub 4/(py-4-X)/sub 2/ complexes as the pyridine substituent is varied. The relationship between the donor ability of the pyridine ligands and the /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR chemical shifts and the IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligands in the Fe(TPP)(CO)(py-4-X) complexes has been quantitated by fitting the spectroscopic data to the single and the dual Taft substituent parameters of the pyridine substituent. Good to excellent correlations are observed. The upfield shift in the /sup 13/C NMR resonance of the carbonyl ligand as the electron-donor ability of the pyridine increases is unique. This has been rationalized by using the Buchner and Schenk description of metal carbonyl /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts. 49 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  5. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  6. English Literature Research Collection /

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    English Literature Research Collection / David Macaree (collector) Last revised October 2011 catalogue) #12;Collection Description English Literature Research Collection / David Macaree (collector Century English literature. It includes transcribed typed copies of the complete works of David Crawford

  7. Transportation Management Research Collection /

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    Transportation Management Research Collection / Karl Ruppenthal (collector) Compiled by Graham D;Collection Description Transportation Management Research Collection / Karl Ruppenthal (collector). ­ 1946 in the UBC Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration and Director of the Centre for Transportation

  8. Nitrates and bis(dithiooxalato)nickelates(II) of biacetyldihydrazone complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Barquín; María J. González Garmendia

    1991-01-01

    Summary Biacetyldihydrazone (BdH) complexes [M(BdH)3](NO3)2 (M=CoII, NiII, CuII or ZnII); [Fe(BdH)3](NO3)3; [M(BdH)3][Ni(dto)2] (M=CoII, NiII or ZnII; dto=dithiooxalate); [Cu(BdH)2][Ni(dto)2] and [Fe(BdH)3]2[Ni(dto)2]3 have been prepared and characterized by chemical analysis, conductance measurements, electronic and i.r. spectral studies and cyclic voltammetry.

  9. Cincinnati Art Museum: The Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Cincinnati Art Museum has a long and storied history, and their collection includes works by a variety of artistic masters, old and new. This website provides interested parties with access to items from their permanent collection, courtesy of a grant from the Harold C. Schott Foundation and the Institute of Museum and Library Services. The works here are organized into ten different themes, including "Photographs," "Art of Africa," and "American Decorative Arts." The "American Decorative Arts" is worth a look, and it contains items from the Rockwood Pottery Company, which was established in Cincinnati in 1880, and is still in business. In the "European Painting & Sculpture" visitors shouldn't miss works like the portrait of Philip II by Titian. Visitors will also appreciate the easy to use search engine and the accession and provenance details which are provided for each item.

  10. Collective and joint intention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimo Tuomela; Joint Intentions

    2000-01-01

    The paper discussed and analyzes collective and joint intentions of various strength. Thus there are subjectively shared collective\\u000a intentions and intersubjectively shared collective intentions as well as collective intentions which are objectively and intersubjectively\\u000a shared. The distinction between collective and private intentions is considered from several points of view. Especially, it\\u000a is emphasized that collective intentions in the full sense

  11. Five SIO gliders collected hydrographic and

    E-print Network

    Fratantoni, David

    Five SIO gliders collected hydrographic and vertically-averaged velocity data along five cross- shore sections offshore of Monterey Bay. Gliders were deployed for 35-42 day continuous survey. Autonomous underwater glider performance during AOSN-II T he August 2003 Autonomous Ocean Sampling Networks

  12. ROUTINE HEMATOLOGY SPECIMEN COLLECTION

    E-print Network

    COLLECTION EQUIPMENT Specimen Collection Tubes Needles Tourniquet Other ­ gloves, alcohol, bandages, sharps containers #12;9/16/2013 2 VENIPUNCTURE CAPILLARY PUNCTURE MICROSCOPE Resolution Optical Defects

  13. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  14. Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  15. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  16. Key Experiments within the Shefex II Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Weihs; John Turner; Jose Longo; Ali Gülhan

    After the successful hypersonic flight of SHEFEX I the next mission is under development. Within this paper the basic goals, architecture and key experiments of the SHEFEX II mission will be presented. Also launched by a two staged sounding rocket system, SHEFEX II will be a consequent next step in technology test and demonstration. Considering all experience and collected flight

  17. 77 FR 12871 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...collection (IC) for the ``North American Breeding Bird Survey, (1 USGS form...population data for more than 600 North American bird species. The raw survey...asked. II. Data Title: North American Breeding Bird Survey. OMB Control...

  18. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in Type II Supernova Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Sanderson, Chris I.; Russell, Sara S.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-07-01

    We construct a model for the origin of the abundant nanometer diamonds found in meteorites. We interpret them as interstellar particles that were grown during the expansions of supernova interiors. The physical setting and the chemical-vapor-deposition process that we describe present clear reasons both for the small sizes (nm) of the diamonds and for their mean isotopic composition being not greatly different from solar. To delineate the isotopic requirements for collections of diamonds (which are too small for analysis individually) we present measurements of carbon and nitrogen isotopes obtained by stepped combustion of diamond collections. Our model for the growth of supernova diamonds is motivated by a series of postulates, unremarkable as single postulates, that together produce a successful calculation. The computed growth occurs in the continuously mixing envelopes of expanding Type II supernova remnants. It provides a good characterization of these facts: (1) the C isotopic composition is not far from solar; (2) both carbon and nitrogen become isotopically lighter as the diamonds are combusted; (3) the C/N ratio changes during combustion; (4) the diamonds are individually tiny; (5) collections of diamonds are carriers of Xe-HL. We show that the isotopic gradient during combustion may be interpreted in this model as either an isotopic gradient within each diamond or as a correlation between isotopic composition and size of individual diamonds contained in the bulk collections.

  19. Luminous type II Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Inserra, C; Turatto, M; Pumo, M L; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Botticella, M T; Bufano, F; Elias-Rosa, N; harutyunyan, A; Taubenberger, S; Valenti, S; Zampieri, L

    2012-01-01

    Context. In this paper we present spectroscopic and photometric observation of five type II supernovae (SNe), namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with other few SNe they form a group of luminous type II events. Aims. We investigate the similarities and the differences among these five SNe, that represent the bulk of the luminous type II so far. We also attempt to characterise this subgroup of core-collapse SNe by analysing their spectral evolution, in order to find evidences of interaction that are common to them. Methods. We collect data ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phase. Both photometric and spectroscopic evolution indicate significant differences among the objects and between them and other luminous type II SNe. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and th...

  20. The difference of chemical binding states between ultra shallow plasma doping (PD) and ion implantation (I\\/I) samples by using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Jin; M. Kobata; Y. Sasaki; K. Okashita; K. Nakamoto; B. Mizuno; E. Ikenaga; K. Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    We measured HX-PES (Si 1s) of ultra low energy ion implantion (I\\/I) samples combined with Ge pre-amorphizaiton implantation (Ge-PAI) before and after spike RTA, and compared it with that of plasma doping (PD) samples. As-doped I\\/I sample showed higher hole density compared to as-doped PD sample due to lower defect induced carrier trap. Ge-PAI+I\\/I sample showed strong asymmetric in lower

  1. Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie May; Richard Cavanagh; Gregory Turk; Michael Winchester; John Travis; Melody Smith; Paul Derose; Steven Choquette; Gary Kramer; John Sieber; Robert Greenberg; Richard Lindstrom; George Lamaze; Rolf Zeisler; Michele Schantz; Karen Phinney; Michael Welch; Thomas Vetter; Kenneth Pratt; John Scott; John Small; Scott Wight; Stephan Stranick

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and

  2. Chemical geodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zindler; S. R. Hart

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to the following three principal boundary conditions relating to the nature and development of chemical structure in the earth's mantle: (1) inferred scale lengths for mantle chemical heterogeneities, (2) interrelationships of the various isotopic tracers, and (3) the bulk composition of the earth. These boundary conditions are integrated with geophysical constraints in order to evaluate models for

  3. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-05-01

    We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

  4. Collection Development in Professional School Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidor, David L.; Futas, Elizabeth

    An important component of a library's collection management activities should be a measure of the effectiveness of the selection process. Effective selection should be a reflection of titles chosen compared to titles available as well as patron use of the material selected. To evaluate the collection development activities for the School of…

  5. BIOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS PLANS: Collection

    E-print Network

    be quickly released with one hand. 5) Swab the venipuncture area with an alcohol pad. 6) Wipe off excess will be provided for each participant. Instruct each person to do the following for urine collection: - Hands County, Nevada: Protocol for Collecting Blood Specimens 1) Have the following items on hand and available

  6. LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present a plan for two rapid-cycling synchrotrons - a 45-GeV, 40 ..mu..A proton synchrotron with a 9-GeV, 200-..mu..A booster. These machines can provide simultaneously 45-GeV slow-extracted beam for the production of kaons, antiprotons, and other secondary particles, and 9-GeV fast-extracted beam for neutrino and pulsed muon physics. The LAMPF II machines are compared with existing and proposed kaon factories. Relative to the Brookhaven AGS as it exists today, LAMPF II will provide 90 times as many neutrino events per year and 300 times as many kaons per year. Some design features of the LAMPF II accelerators that are important for reducing beam losses and increasing beam availability are discussed. Because of the large rf power and voltage required, an innovative design of the ferrite-tuned cavities is necessary. A commercially available Mg-Mn ferrite with perpendicular bias has been shown to raise the available ferrite Q by more than a factor of 10 when compared with materials now in use at other accelerators. The 45-GeV LAMPF II synchrotron would produce far more neutrinos, kaons, and antiprotons per unit cost than an upgraded conventional machine. The LAMPF II booster by itself, which can provide 100 ..mu..A at 12 GeV, is a very interesting option at moderate cost. 5 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. 77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...purpose of collecting scientific data on catch may submit...submit reports of their scientific research activity after its completion. II. Method of Collection Information...Estimated Time per Response: Scientific research plans, 37...

  8. 76 FR 16727 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Procedures for Acceptance or Rejection of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...doc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This collection involves the exchange of rated order information between customers and suppliers...II. Method of Collection Rated order information may be transmitted or...

  9. Concerted reactions of polynuclear metalloenzymes and their functional chemical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, A. E.

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of the many-electron oxidation of water by a chemical model of the manganese oxidase cofactor in photosynthesis photosystem II (manganese(IV) clusters) and nitrogen reduction in chemical models of nitrogenase cofactor (vanadium(II) and molybdenum(III) clusters) were considered. The hypothesis was suggested according to which polynuclear enzyme cofactors and their functional chemical models performed two important functions, catalyzed noncomplementary processes and effected many-substrate concerted reactions with decreased activation energies.

  10. 46 CFR 13.605 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement for advanced chemical tanker cargo operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...an engineering officer on chemical tankers; (ii) At least...in the engine department on chemical tankers; or (iii) A combination of the service in paragraphs...an endorsement in advanced chemical tanker cargo operations...

  11. University of Washington Digital Collections: Menus Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you ever wondered what entrees were served onboard the SS Alaska on July 26, 1938, you need wonder no more. This delightful and hunger-inducing collection of menus was created by the staff at the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collection project, and it contains over 650 menus from the Puget Sound area, including offerings from such venerable institutions as the Space Needle Restaurant and Ivar's Acres of Clams. Visitors should start things off by watching the short video they have created which offers a quick tour through some menu highlights. After that, browse through the collection by subject, or click one of the thematic collections, such as "Hotel Menus" and "Fifties Menus". Still wondering about those entrees on the good ship SS Alaska? They included Smothered Belgian Hare Southern Style and Coconut Fritters with Custard Sauce.

  12. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  13. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ingham, Colin; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller-Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics.

  14. Fe(II) in coastal rainwater: Changing stability and concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan D. Willey; Robert J. Kieber; Josephine R. Yavari

    2009-01-01

    .  The concentration of Fe(II) has decreased more than 50% since 2001 in both winter and summer rain collected in Wilmington,\\u000a North Carolina, USA. Storage experiments performed on rain collected during the summer of 2008 revealed rapid oxidation of\\u000a Fe(II) by hydrogen peroxide with second order rate constants between 2 and 48 M?1 s?1. The rapid oxidation of Fe(II) in these

  15. Indiana University: Chemical Information Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fantastic Indiana University website helps individuals "find and learn how to use chemical information resources on the Internet and elsewhere." Users can find two types of resource guides. The first, SIRCh (Selected Internet Resources for Chemistry) offers numerous links to educational websites where users can find answers to many of their chemistry questions. The second, CCIIM (Clearinghouse for Chemical Information Instructional Materials), is a collection of items created by chemistry and science librarians, chemists, and publishers to help visitors learn how to use chemical information sources. Users can find links to four databases providing information on publications, references, acronyms, and crystallography. The website offers archives of the University's Chemical Information Sources Discussion List and materials on chemical information classes taught at Indiana University.

  16. 32 CFR 705.29 - Navy Art Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navy Art Collection. 705.29 Section 705...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.29 Navy Art Collection. (a) The U.S. Navy...explorations, launchings, etc., in fine art form since before World War II. The...

  17. 32 CFR 705.29 - Navy Art Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navy Art Collection. 705.29 Section 705...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.29 Navy Art Collection. (a) The U.S. Navy...explorations, launchings, etc., in fine art form since before World War II. The...

  18. 32 CFR 705.29 - Navy Art Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navy Art Collection. 705.29 Section 705...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.29 Navy Art Collection. (a) The U.S. Navy...explorations, launchings, etc., in fine art form since before World War II. The...

  19. 32 CFR 705.29 - Navy Art Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navy Art Collection. 705.29 Section 705...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.29 Navy Art Collection. (a) The U.S. Navy...explorations, launchings, etc., in fine art form since before World War II. The...

  20. 32 CFR 705.29 - Navy Art Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navy Art Collection. 705.29 Section 705...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.29 Navy Art Collection. (a) The U.S. Navy...explorations, launchings, etc., in fine art form since before World War II. The...

  1. The physical nature of interplanetary dust as inferred by particles collected at 35 km. [morphology of micrometeorites and ablation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Hodge, P. W.; Bucher, W.

    1973-01-01

    Particles were collected at an altitude of 35 km by two flights of a volume sampling micrometeorite collector. The collection scheme is very sensitive and is capable of collecting a significant number of particles. Many of the particles collected have chemical compositions similar to solar or to iron meteorites. Morphology of collected particles indicates that both true micrometeorites and ablation products were collected.

  2. Collecting Samples for Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will be limited. Search Help? Collecting Samples for Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | ... From Within | Conclusion | Sources Overview Today's technologies allow testing on an impressively wide variety of samples collected ...

  3. Improved collecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.

    1981-03-05

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

  4. 78 FR 29759 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...DHS-2012-0061] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY...Collection Request; Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program...or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information...

  5. Chemical transport reactions in the In-Sn-S ternary system: Existence of tin (II) and tin (IV) atoms by Mössbauer effect of119Sn in the isolated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier-Fourcade, Josette; Adenis, Claire; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Philippot, Etienne

    1986-02-01

    Iodine vapour transport, carried out in the In-Sn-S ternary system leads to single crystals with quite different morphologies: needles, sticks, sheets and polyhedra. The two oxidation states of tin atoms are shown for all these phases by119Sn Mössbauer effect. A varying relative proportion of tin(IV) — tin(II) is observed according to the different crystal forms.

  6. The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

  7. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances from Recombination Lines in Low Metallicity H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Mesa-Delgado, A.

    2014-10-01

    We have measured C II and O II recombination lines in several H II regions of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. These objects show lower C/O ratios than H II regions in spiral galaxies, indicating different chemical evolution histories.

  8. Improved collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  9. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  10. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  11. [Craniofacial deformities in the Virchow Collection at the Charité Hosptial].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J; Soost, F; Krietsch, P

    1998-05-01

    On 27 June 1899 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) inaugurated the Museum of Pathology at the Charité Hospital. The collection comprised 23?500 pathologic-anatomical specimens. Most of the collection was destroyed in World War II. About 2000 samples were saved. Meanwhile the stock has increased to about 9000 objects. The development, contents and structure of the famous Virchow Collection are described with special reference to craniofacial deformities. PMID:23526023

  12. Demonstration of a Reagent for the Chemical Neutralization of Arsenical-Based Chemical Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Morrissey

    The U.S. Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PM NSCM) is responsible for destruction of several categories of chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in a safe, environmentally sound manner, and in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Captured WW II era German Traktor Rockets (GTRs), containing arsenical-based tearing and vomiting agents, and 4400 empty ton containers (TCs), some with lewisite

  13. 76 FR 30700 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Review and Approval; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Request for...INFORMATION CONTACT: Cassandra Vail, Toxics Release Inventory Program Division, Office...www.regulations.gov. Title: Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Request...

  14. The Rochambeau Map Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Military maps continue to fascinate the general public, and this collection from the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress will be of great interest to those with a penchant for American history and cartography. This particular collection contains maps collected and used by Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution. Rochambeau served as the commander in chief of the French forces during the Revolution, and this collection contains numerous printed maps that cover much of the continent of North America. Visitors to the collection can search the collection by title, creator, subject, and geographic place. The collection has a number of highlights, including a number of views of Quebec City, maps of military fortifications, and the defenses of the city of Boston.

  15. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  16. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given. PMID:15939269

  17. Collective dynamics of active cytoskeletal networks

    E-print Network

    Simone Köhler; Volker Schaller; Andreas R. Bausch

    2011-05-23

    Self organization mechanisms are essential for the cytoskeleton to adapt to the requirements of living cells. They rely on the intricate interplay of cytoskeletal filaments, crosslinking proteins and molecular motors. Here we present an in vitro minimal model system consisting of actin filaments, fascin and myosin-II filaments exhibiting pulsative collective long range dynamics. The reorganizations in the highly dynamic steady state of the active gel are characterized by alternating periods of runs and stalls resulting in a superdiffusive dynamics of the network's constituents. They are dominated by the complex competition of crosslinking molecules and motor filaments in the network: Collective dynamics are only observed if the relative strength of the binding of myosin-II filaments to the actin network allows exerting high enough forces to unbind actin/fascin crosslinks. The feedback between structure formation and dynamics can be resolved by combining these experiments with phenomenological simulations based on simple interaction rules.

  18. Collective dynamics of active cytoskeletal networks

    E-print Network

    Köhler, Simone; Bausch, Andreas R

    2011-01-01

    Self organization mechanisms are essential for the cytoskeleton to adapt to the requirements of living cells. They rely on the intricate interplay of cytoskeletal filaments, crosslinking proteins and molecular motors. Here we present an in vitro minimal model system consisting of actin filaments, fascin and myosin-II filaments exhibiting pulsative collective long range dynamics. The reorganizations in the highly dynamic steady state of the active gel are characterized by alternating periods of runs and stalls resulting in a superdiffusive dynamics of the network's constituents. They are dominated by the complex competition of crosslinking molecules and motor filaments in the network: Collective dynamics are only observed if the relative strength of the binding of myosin-II filaments to the actin network allows exerting high enough forces to unbind actin/fascin crosslinks. The feedback between structure formation and dynamics can be resolved by combining these experiments with phenomenological simulations base...

  19. Biological and Chemical Weapons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

  20. Institution: Reaction Engineering International Award Number: DMI0091593 Program: SBIR Phase II Project Title: A Problem Solving Environment for Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms: Application to CFD Codes and Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Montgomery; Darren M. Shino; Chonguan Yang; Shane D. Brunson; Alan R. Parkinson; Graham M. Goldin

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms developed and tested using the CARM- PSE software have been implemented into a variety of CFD codes. When used in the commercial code Fluent, a CARM -PSE created reduced mechanism performs well for predicting the major species and temperature of the Sandia D flame. Predictions for radical and pollutant species are not as good. Much of

  1. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometry of chemical plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Bradley; Kevin C. Gross; Glen P. Perram

    2009-01-01

    A midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), the Telops FIRST-MWE (Field-portable Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology - Midwave Extended) has been utilized for the standoff detection and characterization of chemical plumes. Successful collection and analysis of MWIR hyperspectral imagery of jet engine exhaust has allowed us to produce spatial profiles of both temperature and chemical constituent concentrations of exhaust

  2. Polymer nanotubes toward gelating organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Qu, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Chengliang; Li, Jiaoli; Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2011-04-28

    Crosslinked polymer nanotubes are large scale synthesized. The method is based on fast cationic polymerization using immiscible initiator nanodroplets. Nanoporous network processed from the nanotubes is superhydrophobic, which can absorb all the tested organic chemicals forming robust gels. The nanotubes are promising in the collection of spilled organic chemicals, detoxification and water treatment. PMID:21412552

  3. Rate-Independent Constructs for Chemical Computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Senum; Marc D. Riedel; Marc Isalan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a collection of computational modules implemented with chemical reactions: an inverter, an incrementer, a decrementer, a copier, a comparator, and a multiplier. Unlike previous schemes for chemical computation, ours produces designs that are dependent only on coarse rate categories for the reactions (\\

  4. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-08-18

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.

  5. Neurotoxicity of industrial and commercial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donoghue, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of information on the neurotoxicity of chemicals used in industry or having commercial value. Chemicals reported to cause a variety of effects on the nervous system are thoroughly reviewed. Exposure data, clinical manifestations, pathology, experimental neurology, metabolism, and structure activity correlates are integrated and presented by the anatomical and functional areas of the nervous systems affected, and also by chemical classes with neurotoxic effects. Much of the information is presented in tabular format.

  6. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  7. Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this chemistry activity, learners explore the amount of copper in a new penny. Learners use toilet bowl cleaner to hollow out the interior of a penny with zinc inside. This experiment will demonstrate how chemical changes can separate matter. Learners can also discuss how zinc is cheaper than copper, in a lesson about economics.

  8. Chemical Evolution

    E-print Network

    Francesca Matteucci

    2007-04-05

    In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

  9. Chemical Ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

    \\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

  10. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  11. Delaware Postcard Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From New Castle to Sussex County, this very thorough collection of Delaware-themed postcards covers the entire state. Created by the University of Delaware Library Digital Collections group, this digital offering covers a wide variety of the Blue Hen state's history. Visitors can view the front and back of a variety of postcards, many of which contain historical correspondence. Users may also use an advanced search to further delve into the collection.

  12. Discovery Collection: Oyster Shells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Oyster Shells is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Oyster Shells includes photographs of 15 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Oyster Shells Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  13. Discovery Collection: Marine Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  14. Atmospheric Visualization Collection (AVC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The AVC collection provides materials that facilitate research and learning about the atmosphere through visualization of atmospheric data. The collection provides access to an archive of data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and Tropic West Pacific (TWP) sites. Educational material such as lesson plans and conceptual models based on these data are part of the collection. The data archive focuses on remote sensing related to the effects and interactions of sunlight, radiant energy, clouds, temperature, weather and climate. The collection website is translated into French, German, Japanese, Korean, Italian, Spanish, Chinese and Portuguese.

  15. History Center Digital Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Allen County-Fort Wayne Historical Society has created these remarkable digital collections to celebrate the unique history of this corner of Indiana. First-time visitors can explore the About mDON area to get a nice overview of its work, while the Search feature allows visitors to look over collections by historical period, title, and interpretive theme. Some thematic collections include "Making of a People" and "Miami Indians.� This last collection is quite fascinating as it includes treaty documents, letters from government officials, and information about payments made to the Miami over time.

  16. EROS Image Gallery Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of images, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) division, records events of historic significance, beautiful sights or images that stir the imagination. The collection is searchable by keyword. There are also themed collections, such as 'Earth as Art', and collections of state images from Landsat 7 and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Full-resolution JPEG files can be downloaded free of charge via FTP directly from each image preview in the gallery. Images on CD, DVD, or by FTP download must be purchased. Ordering information is provided.

  17. APOLLO II

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Mondot, J.; Stankovski, Z.; Cossic, A.; Zmijarevic, I.

    1988-11-01

    APOLLO II is a new, multigroup transport code under development at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The code has a modular structure and uses sophisticated software for data structuralization, dynamic memory management, data storage, and user macrolanguage. This paper gives an overview of the main methods used in the code for (a) multidimensional collision probability calculations, (b) leakage calculations, and (c) homogenization procedures. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential of the modular structure of the code and the novel multilevel flat-flux representation used in the calculation of the collision probabilities.

  18. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): Effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller’s earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Taysse; F. Dorandeu; S. Daulon; A. Foquin; N. Perrier; G. Lallement; P. Breton

    2011-01-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper1 the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller’s earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to

  19. A quantum-chemical study of adsorbed nonclassical carbonium ions as active intermediates in catalytic transformations of paraffins. II. Protolytic dehydrogenation and hydrogen-deuterium hetero-isotope exchange of paraffins on high-silica zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Kazansky; M. V. Frash; Santen van RA

    1994-01-01

    HF-21G quantum-chemical analysis of the protolytic attack of acid protons in zeolites at the C-H bonds in methane and ethane indicated that the resulting transition states depend on the sign of the bond polarization. If a hydride ion is split off from the paraffin, then the transition state resembles the adsorbed carbonium ion and the reaction results in molecular hydrogen

  20. Stabilisation of LDPE cross-linked in the presence of peroxidesII. FTIR study of chemical changes taking place in the LDPE–dicumyl peroxide–Irganox 1081 system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Uhniat; Marek Sudo?; Stanis?aw Kud?a

    2000-01-01

    The chemical changes taking place in the systems: LDPE–Irganox 1081, LDPE–dicumyl peroxide and LDPE–Irganox 1081–dicumyl peroxide, after homogenisation (in a rolling mill at 130°C) and after homogenisation and cross-linking (at 180°C and 5.0 MPa for 20 min) were investigated by FTIR. It was found that the OH groups in Irganox 1081 were in a bound form, and were most probably

  1. 51st north american chemical residue workshop.

    PubMed

    Yang, Paul; Martos, Perry; Barrett, Brad

    2015-06-01

    Manuscripts collected in this 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop (NACRW) Symposium issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) were originally presented at the 51st NACRW meeting. The 2014 NACRW JAFC symposium collects 14 publications representing the broad range of topics in chemical analyses presented at the 2014 meeting. These include the analysis of chemical residues and contaminants in food, environment, feed, botanical, and bee samples as well as the application of quality control/quality assurance protocols in routine and method development. PMID:25682880

  2. 78 FR 6348 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...Chemical Diversion Control Act of 1993; DEA Forms 510 and 510a ACTION: 30-Day notice...DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information...sponsoring the collection: Form number: DEA Forms 510 and 510a. Component:...

  3. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-05-04

    We are going go over a general view of reactions to prepare us for our unit on Chemical Reactions! Have fun learning! WARNING: If you are caught looking at ANY other site, without permission, you will be sent to the ALC, and you will not participate in any other computer activities for the rest of the year. Get your worksheet and begin! Overview Take this quiz and have me come over and sign off on your worksheet when you have completed the quiz! Overview Quiz Next let's take a look at what effect the rate of a chemical reaction. Rates of Reactions Another quiz, another check off by me! Rates of Reactions Quiz Now how do we measure how fast a ...

  4. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  5. Start a Rock Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2012-06-26

    Learners follow a three-step process to start their own rock collection. Learners will collect rocks, record information about each rock on a Rock Chart, observe and sort their rocks, and create a rock display. This activity also includes a book list with resources for rock classification.

  6. Computational Emotions Encourage Collective

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Computational Emotions Encourage Collective Behavior in Population Dynamics Megan Olsen University of emotions may enable collective behav- ior in a predator-prey system. Our cellular automata model combines emotion-based decision rules with simple communication. Although there are a number of human psychological

  7. COLLECTION, CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, AND MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY OF AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of industrialization and consequent increased concentration of urban particulate matter on the incidence of cancer has long been a concern. The first bioassays used to evaluate complex ambient air samples were whole-animal carcinogenesis bioassays. In these studies,...

  8. ALA Archives Digital Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    While some may harbor antiquated and erroneous impressions of librarians, those in the know can attest that these invaluable professionals like to get out and about just like their kinfolk in other learned professions. There is ample historical proof of this fact offered by this website, which contains a selection of digitized documents from the American Library Association (ALA) Archives, housed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Currently, the digitized collections include the F.W. Saxon Photographs Collection and the Library Building Photographs Collection. The Saxon Collection includes over 170 group pictures of librarians attending the ALA conferences in the US and Canada from the period 1894 to 1932. The Library Building Collection is quite intriguing, as it contains 78 postcards of libraries from locales such as Gadsden, Alabama.

  9. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  10. Radioisotope Detection Device and Methods of Radioisotope Collection

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oertel, Christopher P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Giles, John R. (Pocatello, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); McIlwain, Michael E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-12

    A device for collection of radionuclides includes a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. A radionuclide detector system includes a collection device comprising a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent agent and a selective ligand. The system includes at least one photomultiplier tube (PMT). A method of detecting radionuclides includes providing a collector device comprising a mixture comprising a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. An aqueous environment is exposed to the device and radionuclides are collected from the environment. Radionuclides can be concentrated within the device.

  11. Chemical Industry Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In March 2001, PBS aired a disturbing two-hour special hosted by Bill Moyers that explores the history of the chemical revolution of the past 50 years and how companies have long sought to withhold information from the public and their employees about the safety of many substances. The program draws on a large collection of previously secret industry documents unearthed during a ten-year lawsuit by the family of a man who died from a rare brain cancer after working at a vinyl-chloride plant. The family's lawyer eventually charged all vinyl-chloride-producing companies with conspiracy, and the discovery process brought to light hundreds of thousands of pages of documents which reveal a closely planned and well-executed campaign to limit regulation of toxic chemicals and the liability of manufacturers and to withhold important health information from all parties. A large selection of these internal documents, over 37,000 pages, is available at the Chemical Industry Archives, created by the Environmental Working Group. The site offers several essays on the archive and the industry, including a selection of some egregious examples of companies hiding or denying known health risks of their products. The archive itself may be searched by keyword with several modifiers. The documents are presented in .pdf format. This site is sure to become an extremely important resource for health activists, journalists, and the concerned public.

  12. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-06-14

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been expanded with additional bacteria and fungi. These spectra were acquired on a Finnigan Magnum ion trap using helium buffer gas. A new database of Cl spectra of microorganisms is planned using the CBMS Block II instrument and air as the buffer gas. Using the current database, the fatty acid composition of the organisms was compared using the percentage of the ion current attributable to fatty acids. The data presented suggest promising rules for discrimination of these organisms. Strain, growth media and vegetative state do contribute to some of the distributions observed in the data. However, the data distributions observed in the current study only reflect our experience to date and do not fully represent the variability that might be expected in practice: Acquisition of MS/ MS spectra has begun (using He and air buffer gas) of the protonated molecular ion of a variety of fatty acids and for a number of ions nominally assigned as fatty acids from microorganisms. These spectra will be used to help verify fatty acid .

  13. Effect of water pollutants and other chemicals upon ribonuclease activity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, G.M.; Olson, D.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ribonuclease was treated in vitro with 73 chemicals, many of which are environmental pollutants, including inorganic, organic, and metal-organic chemicals, pesticides and other biocides, alkyl and aryl industrial pollutants, and certain additional chemicals, to determine their effect upon enzyme activity. Palladium (II and IV) and gold (III) were the strongest inhibitors of RNase activity. Other strong inhibitors, in decreasing order of effect, were: sodium dodecyl sulfate, silver (I), EDTA, mercury (II), copper (II), thiram (fungicide), platinum (IV), malathion (pesticide), lead (II), and beryllium (II). Intermediate effects were found with other inorganic cations, many anions, and some other chemicals. A number of compounds of different chemical types caused no measureable effect. None of the chemicals tested caused a measureable activation of this enzyme.

  14. University of Washington Libraries: Moving Image Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Once again, the University of Washington Digital Collections group has gone above and beyond the call of digital collection duty and service with this small, yet very satisfying, collection. This particular collection brings together 23 compelling short films that include home movies from the Seattle World's Fair in 1962, aerial views of the University campus in the post-World War II period, and footage of a group of Japanese Americans picnicking on Mt. Rainier in 1935. Visitors can browse through the entire collection by name, look around by subject heading, or perform a more sophisticated and nuanced search across the entire collection. That's not all, as the site also includes a handy film preservation manual titled "Low-Cost and No-Cost Suggestions To Care For Your Film". On a related note, visitors shouldn't leave the site without viewing a film of a motorcycle race from 1915 and the delightful images of farmers packing the world's largest box of apples in Yakima.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of the W-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system near the melting temperature of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: II. Chemical interactions at 1 x 10{sup -5} bar

    SciTech Connect

    Kostomarov, D. V.; Bagdasarov, Kh. S., E-mail: bagdasarov@ns.crys.ras.ru; Kobzareva, S. A.; Antonov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The W-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system is considered at a basic component ratio of 1: 1. The composition and component concentrations in the closed system under isobaric-isothermal conditions and a residual pressure of 1 x 10{sup -5} bar are determined by stochastic simulation and the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The basic chemical reactions leading to tungsten oxidation near the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melting temperature are determined, and the possibilities of their occurrence are calculated. Understanding the behavior of the system under these conditions allows one to stabilize the conditions for growing leucosapphire crystals from melt.

  16. Chemical evaluation of soil-solution in acid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-solution chemistry is commonly studied in forests through the use of soil lysimeters.This approach is impractical for regional survey studies, however, because lysimeter installation and operation is expensive and time consuming. To address these problems, a new technique was developed to compare soil-solution chemistry among red spruce stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine. Soil solutions were expelled by positive air pressure from soil that had been placed in a sealed cylinder. Before the air pressure was applied, a solution chemically similar to throughfall was added to the soil to bring it to approximate field capacity. After the solution sample was expelled, the soil was removed from the cylinder and chemically analyzed. The method was tested with homogenized Oa and Bs horizon soils collected from a red spruce stand in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a red spruce stand in east-central Vermont, and a mixed hardwood stand in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Reproducibility, effects of varying the reaction time between adding throughfall and expelling soil solution (5-65 minutes) and effects of varying the chemical composition of added throughfall, were evaluated. In general, results showed that (i) the method was reproducible (coefficients of variation were generally < 15%), (ii) variations in the length of reaction-time did not affect expelled solution concentrations, and (iii) adding and expelling solution did not cause detectable changes in soil exchange chemistry. Concentrations of expelled solutions varied with the concentrations of added throughfall; the lower the CEC, the more sensitive expelled solution concentrations were to the chemical concentrations of added throughfall. Addition of a tracer (NaBr) showed that the expelled solution was a mixture of added solution and solution that preexisted in the soil. Comparisons of expelled solution concentrations with concentrations of soil solutions collected by zero-tension and tension lysimetry indicated that expelled solution concentrations were higher than those obtained with either type of lysimeter, although there was less difference with tension lysimeters than zero-tension lysimeters. The method used for collection of soil solution should be taken into consideration whenever soil solution data are being interpreted.

  17. Gamma and the chemical reaction model: fteen years after?

    E-print Network

    Fradet, Pascal

    Gamma and the chemical reaction model: fteen years after? Jean-Pierre Ban^atre1, Pascal Fradet2 the formalism is to describe computation as a form of chemical reaction on a collection of individual pieces on unexpected applications of the chemical reaction model, showing that this paradigm has been a source

  18. Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents

    E-print Network

    Solka, Jeff

    4 Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Jeffrey. L. Solka1,2, Edward a classification system for the detection of various chemical warfare agents. The data were collected as part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center on simulant chemicals, which are designed to produce paper signatures sim

  19. Special Collections: Terrorism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) has posted these two pages of "special collections" of use to those following the news about terrorism and airport security measures. The page collecting releases on terrorism holds links to reports going back to a 1980 release, "Assessment of Various Aspects of This Nation's Nuclear Safeguards," and one from 1981, "Federal Electrical Emergency Preparedness Is Inadequate," though reports are not available in .pdf format until those dated from 1987. Both pages collect a wealth of reports, making them easily accessible for researchers and interested members of the general public.

  20. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution spectrograph - High-resolution observations of the 1942 A resonance line of HG II in the chemically peculiar B star, Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Johansson, Sveneric G.

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph on the HST has been used to obtain high S/N observations of the sharp-lined, Hg- and Pt-rich B-type star, Chi Lupi, with a resolving power of 87,000. The observations reveal a level of spectroscopic detail never before observed at ultraviolet wavelengths for any star other than the sun. Concentrating on the region around the resonance line of Hg II at 1942 A, the profile and central position of this line confirm beyond doubt that the Hg isotope anomaly in Chi Lupi is real and extreme, with Hg being heavily concentrated in the form of Hg-204. The problems in atomic physics which impair the accurate analysis of spectra of this quality are emphasized.

  1. Hydrology and geochemistry of the uranium mill tailings pile at Riverton, Wyoming. Part II. History matching. [Mathematical simulation of the observed fluid potentials within the tailings, and the observed distribution of various chemical species within and around the mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; White, A.F.; Tokunaga, T.

    1985-02-01

    In Part I of this series of two reports the observed fluid potential and geochemical characteristics in and around the inactive uranium mill tailings pile at Riverton, Wyoming were presented. The prupose of the present work is to attempt to simulate field observations using mathematical models. The results of the studies have not only helped identify the physicochemical mechanisms govering contaminant migration around the inactive mill tailings pile in Riverton, but also have indicated the feasibility of quantifying these mechanisms with the help of newly developed mathematical models. Much work needs to be done to validate and benchmark these models. The history-matching effort on hand involves the mathematical simulation of the observed fluid potentials within the tailings, and the observed distribution of various chemical species within and around the inactive uranium mill tailings. The simulation problem involves consideration of transient fluid flow and transient, reactive chemical transport in a variably saturated ground water system with time-dependent boundary conditions. 15 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Geochemical dynamics of the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea): II. Composition of metalliferous sediment pore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Monnin, Christophe; Boulègue, Jacques

    2000-12-01

    The Atlantis II Deep is an axial depression of the Red Sea filled with highly saline brines and covered by layered metalliferous sediment. We report new data on the vertical distribution of major salts and trace metals dissolved in the pore waters of the metalliferous sediments. We have studied the chemical composition of interstitial waters of two sediment cores of the western (core 684) and southwestern (core 683) basins. The major dissolved elements are Na and Cl. Their concentrations are close to those of the brine overlying the sediment. The pore waters are undersaturated with respect to halite at the in situ conditions (62°C, 220 bars), but are saturated at the shipboard conditions (10°C, 1 bar). The salt and water contents of the bulk sediment show that core 683 contained halite in the solid fraction. A part of it precipitated after core collection, but most of it was present in situ. Thermodynamic calculations with a water-rock interaction model based on Pitzer's ion interaction approach reveal that equilibrium between the pore waters and anhydrite is achieved in sediment layers for which observations report the presence of this mineral. We used a transport model, which shows that molecular diffusion can smooth the profile of dissolved salt and partly erase the pore water record of past variations of salinity in the lower brine. For example, we calculated that the pore water record of modern variation of brine salinity is rapidly smoothed by molecular diffusion. The dissolved transition metals show large variations with depth in the interstitial waters. The profiles of core 683 reflect the possible advection of hydrothermal fluid within the sediment of the southwestern basin. The distribution of dissolved metals in core 684 is the result of diagenetic reactions, mainly the reduction of Mn-oxide with dissolved Fe(II), the recrystallization of primary oxide minerals, and the precipitation of authigenic Mn-carbonates.

  3. COMPUTATION OF GLOBAL PHOTOCHEMISTRY WITH SMVGEAR II (R823186)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer model was developed to simulate global gas-phase photochemistry. The model solves chemical equations with SMVGEAR II, a sparse-matrix, vectorized Gear-type code. To obtain SMVGEAR II, the original SMVGEAR code was modified to allow computation of different sets of chem...

  4. Calisphere: Themed Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-21

    The University of California has worked diligently to create themed collections for teachers and others interested in California history. The Calisphere gateway provides access to 200,000 digitized items, so it's great to see that those involved have created these smaller and more manageable collections as part of this fantastic effort. The collections are organized chronologically into sections that include "1780-1880: California in Transition" and "1929-1939: The Great Depression." Each of these areas contains more detailed topical explorations, complete with Questions to Consider, a collection of images, a historical overview, and lesson plans. Educators will find these materials invaluable and anyone else interested in California history will enjoy them as well.

  5. The Phillips Collection: Multimedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    The Phillips Collection, like many other museums, is now providing a page on its website where a wide variety of multimedia - sound, moving images, virtual visits - has been gathered for easy access. For example, visitors can view six short videos that accompany the current exhibition, Georges Braque and the Cubist Still Life. The Collection's Intersections series also provides multimedia, such as "One Day, After the Rain," by Sandra Cinto, the artist's introduction to a set of drawings on canvas inspired by Arthur Dove's landscapes in the Phillips permanent collection, installed on the walls of the museum caf�©. Also in the multimedia area, find links to download the Phillips Collection app for smartphones, and recorded lectures in iTunesU.

  6. Collecting Grab Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bill Damschen(USGS) collecting a grab sample after a rain event from the outflow pipe drain tiles, at the North Dakota Discoery Farms Embden Farm located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota....

  7. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  8. Mineralogy Collections Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Natural History Museum (NHM) of London offers several quality online sites including the Mineralogy Collections Database. The interface allows users to search the collection by BM number, rock name, country of origin, locality, donor, and more. Results contain all of the aforementioned information as well as a link to a full description. Although a browse feature and photographs are not available, the site does give those who are serious about petrology an easy way to locate and get information about specimens the museum holds. If more information is sought, the site also provides links to additional facts on the petrology collection, information on other petrology collections, NHM petrology research, and NHM analytical facilities.

  9. HHMI Wiki Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Crouch (Swarthmore College; )

    2010-05-25

    This wiki (a wiki is a website designed to let many people collaborate by adding and editing content) is a growing collection of information and resources for teaching physics for life sciences at the college and university level.

  10. Napoleonic Period Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Napoleon Bonaparte never visited the part of North America that would later become Washington State, but he probably would have been intrigued by this online collection created by the good folks at the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collection project. This latest collection brings together 83 satirical drawings from the Napoleonic period, and there are a number of real gems amidst this visually arresting collection. As might be expected they all offer a variety of political commentary on various events during this period. The site includes information about the Napoleonic Era, complete with a nice timeline, and a comparison between the French and English drawings is included in this trove of visual ephemera. Finally, the site also contains a brief piece on the publishing scene of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, along with a very nice bibliography of additional resources.

  11. UWM Book Arts Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here's a chance to get a look at 31 artists' books, in digital form, without having to make a trip to the Special Collections Department at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Included in the collection are exampled of many different book and paper arts techniques, such as papermaking, different styles of hand-binding, and page design. Browsing the collection works better than searching, because it's a bit difficult to predict what terms will result in a successful search in a collection as varied as this. The books have been scanned carefully, so that it is possible to not only read every page but also to see the style of the covers and binding details. For example, "Book" by Brian Borchardt, consists of a series of short quotes related to books, including the well-known Jorge Luis Borges, "I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library."

  12. Winterthur Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Winterthur Museum in Wilmington, Delaware is one of the premier museums of American material culture, located in the childhood home of industrialist and collector Henry Francis du Pont (1880-1969). For those unable to visit in person, the Winterthur Digital Collection includes detailed records, many accompanied by images, for the majority of the approximately 90,000 collection objects - including ceramics, furniture, glass, prints, paintings, metalwork, and textiles, most dating from about 1600 to 1860. At the main page to the online collection, artifacts are organized into searchable categories, such as Ceramics, Glass, Furniture, or Textiles and Needlework. Searchers can click a check box to limit to only those items that have images, and there is also an advanced search function, handy for known item searching. Textiles and needlework is one of the largest collection areas at over 18,000 items; limiting to items with images only reduces the number to about 8,000.

  13. Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from "one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100 different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional resources include a collection of related links and an internal search engine.

  14. The Rochambeau Map Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau was the commander in chief of the French expeditionary army from 1780 to 1782. Rochambeau played a key role in the American Revolution, and his extensive map collection covered a great deal of eastern North America. The American Memory project at the Library of Congress has taken 40 manuscript and 26 printed maps from Rochambeau's collection and placed them online here. The views and maps in the collection cover areas from Labrador south to Haiti, and the maps themselves date from 1717 to 1795. Visitors can browse the collection by title, creator, subject, or place. In terms of highlights, interested parties will want to peruse the 1755 map of Nova Scotia and the 1781 military map of the area around Baltimore.

  15. A Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Chemical Characterization of Ultrafine Aerosol Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Held; G. Jeffrey Rathbone; James N. Smith

    2009-01-01

    The development of a thermal desorption chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer for the chemical characterization of ultrafine aerosol particles is reported and first experimental results are presented. Atmospheric particles are size-classified and collected using a unipolar charger, a radial differential mobility analyzer and an electrostatic precipitator, and analyzed after thermal desorption and chemical ionization using an ion trap mass

  16. CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II

    E-print Network

    Findley, Gary L.

    CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II Spring 2014 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MWF CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR interpretations of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 3022 presents chemical principles: Physical Chemistry, R. Stephen Berry, Stuart A. Rice and John Ross, 2nd ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, New York

  17. CHTN :: Biospecimens Collection & Type

    Cancer.gov

    To perform customized tissue collection according to your research needs, the CHTN will match your biospecimen request with the surgical, autopsy and fluid collection procedures of the day. The biospecimens are rapidly transferred from the operating room to a surgical pathologist who provides the CHTN personnel with remnant biospecimens not needed for diagnosis. The biospecimens are then processed according to protocols tailored for individual investigators.

  18. Huzhu Mongghul Collection Four

    E-print Network

    Limusishiden; Jugui

    2002-01-01

    last updated by World Oral Literature Project staff on Wednesday, Tuesday, June 8, 2010 Accession Form for Individual Recordings: Collection / Collector Name Mongghul Collection/ Blo bzang ?????/?? ?????????????????????? ???????? Tape No... of title Description (to be used in archive entry) This video contains footage of performances and several folksongs. Such village performances have been organized by the local government since around 2000. The folk songs are sung in Mongghul...

  19. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  20. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding soils. PMID:17285256