Science.gov

Sample records for ii drilling initiative

  1. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-20

    Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells.

  2. Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F. E.

    1995-07-01

    On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

  3. Initial Report on MexiDrill: The Basin of Mexico Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Erik; Werne, Josef; Caballero, Margarita; Cabral, Enrique; Fawcett, Peter; Lozano, Socorro; Morales, Eric; Myrbo, Amy; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ortega, Beatriz; Perez, Liseth; Schnurrenberger, Doug; Schwalb, Antje; Smith, Victoria; Steinman, Byron; Stockhecke, Mona; Valero, Blas; Watt, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The Basin of Mexico (19°30'N, 99°W, 9600 km2, 2240 m asl) is a hydrologically-closed basin in the TransMexican Volcanic Belt. The emergence of the Chichinautzin volcanic field after ~780 ka is linked to basin closure and initiation of the development of a lake system within the basin. Continued subsidence accommodated accumulation of a long lacustrine sediment sequence. Radiocarbon chronologies indicate sedimentation rates of ~40 cm/kyr since ~40ka; application of this rate to the entire lacustrine sequence suggests a basal age of ~800 ka, consistent with the Chichinautzin volcanic age. To investigate the environmental history contained in Basin of Mexico sediments, the MexiDrill Program recovered a long lacustrine sedimentary sequence contained in the Lake Chalco basin on the southern outskirts of Mexico City. These sediments have the potential to provide a >500,000 year record of North American climate. Chalco is well suited for reconstruction and investigation of interannual through orbital-scale variations in the North American Monsoon and hydrologic variations of the neotropics. Ongoing work suggests that the system records environmental responses to both Milankovitch- and millennial-scale climate forcing.

  4. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  5. Triggering of the Lusi mud eruption: Earthquake versus drilling initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Davies, Richard; Swarbrick, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Lusi mud volcano in East Java has erupted unabated for almost2 yr, flooding an area of 7 km2 and displacing more than 25,000people. Despite its disastrous impact, the mechanism for triggeringthe Lusi eruption remains highly controversial; two distinctmechanisms have been proposed. One hypothesis suggests thatthe eruption was triggered by the Mw 6.3 earth-quake that struckYogyakarta (250 km from Lusi) two days before the eruption.However, an examination of static and dynamic stress changesand stress transfer mechanisms indicates that the Yogyakartaearthquake was at least an order of magnitude too small to reactivatefaults and open fluid flow pathways under Lusi. An alternatetheory suggests that Lusi was triggered by a blowout followingdrilling problems in the nearby Banjar Panji-1 well. Blowoutsresult from an inability to control pore fluid intakes intothe borehole and typically occur when the drilling window (fracturepressure minus pore pressure) is approximately zero and whenthere is insufficient protective casing of the well bore. Poreand fracture pressure data from Banjar Panji-1 indicate thatthe well had a narrow drilling window of only 0-2.3 MPa.Furthermore, two planned casing points were skipped during drilling,resulting in 1742 m of unprotected borehole. The combinationof hazardously narrow drilling window and long uncased boreholewould have made drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1 difficultto control, placing the well at high risk of blowing out. Furthermore,well-bore pressures following drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1reached magnitudes in excess of the fracture pressure and thuswere sufficient to create fluid flow pathways in the subsurface.Therefore, we suggest that no viable method is known by whichthe Yogyakarta earthquake could have triggered the mudflow andthat a blowout in the Banjar Panji-1 well was the most likelymechanism for triggering the Lusi eruption.

  6. 75 FR 7233 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amendment to Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Antidumping Duty Investigations, 75 FR 4531 (January 28, 2010) (``Initiation''). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amendment to Initiation of... (``Department'') is currently conducting an antidumping duty investigation of drill pipe from the...

  7. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is about 30 km long and 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe, providing a high-resolution, continuous archive of environmental change and tectonic and tephrostratigraphic history in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 within the scope of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the 'DEEP' site in the center of the lake, seismic data implied a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Coarse-grained gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies sediments hampered deeper penetration. 6 boreholes at the 'DEEP' site resulted in a total of 1526 m of sediment cores and a composite field recovery of 544 m (95%). Initial geochemical and magnetic susceptibility data imply that the sediments from 'DEEP' site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area probably over the last 1.5 Mio years. Long-term climate oscillations on

  8. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  9. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  10. INITIAL COMMISSIONING OF NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.; Arbelaez, D.; Greenway, W.; Jung, J. -Y.; Kwan, J.; Lipton, T.; Pekedis, A.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Takakuwa, J.; Waldron, W.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Sharp, W.; Gilson, E.

    2012-05-15

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will generate ion beam pulses for studies of Warm Dense Matter and heavy-ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy. The machine will accelerate 20-50 nC of Li+ to 1.2-3 MeV energy, starting from a 10.9-cm alumino-silicate ion source. At the end of the accelerator the ions are focused to a sub-mm spot size onto a thin foil (planar) target. The pulse duration is compressed from ~;;500 ns at the source to sub-ns at the target following beam transport in a neutralizing plasma. We first describe the injector, accelerator, transport, final focus and diagnostic facilities. We then report on the results of early commissioning studies that characterize beam quality and beam transport, acceleration waveform shaping and beam current evolution. We present simulation results to benchmark against the experimental measurements.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  12. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  13. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  14. The Global Lake Drilling Initiative (GLAD800): The Concept, the Rig, and its Initial Trials in the Bonneville Basin (GLAD1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    During the past decade, numerous international investigations of past global change on the continents have focused on particular "Time Streams", suggested by the Past Global Changes (PAGES) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Investigations of marine records of global change have been collected for over 30 years with the drill ships Glomar Challenger and Joides Resolution. Coring in pursuit of continental global change records has had a much different history. Lake sediments offer tangible advantages over other continental climate archives. Both modern and ancient deposits are widely distributed and accessible over the continents, but conventional lake coring systems are limited to a maximum of about 20 meters. The lake-coring community has long recognized the need for a lake-going Joides Resolution with hydraulic piston coring capabilities, but that was easily transportable and inexpensive to operate. With the development of numerous projects designed to investigate global change within the PAGES time streams, the need for long continental paleoclimate records accelerated. To assess this need, a workshop entitled "Continental Drilling for Paleoclimate Records" was held in Potsdam, Germany, in 1995. The workshop participants solicited proposals from the continental paleoclimate community to be considered for support by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). More than 60 proposals were received, and compiled into a 5-year drilling plan entitled "Prospectus for a Global Lake Drilling Initiative". And so the concept of Global Lake Drilling (GLAD) was born. Now all that was needed was a lake-going Joides Resolution. Several years of discussions and workshops involving the lake-coring community and engineers from ICDP and DOSECC (Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust) ensued. After several years of engineering feasibility studies, DOSECC engineers presented a plan for a rig and platform that

  15. Condensin II initiates sister chromatid resolution during S phase

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takao; Yamashita, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Condensins I and II are multisubunit complexes that play essential yet distinct functions in chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis. Unlike condensin I, condensin II localizes to the nucleus during interphase, but it remains poorly understood what functions condensin II might have before mitotic entry. Here, we report that condensin II changes its chromatin-binding property during S phase. Remarkably, advanced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assays enabled us to visualize condensin II forming “sister axes” in replicated regions of chromosomes in S phase cells. Depletion of condensin II compromised PCC-driven sister chromatid resolution during S phase. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization assays revealed that condensin II, but not condensin I, promotes disjoining duplicated chromosomal loci during S phase. Application of mild replicative stress partially impaired this process and further exacerbated phenotypes arising from condensin II depletion. Our results suggest that condensin II initiates structural reorganization of duplicated chromosomes during S phase to prepare for their proper condensation and segregation in mitosis. PMID:23401001

  16. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

  17. 76 FR 50173 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-circumvention Inquiry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...'s Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 11757 (March 3, 2011); Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 11758 (March 3, 2011) collectively the ``Drill... diameter. Also included are unfinished drill collars (including all drill collar green tubes)...

  18. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  19. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  20. Initial geochemistry data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) "DEEP" site sediment record: The ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja; Mantke, Nicole; Klinghardt, Dorothea

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ohrid, located at the border of Macedonia and Albania is about 30 km long, 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe. The ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the "DEEP" site in the center of the lake, seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Initial data from core catcher samples and on-site susceptibility measurements indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years and provides a continuous archive of environmental and climatological variability in the area. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL -scanning, core correlation, and sub-sampling of the sediment cores from the "DEEP" site is conducted at the University of Cologne. High-resolution geochemical data obtained from XRF-scanning imply that the sediments from the "DEEP" site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area over the last few glacial

  1. UTILITY OF BUOYANT PLUME MODELS IN PREDICTING THE INITIAL DILUTION OF DRILLING FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three computer programs, PLUME, OUTPLM, and DKHPLM, have been used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and municipalities to estimate initial dilutions of sewage discharged into marine environments. odification of the input parameters for the three programs, while maintai...

  2. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part II: Effects of geophysical properties of sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Fulong; Wu, Nengyou; Yu, Yibing; Zhang, Keni; Jiang, Guosheng; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Jiaxin; Zheng, Mingming

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the dynamic behaviour of drilling-mud invasion into gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and the effects of such an invasion on wellbore stability and the reliability of well logging. The effects of mud properties on mud invasion into the GHBS are detailed in Part I. Here, we discuss the effects of sediment properties on mud invasion by considering the Chinese first gas-hydrate-drilling expedition in the South China Sea and other hydrate projects. Our simulation results further show that mud-invasion coupling hydrate dissociation and reformation is the main unique characteristic observed during mud invasion in GHBS compared with conventional oil/gas sediments. The appearance of a high-saturation hydrate ring during mud-invasion process is related to not only mud density, temperature and salinity but also sediment properties. On the whole, the effective permeability and initial hydrate saturation plays a critical role in mud invasion in GHBS. The effect of initial hydrate saturation, which corresponds to effective permeability and porosity on the mud invasion in SH7 is pronounced because initial hydrate saturations vary greatly. For pore-filling GHBS without fractures, well-logging results in high-saturation hydrate intervals are more reliable and accurate than those in low-saturation hydrate intervals. The log results at the interbeds with low-saturation hydrates are easily distorted by mud invasion.

  3. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Latham, T.; McConnell, D.; Frye, M.; Hunt, J.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Ruppel, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Collett, T.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand

  4. NSLS-II injector commissioning and initial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, B.; Blum, E.; Bassi, B.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Buda, S.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Cuppolo, J.; D Alsace, R.; Davidsaver, M.; DeLong, J.; Doom, L.; Durfee, d.; fliller, R.; Fulkerson, M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gardner, C.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Dramer, S.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Louie, W.; Maggipinto, M.; Marino, P.; Mead, J.; Oliva, G.; Padrazo, D.; Pedersen, K.; Podobedov, B.; Rainer, R.; Rose, J.; Santana, M.; Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, P.; Smalyuk, V.; Smith, R.; Summers, T.; Tagger, J.; Tian, Y.; Wahl, W.; Wang, G.; Weiner, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.; Yang, X.; Zeitler, E.; Zitvogel, E.; Zuhoski, P.

    2015-05-03

    The injector for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) storage ring consists of a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and a 200 MeV S-band linac. The linac was designed to produce either a single bunch with a charge of 0.5 nC of electrons or a train of bunches up to 300 ns long containing a total charge of 15 nC. The booster was designed to accelerate up to 15 nC each cycle in a train of bunches up to 300 ns long. Linac commissioning was completed in April 2012. Booster commissioning was started in November 2013 and completed in March 2014. All of the significant design goals were satisfied including beam emittance, energy spread, and transport efficiency. While the maximum booster charge accelerated was only 10 nC, this has proven to be more than sufficient for storage ring commissioning and operation. The injector has operated reliably during storage ring operation since then. Results will be presented showing measurements of linac and booster operating parameters achieved during commissioning and initial operation. Operating experience and reliability during the first year of NSLS-II operation will be discussed.

  5. Structural basis of initial RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Alan C M; Sainsbury, Sarah; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    During transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, a transient open promoter complex (OC) is converted to an initially transcribing complex (ITC) containing short RNAs, and to a stable elongation complex (EC). We report structures of a Pol II–DNA complex mimicking part of the OC, and of complexes representing minimal ITCs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 nucleotide (nt) RNAs, with and without a non-hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the insertion site +1. The partial OC structure reveals that Pol II positions the melted template strand opposite the active site. The ITC-mimicking structures show that two invariant lysine residues anchor the 3′-proximal phosphate of short RNAs. Short DNA–RNA hybrids adopt a tilted conformation that excludes the +1 template nt from the active site. NTP binding induces complete DNA translocation and the standard hybrid conformation. Conserved NTP contacts indicate a universal mechanism of NTP selection. The essential residue Q1078 in the closed trigger loop binds the NTP 2′-OH group, explaining how the trigger loop couples catalysis to NTP selection, suppressing dNTP binding and DNA synthesis. PMID:22056778

  6. Initial core descriptions: Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 94, North Atlantic Ocean, June 17-August 17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-31

    The report contains lithologic descriptions of drill cores obtained during Leg 94 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) in the North Atlantic. The objective of the project was to determine the Neogene history of paleoceanographic change in the North Atlantic as a response to global climate. (ACR)

  7. The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier initiative - a key to link EC research and international scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontiers project, DS3F, represents the continuation of the DSF roadmap towards the sustainable management of oceanic resources on a European scale. It will develop strategies for sub-seafloor sampling to contribute to a better understanding of deep-sea and sub-seafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, as well as socio-economic issues and policy building. We propose to establish a long-lived research approach that considers (i) the need for a sustainable management of the ocean, and particularly the deep sea with enhanced activity (fishery, hydrocarbon exploration), (ii) the necessity to unravel deep-seated geological processes that drive seafloor ecosystems, and (iii) the value of seabed archives for the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions and the improved prediction of future climate change. Sub-seafloor drilling and sampling can provide two key components in understanding how deep-sea ecosystems function at present, and how they will respond to global change: (a) an inventory of present subsurface processes and biospheres, and their links to surface ecosystems, including seafloor observation and baseline studies, and (b) a high resolution archive of past variations in environmental conditions and biodiversity. For both components, an international effort is needed to share knowledge, methods and technologies, including mission-specific platforms to increase the efficiency, coverage and accuracy of sub-seafloor sampling and exploration. The deep biosphere has been discovered only within the past two decades and comprises the last major frontier for biological exploration. We lack fundamental knowledge of composition, diversity, distribution and metabolism in sub-seafloor biological communities at Earth's extremes, and their repercussions on seafloor ecosystems and life in the deep sea. There is equally an emerging need to shed light on geodynamic processes

  8. Does Earthquake Rupturing Initiate in Fluid-Overpressured Crust? - The Case for Scientific Drilling in NE Honshu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    Inland earthquakes in Japan arise from rupturing within an upper crustal seismogenic zone that is typically 10-20 km deep. Because such events may occur in close proximity to cities or critical facilities, giving rise to particularly intense ground motions, they contribute significantly to the aggregate seismic hazard. Since 2003, five strong crustal earthquakes (6.3 < M < 6.9) have ruptured steep reverse faults (dips > 45°) both west and east of the Ou Backbone Range hosting the volcanic front in NE Honshu. The earthquakes generally nucleated within the lower seismogenic zone at depths of 5 - 15 km. Several earlier events in the region (e.g. 1964 M7.5 Niigata earthquake) are of similar character. These steep reverse ruptures appear to be part of the ongoing compressional inversion of Miocene rift basins associated with arc-normal shortening that began at c. 3.5 Ma. Hazard from such compressional inversion earthquakes is difficult to assess because potential seismogenic faults (often with low net displacement) tend to be blanketed by post-rift deposition within sedimentary basins (e.g. the 2004 M6.6 Mid-Niigata and M6.6 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake sequences). The compressional regime of NE Honshu is an optimal setting for ‘holding-in’ fluid overpressure. Frictional mechanics suggests that reactivation of inherited normal faults as steep reverse faults requires pore-fluid pressure elevated above hydrostatic to near-lithostatic pressures at the depth of rupture initiation. Oil-field drilling has shown that aqueous overpressures above hydrostatic exist at depths > 2-3 km in the Niigata sedimentary basin which has hosted several of the rupture sequences. In addition, local geophysical anomalies (high electrical conductivity, seismic low velocities, bright-spot S-wave reflectors, Vp/Vs) in NE Honshu point to heterogeneous fluid overpressuring in the vicinity of the active faults in the lower seismogenic zone. Whether or not earthquake ruptures initiate in fluid

  9. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  11. Drilling, construction, and aquifer-test data from wells 3-3307-20 and -21, Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II (State well numbers 3-3307-20 and -21) were drilled near Thompson Corner, about 2.2 miles south-southwest of the town of Haleiwa. The wells are located on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The wells are about 50 feet apart and penetrate about 90 feet into the ground water. Aquifer tests were conducted using well 3-3307-20 as a pumping well and well 3-3307-21 as an observation well. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and aquifer-test data are presented for the wells. The wells are two of twelve exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  12. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  13. The Lake Ohrid Drilling Project: some initial interpretations of stable isotope data through the last 15 Marine Isotope Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project is an international research initiative to study the influence of major geological/environmental events on the biologic evolution of taxa. The target site for this study is Lake Ohrid, which is considered to be the oldest lake with continuous existence in Europe and which has more than 200 endemic species. The recovery of long sediment successions from Lake Ohrid is the basis for obtaining more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, and about the climatic and environmental history of the region including the history of Italian volcanic eruptions. The main SCOPSCO drilling campaign was carried out in 2013, and here we describe data from a 569 m core taken from centre of the lake. Initial data from borehole logging, core logging and geochemistry indicate that the sediment succession from this site covers more than 1.2 million years of Earth's history. Total carbon (TC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) content show that the amount of TIC is a proxy for short-term and long-term climate change (Vogel et al., 2010; Wagner et al., 2010). TIC is high during interglacials and primarily originates from calcite precipitated in the spring-summer in the epilimnion, when photoautotropic organisms assimilate CO2 utilising the Ca and bicarbonate from the karstic springs. During the glacials, carbonate is almost absent except from discrete siderite layers. TOC is very low throughout both the glacial and interglacial periods and reflects the oligotrophic conditions in the lake. The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of the endogenic carbonate has been shown to be a function of the balance between freshwater input by rivers and springs and evaporation of the lake water (Leng et al., 2010). Variations both within and between interglacials show climate variability including periods of exceptional aridity and potentially very low lake levels. These early findings suggest that

  14. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  15. Drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.

  16. 40 CFR 73.10 - Initial allocations for phase I and phase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial allocations for phase I and phase II. 73.10 Section 73.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.10 Initial allocations for phase I and phase II. (a) Phase...

  17. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  18. SAGE II aerosol data validation and initial data use - An introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    The process of validating data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the initial use of the validated data are reviewed. The instruments developed for the SAGE II, the influence of the eruption of El Chichon on the global stratospheric aerosol, and various data validation experiments are discussed. Consideration is given to methods for deriving aerosol physical and optical properties from SAGE II extinction data and for inferring particle size distribution moments from SAGE II spectral extinction values.

  19. Cuyahoga County Early Childhood Initiative Evaluation: Phase II Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulton, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Since mid-1999, a bold initiative has been underway in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to improve the well-being of the youngest members of the greater Cleveland community. A community-wide initiative targeting children from birth through age five and their families was launched in July 1999, and in the following 5 years demonstrated substantial success…

  20. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  1. Initial Geochemistry Data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) DEEP -Site Sediment Record: The ICDP Scopsco Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid on the Balkans is thought to be the oldest lake in Europe. With 212 endemic species described to date, it is also a hotspot of evolution. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, an international group of scientists, conducted a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid). Overall, about 2,100 m of sediments were recovered from four drill sites. At the main drill site (DEEP-site) in central parts of the lake where seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, a total of more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered until a penetration depth of 569 m. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL scanning, sub-sampling (16 cm resolution), and inorganic and organic geochemical as well as sedimentological analyses of the sediment cores from the DEEP site are in progress at the University of Cologne. Previous studies at Lake Ohrid have shown that interglacial periods are characterized by high TIC and TOC contents, likely associated with high contents of calcite and organic matter in the sediments. In contrast, during glacial periods negligible TIC and low TOC contents correspond to high K counts indicating enhanced supply of clastic material. Similar patterns can be observed in the biogeochemical analyses of the subsamples and in the XRF data of the DEEP site record. Following these variations on a glacial-interglacial time scale, TIC and TOC data obtained from the subsamples and from core catcher samples indicate that the DEEP site sequence provides a 1.2 million year old continuous record of environmental and climatological variability in the Balkan Region. The age control can be further improved by first findings of macroscopic tephra horizons. Peaks in K, Sr, Zr, and magnetic

  2. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  3. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  4. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  5. Spatial Moran models, II: cancer initiation in spatially structured tissue

    PubMed Central

    Foo, J; Leder, K

    2016-01-01

    We study the accumulation and spread of advantageous mutations in a spatial stochastic model of cancer initiation on a lattice. The parameters of this general model can be tuned to study a variety of cancer types and genetic progression pathways. This investigation contributes to an understanding of how the selective advantage of cancer cells together with the rates of mutations driving cancer, impact the process and timing of carcinogenesis. These results can be used to give insights into tumor heterogeneity and the “cancer field effect,” the observation that a malignancy is often surrounded by cells that have undergone premalignant transformation. PMID:26126947

  6. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Results from the initial phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these volcanoes' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each volcano. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also

  7. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  8. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  9. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  10. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  11. Effects of implant drill wear, irrigation, and drill materials on heat generation in osteotomy sites.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hae-Young; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Yang, Jae-Ho; Yeo, In-Sung

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of drill wear on bone temperature during osteotomy preparation with 3 types of drills and compared heat production between drills. The drills used in this study were titanium nitride-coated metal, tungsten carbide carbon-coated metal, and zirconia ceramic drills. An osteotomy 11 mm in depth was formed in bovine scapular bone following the manufacturer's recommended drill sequences. Drilling was performed without irrigation and repeated 20 times; temperature was measured every 5 times. Next, 200 rounds of drilling during irrigation were performed for each drill, with temperature change monitored until round 200. Analysis of variance statistics were used for analyses of the measured data. Drilling without irrigation showed significant thermal increase at all time points compared to drilling with irrigation (P < .001). No significant difference was found between drill materials. Under irrigation, the frequency of previous drilling had minimal effects on thermal change. The repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed major thermal change at the initial time point (P < .0001), and the multiple comparison tests revealed a significant difference in temperature between the initial drills that had been used 50 or fewer times and those that had been used more than 50 times, irrespective of the drill material. The results of this study indicate that the initial drill should be changed in osteotomy preparation with irrigation after they have been used 50 times. Irrigation may be a more critical factor for the control of temperature elevation than is the drill material. PMID:24313461

  12. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  13. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  14. Drilling choke

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, R.D.

    1984-09-11

    A drilling choke is disclosed for controlling flow of drilling fluids from a well comprising: a body having an inlet and outlet and an intermediate cavity therebetween; a seat member coaxially disposed in the body outlet; an operator assembly removably attached to the body; and a stem assembly connected to the operator assembly for axial movement thereof. A portion of the stem assembly is removable, upon removal of the operator assembly from the body, without otherwise disturbing the operator assembly.

  15. Iron(II) Initiation of Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Pork: The Role of Oxymyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feibai; Jongberg, Sisse; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Iron(II), added as FeSO4·7H2O, was found to increase the rate of oxygen depletion as detected electrochemically in a pork homogenate from Longissimus dorsi through an initial increase in metmyoglobin formation from oxymyoglobin and followed by formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products and protein oxidation as detected as thiol depletion in myofibrillar proteins. Without added iron(II), under the same conditions at 37 °C, oxygen consumption corresponded solely to the slow oxymyoglobin autoxidation. Long-lived myofibrillar protein radicals as detected by ESR spectroscopy in the presence of iron(II) were formed subsequently to oxymyoglobin oxidation, and their level was increased by lipid oxidation when oxygen was completely depleted. Similarly, the time profile for formation of lipid peroxide indicated that oxymyoglobin oxidation initiates both protein oxidation and lipid oxidation. PMID:27217062

  16. Initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and strengthening of the northeast Indian monsoon: Ocean Drilling Program Site 758, eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Thomas, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    The Indian monsoon system, as recorded by ocean-floor biota (benthic foraminifera) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 758 in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, has varied dramatically over the past 5.5 m.y., long after the onset of the monsoons at 10 8 Ma. Benthic foraminifera that thrive with high productivity year-round were common before the formation of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets ca. 3.1 2.5 Ma, indicating that the summer (southwest) monsoon had high intensity and long seasonal duration. Ca. 2.8 Ma benthic faunas became dominated by taxa that flourish with a seasonally strongly fluctuating food supply, indicating that the northeast (winter) monsoon, during which primary productivity is relatively low, increased in duration and strength to form a system similar to that of today. The change occurred coeval with the initiation of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, documenting a close link between the development of the Indian monsoon and Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  17. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O; Larsen, Martin R; Nielsen, Finn C

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IGF-II leader 3 mRNA translation is regulated by a rapamycin-sensitive pathway, whereas leader 4 mRNA is constitutively translated, but so far the significance of leader 2 mRNA has been unclear. Here, we show that leader 2 mRNA is translated efficiently in an eIF4E-independent manner. In a bicistronic vector system, the 411 nt leader 2 was capable of internal initiation via a phylogenetically conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES), located in the 3' half of the leader. The IRES is composed of an approx. 120 nt ribosome recruitment element, followed by an 80 nt spacer region, which is scanned by the ribosomal pre-initiation complex. Since cap-dependent translation is down-regulated during cell division, leader 2 might facilitate a continuous IGF-II production in rapidly dividing cells during development. PMID:11903044

  18. Energetic Chromophores: Low-Energy Laser Initiation in Explosive Fe(II) Tetrazine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas W; Bjorgaard, Josiah A; Brown, Kathryn E; Chavez, David E; Hanson, Susan K; Scharff, R Jason; Tretiak, Sergei; Veauthier, Jacqueline M

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of air stable Fe(II) coordination complexes with tetrazine and triazolo-tetrazine ligands and perchlorate counteranions have been achieved. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to model the structural, electrochemical, and optical properties of these materials. These compounds are secondary explosives that can be initiated with Nd:YAG laser light at lower energy thresholds than those of PETN. Furthermore, these Fe(II) tetrazine complexes have significantly lower sensitivity than PETN toward mechanical stimuli such as impact and friction. The lower threshold for laser initiation was achieved by altering the electronic properties of the ligand scaffold to tune the metal ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of these materials from the visible into the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Unprecedented decrease in both the laser initiation threshold and the mechanical sensitivity makes these materials the first explosives that are both safer to handle and easier to initiate than PETN with NIR lasers. PMID:26986744

  19. Real-Time Observation of the Initiation of RNA Polymerase II Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Furqan M.; Meng, Cong A.; Murakami, Kenji; Kornberg, Roger D.; Block, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the initiation of RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription proceeds in the following stages: assembly of pol II with general transcription factors (GTFs) and promoter DNA in a “closed” preinitiation complex (PIC)1,2; unwinding about 15 bp of the promoter DNA to form an “open” complex3,4; scanning downstream to a transcription start site; synthesis of a short transcript, believed to be about 10 nucleotides; and promoter escape. We have assembled a 32-protein, 1.5 megadalton PIC5 derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and observed subsequent initiation processes in real time with optical tweezers6. Contrary to expectation, scanning driven by transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)7-12 entailed the rapid opening of an extended bubble, averaging 85 bp, accompanied by the synthesis of a transcript up to the entire length of the extended bubble, followed by promoter escape. PICs that failed to achieve promoter escape nevertheless formed open complexes and extended bubbles, which collapsed back to closed or open complexes, resulting in repeated futile scanning. PMID:26331540

  20. Reconstruction of Initial Beam Conditions at the Exit of the DARHT II Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.C.

    2000-02-18

    We consider a technique of determining the initial beam conditions of the DARHT II accelerator by measuring the beam size under three different magnetic transport settings. This may be time gated to resolve the parameters as a function of time within the 2000 nsec pulse. This technique leads to three equations in three unknowns with solution giving the accelerator exit beam radius, tilt, and emittance. We find that systematic errors cancel and so are not a problem in the initial beam condition unfolding. Random uncorrelated shot to shot errors can be managed by one of three strategies: (1) make the transport system optically de-magnifying; (2) average over many individual shots; or (3) make the random uncorrelated shot to shot errors sufficiently small. The high power of the DARHT II beam requires that the beam transport system leading to a radius measuring apparatus be optically magnifying. This means that the shot to shot random errors must either be made small (less than about 1%) or that we average each of the three beam radius determinations over many individual shots. We find that for the anticipated DARHT II beam parameters that 60 to 120 shots should be sufficient to determine the accelerator beam parameters.

  1. Mid-Pliocene to Early Quaternary Evolution of the Beringian Arctic from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, Chukotka: initial results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.; Andreev, A.; Snyder, J.; Wennrich, V.; Lake El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    One of the primary objectives for deep drilling at Lake El’gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°05' E), formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event, was to recover lacustrine sediments that would provide the first high resolution Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate record from the terrestrial Arctic. While discontinuous, spatially diverse Pliocene marine records are known from the arctic borderlands at the outcrop scale, the Lake El’gygytgyn record is critically important for balancing the inherent marine bias we currently have in understanding the climate variability of a world warmer than today. Moreover, this continuous land record contributes to our knowledge of the terminal Pliocene transition, be it steps, jolts or plunges, into the early Quaternary. The Pliocene portion of the lake record recovered extends from 130 m to 315 m depth below lake floor with nearly twice the sedimentation rate of Quaternary interval, presumably due to enhanced hydrologic systematics. The lower most, initial 15 m of the lake sequence directly after the meteorite impact appear to be sterile perhaps due to the intense heat generated by the impact that would have taken thousands of years to dissipate. The remaining portion of the Pliocene sequence is characterized by sequences of lacustrine mud overlain by coarser facies. Palynologically studied portions of the core are mostly dominated by tree pollen, providing us with a compositional idea of changes in Pliocene El’gygtgyn forests of pine (Pinus), larch (Larix) spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), alder (Alnus), and, hemlock (Tsuga), not just scrubs. However, sediments paleomagnetically dated between 3.11 and 3.04 Ma ago show dramatic decrease in tree pollen contents, while pollen of Artemisia and spores of Selaginella rupestris and coprophiluous fungi became common elements in the record. Such changes point to treeless environments that can be described as early tundra-steppe. We present here a very preliminary compilation of the collective

  2. Structure of a Complete Mediator-RNA Polymerase II Pre-Initiation Complex.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip J; Trnka, Michael J; Bushnell, David A; Davis, Ralph E; Mattei, Pierre-Jean; Burlingame, Alma L; Kornberg, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    A complete, 52-protein, 2.5 million dalton, Mediator-RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex (Med-PIC) was assembled and analyzed by cryo-electron microscopy and by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. The resulting complete Med-PIC structure reveals two components of functional significance, absent from previous structures, a protein kinase complex and the Mediator-activator interaction region. It thereby shows how the kinase and its target, the C-terminal domain of the polymerase, control Med-PIC interaction and transcription. PMID:27610567

  3. Foraminiferal, lithic, and isotopic changes across four major unconformities at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 548, Goban Spur: Chapter 14 in Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Mazzullo, James M.; Keigwin, Loyd D.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment samples taken at close intervals across four major unconformities (middle Miocene/upper Miocene, lower Oligocene/upper Oligocene, lower Eocene/upper Eocene, lower Paleocene/upper Paleocene) at DSDP-IPOD Site 548, Goban Spur, reveal that coeval biostratigraphic gaps, sediment discontinuities, and seismic unconformities coincide with postulated low stands of sea level. Foraminiferal, lithic, and isotopic analyses demonstrate that environments began to shift prior to periods of marine erosion, and that sedimentation resumed in the form of turbidites derived from nearby upper-slope sources. The unconformities appear to have developed where a water-mass boundary intersected the continental slope, rhythmically crossing the drill site in concert with sea-level rise and fall.

  4. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  5. Reconstruction of Initial Beam Conditions at the Exit of the DARHT II Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Arthur

    We consider a technique to determine the initial beam conditions of the DARHT II Accelerator by measuring the beam size under three different magnetic transport settings. This may be time gated to resolve the parameters as a function of time within the 2000 nsec pulse. This technique leads to three equations in three unknowns with solution giving the accelerator exit beam radius, tilt and emittance. We find that systematic errors cancel and so are not a problem in unfolding the initial beam conditions. Random uncorrelated shot to shot errors can be managed by one of three strategies: 1) make the transport system optically de-magnifying; 2) average over many individual shots; or 3) make the random uncorrelated shot to shot errors sufficiently small. The high power of the DARHT II beam requires that the beam transport system leading to a radius measuring apparatus be optically magnifying. This means that the shot to shot random errors must either be made small (less than about 1%) or that we average each of the three beam radius determinations over many individual shots.

  6. 75 FR 18201 - Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC's application...

  7. 75 FR 73074 - Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC's application...

  8. 78 FR 61946 - Pheasant Run Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pheasant Run Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Pheasant Run Wind II, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  9. 78 FR 46939 - Solar Partners II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Partners II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Partners II, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application...

  11. 77 FR 42721 - Limon Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Limon Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Limon Wind II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 76 FR 11774 - Paulding Wind Farm II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Paulding Wind Farm II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Paulding Wind Farm II LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for...

  14. 75 FR 57014 - Alta Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Alta Wind II, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  15. 75 FR 70740 - Elk City II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Elk City II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Elk City II Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  16. 78 FR 65621 - Implementation of Title I/II Program Initiatives; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Implementation of Title I/II Program Initiatives; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction AGENCY... comment for an information collection entitled, ``Implementation of Title I/II Program...

  17. 77 FR 41401 - Harvest II Windfarm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Harvest II Windfarm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Harvest II Windfarm, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  19. Archaeological survey and monitoring of initial excavations within the basalt waste isolation project reference repository location and associated drill borehole site locations

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1984-06-19

    This letter report concerns cultural resources studies undertaken in November 1982 for the exploratory shaft starter hole and surface facilities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). These studies were carried out under the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, the amended National Historic Preservation Act, and the Archaeological Resources Act. This report concludes that neither cultural nor palentological resources are being affected by the BWIP during the present phase of construction work and test drilling. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  20. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  1. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  2. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  3. Examination of the psychometric properties of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II in African American college students.

    PubMed

    Weigold, Ingrid K; Weigold, Arne; Russell, Elizabeth J; Drakeford, Naomi M

    2014-12-01

    Personal growth initiative (PGI), an individual's active and intentional desire to engage in the growth process, has been an important construct in studies of physical and mental health around the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining this construct in African American samples. In addition, PGI has recently undergone a revision of both its theory and measure; the resulting Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II) has been validated for use only with European American and international college student samples. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the PGIS-II in a sample of African American college students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded results consistent with previous studies, and the PGIS-II showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for three of its four factors. In addition, the PGIS-II was significantly related to aspects of Black racial identity, suggesting that it is a viable construct in this population. PMID:24569534

  4. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  5. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  6. Metal drilling with portable hand drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, W. B.; Harrison, H. W.; Morris, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Study of metal drilling solves problems of excessive burring, oversized holes, and out-of-round holes. Recommendations deal with using the proper chemical coolants, applying the coolants effectively, employing cutting oils, and dissipating the heat caused by drilling.

  7. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  8. First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander B.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Klumpar, David M.; Larsen, Brian A.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Driscoll, Shane; Handley, Matthew; Legere, Jason; Longworth, Stephen; Mashburn, Keith; Mosleh, Ehson; Ryhajlo, Nicholas; Smith, Sonya; Springer, Larry; Widholm, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the National Science Foundation (NSF) Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II). During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low-Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and noncoincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude as that of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

  9. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions. PMID:10937388

  10. Electrical measuring while drilling with composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Peppers, J.M.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described for transmitting data taken at the bottom of a well bore near the drill bit to the earth's surface through a large volume of the earth formation surrounding the well bore between the drill bit and the earth's surface. The method consists of: (a) generating electrical power within the drill pipe responsive to drilling fluids pumped through the drill pipe; (b) generating sequential bursts of a first AC voltage in digital sequence representing a digital information signal with use of such electrical power and with the digital being representative of a measured parameter occurring near the drill bit; (c) passing a first AC signal current impressed by the first AC voltage through a first electrode from the drilling string to be focussed outwardly and radially away from the well bore to form one path of initially horizontal current flow radially out through the drilling fluids and surrounding earth formation with the common path of the first AC current being the drill pipe; and (d) receiving and detecting a first AC signal potential resulting from the first AC signal current with a receiver/detection means connected to the drill pipe and to a receiver electrode located remote from the drilling string and electrically connected into the earth formation.

  11. Structure of an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB complex and the transcription initiation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Wang, Dong; Calero, Guillermo; Kornberg, Roger D

    2010-01-01

    Previous x-ray crystal structures have given insight into the mechanism of transcription and the role of general transcription factors in the initiation of the process. A structure of an RNA polymerase II-general transcription factor TFIIB complex at 4.5 angstrom resolution revealed the amino-terminal region of TFIIB, including a loop termed the "B finger," reaching into the active center of the polymerase where it may interact with both DNA and RNA, but this structure showed little of the carboxyl-terminal region. A new crystal structure of the same complex at 3.8 angstrom resolution obtained under different solution conditions is complementary with the previous one, revealing the carboxyl-terminal region of TFIIB, located above the polymerase active center cleft, but showing none of the B finger. In the new structure, the linker between the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions can also be seen, snaking down from above the cleft toward the active center. The two structures, taken together with others previously obtained, dispel long-standing mysteries of the transcription initiation process. PMID:19965383

  12. Real-time observation of the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Furqan M; Meng, Cong A; Murakami, Kenji; Kornberg, Roger D; Block, Steven M

    2015-09-10

    Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription proceeds in the following stages: assembly of the polymerase with general transcription factors and promoter DNA in a 'closed' preinitiation complex (PIC); unwinding of about 15 base pairs of the promoter DNA to form an 'open' complex; scanning downstream to a transcription start site; synthesis of a short transcript, thought to be about 10 nucleotides long; and promoter escape. Here we have assembled a 32-protein, 1.5-megadalton PIC derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and observe subsequent initiation processes in real time with optical tweezers. Contrary to expectation, scanning driven by the transcription factor IIH involved the rapid opening of an extended transcription bubble, averaging 85 base pairs, accompanied by the synthesis of a transcript up to the entire length of the extended bubble, followed by promoter escape. PICs that failed to achieve promoter escape nevertheless formed open complexes and extended bubbles, which collapsed back to closed or open complexes, resulting in repeated futile scanning. PMID:26331540

  13. Structure of an RNA Polymerase II-TFIIB Complex and the Transcription Initiation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Wang, Dong; Calero, Guillermo; Kornberg, Roger D

    2010-01-14

    Previous x-ray crystal structures have given insight into the mechanism of transcription and the role of general transcription factors in the initiation of the process. A structure of an RNA polymerase II-general transcription factor TFIIB complex at 4.5 angstrom resolution revealed the amino-terminal region of TFIIB, including a loop termed the 'B finger,' reaching into the active center of the polymerase where it may interact with both DNA and RNA, but this structure showed little of the carboxyl-terminal region. A new crystal structure of the same complex at 3.8 angstrom resolution obtained under different solution conditions is complementary with the previous one, revealing the carboxyl-terminal region of TFIIB, located above the polymerase active center cleft, but showing none of the B finger. In the new structure, the linker between the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions can also be seen, snaking down from above the cleft toward the active center. The two structures, taken together with others previously obtained, dispel long-standing mysteries of the transcription initiation process.

  14. Slim-hole system uses special rig, drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, D.; Fanuel, P.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reviews the new Euroslim drilling system which allows deep penetration of small diameter exploration and production wells. The Euroslim approach is an optimized conventional rotary drilling technique that allows continuous coring of the zone of interest. The initial project set the requirements of power transmission and hydraulic optimization to drill 4 3/4 inch holes to 3,500 meters with a single drill pipe size. A second drill string has now been designed to reach 4,000 meters with hole sizes ranging from 3 inches to 3 11/32 inches. This paper reviews the specifications of the drill pipe, core barrels, drill rig, stabilizers, drill bits, and deviation tools. A cost benefit analysis is also provided comparing the slim-bore drilling to conventional drilling.

  15. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  16. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  18. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  19. Biomechanical and histologic basis of osseodensification drilling for endosteal implant placement in low density bone. An experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lahens, Bradley; Neiva, Rodrigo; Tovar, Nick; Alifarag, Adham M; Jimbo, Ryo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Bowers, Michelle M; Cuppini, Marla; Freitas, Helora; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-10-01

    A bone drilling concept, namely osseodensification, has been introduced for the placement of endosteal implants to increase primary stability through densification of the osteotomy walls. This study investigated the effect of osseodensification on the initial stability and early osseointegration of conical and parallel walled endosteal implants in low density bone. Five male sheep were used. Three implants were inserted in the ilium, bilaterally, totaling 30 implants (n=15 conical, and n=15 parallel). Each animal received 3 implants of each type, inserted into bone sites prepared as follows: (i) regular-drilling (R: 2mm pilot, 3.2mm, and 3.8mm twist drills), (ii) clockwise osseodensification (CW), and (iii) counterclockwise (CCW) osseodensification drilling with Densah Bur (Versah, Jackson, MI, USA): 2.0mm pilot, 2.8mm, and 3.8mm multi-fluted burs. Insertion torque as a function of implant type and drilling technique, revealed higher values for osseodensification relative to R-drilling, regardless of implant macrogeometry. A significantly higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for both osseodensification techniques (p<0.05) was observed compared to R-drilling. There was no statistical difference in BIC as a function of implant type (p=0.58), nor in bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO) as a function of drilling technique (p=0.22), but there were higher levels of BAFO for parallel than conic implants (p=0.001). Six weeks after surgery, new bone formation along with remodeling sites was observed for all groups. Bone chips in proximity with the implants were seldom observed in the R-drilling group, but commonly observed in the CW, and more frequently under the CCW osseodensification technique. In low-density bone, endosteal implants present higher insertion torque levels when placed in osseodensification drilling sites, with no osseointegration impairment compared to standard subtractive drilling methods. PMID:27341291

  20. Unusual corrosion of a drill pipe in newly developed drilling mud during deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoe, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Nagae, Y.

    1999-07-01

    In Japan, a newly developed drilling mud containing synthetic smectite is being used during deep drilling when the formation temperature exceeds 180 C. However, using this mud during long periods of drilling localized corrosion at the outer surface of the drill pipe becomes a serious problem. In the present study, a corrosion mechanism was postulated by inspection of corroded pipes at a drilling site and by thermal degradation and corrosion testing in a laboratory. Corrosion was initiated by the combined effects of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide generated by the thermal degradation of the mud. Corrosion damage further developed by the establishment of a differential aeration cell caused by buildup of clay minerals at anodic sites. The general nature of drilling muds are that they dissolve carbon dioxide at high concentrations and keep carbon dioxide in them even at high temperatures, such as 70 C-influenced corrosion in the present study. The unique nature of the new mud containing synthetic smectite (i.e., its weak passivating effect) also contributed to this corrosion. A conventional inhibition method, using a water-soluble amine, was not adequate to mitigate this corrosion.

  1. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  2. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  3. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

  4. Accurate initiation by RNA polymerase II in a whole cell extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Woontner, M; Jaehning, J A

    1990-06-01

    We have developed a simple procedure for isolating a transcriptional extract from whole yeast cells which obviates the requirement for nuclear isolation. Detection of accurate mRNA initiation by RNA polymerase II in the extract requires the use of a sensitive assay, recently described by Kornberg and co-workers (Lue, N. F., Flanagan, P. M., Sugimoto, K., and Kornberg, R. D. (1989) Science 246, 661-664) that involves activation by a GAL4-VP16 fusion protein and a template lacking guanosine residues in the coding strand. The extract is prepared from fresh or frozen yeast cells by disruption with glass beads and fractionation of proteins by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The alpha-amanitin-sensitive transcripts synthesized in the assay were identical to those produced in a parallel assay using a yeast nuclear extract. The activity of the whole cell extract is lower per mg of protein than a nuclear extract but proportional to the volume of the nucleus relative to the whole cell. The optimal ranges for several reaction components including template, mono- and divalent cations, and nucleotide substrate concentration were determined. Under optimal conditions the whole cell extract produced a maximum of approximately 1 X 10(-2) transcripts/template molecule in 30 min. PMID:2188968

  5. Penetration of a piece of World War II rifle grenade initially suspected as a stab wound.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2002-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man found dead by his son in the forest where he had gone to cut wood for winter. Initial examination showed an upper left laterocervical wound compatible with a stab wound. Radiography and autopsy performed the next day showed a piece of metal located in the left part of the occipital bone, associated with a half-ring fracture of the occipital bone and consequent diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Death was attributed to a spinal shock after impact at the cervicocephalic junction. Investigators returned to the scene and found a few more metal elements and also a 20-cm deep and 40-cm wide crater underneath a fire the deceased had set. Army experts concluded that the metal pieces belonged to an ATM 9 antitank rifle grenade used by the U.S. Army during World War II. Death was considered accidental, the deceased having unfortunately set a fire over the grenade. PMID:12198357

  6. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  7. 76 FR 67721 - Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop...

  8. SCIENTIFIC UNCERTAINTIES IN ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS III: BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS, MODEL GRID RESOLUTION, AND HG(II) REDUCTION MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we investigate the CMAQ model response in terms of simulated mercury concentration and deposition to boundary/initial conditions (BC/IC), model grid resolution (12- versus 36-km), and two alternative Hg(II) reduction mechanisms. The model response to the change of g...

  9. 76 FR 61687 - NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding...

  10. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based...

  11. Horizontal drilling opportunities in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Horizontal drilling has become commonplace in certain parts of Texas. The Austin Chalk is the favorite target, especially where fracture systems are present. The activity has become so intense that leases are now costly or nearly impossible to find. This type of activity was prevalent during the late oil boom, but with vertical wells. So, the same areas that were drilled then are being redone with horizontal drilling. In the past few months, carbonates with little or no evidence of fracture systems are being drilled with some success. Because of the difficulty in lease acquisition, operators are turning their attention elsewhere. Even though horizontal drilling has been conducted limitedly in the Devonian black shales, the Appalachian basin is an area that calls for attention. In Ohio, there have been instances of discoveries of one-well fields in both the Trenton and Trempealeau formations. The initial production from these wells ranges from a few to hundreds of barrels of oil per day. The lack of success in offset wells has been attributed to the interpretation that the producing wells were serendipitously drilled into a limited fractured reservoir. In most cases, the producer is surrounded by clusters of dry holes. These Ohio wells and wells in one other area are studied using well data, spectral and sonic logs, aerial photographs, side-looking radar surveys, and other data. The results are presented on structure contour and lineament maps, and quantitative log interpretations. The maps show the interpretations of those areas of fracture systems that might be viable targets for horizontal drilling.

  12. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  13. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  14. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  15. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  16. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  17. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  18. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  19. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  20. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  1. Stratigraphy in Apollo 16 drill section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Morrison, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Contacts in drill stem 60002 which indicate layers at least several centimeters thick and with one firm age of about 2.5 x 10 to the 7th yr are observed on the basis of characteristic patterns of track density variation with depth from the contact. The patterns can be observed primarily because the drill stem has a large immature component (path II soils).

  2. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  3. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  4. Kinetics of successive seeding of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. I - Initiation via potassium persulfate. II - Azo initiators with and without inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudol, E. D.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Vanderhoff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The polymerization kinetics of monodisperse polystyrene latexes with diameters of 1 micron are studied. The monodisperse latexes were prepared by the successive seeding method using 1 mM K2S2O8 with an 8 percent emulsifier surface coverage and 0.5 mM K2S2O8 with a 4 percent emulsifier surface coverage, and the kinetics were measured in a piston/cylinder dialometer. The data reveal that the polymerization rate decreases with increasing particle size; and the surface charge decreases with increasing particle size. The effects of initiators (AIBN and AMBN) and inhibitors (NH24SCN, NaNO2, and hydroquinone) on the product monodispersity and polymerization kinetics of latexes with diameters greater than 1 micron are investigated in a second experiment. It is observed that hydroquinone combined with AMBN are most effective in reducing nucleation without causing flocculation. It is noted that the kinetic transition from emulsion to bulk is complete for a particle size exceeding 1 micron in which the polymerization rate is independent of the particle size.

  5. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  6. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. Downslope-windstorm-type flows in Arizona's Meteor Crater - Initial findings from METCRAX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Manuela; Whiteman, C. David; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Cherukuru, Nihanth W.; Calhoun, Ronald; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    The experimental part of the Second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) was conducted at the Barringer Meteorite Crater in northern Arizona in October 2013 to study the nocturnal development of downslope-windstorm-type flows in the crater basin. The almost circular and approximately 1.2-km wide and 170-m deep crater is located on a large and homogeneous plain, which slopes slightly upwards to the southwest. During nighttime katabatic flows develop on the plain on a regular basis under clear-sky conditions. As the southwesterly drainage flow approaches the crater, part of it flows over the approximately 40-m high crater rim and into the basin. Under certain conditions a deep wave is produced in the lee of the crater rim resulting in a downslope-windstorm-type flow and strong warm-air intrusions over the inner upstream crater sidewall. During these events increased wind speeds and turbulence are encountered over the southwest sidewall and temperatures in the southwest part of the basin can be more than 5 K higher than over the basin center. During the most pronounced events the temperature differences across the crater can extend more than 100 m above the crater rim. The field experiment was designed to measure the katabatic approach flow over the surrounding plain, the flow over the crater rim and the flow response inside the crater basin, making use of multiple in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Seven overnight Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) were conducted during the one-month experimental period. Soundings taken in the crater basin revealed variations in strength, horizontal and vertical extent and persistence of the warm-air intrusions during the IOPs. Initial analysis suggests that subtle changes in the flow over the crater rim can produce significant changes in the flow response within the crater leading to warm-air intrusions. In addition, regular oscillations in the basin surface temperatures indicate a sloshing of the crater-floor inversion

  9. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Aaron, Dick; Macpherson, John

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  10. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:2398901

  11. Transcription Start Site Scanning and the Requirement for ATP during Transcription Initiation by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase (Pol) II locates transcription start sites (TSS) at TATA-containing promoters by scanning sequences downstream from the site of preinitiation complex formation, a process that involves the translocation of downstream promoter DNA toward Pol II. To investigate a potential role of yeast Pol II transcription in TSS scanning, HIS4 promoter derivatives were generated that limited transcripts in the 30-bp scanned region to two nucleotides in length. Although we found that TSS scanning does not require RNA synthesis, our results revealed that transcription in the purified yeast basal system is largely ATP-independent despite a requirement for the TFIIH DNA translocase subunit Ssl2. This result is rationalized by our finding that, although they are poorer substrates, UTP and GTP can also be utilized by Ssl2. ATPγS is a strong inhibitor of rNTP-fueled translocation, and high concentrations of ATPγS make transcription completely dependent on added dATP. Limiting Pol II function with low ATP concentrations shifted the TSS position downstream. Combined with prior work, our results show that Pol II transcription plays an important role in TSS selection but is not required for the scanning reaction. PMID:27129284

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W.; Spering, Cynthia C.; Geiger, Nathaniel; Byers, Danielle; Schotts, G. Christian; Thoen, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound…

  13. Cuyahoga County Early Childhood Initiative Evaluation: Phase II Final Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rob; Coulton, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Since mid-1999, a bold initiative has been underway in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to improve the well-being of the youngest members of the greater Cleveland community. A community-wide initiative targeting children from birth through age five and their families was launched in July 1999, and in the following 5 years demonstrated substantial success in…

  14. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.305 Phase II... States (including but not limited to fish, shellfish, wildlife, other natural resources, and the public... substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited to...

  15. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.305 Phase II... States (including but not limited to fish, shellfish, wildlife, other natural resources, and the public... substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited to...

  16. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.305 Phase II... States (including but not limited to fish, shellfish, wildlife, other natural resources, and the public... substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited to...

  17. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.305 Phase II... States (including but not limited to fish, shellfish, wildlife, other natural resources, and the public... substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited to...

  18. Conditions for Circumstellar Disc Formation II: Effects of Initial Cloud Stability and Mass Accretion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate onto the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brake the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with nonuniform densities.

  19. Transcendental Functions and Initial Value Problems: A Different Approach to Calculus II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Byungchul

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach of defining certain transcendental functions as solutions to initial value problems or systems of such problems. This material is suitable for use in a second-semester one-variable calculus course.

  20. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  2. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  3. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  4. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  5. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  6. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  7. Functional significance of the TATA element major groove in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D K; Wang, K C; Roeder, R G

    1997-01-01

    The binding of TFIID to the TATA element initiates assembly of a preinitiation complex and thus represents one of the most important steps for transcriptional regulation. The fact that the TATA binding protein (TBP), a subunit of TFIID, exclusively contacts the minor groove of the TATA element led us to ask whether the major groove of the TATA element plays any role in transcription initiation or its regulation. Our results show that modifications of the major groove of the TATA element in the adenovirus major late promoter have no effect on TFIID binding affinity or on transcription in a cell-free system reconstituted with purified factors. However, major groove modifications do decrease the levels of both basal and activator-mediated transcription in unfractionated nuclear extracts, indicating that the intact structure of the major groove of the TATA element is functionally important for transcription initiation in a more physiological context. PMID:9336466

  8. [Emergency drills and exercises to prepare the initial response and countermeasures for a disaster: an evacuation simulation for the hospital's outpatient blood collection room in the event of an earthquake].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kazuharu; Sone, Shinji; Masuda, Akiko; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In case of a disaster, the clinical laboratory's departmental staff is not only responsible for recovery efforts of routine work and the continuation of emergency tests, but also for protecting patients against both dangers and possible risks in the blood collecting room and physiology laboratory. For this reason, we decided to participate in an emergency drill, which focuses on the initial response to a disaster, specifically evacuation procedures and the cessation of phlebotomy operations. Since there were no existing manuals regarding disasters in our blood collection room, we first made a draft disaster plan. Additionally, since we were absolute beginners with regard to training and had inadequate knowledge of disaster countermeasures, we conducted theoretical simulations in advance. We decided to explain the evacuation details and had each participant in the exercise perform their own role in accordance with our scenario. Furthermore, we asked the participants to discuss the effectiveness of the training and seek out ways to improve our manuals. Although this was the first practice for the blood collection room, we were able to achieve our first goal by raising awareness of disaster prevention activities. The precautions against disaster that eliminate accidents require an immense amount of time and effort. Thus, it is necessary to continue training in order to increase the staffs awareness of disaster defense and to continue to improve our skills in the future. PMID:24605543

  9. Influence of drilling operations on drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP Exp. 338 and 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian; Toczko, Sean; Kubo, Yusuke; Wiersberg, Thomas; Fuchida, Shigeshi; Kopf, Achim; Hirose, Takehiro; Saffer, Demian; Tobin, Harold; Expedition 348 Scientists, the

    2014-05-01

    The history of scientific ocean drilling has developed some new techniques and technologies for drilling science, dynamic positioning being one of the most famous. However, while industry has developed newer tools and techniques, only some of these have been used in scientific ocean drilling. The introduction of riser-drilling, which recirculates the drilling mud and returns to the platform solids and gases from the formation, to the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) through the launch of the Japan Agency of Marine Earth-Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) riser-drilling vessel D/V Chikyu, has made some of these techniques available to science. IODP Expedition 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: riser/riserless observatory) was the first such attempt, and among the tools and techniques used was drilling mud gas analysis. While industry regularly conducts drilling mud gas logging for safety concerns and reservoir evaluation, science is more interested in other components (e.g He, 222Rn) that are beyond the scope of typical mud logging services. Drilling mud gas logging simply examines the gases released into the drilling mud as part of the drilling process; the bit breaks and grinds the formation, releasing any trapped gases. These then circulate within the "closed circuit" mud-flow back to the drilling rig, where a degasser extracts these gases and passes them on to a dedicated mud gas logging unit. The unit contains gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, spectral analyzers, radon gas analyzers, and a methane carbon isotope analyzer. Data are collected and stored in a database, together with several drilling parameters (rate of penetration, mud density, etc.). This initial attempt was further refined during IODP Expeditions 337 (Deep Coalbed Biosphere off Shimokita), 338 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 2) and finally 348 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 3). Although still in its development stage for scientific

  10. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    COHEN, R.H.

    2010-02-18

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  11. Who's Wooing Whom II? An Experimental Investigation of Date-Initiation and Expectancy Violation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongeau, Paul A.; Carey, Colleen M.

    1996-01-01

    States that recent studies on first-date expectations and enactments indicated that men evaluate female-initiated first dates in more sexual ways than do females. Cautions that results also indicate that participants reported less intimacy on such dates. Uses expectancy violation theory to investigate the conflicting results. Finds that…

  12. Initiating the D&D Project for the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2010-08-01

    A novel decommissioning project is underway to close the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) “fast” reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facility near Idaho Falls, ID. The facility was placed in cold shutdown in 1994 and work began on the removal of the metallic sodium coolant. The bulk of the sodium was drained and treated beginning in 2001. The residual sodium heel was chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005 using a novel carbon dioxide treatment. Approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. A RCRA Waste Treatment Permit, issued in 2002 by the State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, requires annual progress toward closure of the facility, and that all regulated materials be removed or deactivated, and the waste products removed by 2022. The baseline sodium removal technology would result in about 100,000 gallons of low-level waste solution requiring treatment along with separate handling of the large components (intermediate heat exchanger, rotating plug, etc) outside of the primary tank.

  13. ICFT: An initial closed-loop flow test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Z.V.; Aguilar, R.G.; Dennis, B.R.; Dreesen, D.S.; Fehler, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; House, L.S.; Ito, H.; Kelkar, S.M.; Malzahn, M.V.

    1989-02-01

    A 30-day closed-loop circulation test of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was conducted to determine the thermal, hydraulic, chemical, and seismic characteristics of the reservoir in preparation for a long-term energy-extraction test. The Phase II heat-extraction loop was successfully tested with the injection of 37,000 m/sup 3/ of cold water and production of 23,300 m/sup 3/ of hot water. Up to 10 MW/sub t/ was extracted when the production flow rate reached 0.0139 m/sup 3//s at 192/degree/C. By the end of the test, the water-loss rate had decreased to 26% and a significant portion of the injected water was recovered; 66% during the test and an additional 20% during subsequent venting. Analysis of thermal, hydraulic, geochemical, tracer, and seismic data suggests the fractured volume of the reservoir was growing throughout the test. 19 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  15. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  16. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  17. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  18. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  19. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  20. Horizontal drilling technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-04

    Horizontal drilling technology is making further advances in the Texas Austin chalk play as such drilling continues to spread in many U.S. land areas. One company has completed a Cretaceous Austin chalk oil well with the longest horizontal well bore in Texas and what at 1 1/6 miles is believed to be the world's longest medium radius horizontal displacement.

  1. Origins of the rings of Uranus and Neptune. II - Initial conditions and ring moon populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.; Esposito, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    Catastrophic fragmentation of the ring moons of Uranus and Neptune occurs in approximately 10 exp 8 years. The fate of the debris following a fragmenting impact is central to understanding the evolution of these satellites and the hypothesized origin of rings from their debris. In this paper the possible effects of the velocity distribution of fragments following a catastrophic fragmentation on satellite diminution via a collisional cascade is examined. Fragment velocities are critical in the evolution of the collisional cascade because of the possibility of reaccretion following disruption. The fragment velocity distribution is used to calculate the initial phase space distribution of the new ring particles. This provides a physically realistic initial condition for simulations of the collisional evolution of planetary rings.

  2. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  3. Continuous coring drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.A.

    1987-09-22

    A continuous coring drill bit is described comprising: (a) body means defining a vertical axis and adapted for connection to drill pipe and forming an internal body cavity disposed in eccentric relation with the vertical axis and a generally circular throat in communication with the body cavity for conducting drilling fluid. The throat defining a throat axis coincident with the vertical axis and being of a configuration permitting passage of a formation core into the body cavity; (b) a generally cylindrical tubular core breaker being rotatably mounted within the body cavity and defining a vertical axis of rotation of generally parallel and offset relation with the vertical axis of the body means; and (c) a buttress element extending inwardly from the core breaker and adapted to contact the formation core. Upon each rotation of the drill bit the buttress element applying transverse force to the core for fracturing of the core into sections sufficiently small for transport by the drilling fluid.

  4. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  5. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  6. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  7. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  8. Association of Timing of Initiation of Breastmilk Expression on Milk Volume and Timing of Lactogenesis Stage II Among Mothers of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sandra; Krueger, Charlene; Mueller, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Feeding breastmilk to premature infants decreases morbidity but is often limited owing to an insufficient milk supply and delayed attainment of lactogenesis stage II. Early initiation of milk expression following delivery has been shown to increase milk production in mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Although recommendations for milk expression in this population include initiation within 6 hours following delivery, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This study compared milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants who initiated milk expression within 6 hours following delivery versus those who initiated expression after 6 hours. Subjects and Methods: Forty mothers of VLBW infants were grouped according to when they initiated milk expression following delivery. Group I began milk expression within 6 hours, and Group II began expression after 6 hours. Milk volume was measured daily for the first 7 days and on Days 21 and 42. Timing of lactogenesis stage II was determined through mothers' perceptions of sudden breast fullness. Results: Group I produced more breastmilk during the initial expression session and on Days 6, 7, and 42. No difference in timing of lactogenesis stage II was observed. When mothers who began milk expression prior to 1 hour following delivery were removed from analysis, benefits of milk expression within 6 hours were no longer apparent. Conclusions: Initiation of milk expression within 6 hours following delivery may not improve lactation success in mothers of VLBW infants unless initiated within the first hour. PMID:25659030

  9. High-power slim-hole drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to implement new high-power slim-hole motors and bits into field gas well drilling applications. Development of improved motors and bits is critical because rotating time constitutes the major cost of drilling gas wells. Conventional motors drill most formations 2 to 3 times faster than rotary continuous coring systems due to greater power transfer to the drill bit. New high-power motors and large-cutter TSP bits being developed by Maurer Engineering, Inc. (MEI) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. These slim-hole high-power motors and bits, which are ready for field testing on this DOE project, should reduce drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent in many areas. The objective of Phase I is to design, manufacture and laboratory test improved high-power slim-hole motors and large-cutter TSP bits. This work will be done in preparation for Phase II field tests. The objective of Phase II will be to field test the high-power motors and bits in Amoco`s Catoosa shallow-test well near Tulsa, OK, and in deep gas wells. The goal will be to drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors and to reduce the drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent over the intervals drilled.

  10. Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The goal of jet-assist drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, less drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{trademark}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, `Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,` is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase I. The project was originally proposed to extend the DHP and jet-assist drilling technology to drilling slimholes. Results of the market analysis for DHP jet-assisted slimhole drilling indicated that the slimhole market would be small (about 1/20th) compared to 7-7/8 inch hole size. The best U.S. land market locations for use of the DHP were identified as East Texas RR District 3, Oklahoma, and East Texas RR District 6. For gas drilling alone, areas with the largest market potential were East Texas RR District 6, Oklahoma and Wyoming. As a consequence of the market size for 7-7/8 inch holes, associated savings to the industry, and a desire to promote earlier commercialization of the DHP jet-assisted drilling technology, this project was re-directed from slimhole applications to development of a second prototype DHP for 7-7/8 inch hole size.

  11. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  12. N-body simulations with generic non-Gaussian initial conditions II: halo bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia

    2012-03-01

    We present N-body simulations for generic non-Gaussian initial conditions with the aim of exploring and modelling the scale-dependent halo bias. This effect is evident on very large scales requiring large simulation boxes. In addition, the previously available prescription to implement generic non-Gaussian initial conditions has been improved to keep under control higher-order terms which were spoiling the power spectrum on large scales. We pay particular attention to the differences between physical, inflation-motivated primordial bispectra and their factorizable templates, and to the operational definition of the non-Gaussian halo bias (which has both a scale-dependent and an approximately scale-independent contributions). We find that analytic predictions for both the non-Gaussian halo mass function and halo bias work well once a fudge factor (which was introduced before but still lacks convincing physical explanation) is calibrated on simulations. The halo bias remains therefore an extremely promising tool to probe primordial non-Gaussianity and thus to give insights into the physical mechanism that generated the primordial perturbations. The simulation outputs and tables of the analytic predictions will be made publicly available via the non-Gaussian comparison project web site http://icc.ub.edu/~liciaverde/NGSCP.html.

  13. Horizontal drilling comes full circle

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, M.

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the new discoveries of oil and gas in Utah's Paradox Fold and Fault Belt resulting from horizontal drilling techniques. The Kane Spring Federal {number sign}27-1 is the first successful horizontal wildcat drilled in Utah. The discovery well recorded an initial potential test rate of 914 barrels of oil and 290 thousand cubic feet of gas per day through a 10/64-inch choke, with a flowing tubing pressure of 3,460 psi. A one-hour test on a 14/64-inch choke produced a rate of 2,302 barrels of oil and 627 thousand cubic feet of gas per day. The paper describes the engineering aspects of the well construct which was needed to direct the drill stem in salt beds and relatively incompetent beds. The pay zone is located in the Cane Creek Shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. The oil and gas are located in geologic fractures and sealed by two layers of salt. The future of the prospect area is described.

  14. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, Rick; Hampton, Nigel; Perkel, Josh; Hernandez, JC; Elledge, Stacy; del Valle, Yamille; Grimaldo, Jose; Deku, Kodzo

    2015-07-25

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  15. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral haematomas (STICH II): a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Mendelow, A David; Gregson, Barbara A; Rowan, Elise N; Murray, Gordon D; Gholkar, Anil; Mitchell, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The balance of risk and benefit from early neurosurgical intervention for conscious patients with superficial lobar intracerebral haemorrhage of 10–100 mL and no intraventricular haemorrhage admitted within 48 h of ictus is unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that early surgery compared with initial conservative treatment could improve outcome in these patients. Methods In this international, parallel-group trial undertaken in 78 centres in 27 countries, we compared early surgical haematoma evacuation within 12 h of randomisation plus medical treatment with initial medical treatment alone (later evacuation was allowed if judged necessary). An automatic telephone and internet-based randomisation service was used to assign patients to surgery and initial conservative treatment in a 1:1 ratio. The trial was not masked. The primary outcome was a prognosis-based dichotomised (favourable or unfavourable) outcome of the 8 point Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) obtained by questionnaires posted to patients at 6 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN22153967. Findings 307 of 601 patients were randomly assigned to early surgery and 294 to initial conservative treatment; 298 and 291 were followed up at 6 months, respectively; and 297 and 286 were included in the analysis, respectively. 174 (59%) of 297 patients in the early surgery group had an unfavourable outcome versus 178 (62%) of 286 patients in the initial conservative treatment group (absolute difference 3·7% [95% CI −4·3 to 11·6], odds ratio 0·86 [0·62 to 1·20]; p=0·367). Interpretation The STICH II results confirm that early surgery does not increase the rate of death or disability at 6 months and might have a small but clinically relevant survival advantage for patients with spontaneous superficial intracerebral haemorrhage without intraventricular haemorrhage. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:23726393

  16. Berkeley Supernova Ia Program - II. Initial analysis of spectra obtained near maximum brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Kong, Jason J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2012-09-01

    In this second paper in a series, we present measurements of spectral features of 432 low-redshift (z < 0.1) optical spectra of 261 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) within 20 d of maximum brightness. The data were obtained from 1989 to the end of 2008 as part of the Berkeley Supernova Ia Program (BSNIP) and are presented in BSNIP I by Silverman et al. We describe in detail our method of automated, robust spectral feature definition and measurement which expands upon similar previous studies. Using this procedure, we attempt to measure expansion velocities, pseudo-equivalent widths (pEWs), spectral feature depths and fluxes at the centre and endpoints of each of nine major spectral feature complexes. We investigate how velocity and pEW evolve with time and how they correlate with each other. Various spectral classification schemes are employed and quantitative spectral differences among the subclasses are investigated. Several ratios of pEW values are calculated and studied. The so-called Si II ratio, often used as a luminosity indicator, is found to be well correlated with the so-called SiFe ratio and anticorrelated with the analogous 'SSi ratio', confirming the results of previous studies. Furthermore, SNe Ia that show strong evidence for interaction with circumstellar material or an aspherical explosion are found to have the largest near-maximum expansion velocities and pEWs, possibly linking extreme values of spectral observables with specific progenitor or explosion scenarios. We find that purely spectroscopic classification schemes are useful in identifying the most peculiar SNe Ia. However, in almost all spectral parameters investigated, the full sample of objects spans a nearly continuous range of values. Comparisons to previously published theoretical models of SNe Ia are made and we conclude with a brief discussion of how the measurements performed herein and the possible correlations presented will be important for future SN surveys.

  17. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  18. Results of exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eight exploratory holes were drilled in the Vermillion Creek basin, southern Sweetwater County, Wyoming, to aid in interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy of the Vermillion Creek coal bed. Lithologic logs based on cuttings and geophysical logs (natural gamma, density, and caliper) were made for each drill hole. Core samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated strata (roof rock, floor rock, and partings) were collected from three drill holes for geochemical and petrographic analysis. The geophysical logs indicate the presence of anomalous radioactive zones in the strata surrounding the Vermillion Creek coal bed.

  19. Simulation of two phase flow of liquid - solid in the annular space in drilling operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kootiani, Reza Cheraghi; Samsuri, Ariffin Bin

    2014-10-01

    Drilling cutting transfer is an important factor in oil and gas wells drilling. So that success drilling operation is directly dependent on the quality of clean the wellbore drilling operation. In this paper, modeled upward flow of liquid - solid in the annular concentric and non-concentric in the well drilling by Euler two - fluid model and then analysis using numerical method. Numerical simulation of liquid - solid flow evaluated initially with a Newtonian fluid (water) and then a non-Newtonian fluid (CMC solution 0.4%). After that, investigated the effect of parameters such as flow rate, rotating drill pipe and out of centered on drilling operations. The results show that drilling cutting transfer is improve due to the rotation of drill pipe particularly in drilling operations.

  20. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  1. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  2. Engaging and empowering patients to manage their type 2 diabetes, Part II: Initiatives for success.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Stephan; Serrano-Gil, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached pandemic proportions. The impact of it and its long-term sequelae represent a significant burden for many healthcare systems around the world, and a significant number of patients struggle to achieve the internationally recommended targets for the modifiable risk factors that optimize healthy outcomes. In the first part of this two-part review, the scene was set showing that there seems to be a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) gap hindering successful management of T2D. Although theoretical knowledge about how T2D should be managed exists, the attitude of patients and healthcare professionals seems to influence the practicalities of implementing life-enhancing changes for patients living with diabetes. Following the chronic care model, macro-level initiatives such as Finland's national diabetes program, "The Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes" (DEHKO), encourage a coordinated, supportive policy and financial environment for healthcare system change, and are advocated by the International Diabetes Federation. Over a 10-year period, the DEHKO program aims to demonstrate that a top-down population approach to prevention, focusing on reducing obesity, increasing physical activity, and encouraging healthier eating habits, may improve the overall health of the nation. However, the patient is the focus of day-to-day management of T2D, and innovative strategies that use a community (meso-level) approach to encourage self-management, or that embrace new technologies to access diabetes self-management education or support networks, are likely to be the way forward. Such measures may close the apparent KAP gap and bring about real and measurable benefits in quality of life and life expectancy. The second part of this review describes some of the many and varied initiatives designed to engage and empower patients to self-manage their T2D, with the aim of increasing the proportion of patients reaching health

  3. Kinetic Studies of the Ring-Opening Bulk Polymerization of ɛ-Caprolactone Using a Novel Tin(II) Alkoxide Initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleawkla, Achara; Suksomran, Wallika; Charuchinda, Anodar; Molloy, Robert; Naksata, Wimol; Punyodom, Winita

    A novel initiator, tin(II) hexoxide, has been synthesized for use in the bulk ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone at 140 °C and the kinetics studied using dilatometry. The effectiveness of the new initiator was compared alongside that of the corresponding conventional system, tin(II) octoate / 1-hexanol. The results showed that tin(II) hexoxide, although effective, took time to dissolve in the monomer due to its molecular aggregation, leading to a prolonged induction period. Despite this, first-order kinetics, a high conversion (>90%) and a polycaprolactone (PCL) molecular weight sufficiently high for melt processing were obtained. The small-scale melt spinning of PCL monofilament fibers and the effect of off-line drawing on their tensile properties is also briefly described. This work highlights the potential for the further development of more soluble tin(II) alkoxides for use as initiators which can offer greater reaction control in cyclic ester polymerization.

  4. Electrophilic Pt(II) Complexes: Precision Instruments for the Initiation of Transformations Mediated by the Cation–Olefin Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A discontinuity exists between the importance of the cation–olefin reaction as the principal C–C bond forming reaction in terpene biosynthesis and the synthetic tools for mimicking this reaction under catalyst control; that is, having the product identity, stereochemistry, and functionality under the control of a catalyst. The main reason for this deficiency is that the cation–olefin reaction starts with a reactive intermediate (a carbocation) that reacts exothermically with an alkene to reform the reactive intermediate; not to mention that reactive intermediates can also react in nonproductive fashions. In this Account, we detail our efforts to realize catalyst control over this most fundamental of reactions and thereby access steroid like compounds. Our story is organized around our progress in each component of the cascade reaction: the metal controlled electrophilic initiation, the propagation and termination of the cyclization (the cyclase phase), and the turnover deplatinating events. Electrophilic Pt(II) complexes efficiently initiate the cation–olefin reaction by first coordinating to the alkene with selection rules that favor less substituted alkenes over more substituted alkenes. In complex substrates with multiple alkenes, this preference ensures that the least substituted alkene is always the better ligand for the Pt(II) initiator, and consequently the site at which all electrophilic chemistry is initiated. This control element is invariant. With a suitably electron deficient ligand set, the catalyst then activates the coordinated alkene to intramolecular addition by a second alkene, which initiates the cation–olefin reaction cascade and generates an organometallic Pt(II)-alkyl. Deplatination by a range of mechanisms (β-H elimination, single electron oxidation, two-electron oxidation, etc.) provides an additional level of control that ultimately enables A-ring functionalizations that are orthogonal to the cyclase cascade. We particularly

  5. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  6. Geothermal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Livesay, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report discusses the current state of geothermal drilling technology with reference to how individual technology items are influenced by the following problem areas: high temperature; lost circulation; abrasive rocks; and corrosive gases. (ACR)

  7. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  8. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  9. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  10. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  11. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  12. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  13. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  14. An acto-myosin II constricting ring initiates the fission of activity-dependent bulk endosomes in neurosecretory cells.

    PubMed

    Gormal, Rachel S; Nguyen, Tam H; Martin, Sally; Papadopulos, Andreas; Meunier, Frederic A

    2015-01-28

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis allows neurons to internalize large portions of the plasma membrane in response to stimulation. However, whether this critical type of compensatory endocytosis is unique to neurons or also occurs in other excitable cells is currently unknown. Here we used fluorescent 70 kDa dextran to demonstrate that secretagogue-induced bulk endocytosis also occurs in bovine chromaffin cells. The relatively large size of the bulk endosomes found in this model allowed us to investigate how the neck of the budding endosomes constricts to allow efficient recruitment of the fission machinery. Using time-lapse imaging of Lifeact-GFP-transfected chromaffin cells in combination with fluorescent 70 kDa dextran, we detected acto-myosin II rings surrounding dextran-positive budding endosomes. Importantly, these rings were transient and contracted before disappearing, suggesting that they might be involved in restricting the size of the budding endosome neck. Based on the complete recovery of dextran fluorescence after photobleaching, we demonstrated that the actin ring-associated budding endosomes were still connected with the extracellular fluid. In contrast, no such recovery was observed following the constriction and disappearance of the actin rings, suggesting that these structures were pinched-off endosomes. Finally, we showed that the rings were initiated by a circular array of phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate microdomains, and that their constriction was sensitive to both myosin II and dynamin inhibition. The acto-myosin II rings therefore play a key role in constricting the neck of budding bulk endosomes before dynamin-dependent fission from the plasma membrane of neurosecretory cells. PMID:25632116

  15. Chevron tackles urban drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Chevron USA transformed a landfill in Pacioma, Calif., into an urban drill site for a field expected to produce 2,400 b/d of oil and 24 MMcfd of natural gas within 3 years. Chevron's foremost challenges in developing the Paxton drill site were to drill and produce oil and gas within a limited, 2.7-acre spacing and with minimum impact to the immediate environment. To meet these goals, Chevron: Used offshore technology for the well cellar layout and rig design and construction. Performed extensive research in soil mechanics, noise abatement, and safety. Employed state-of-the-art computer technology for monitoring and controlling different operating systems. Concealed the drilling derrick in a 10-story tower that resembles a Spanish mission. Hid other structures, including offices, a computerized control room, and gas processing facilities, behind a 12-ft fence. The Paxton site, located a few miles north of Los Angeles, is Chevron's fifth compressed urban drill site. The other sites, all in the Los Angeles area, are San Vicente, Packard, Broadway, and Garey. Chevron's experience in drilling 173 wells at these four facilities was beneficial, since the same engineering and technology were applied to the Paxton site.

  16. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  17. Biases on Initial Mass Function Determinations. II. Real Multiple Systems and Chance Superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2008-04-01

    When calculating stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) for young clusters, one has to take into account that (1) most massive stars are born in multiple systems, (2) most IMFs are derived from data that cannot resolve such systems, and (3) multiple chance superpositions between members are expected to happen if the cluster is too distant. In this article I use numerical experiments to model the consequences of those phenomena on the observed color-magnitude diagrams and the IMFs derived from them. Real multiple systems affect the observed or apparent massive-star MF slope little but can create a significant population of apparently ultramassive stars. Chance superpositions produce only small biases when the number of superimposed stars is low but, once a certain number threshold is reached, they can affect both the observed slope and the apparent stellar upper mass limit. I apply these experiments to two well known massive young clusters in the Local Group, NGC 3603 and R136. In both cases I show that the observed population of stars with masses above 120 M⊙ can be explained by the effects of unresolved objects, mostly real multiple systems for NGC 3603 and a combination of real and chance-alignment multiple systems for R136. Therefore, the case for the reality of a stellar upper mass limit at solar or near-solar metallicities is strengthened, with a possible value even lower than 150 M⊙. An IMF slope somewhat flatter than Salpeter or Kroupa with γ between -1.6 and -2.0 is derived for the central region of NGC 3603, with a significant contribution to the uncertainty arising from the imprecise knowledge of the distance to the cluster. The IMF at the very center of R136 cannot be measured with the currently available data but the situation could change with new HST observations. This article is partially based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), some of them associated with GO program 10602 and the rest gathered from the archive

  18. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  19. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  20. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  1. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  2. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  3. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  4. A phase II study of bortezomib plus prednisone for initial therapy of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alex F; Kim, Haesook T; Bindra, Bhavjot; Jones, Kyle T; Alyea, Edwin P; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey S; Ho, Vincent T; Nikiforow, Sarah; Blazar, Bruce R; Ritz, Jerome; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Koreth, John

    2014-11-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induces significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Corticosteroids are standard initial therapy, despite limited efficacy and long-term toxicity. Based on our experience using bortezomib as effective acute GVHD prophylaxis, we hypothesized that proteasome-inhibition would complement the immunomodulatory effects of corticosteroids to improve outcomes in chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We undertook a single-arm phase II trial of bortezomib plus prednisone for initial therapy of cGVHD. Bortezomib was administered at 1.3 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 35-day cycle for 3 cycles (15 weeks). Prednisone was dosed at .5 to 1 mg/kg/day, with a suggested taper after cycle 1. All 22 enrolled participants were evaluable for toxicity; 20 were evaluable for response. Bortezomib plus prednisone therapy was well tolerated, with 1 occurrence of grade 3 sensory peripheral neuropathy possibly related to bortezomib. The overall response rate at week 15 in evaluable participants was 80%, including 2 (10%) complete and 14 (70%) partial responses. The organ-specific complete response rate was 73% for skin, 53% for liver, 75% for gastrointestinal tract, and 33% for joint, muscle, or fascia involvement. The median prednisone dose decreased from 50 mg/day to 20 mg/day at week 15 (P < .001). The combination of bortezomib and prednisone for initial treatment of cGVHD is feasible and well tolerated. We observed a high response rate to combined bortezomib and prednisone therapy; however, in this single-arm study, we could not directly measure the impact of bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition may offer benefit in the treatment of cGVHD and should be further evaluated. PMID:25017765

  5. Resonance: The science behind the art of sonic drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucon, Peter Andrew

    The research presented in this dissertation quantifies the system dynamics and the influence of control variables of a sonic drill system. The investigation began with an initial body of work funded by the Department of Energy under a Small Business Innovative Research Phase I Grant, grant number: DE-FG02-06ER84618, to investigate the feasibility of using sonic drills to drill micro well holes to depths of 1500 feet. The Department of Energy funding enabled feasibility testing using a 750 hp sonic drill owned by Jeffery Barrow, owner of Water Development Co. During the initial feasibility testing, data was measured and recorded at the sonic drill head while the sonic drill penetrated to a depth of 120 feet. To demonstrate feasibility, the system had to be well understood to show that testing of a larger sonic drill could simulate the results of drilling a micro well hole of 2.5 inch diameter. A first-order model of the system was developed that produced counter-intuitive findings that enabled the feasibility of using this method to drill deeper and produce micro-well holes to 1500 feet using sonic drills. Although funding was not continued, the project work continued. This continued work expanded on the sonic drill models by understanding the governing differential equation and solving the boundary value problem, finite difference methods, and finite element methods to determine the significance of the control variables that can affect the sonic drill. Using a design of experiment approach and commercially available software, the significance of the variables to the effectiveness of the drill system were determined. From the significant variables, as well as the real world testing, a control system schematic for a sonic drill was derived and is patent pending. The control system includes sensors, actuators, personal logic controllers, as well as a human machine interface. It was determined that the control system should control the resonant mode and the weight on

  6. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  7. Scientific uncertainties in atmospheric mercury models III: Boundary and initial conditions, model grid resolution, and Hg(II) reduction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Che-Jen; Pongprueksa, Pruek; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Jang, Carey; Braverman, Thomas; Bullock, Russell O; Ho, Thomas; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the model response in terms of simulated mercury concentration and deposition to boundary condition (BC), initial condition (IC), model grid resolution (12 km versus 36 km), and two alternative Hg(II) reduction mechanisms, was investigated. The model response to the change of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentration from 0 to 2 ngm3 in IC/BC is found to be very linear (r240.99) based on the results of sensitivity simulations in July 2001. An increase of 1 ngm3 of GEM in BC resulted in an increase of 0.81 ngm3 in the monthly average of total mercury concentration, and 1270 ngm2 in the monthly total deposition. IC has similar but weaker effects compared to those of BC. An increase of 1 ngm3 of GEM in IC resulted in an increase of 0.14 ngm3 in the monthly average of total mercury concentration, and 250 ngm2 in the monthly total deposition. Varying reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) or particulate mercury (PHg) in BC/IC has much less significant impact. Simulation results at different grid resolutions show good agreement (slope 0.950 1.026, r 0.816 0.973) in mercury concentration, dry deposition, and total deposition. The agreement in wet deposition is somewhat weaker (slope 0.770 0.794, r 0.685 0.892) due to the difference in emission dilution and simulated precipitation that subsequently change reaction rates in the aqueous phase. Replacing the aqueous Hg(II)-HO2 reduction by either RGM reduction by CO (51018cm3 molecule1 s1) or photoreduction of RGM (1105 s1) gives significantly better model agreement with the wet deposition measured by Mercury Deposition Network (MDN). Possible ranges of the reduction rates are estimated based on model sensitivity results. The kinetic estimate requires further verification by laboratory studies.

  8. Tissue factor initiates glomerular fibrin deposition and promotes major histocompatibility complex class II expression in crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, J. H.; Holdsworth, S. R.; Tipping, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    Increased glomerular tissue factor (TF) expression is associated with glomerular fibrin deposition and renal failure in human and experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). However, the in vivo functional contribution of TF to the development of glomerular fibrin deposition, crescent formation, and renal failure in GN has not been established. The contribution of TF to fibrin deposition and renal injury was studied in a rabbit model of crescentic GN in which glomerular macrophage infiltration, augmented TF expression, and fibrin deposition are prominent. Administration of anti-TF antibody inhibited glomerular TF activity in nephritic glomeruli by 96%, without affecting macrophage accumulation or systemic indices of coagulation. Anti-TF antibody significantly reduced glomerular fibrin deposition (fibrin scores, 0.43 +/- 0.10 (treated) and 1.40 +/- 0.19 (control); P < 0.0005), crescent formation (0.33 +/- 0.05 (treated) and 1.0 +/- 0.06 (control); P < 0.0005), and development of renal failure (serum creatinine, 168 +/- 22 mumol/l (treated) and 267 +/- 35 mumol/l (control); P < 0.04). This was associated with significant reduction in proteinuria (1189 +/- 277 mg/24 hours (treated) and 2060 +/- 336 mg/24 hours (control); P < 0.03) and expression of MHC class II antigen in glomeruli (1.25 +/- 0.41 (treated) and 2.83 +/- 0.53 (control); P < 0.03) and in tubules and interstitial areas. These data demonstrate that TF is the major in vivo initiator of fibrin deposition in crescentic GN. The reduction in proteinuria and glomerular major histocompatibility class II antigen expression by TF inhibition suggests that TF may also activate other mediators that contribute to glomerular injury. Images Figure 1 PMID:9060825

  9. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  10. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  11. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  12. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  13. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  14. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  15. Drill hole logging with infrared spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Solum, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify rocks and minerals for over 40 years. The technique is sensitive to primary silicates as well as alteration products. Minerals can be uniquely identified based on multiple absorption features at wavelengths from the visible to the thermal infrared. We are currently establishing methods and protocols in order to use the technique for rapid assessment of downhole lithology on samples obtained during drilling operations. Initial work performed includes spectral analysis of chip cuttings and core sections from drill sites around Desert Peak, NV. In this paper, we report on a survey of 10,000 feet of drill cuttings, at 100 foot intervals, from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Data from Blue Mountain geothermal wells will also be acquired. We will describe the utility of the technique for rapid assessment of lithologic and mineralogic discrimination.

  16. Horizontal drilling techniques at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkirson, J.P.; Smith, J.H.; Stagg, T.O.; Walters, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three extended departure horizontal wells have been drilled and completed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska by Standard Alaska Production Company. Horizontal slotted liner completions of 1575 feet (480 m), 1637 feet (499 m), and 1163 feet (354 m) were accomplished at an average vertical depth of 9000 feet (2743 m). Improvements in technology and operating procedures have resulted in a cost per foot reduction of 40% over the three well program. When compared to conventional completions, initial production data indicates rate benefits of 300% and a major increase in ultimate recovery. This paper discusses the development of the techniques used to drill horizontal wells at Prudhoe Bay and reviews the drilling operations for each well.

  17. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  18. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  19. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  1. Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, D; Faulkner, J L; Choudhury, G G; Abboud, H E; Kasinath, B S

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between angiotensin II, which binds a G-protein-coupled receptor, and insulin, a ligand for receptor tyrosine kinase, was examined in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Augmented protein translation by insulin involves activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) which follows the release of the factor from a heterodimeric complex by phosphorylation of its binding protein, 4E-BP1. Angiotensin II (1 nM) or insulin (1 nM) individually stimulated 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. However, pre-incubation with angiotensin II abrogated insulin-induced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, resulting in persistent binding to eIF4E. Although angiotensin II and insulin individually activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2-type mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, pre-incubation with angiotensin II abolished insulin-induced stimulation of these kinases, suggesting more proximal events in insulin signalling may be intercepted. Pretreatment with angiotensin II markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin-receptor beta-chain and insulin-receptor substrate 1. Losartan prevented angiotensin II inhibition of insulin-induced ERK-1/-2-type MAP kinase activation and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, suggesting mediation of the effect of angiotensin II by its type 1 receptor. Insulin-stimulated de novo protein synthesis was also abolished by pre-incubation with angiotensin II. These data show that angiotensin II inhibits 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and stimulation of protein synthesis induced by insulin by interfering with proximal events in insulin signalling. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for insulin insensitivity induced by angiotensin II. PMID:11695995

  2. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  3. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  4. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  5. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  6. Functions of the N- and C-Terminal Domains of Human RAP74 in Transcriptional Initiation, Elongation, and Recycling of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Ren, Delin; Finkelstein, Ann; Burton, Zachary F.

    1998-01-01

    Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) cooperates with RNA polymerase II (pol II) during multiple stages of the transcription cycle including preinitiation complex assembly, initiation, elongation, and possibly termination and recycling. Human TFIIF appears to be an α2β2 heterotetramer of RNA polymerase II-associating protein 74- and 30-kDa subunits (RAP74 and RAP30). From inspection of its 517-amino-acid (aa) sequence, the RAP74 subunit appears to comprise separate N- and C-terminal domains connected by a flexible loop. In this study, we present functional data that strongly support this model for RAP74 architecture and further show that the N- and C-terminal domains and the central loop of RAP74 have distinct roles during separate phases of the transcription cycle. The N-terminal domain of RAP74 (minimally aa 1 to 172) is sufficient to deliver pol II into a complex formed on the adenovirus major late promoter with the TATA-binding protein, TFIIB, and RAP30. A more complete N-terminal domain fragment (aa 1 to 217) strongly stimulates both accurate initiation and elongation by pol II. The region of RAP74 between aa 172 and 205 and a subregion between aa 170 and 178 are critical for both accurate initiation and elongation, and mutations in these regions have similar effects on initiation and elongation. Based on these observations, RAP74 appears to have similar functions in initiation and elongation. The central region and the C-terminal domain of RAP74 do not contribute strongly to single-round accurate initiation or elongation stimulation but do stimulate multiple-round transcription in an extract system. PMID:9528785

  7. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  9. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  10. 75 FR 31425 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 75 FR 4531 (January 28, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary... Department'') published in the Federal Register the initiation of the antidumping investigation on drill...

  11. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  12. Effects of mixed mode I/II loading and grain orientation on crack initiation and stable tearing in 2024-T3 aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Amstutz, B.E.; Sutton, M.A.; Boone, M.L.; Dawicke, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The effects of material grain orientation and mixed mode I/II loading on crack initiation and stable tearing in 2.3-mm-thick, unclad 2024-T3 aluminum is experimentally investigated. Mode I experiments were performed on center-cracked specimens with the crack being oriented at various angles relative to the rolling direction. Defining {theta} to be the angle between the normal to the initial crack plane and the loading direction, Mode I/II experiments were performed using an Arcan test fixture for 0{degree} {le} {theta} {le} 90{degree} [corresponding to 90{degree} {ge} {beta} {ge} 0{degree}, where {beta} = atan (K{sub II}/K{sub I})] with the crack oriented either along the rolling direction (T-L) or perpendicular to the rolling direction (L-T). Results indicate that: 1. The Mode I crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is a strong function of the orientation of the crack relative to the rolling direction; CTOD for a T-L specimen is 0.84 mm, increasing linearly with orientation angle to 1.05 mm for an L-T case. 2. The Mode I/II CTOD increases rapidly during initial increments of crack growth and then decreases towards a constant value as crack growth continues. 3. For {theta} < 68{degree} ({beta} > 29{degree}), all cracks kinked and the Mode I/II plastic zones are similar to rotated Mode I plastic zones throughout the crack growth process. 4. J{sub II} = 0 reasonably predicts the direction of tension-dominated crack growth, but does not predict the transition to shear crack growth which occurs for {theta} {ge} 75{degree}. 5. K{sub II} {ge} K{sub I} for {theta} {approx} 58{degree} ({beta} = 45{degree}) does not quantitatively predict the transition to shear crack growth for {theta} {ge} 75{degree} ({beta} {le} 22{degree}), but does provide an indication of changing conditions in the crack tip region.

  13. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  14. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  15. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; McCallister, J.V.; Mazza, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Belden & Blake and the US DOE will cofund a horizontal well to be drilled in the Clinton Sandstone as part of the DOE`s multi well program titled ``Horizontal Drilling in Shallow Geologic Complex Reservoirs.`` This well will be located in Mahoning County, Ohio in an area which has demonstrated above average Clinton gas production. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first horizontal well drilled to the Clinton Sand formation in Ohio. Since many of the remaining Clinton Sand drilling sites are of poorer reservoir quality, they may not be developed unless technology such as horizontal drilling can be successfully demonstrated.

  16. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  6. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  7. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  8. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  9. Horizontal drilling spurs optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1991-02-01

    1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

  10. Blasthole drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, C.

    2006-09-15

    Drilling in Appalachian coal overburdens presents challenges to conventional tricone bit operations due to the high rates of advance. In 2005, design engineers Atlas Copco BHMT (formerly Baker Hughes Mining Tools) began creating and testing a new lug design for bits used in these coalfields. The design was aided by use of computational flow dynamics. The article describes the design development and testing. Average footage drilled per bit by the new streamlined lug increased an average of 32.3% at Coal Mine No. 1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2 over the standard lug previously used. Average bit life increased by 32.3% at Coal Mine No.1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2. 3 figs., 2 photos.

  11. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  12. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Polymerase II Transcription Initiation in Trypanosoma cruzi: Modulation of Nucleosome Abundance, Histone Modification, and Polymerase Occupancy by O-Linked Thymine DNA Glucosylation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ekanayake, Dilrukshi; Sabatini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Very little is understood regarding how transcription is initiated/regulated in the early-diverging eukaryote Trypanosoma cruzi. Unusually for a eukaryote, genes transcribed by RNA polymerase (Pol) II in T. cruzi are arranged in polycistronic transcription units (PTUs). On the basis of this gene organization, it was previously thought that trypanosomes rely solely on posttranscriptional processes to regulate gene expression. We recently localized a novel glucosylated thymine DNA base, called base J, to potential promoter regions of PTUs throughout the trypanosome genome. Loss of base J, following the deletion of JBP1, a thymidine hydroxylase involved with synthesis, led to a global increase in the Pol II transcription rate and gene expression. In order to determine the mechanism by which base J regulates transcription, we have characterized changes in chromatin structure and Pol II recruitment to promoter regions following the loss of base J. The loss of base J coincides with a decrease in nucleosome abundance, increased histone H3/H4 acetylation, and increased Pol II occupancy at promoter regions, including the well-characterized spliced leader RNA gene promoter. These studies present the first direct evidence for epigenetic regulation of Pol II transcription initiation via DNA modification and chromatin structure in kinetoplastids as well as provide a mechanism for regulation of trypanosome gene expression via the novel hypermodified base J. PMID:21926332

  14. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  15. Characterization of the Initial Intermediate Formed during Photoinduced Oxygenation of the Ruthenium(II) Bis(bipyridyl)flavonolate Complex.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaozhen; Klausmeyer, Kevin K; Farmer, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    A ruthenium(II) flavonolate complex, [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4], was synthesized to model the reactivity of the flavonol dioxygenases. The treatment of dry CH3CN solutions of [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4] with dioxygen under light leads to the oxidative O-heterocyclic ring opening of the coordinated substrate flavonolate, resulting in the formation of [Ru(II)(bpy)2(carboxylate)][BF4] (carboxylate = O-benzoylsalicylate or benzoate) species, as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moderation of the excitation and temperature allowed isolation and characterization of an intermediate, [Ru(II)(bpy)2bpg][BF4] (bpg = 2-benzoyloxyphenylglyoxylate), generated by the 1,2-addition of dioxygen to the central flavonolate ring. PMID:27437831

  16. Initial dosing regimen of vancomycin to achieve early therapeutic plasma concentration in critically ill patients with MRSA infection based on APACHE II score.

    PubMed

    Imaura, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Haruko; Kohata, Yuji; Kanai, Riichiro; Kohyama, Tomoki; Idemitsu, Wataru; Maki, Yuichi; Igarashi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-06-01

    It is essential to assure the efficacy of antimicrobials at the initial phase of therapy. However, increasing the volume of distribution (Vd) of hydrophilic antimicrobials in critically ill patients leads to reduced antimicrobial concentration in plasma and tissue, which may adversely affect the efficacy of that therapy. The aim of the present study was to establish a theoretical methodology for setting an appropriate level for initial vancomycin therapy in individual patients based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. We obtained data from patients who received intravenous vancomycin for a suspected or definitively diagnosed Gram-positive bacterial infection within 72 h after admission to the intensive care unit. The Vd and elimination half-life (t 1/2) of vancomycin values were calculated using the Bayesian method, and we investigated the relationship between them and APACHE II score. There were significant correlations between APACHE II scores and Vd/actual body weight (ABW), as well as t 1/2 (r = 0.58, p < 0.05 and r = 0.74, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin could be estimated using the following regression equations using APACHE II score.[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]We found that APACHE II score was a useful index for predicting the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin, and used that to establish an initial vancomycin dosing regimen comprised of initial dose and administration interval for individual patients. PMID:25502612

  17. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  18. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  19. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  20. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.H.; Rubin, L.A.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low- pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) {open_quotes}Cableless{close_quotes} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  1. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important

  2. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  3. Poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan microspheres via surface-initiated ATRP for enhanced removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liqiang; Yuan, Shaojun; Lv, Li; Tan, Guangqun; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, S O

    2013-09-01

    Cross-linked chitosan (CCS) microspheres tethered with pH-sensitive poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes were developed for the efficient removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Functional PMAA brushes containing dense and active carboxyl groups (COOH) were grafted onto the CCS microsphere surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Batch adsorption results showed that solution pH values had a major impact on cadmium adsorption by the PMAA-grafted CCS microspheres with the optimal removal observed above pH 5. The CCS-g-PMAA microsphere was found to achieve the adsorption equilibrium of Cd(II) within 1 h, much faster than about 7 h on the CCS microsphere. At pH 5 and with an initial concentration 0.089-2.49 mmol dm(-3), the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II), derived from the Langmuir fitting on the PMAA-grafted microspheres was around 1.3 mmol g(-1). Desorption and adsorption cycle experimental results revealed that the PMAA-grafted CCS microspheres loaded with Cd(II) can be effectively regenerated in a dilute HNO3 solution, and the adsorption capacity remained almost unchanged upon five cycle reuse. PMID:23755995

  4. An innovative drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  6. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  7. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  8. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden & Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

  9. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

  10. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  11. Strategies and structures for drilling and service contracts in the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Wardt, J.P. de; Gils, J.M.I. van

    1994-09-01

    Drilling in the nineties initiatives were introduced to the industry in early 1990. Contractual mechanisms for application of these initiatives have been developed. A strategy is developed for integrating services to provide a total service concept either directly through or parallel with a drilling contractor. Development of cooperative customer/supplier relationship are emerging as the way to sustain performance improvements.

  12. 75 FR 17902 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4345 (January 27, 2010) (Initiation). Currently, the preliminary... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of... Department of Commerce (Department) initiated the countervailing duty investigation of drill pipe from...

  13. A Study for Initial Solidification of Sn-Pb Alloy During Continuous Casting: Part II. Effects of Casting Parameters on Initial Solidification and Shell Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong; Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Haihui; Ma, Fanjun; Chen, Ken; Zhou, Lejun

    2014-06-01

    The initial shell solidification of liquid steel in the mold has significant influence on both surface and internal quality of the final slab, and it is mainly determined by the high transient high temperature thermodynamics occurring in the mold. This study investigated the effects of casting parameters like casting temperature, mold oscillation frequency, and stroke on the initial solidification of a Sn-Pb alloy through the use of a mold simulator to allow the clear understanding of the inter-relationship between irregular shell solidification, heat transfer, negative strip time (NST), and casting conditions. Results suggested that the shell surface oscillation marks (OMs) are strongly depending upon the fluctuations of meniscus responding temperatures and heat flux. An abrupt sudden fluctuation of high frequency temperature and heat flux at the meniscus during the NST would deteriorate the shell surface and leads to deep OMs. The fluctuations of responding temperature and heat flux are determined by the NST, meniscus solidification, and oil infiltration, which in turn are influenced by casting conditions, like casting temperature, oscillation frequency, stroke, etc.

  14. High temperature drilling MUD stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1985-10-15

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a hydroxy containing alumina component such as AlO(OH) and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reaction product such as an aldehyde reacted PVA are stabilized for use at temperatures as high as 350/sup 0/ F. (177/sup 0/ C.) by adding stabilizer anions such as sulfate, tartrate and citrate to the resulting drilling fluid. The anions can be added as an acid or in the salt form with sodium and potassium salts being preferred. The salts are preferably added in 0.2 to 10% by weight of the drilling fluid. These stabilized drilling fluids can also be used in seawater.

  15. Precision Drilling Of Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Jaroslav

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the features of the precision drilling of sugar beet, methods of measurements, mathematical relations, procedure and results. The use of a high-speed camera and of a computer with an investigation of the drilling mechanisms enabled to achieve the shortening of the procedure by one half, an accurate assessment of the principles of drilling mechanisms without implication of other influences arising in field tests and the availability of more data for decision making. The result of the experiments was a considerably simpler assessment of the principles of drill mechanisms.

  16. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  17. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  18. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  19. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Background and Interim Voluntary Guidance The Report of Investigation... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore...-fighting equipment, training, and drills onboard manned offshore facilities and MODUs operating on the...

  20. Benthic foraminiferal responses to operational drill cutting discharge in the SW Barents Sea - a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Junttila, Juho; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum related exploration activities started in the Barents Sea 1980, reaching 97 exploration wells drilled per January 2013. The biggest operational discharge from drilling operations in the Barents Sea is the release of drill cuttings (crushed seabed and/or bedrock) and water based drilling muds including the commonly used weighing material barite (BaSO4). Barium (Ba), a constituent of barite, does not degrade and can be used to evaluate dispersion and accumulation of drill waste. The environmental impact associated with exploration drilling within the Goliat Field, SW Barents Sea in 2006 was evaluated via a multiproxy investigation of local sediments. The sediments were retrieved in November 2014 at ~350 meters water depth and coring sites were selected at distances of 5, 30, 60, 125 and 250 meters from the drill hole in the eastward downstream direction. The dispersion pattern of drill waste was estimated via measurements of sediment parameters including grain size distribution and water content in addition to heavy metal and total organic carbon contents. The environmental impact was evaluated via micro faunal analysis based on benthic foraminiferal (marine shell bearing protists) fauna composition and concentration changes. Observing the sediment parameters, most notably Ba levels, reveals that dispersion of drill waste was limited to <125 meters from the drill site with drill waste thicknesses decreasing downstream. The abruptness and quantity of drill waste sedimentation initially smothered the foraminiferal fauna at ≤ 30 meters from the drill site, while at a distance of 60 meters, the fauna seemingly survived and bioturbation persisted. Analysis of the live (Nov 2014) foraminiferal fauna reveals a natural species composition at all distances from the drill site within the top sediments (0-5 cm core depth). Furthermore, the fossil foraminiferal fauna composition found within post-impacted top sediment sections, particularly in the cores situated at

  1. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  2. 77 FR 10722 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Termination of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...\\ See Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-circumvention Inquiry, 76 FR..., 76 FR 11757 (March 3, 2011); Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 11758 (March 3, 2011) (collectively the ``Drill Pipe Orders''). DATES: Effective...

  3. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  19. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  20. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  1. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a... electric equipment. (d) The following are Class I, Division 1 locations: (1) An enclosed space that... space and that has no hold-back device; (ii) Ventilation causes the air to flow with the door open...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a... electric equipment. (d) The following are Class I, Division 1 locations: (1) An enclosed space that... space and that has no hold-back device; (ii) Ventilation causes the air to flow with the door open...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a... electric equipment. (d) The following are Class I, Division 1 locations: (1) An enclosed space that... space and that has no hold-back device; (ii) Ventilation causes the air to flow with the door open...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a... electric equipment. (d) The following are Class I, Division 1 locations: (1) An enclosed space that... space and that has no hold-back device; (ii) Ventilation causes the air to flow with the door open...

  6. Aerodynamic window for high precision laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Steffen; Dausinger, Friedrich; Berger, Peter; Hügel, Helmuth

    2007-05-01

    High precision laser drilling is getting more and more interesting for industry. Main applications for such holes are vaporising and injection nozzles. To enhance quality, the energy deposition has to be accurately defined by reducing the pulse duration and thereby reducing the amount of disturbing melting layer. In addition, an appropriate processing technology, for example the helical drilling, yields holes in steel at 1 mm thickness and diameters about 100 μm with correct roundness and thin recast layers. However, the processing times are still not short enough for industrial use. Experiments have shown that the reduction of the atmospheric pressure down to 100 hPa enhances the achievable quality and efficiency, but the use of vacuum chambers in industrial processes is normally quite slow and thus expensive. The possibility of a very fast evacuation is given by the use of an aerodynamic window, which produces the pressure reduction by virtue of its fluid dynamic features. This element, based on a potential vortex, was developed and patented as out-coupling window for high power CO II lasers by IFSW 1, 2, 3. It has excellent tightness and transmission properties, and a beam deflection is not detectable. The working medium is compressed air, only. For the use as vacuum element for laser drilling, several geometrical modifications had to be realized. The prototype is small enough to be integrated in a micromachining station and has a low gas flow. During the laser pulse, which is focussed through the potential flow, a very high fluence is reached, but the measurements have not shown any beam deflection or focal shifting. The evacuation time is below 300 ms so that material treatment with changing ambient pressure is possible, too. Experimental results have proven the positive effect of the reduced ambient pressure on the drilling process for the regime of nano- and picosecond laser pulses. Plasma effects are reduced and, because of the less absorption, the

  7. Yeast RNA polymerase II initiates transcription in vitro at TATA sequences proximal to potential non-B forms of the DNA template.

    PubMed Central

    Lescure, B; Arcangioli, B

    1984-01-01

    Pure yeast RNA polymerase II selectively initiates an abortive in vitro transcript within a TATA box of the yeast iso-1 cytochrome c gene promoter. Using a series of promoter deletions we show that a DNA sequence located upstream of the TATA box is needed for an efficient in vitro transcription. Supercoiling of the DNA template is an absolute requirement for the specific in vitro transcription. Examination of the DNA structure near several in vitro initiation sites shows that the common features observed are the presence of a TATA sequence in which RNA synthesis is initiated, and which is proximal to a potential non-B form of the DNA (a B to Z transition or a cruciform structure). Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6376116

  8. Hydraulic straight hole drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Townson, J. D.

    1985-01-15

    An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back wall connected to confronting sidewalls and opposed end walls. One lower end of a slot commences in spaced relationship to the lower pin end of the collar. As the drill string is rotated, drilling fluid forms a cushion between the slot and the nearest sidewall of the borehole, thereby kicking or forcing the drill collar away from the borehole sidewall, which in turn forces the drill bit to penetrate in a downwardly direction back towards a vertical position. The borehole meanders a very small amount, as for example 3-4 degrees, rather than uncontrollably leaving the vertical and forming an excessively crooked hole. Various configurations and arrangements of slots are disclosed in the collar.

  9. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  10. A parametric study of variables that affect fiber microbuckling initiation in composite laminates. I - Analyses. II - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. G.; Ochoa, Ozden O.; Bradley, Walter L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the stacking sequence (orientation of plies adjacent to the 0-deg plies), free surfaces, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength, initial fiber waviness, resin-rich regions, and nonlinear shear constitutive behavior of the resin on the initiation of fiber microbuckling in thermoplastic composites were investigated using nonlinear geometric and nonlinear 2D finite-element analyses. Results show that reductions in the resin shear tangent modulus, large amplitudes of the initial fiber waviness, and debonds each cause increases in the localized matrix shear strains; these increases lead in turn to premature initiation of fiber microbuckling. The numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained using three thermoplastic composite material systems: (1) commercial APC-2, (2) QUADRAX Unidirectional Interlaced Tape, and AU4U/PEEK.

  11. Drilling of Arun gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, L.H.; Soepardi, M.; Suherman, D.

    1984-05-01

    The Arun gas field was discovered in late 1971 when the discovery Well Arun A-1 penetrated the thick Arun limestone reef. During the following 3 years, 12 delineation wells were drilled. Three of these delineation wells are used for observation wells, five for dry gas injection, one for condensate water disposal, and three are abandoned. Clustered development well drilling started in Sept. 1976. At this writing 40 wells have been drilled to delineate and develop the field. Drilling continues so that the growing demand from the expanding liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is met. The problems of high temperatures, abnormally highpressured shales, and saltwater sands overlying the lower-pressured Arun limestone have been conquered by numerous technique changes. The current techniques include the use of inverted oil emulsion muds, cements containing 35% silica flour, high-strength heavyweight tubulars, and clear packer fluids. The evolution of drilling and completion practices are discussed in the paper.

  12. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  13. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  14. Jack-up rig for marine drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S. R.

    1981-05-26

    This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

  15. Proceedings of the drilling technology symposium 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, P.D.; Kastor, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on drilling technology. Topics covered include: Improvement in rock bit performance; Coring the horizontal hole; Drill pipe failures; and Slim drill horizontal workover system.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall not pass under or step over a moving stem or auger. (e) In the event of power failure, drill controls...

  17. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  18. Ethylenediamine-palladium(II) complexes with pyridine and its derivatives: synthesis, molecular structure and initial antitumor studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Lin, H; Yu, P; Sun, H; Zhu, S; Su, X; Chen, Y

    1999-03-01

    The synthesis of four mononuclear palladium complexes of general formula [Pd(en)Cl(L)]NO3 (en = ethylenediamine; L = pyridine (I), 4-methylpyridine (II), 4-hydroxypyridine (III) or 4-aminopyridine (IV) has been achieved. The structure of these compounds was studied by elemental analysis, IR, far-IR and 1H NMR; complex I was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The crystal of [Pd(en)(pyridine)Cl]NO3 is monoclinic, space group P21/c (a = 7.990(2), b = 16.058(3), c = 9.846(2) A, beta = 103.81(3) degrees, Z = 4, R = 0.067, Rw = 0.066). The Pd(II) atom exhibits an approximately square planar coordination with bond lengths in the range 2.017-2.042 A for Pd-N and 2.320 A for Pd-Cl. In order to determine the donor strength of the aromatic pyridine ligands, the stability constants of binary complex ML2+ (M = [Pd(en) (H2O)2]2+; L = pyridine, 4-Me-pyridine, 4-OH-pyridine and 4-NH2-pyridine) were determined by potentiometric pH titration in aqueous solution (T = 25 degrees C, I = 0.1 mol l-1 NaNO3). The results show that the stability constants of the binary complexes systematically increase with increasing pKa of the pyridines. The above four palladium complexes, [Pt(en)(pyridine)Cl]NO3 and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) were assayed for cytotoxicity in vitro against the human leukemia cell line HL-60, and compounds I, II, III and cis-DDP show significant cytotoxic activity against HL-60. PMID:10331244

  19. A COMPREHENSIVE NEW DETECTOR FOR DETAILED STUDY OF THE QGP, INITIAL CONDITION AND SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC II.

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.W.; BELLWIED, R.; SMIRNOV, N.; STEINBERG, P.; SURROW, B.; ULLRICH, T.

    2004-03-15

    A case is presented for compelling physics at a high luminosity RHIC II collider. A comprehensive new detector system is introduced to address this physics. The experimental focus is on detailed jet tomography of the quark gluon plasma (QGP); measuring gluon saturation in the nucleus, investigating the color glass condensate, measuring effects of the QCD vacuum on particle masses, determining the structure and dynamics within the proton and possible new phenomena. The physics and detector capabilities are introduced.

  20. Astrobiology Drilling Program of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-12-01

    Access to unweathered and uncontaminated samples of the least altered, oldest, sedimentary rocks is essential for understanding the early history of life on Earth and the environments in which it may have existed. For this reason, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has embarked on two international programs, a series of Field Workshops aimed at making the most important surface samples available to investigators, and the Astrobiology Drilling Program (ADP), which serves to provide access to fresh subsurface samples when the scientific objectives require them. The Astrobiology Drilling Program commenced in Western Australia in 2003 with the initiation of its first project, the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). Funding for the ABDP came mainly from the Japanese Government through Kagoshima University and from NASA through the NAI Team at Pennsylvania State University, but significant technical and logistic support was provided by the Geological of Western Australia and, to a lesser extent, by the University of Western Australia. Six diamond drill cores totalling 1.4 km were obtained from astrobiologically important successions in the 3.3-3.5 Ga-old Pilbara Craton of northern Western Australia. Drilling in 2004 also occurred in Western Australia. The Deep Time Drilling Project (DTDP), a spin-off from the NAI's Mission to Early Earth Focus Group, completed one long hole, aimed mainly at fossil biomolecules (biomarkers) and other geochemical indicators of early life. The DTDP and the ABDP also jointly drilled two other important holes 2004, one through the oldest known erosion surface (and possible soil profile). The other intersected well-preserved middle Archean sediments. These efforts parallel other drilling initiatives within the wider astrobiological community that are taking place in Western Australia, South Africa, Spain, and arctic Canada. The ADP is managed by the NAI through a Steering Committee appointed by the NAI Director. Samples of cores

  1. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  3. Successful application of drilling technology extends EPMI's directional drilling capability

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, D.R.; Chan, H.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent drilling performance on EPMI's Tabu, Palas, and Guntong platforms where a top-drive drilling system, PDC bits, MWD equipment, and low-toxicity oil base mud have been used to drill EPMI's deepest directional wells. These wells are as deep as 3750 meters (measured depth) with hole angles up to 73 degrees. More than two thirds of the wells are dual completions, each with two to three directional targets. The paper describes how this technology was used to overcome the usual problems in wells of this type, especially high torque and stuck pipe.

  4. Overall reaction concept in premixed, laminar, steady-state flames. II. Initial temperatures and pressures. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Coffee, T.P.; Kotlar, A.J.; Miller, M.S.

    1984-11-01

    In a previous report, the adequacy of the overall reaction model for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional, steady-state flames was examined. The single-reaction model gave quite accurate results for burning velocity. The temperature and heat-release profiles were also generally accurate. The accuracy of the major-species profiles varied from fair to good. However, the optimal overall kinetic parameters varied with the equivalence ratio. In this report, the adequacy of an overall reaction model for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional, steady-state flames is examined for variations in initial temperature and pressure. The single reaction model gives quite accurate results for burning velocity; temperature and heat-release profiles are also generally accurate; major-species profiles are reproduced with fair to good accuracy. The optimal overall parameters change with initial temperature and pressure. However, a single set of parameters are found to be accurate over a limited range of initial temperatures and pressures.

  5. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  6. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  7. Dioxygen-Initiated Oxidation of Heteroatomic Substrates Incorporated into Ancillary Pyridine Ligands of Carboxylate-Rich Diiron(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Emily C.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Progress toward the development of functional models of the carboxylate-bridged diiron active site in soluble methane monooxygenase is described in which potential substrates are introduced as substituents on bound pyridine ligands. Thiol, sulfide, sulfoxide, and phosphine moieties incorporated into a pyridine ligand were allowed to react with the preassembled diiron(II) complex [Fe2(μ-O2CArR)2(O2CArR)2(THF)2], where -O2CArR is a sterically hindered 2,6-di(p-tolyl)- or 2,6-di(p-fluorophenyl)benzoate (R = Tol or 4-FPh). The resulting diiron(II) complexes were characterized crystallographically. Triply- and doubly-bridged compounds [Fe2(μ-O2CArTol)3(O2CArTol)(2-MeSpy)] (4) and [Fe2(μ-O2CArTol)2(O2CArTol)2(2-MeS(O)py)2] (5) resulted when 2-methylthiopyridine (2-MeSpy) and 2-pyridylmethylsulfoxide (2-MeS(O)py), respectively, were employed. Another triply-bridged diiron(II) complex, [Fe2(μ-O2CAr4-FPh)3(O2CAr4-FPh)(2-Ph2Ppy)] (3), was obtained containing 2-diphenylphosphinopyridine (2-Ph2Ppy). Use of 2-mercaptopyridine (2-HSpy) afforded the mononuclear complex [Fe(O2CArTol)2(2-HSpy)2] (6a). Together with that of previously reported [Fe2(μ-O2CArTol)3(O2CArTol)(2-PhSpy)] (2) and [Fe2(μ-O2CArTol)3(O2CArTol)(2-Ph2Ppy)] (1), the dioxygen reactivity of these iron(II) complexes was investigated. A dioxygen-dependent intermediate (6b) formed upon exposure of 6a to O2, the electronic structure of which was probed by various spectroscopic methods. Exposure of 4 and 5 to dioxygen revealed both sulfide and sulfoxide oxidation. Oxidation of 3 in CH2Cl2 affords [Fe2(μ-OH)2(μ-O2CAr4-FPh)(O2CAr4-FPh)3(OH2)(2-Ph2P(O)py)] (8), which contains the biologically relevant {Fe2(μ-OH)2(μ-O2CR)}3+ core. This reaction is sensitive to the choice of carboxylate ligands, however, since the p-tolyl analog 1 yielded a hexanuclear species, 7, upon oxidation. PMID:16411722

  8. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction. Volume II. Early Implementation: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Thompson, M.; And Others

    This volume describes the experiences of each of the 15 rural and urban Healthy Start initiatives. These projects were set up in areas that had infant mortality rates that were 1.5 to 2.5 times the national average. Project locations include major cities such as Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, and rural areas in…

  9. Surface pressure profiles, vortex structure and initialization for hurricane prediction. Part II: numerical simulations of track, structure and intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Noel E.; Ma, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    In part 1 of this study, an assessment of commonly used surface pressure profiles to represent TC structures was made. Using the Australian tropical cyclone model, the profiles are tested in case studies of high-resolution prediction of track, structure and intensity. We demonstrate that: (1) track forecasts are mostly insensitive to the imposed structure; (2) in some cases [here Katrina (2005)], specification of vortex structure can have a large impact on prediction of structure and intensity; (3) the forecast model mostly preserves the characteristics of the initial structure and so correct structure at t = 0 is a requirement for improved structure forecasting; and (4) skilful prediction of intensity does not guarantee skilful prediction of structure. It is shown that for Ivan (2004) the initial structure from each profile is preserved during the simulations, and that markedly different structures can have similar intensities. Evidence presented suggests that different initial profiles can sometimes change the timing of intensification. Thus, correct initial vortex structure is an essential ingredient for more accurate intensity and structure prediction.

  10. Underbalanced drilling in remedial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, R.L.; Vozniak, J.

    1997-06-01

    Operators are finding additional applications for underbalanced drilling (UBD) technology that deliver benefits besides faster, more trouble-free drilling and improved well productivity. Underbalanced workovers, completions and re-drills are being performed with impressive results. This article will describe some of the jobs and applications, and detail the special surface equipment being used to make this a success. This is the fifth in a series of articles on UBD technology and its rapid development in this field. The paper discusses deep gas wells in the Texas Panhandle, gas and condensate wells near Mobile, Alabama, and the Austin Chalk wells in Texas and Louisiana.

  11. Feasibility study of a hand guided robotic drill for cochleostomy.

    PubMed

    Brett, Peter; Du, Xinli; Zoka-Assadi, Masoud; Coulson, Chris; Reid, Andrew; Proops, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design. PMID:25110684

  12. How offshore arctic conditions affect drilling mud disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; Britch, R.P.; Hillman, S.O.; Shafer, R.V.

    1982-12-01

    Reports on a series of studies and tests, covering a time period from early 1979 to mid-1981, conducted to examine both below-ice and above-ice discharge. Local, state, and federal concern has been expressed over the discharge of drilling effluent in shallow arctic seas contiguous to the northern coast of Alaska. The 1979 studies included monitoring environmental boundary conditions, test discharges of drilling effluents above and below the ice, analysis of drilling effluents, benthic studies, and toxicity testing. Studies in 1980 and 1981 included grain size, trace metal, and hydrocarbon analysis of drilling effluents and seafloor sediments, depositional monitoring, and photographic monitoring of individual aboveice sites. Results show that the fate of drilling fluids disposed of on top of the ice will vary with location within the lease area. Drilling effluents discharged in nearshore areas subject to overflow flooding from major rivers would be widely dispersed during the initial stages of breakup. Depending on the movement of the parent ice sheet during the later stages of breakup, solids may either be deposited on the seafloor beneath the disposal site or be carried with the broken ice sheet and be widely (spatially) and thinly deposited on the seafloor.

  13. Simulation of Martian Bedrock Drilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drilling a hole tocollect a rock-powder sample at a target site called "John Klein."Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › ...

  14. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  15. Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The figure depicts a portable, hand-held power drill with its attached power-supply unit, in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy. This ultra capacitor-powered drill is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations.

  16. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  17. A data model for drilling information and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, C.A.; Barazzutti, M.

    1995-12-31

    As computing technology has evolved, so have the demands placed by the user community on the functions it provides. The expectations of software used in drilling operations are changing from a convenient way of producing the daily drilling report, to acquiring drilling data for use in engineering analysis programs. This data is expected to provide insight into an increasing array of complicated engineering operations questions. There are a number of commercial morning reporting systems in use throughout the industry. However, after collecting many years worth of drilling data, the engineer is finding that their morning reporting system cannot easily provide the answers to some very basic questions. Many providers of drilling information systems have built their applications founded on daily wellsite operations, using the latest Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) to ensure their case of use. The data model is usually an afterthought, and is generally time rather than activity based. In some cases, the data model is used as a tool to further the system`s {open_quotes}user-friendliness{close_quotes}. This robs the application of its versatility in performing even some of the most fundamental analysis of the data. To date, neither POSC (Petrotechnical Open Systems Corporation) nor the PPDM (Public Petroleum Data Model) have initiated studies to develop a drilling data model. The authors will present a data model that was used as a basis for Shell Canada`s (SCan) Drilling Information System. The provision of a sound data model, that accurately reflects the fundamental data used by drilling (or other operations), is paramount to the success of any information system. Without it, the utilization of engineering operations analysis tools for optimization would be extremely difficult.

  18. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned firefighting responsibilities by...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned firefighting responsibilities by...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  2. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  5. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  7. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  11. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  16. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  3. Tool Wear in Friction Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Scott F; Blau, Peter Julian; Shih, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the wear of carbide tools used in friction drilling, a nontraditional hole-making process. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool uses the heat generated by friction to soften and penetrate a thin workpiece and create a bushing without generating chips. The wear of a hard tungsten carbide tool used for friction drilling a low carbon steel workpiece has been investigated. Tool wear characteristics were studied by measuring its weight change, detecting changes in its shape with a coordinate measuring machine, and making observations of wear damage using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was applied to analyze the change in chemical composition of the tool surface due to drilling. In addition, the thrust force and torque during drilling and the hole size were measured periodically to monitor the effects of tool wear. Results indicate that the carbide tool is durable, showing minimal tool wear after drilling 11000 holes, but observations also indicate progressively severe abrasive grooving on the tool tip.

  4. An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and ``how things work,'' including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations.

  5. Suicide attempts involving power drills.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    A 61-year-old man was found dead next to a power drill soiled with blood and bone dust. A 5 mm circular wound of the forehead corresponded to the size of the drill bit. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was present over the anterior pole of the left frontal lobe with a penetrating injury extending 75 mm into the frontal lobe white matter towards, but not involving, the basal ganglia. No major intracranial vessels had been injured and there was no significant intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Death was due to haemorrhage from self-inflicted stab wounds to the abdomen with an associated penetrating intracranial wound from a power drill. Deaths due to power drills are rare and are either accidents or suicides. Wounds caused by power drills may be mistaken for bullet entrance wounds, and the marks around a wound from the drill chuck as muzzle imprints. A lack of internal bevelling helps to distinguish the entrance wound from that due to a projectile. Significant penetration of the brain may occur without lethal injury. PMID:24237814

  6. Laboratory Investigations on Percussive Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivade, S. B.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.; Vardhan, Harsha

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory investigation was carried out on ten rock samples using pneumatic drill with drill bits of different diameters. In general, the process of drilling always produces sound. Sound is generated from the bit-rock interface regardless of the material of the bit used in drilling. The predicted sound level and penetration rate are a product of the drill power and the physical properties of the rocks penetrated. Rock samples were collected from the field and physical properties of the rocks were determined in the laboratory. The sound level and penetration rates were correlated with the rock properties. The compressive strength and abrasivity exhibit strong correlations with the sound level and penetration rate. It was concluded that, among the rock properties included in this study, the compressive strength and abrasivity values are the dominant ones affecting the penetration rate and sound level of percussive drills. Though ten rock samples have been covered in this study, detailed analysis of only one of them is presented.

  7. The Initiator Methionine tRNA Drives Secretion of Type II Collagen from Stromal Fibroblasts to Promote Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Cassie J.; Berg, Tracy J.; Birch, Joanna; Ennis, Darren; Mitchell, Louise; Cloix, Catherine; Campbell, Andrew; Sumpton, David; Nixon, Colin; Campbell, Kirsteen; Bridgeman, Victoria L.; Vermeulen, Peter B.; Foo, Shane; Kostaras, Eleftherios; Jones, J. Louise; Haywood, Linda; Pulleine, Ellie; Yin, Huabing; Strathdee, Douglas; Sansom, Owen; Blyth, Karen; McNeish, Iain; Zanivan, Sara; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Norman, Jim C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Expression of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAiMet) is deregulated in cancer. Despite this fact, it is not currently known how tRNAiMet expression levels influence tumor progression. We have found that tRNAiMet expression is increased in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, implicating deregulated expression of tRNAiMet in the tumor stroma as a possible contributor to tumor progression. To investigate how elevated stromal tRNAiMet contributes to tumor progression, we generated a mouse expressing additional copies of the tRNAiMet gene (2+tRNAiMet mouse). Growth and vascularization of subcutaneous tumor allografts was enhanced in 2+tRNAiMet mice compared with wild-type littermate controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by fibroblasts from 2+tRNAiMet mice supported enhanced endothelial cell and fibroblast migration. SILAC mass spectrometry indicated that elevated expression of tRNAiMet significantly increased synthesis and secretion of certain types of collagen, in particular type II collagen. Suppression of type II collagen opposed the ability of tRNAiMet-overexpressing fibroblasts to deposit pro-migratory ECM. We used the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) to determine whether collagen synthesis contributes to the tRNAiMet-driven pro-tumorigenic stroma in vivo. DHB had no effect on the growth of syngeneic allografts in wild-type mice but opposed the ability of 2+tRNAiMet mice to support increased angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, collagen II expression predicts poor prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that increased tRNAiMet levels contribute to tumor progression by enhancing the ability of stromal fibroblasts to synthesize and secrete a type II collagen-rich ECM that supports endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26948875

  8. The Initiator Methionine tRNA Drives Secretion of Type II Collagen from Stromal Fibroblasts to Promote Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Cassie J; Berg, Tracy J; Birch, Joanna; Ennis, Darren; Mitchell, Louise; Cloix, Catherine; Campbell, Andrew; Sumpton, David; Nixon, Colin; Campbell, Kirsteen; Bridgeman, Victoria L; Vermeulen, Peter B; Foo, Shane; Kostaras, Eleftherios; Jones, J Louise; Haywood, Linda; Pulleine, Ellie; Yin, Huabing; Strathdee, Douglas; Sansom, Owen; Blyth, Karen; McNeish, Iain; Zanivan, Sara; Reynolds, Andrew R; Norman, Jim C

    2016-03-21

    Expression of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAi(Met)) is deregulated in cancer. Despite this fact, it is not currently known how tRNAi(Met) expression levels influence tumor progression. We have found that tRNAi(Met) expression is increased in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, implicating deregulated expression of tRNAi(Met) in the tumor stroma as a possible contributor to tumor progression. To investigate how elevated stromal tRNAi(Met) contributes to tumor progression, we generated a mouse expressing additional copies of the tRNAi(Met) gene (2+tRNAi(Met) mouse). Growth and vascularization of subcutaneous tumor allografts was enhanced in 2+tRNAi(Met) mice compared with wild-type littermate controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by fibroblasts from 2+tRNAi(Met) mice supported enhanced endothelial cell and fibroblast migration. SILAC mass spectrometry indicated that elevated expression of tRNAi(Met) significantly increased synthesis and secretion of certain types of collagen, in particular type II collagen. Suppression of type II collagen opposed the ability of tRNAi(Met)-overexpressing fibroblasts to deposit pro-migratory ECM. We used the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) to determine whether collagen synthesis contributes to the tRNAi(Met)-driven pro-tumorigenic stroma in vivo. DHB had no effect on the growth of syngeneic allografts in wild-type mice but opposed the ability of 2+tRNAi(Met) mice to support increased angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, collagen II expression predicts poor prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that increased tRNAi(Met) levels contribute to tumor progression by enhancing the ability of stromal fibroblasts to synthesize and secrete a type II collagen-rich ECM that supports endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26948875

  9. Toluene and Ethylbenzene Aliphatic C-H Bond Oxidations Initiated by a Dicopper(II)-μ-1,2-Peroxo Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather R.; Li, Lei; Sarjeant, Amy A. Narducci; Vance, Michael A.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    With an anisole containing polypyridylamine potential tetradentate ligand OL, a μ-1,2-peroxo-dicopper(II) complex [{OLCuII}2(O22-)]2+ forms from the reaction of the mononuclear compound [CuI(OL)(MeCN)]B(C6F5)4(OLCuI) with O2 in non-coordinating solvents at -80 °C. Thermal decay of this peroxo complex in the presence of toluene or ethylbenzene leads to rarely seen C-H activation chemistry; benzaldehyde and acetophenone/1-phenylethanol mixtures, respectively, are formed. Experiments with 18O2 confirm that the oxygen source in the products is molecular O2 and deuterium labeling experiments indicate kH/kD = 7.5 ± 1 for the toluene oxygenation. The O2-reaction of [CuI(BzL)(CH3CN)]+ (BzLCuI) leads to a dicopper(III)-bis-μ-oxo species [{BzLCuIII}2(μ-O2-)2]2+ at -80 °C and from such solutions, very similar toluene oxygenation chemistry occurs. Ligand BzL is a tridentate chelate, possessing the same moiety found in OL, but without the anisole O-atom donor. In these contexts, the nature of the oxidant species in or derived from [{OLCuII}2(O22-)]2+ is discussed and likely mechanisms of reaction initiated by toluene H-atom abstraction chemistry are detailed. To confirm the structural formulations of the dioxygen-adducts, UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopic studies have been carried out and these results are reported and compared to previously described systems including [{CuII(PYL)}2(O2)]2+ (PYL =TMPA = tris(2-methylpyridyl)amine). Using (L)CuI, CO-binding properties (i.e., νC-O values) along with electrochemical property comparisons, the relative donor abilities of OL, BzL and PYL are assessed. PMID:19216527

  10. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Institute. Status report, March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) program is intended to pool support, talent, and technologies of the industries dependent upon drilling and excavation technologies to initiate, coordinate, and sustain programs capable of developing substantial technological advances. The NADET Institute has been funded by the DOE Office of Geothermal Technologies and is now supporting seven projects aimed at advanced geothermal drilling technologies. The Institute seeks to broaden its base of funding and technological support from both government and industry sources. Encouraging progress has been made with the support of dues-paying industrial members and industrial sponsorship of a substantial drilling research study.

  11. Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

  12. Horizontal drilling improves recovery in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Muhairy, A.A. ); Farid, E.A. )

    1993-09-13

    Both onshore and offshore Abu Dhabi, horizontal wells have increased productivity three to four times more than that from vertical and deviated wells in the same reservoirs. Horizontal drilling technology was first applied in Abu Dhabi in February 1988, and through March 1993, 48 wells have been horizontally drilled. During the 5 years of horizontal drilling, the experience gained by both operating company and service company personnel has contributed to a substantial improvement in drilling rate, and hence, a reduction in drilling costs. The improvements in drilling and completions resulted from the following: The horizontal drilling and completion operations were analyzed daily, and these follow-up analyses helped optimize the planning of subsequent wells. The bits and bottom hole assemblies were continuously analyzed for optimum selections. Steerable drilling assemblies were found very effective in the upper sections of the wells. The paper describes drilling activities onshore and offshore, completion design, and the outlook for future well drilling.

  13. Designing the ejector pellet impact drill bit for hard and tough rock drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Aliev, F. R.; Gorbenko, M. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    There are many types of ejector pellet impact drill bit providing impact rock drilling. Basic types of drill strings have been regarded, the essential requirements for the most efficient facilities to drill hard and tough rocks are formulated. With regard to these requirements, the ejector pellet impact drill bit design appropriate for operating under given conditions has been proposed

  14. Engineering work plan for container venting system drill press assembly troubleshooting. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, M.C.

    1994-11-01

    This work plan is for troubleshooting the current CVS drill press to ensure that the drill bit assembly doesn`t bind in the press plate. A drill press assembly has been fabricated for the Container Venting System (CVS). The drill bit assembly has bound in the press plate in previous revisions of this design. Initial troubleshooting of the drill press per Rev. 0 of this work plan was performed at the 200W Kaiser Machine Shop under Work Package 2H9401670F, Internal Work Order E20027. The drill press operated without jamming. Then, during the pre-operational test on 11/14/17 and the operational test on 11/17/94, two drum lids were drilled. Immediately after the test on 11/17/94, the drill was again operated, and it jammed. An inspection found shavings at the bottom of the drill bit assembly, between the drill bit sleeve and the press plate bore. This revised work plan provides direction for the machine shop to diagnose and correct this recent problem.

  15. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  16. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  17. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  18. Semantic Approaches Applied to Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Jenkins, C. J.; Arko, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of Linked Open Data methods to 40 years of data from scientific ocean drilling is providing users with several new methods for rich-content data search and discovery. Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have been translated and placed in RDF triple stores to provide access via SPARQL, linked open data patterns, and by embedded structured data through schema.org / RDFa. Existing search services have been re-encoded in this environment which allows the new and established architectures to be contrasted. Vocabularies including computed semantic relations between concepts, allow separate but related data sets to be connected on their concepts and resources even when they are expressed somewhat differently. Scientific ocean drilling produces a wide range of data types and data sets: borehole logging file-based data, images, measurements, visual observations and the physical sample data. The steps involved in connecting these data to concepts using vocabularies will be presented, including the connection of data sets through Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) and open entity collections such as Freebase and dbPedia. Demonstrated examples will include: (i) using RDF Schema for inferencing and in federated searches across NGDC and IODP data, (ii) using structured data in the data.oceandrilling.org web site, (iii) association through semantic methods of age models and depth recorded data to facilitate age based searches for data recorded by depth only.

  19. Deformation-corrosion interactions for Zr alloys during I-SCC crack initiation. Part II: Localised stress and strain contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Patrick; Lefebvre, Florence; Lemaignan, Clément

    1999-01-01

    For a better understanding of the initiation step of iodine induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Zr alloys, responsible for pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) fuel rod failures, an analytical study has been undertaken, the aim of which being focused on the respective roles of local chemistry and stress/strain state on the crack nucleation. This second part is mostly related to the local stress induced by strain incompatibilities between grains. Using EBSP (electron back-scattering pattern) to analyze the crystallographic orientation of all the grains of the samples tested in SCC, it was possible to conclude that the major parameter controlling the nucleation of the intergranular cracks is not related to grain to grain strain incompatibilities, but to the orientation of the grain boundary planes with respect to the tensile stress.

  20. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  1. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  2. VARIATIONS ON DEBRIS DISKS. II. ICY PLANET FORMATION AS A FUNCTION OF THE BULK PROPERTIES AND INITIAL SIZES OF PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C. E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.ed

    2010-05-15

    We describe comprehensive calculations of the formation of icy planets and debris disks at 30-150 AU around 1-3 M {sub sun} stars. Disks composed of large, strong planetesimals produce more massive planets than disks composed of small, weak planetesimals. The maximum radius of icy planets ranges from {approx}1500 km to 11,500 km. The formation rate of 1000 km objects-{sup P}lutos{sup -}is a useful proxy for the efficiency of icy planet formation. Plutos form more efficiently in massive disks, in disks with small planetesimals, and in disks with a range of planetesimal sizes. Although Plutos form throughout massive disks, Pluto production is usually concentrated in the inner disk. Despite the large number of Plutos produced in many calculations, icy planet formation is inefficient. At the end of the main sequence lifetime of the central star, Plutos contain less than 10% of the initial mass in solid material. This conclusion is independent of the initial mass in the disk or the properties of the planetesimals. Debris disk formation coincides with the formation of planetary systems containing Plutos. As Plutos form, they stir leftover planetesimals to large velocities. A cascade of collisions then grinds the leftovers to dust, forming an observable debris disk. In disks with small ({approx}<1-10 km) planetesimals, collisional cascades produce luminous debris disks with maximum luminosity {approx}10{sup -2} times the stellar luminosity. Disks with larger planetesimals produce debris disks with maximum luminosity {approx}5 x 10{sup -4} (10 km) to 5 x 10{sup -5} (100 km) times the stellar luminosity. Following peak luminosity, the evolution of the debris disk emission is roughly a power law, f {proportional_to} t {sup -n} with n{approx} 0.6-0.8. Observations of debris disks around A-type and G-type stars strongly favor models with small planetesimals. In these models, our predictions for the time evolution and detection frequency of debris disks agree with published

  3. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  4. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. II. The formation of unstable coronal flux ropes and the initiation of coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-05-20

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (∼36 Mm above the surface). We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as 'magnetic breakout', are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY THE CYANOBACTERIUM PLECTONEMA BORYANUM: EFFECTS OF INITIAL NITRATE CONCENTRATION, LIGHT INTENSITY, AND INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYSTEM II BY DCMU

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, B.; Huesemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The alarming rate at which atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels will have incalculable consequences if disregarded. Fuel cells, a source of energy that does not add to carbon dioxide emissions, have become an important topic of study. Although signifi cant advances have been made related to fuel cells, the problem of cheap and renewable hydrogen production still remains. The cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum has demonstrated potential as a resolution to this problem by producing hydrogen under nitrogen defi cient growing conditions. Plectonema boryanum cultures were tested in a series of experiments to determine the effects of light intensity, initial nitrate concentration, and photosystem II inhibitor DCMU (3-(3,4- dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) upon hydrogen production. Cultures were grown in sterile Chu. No. 10 medium within photobioreactors constantly illuminated by halogen lights. Because the enzyme responsible for hydrogen production is sensitive to oxygen, the medium was continuously sparged with argon/CO2 (99.7%/0.3% vol/vol) by gas dispersion tubes immersed in the culture. Hydrogen production was monitored by using a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. In the initial experiment, the effects of initial nitrate concentration were tested and results revealed cumulative hydrogen production was maximum at an initial nitrate concentration of 1 mM. A second experiment was then conducted at an initial nitrate concentration of 1 mM to determine the effects of light intensity at 50, 100, and 200 μmole m-2 s-1. Cumulative hydrogen production increased with increasing light intensity. A fi nal experiment, conducted at an initial nitrate concentration of 2 mM, tested the effects of high light intensity at 200 and 400 μmole m-2 s-1. Excessive light at 400 μmole m-2 s-1 decreased cumulative hydrogen production. Based upon all experiments, cumulative hydrogen production rates were optimal

  6. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    PubMed

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site. PMID:18597659

  7. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  8. Primary cilia membrane assembly is initiated by Rab11 and transport protein particle II (TRAPPII) complex-dependent trafficking of Rabin8 to the centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Westlake, Christopher J.; Baye, Lisa M.; Nachury, Maxence V.; Wright, Kevin J.; Ervin, Karen E.; Phu, Lilian; Chalouni, Cecile; Beck, John S.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Slusarski, Diane C.; Sheffield, Val C.; Scheller, Richard H.; Jackson, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory and signaling pathways are exquisitely organized in primary cilia. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) patients have compromised cilia and signaling. BBS proteins form the BBSome, which binds Rabin8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activating the Rab8 GTPase, required for ciliary assembly. We now describe serum-regulated upstream vesicular transport events leading to centrosomal Rab8 activation and ciliary membrane formation. Using live microscopy imaging, we show that upon serum withdrawal Rab8 is observed to assemble the ciliary membrane in ∼100 min. Rab8-dependent ciliary assembly is initiated by the relocalization of Rabin8 to Rab11-positive vesicles that are transported to the centrosome. After ciliogenesis, Rab8 ciliary transport is strongly reduced, and this reduction appears to be associated with decreased Rabin8 centrosomal accumulation. Rab11-GTP associates with the Rabin8 COOH-terminal region and is required for Rabin8 preciliary membrane trafficking to the centrosome and for ciliogenesis. Using zebrafish as a model organism, we show that Rabin8 and Rab11 are associated with the BBS pathway. Finally, using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we determined that the transport protein particle (TRAPP) II complex associates with the Rabin8 NH2-terminal domain and show that TRAPP II subunits colocalize with centrosomal Rabin8 and are required for Rabin8 preciliary targeting and ciliogenesis. PMID:21273506

  9. Evaluation of ISLSCP Initiative II satellite-based land cover data sets and assessment of progress in land cover data for global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown de Colstoun, Eric C.; Defries, Ruth S.; Townshend, John R. G.

    2006-11-01

    As an important component of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data collection, eight state-of-the-art land cover/use data sets have been compiled and made consistent with the ISLSCP Initiative II land/water mask in support of global modeling efforts. These data sets contain new and improved global data sets at coarse resolutions (1/4, 1/2 and 1°) describing historical, recent and present land cover conditions and are a testament to the tremendous progress made in this area over the past decade. In addition to the historical data, data describing the subcell heterogeneity in land cover are also provided, both in terms of subcell proportions of land cover classes and vegetation continuous fields such as % tree, grass and bare cover. Here we present the various ISLSCPII land cover data sets and compare the principal satellite-derived data sets and the effect of their respective aggregation methods. We find that despite some notable disagreements among similar classes, the satellite-based data sets agree remarkably well over large portions of the Earth's surface (over 50% for all resolutions). We also find that the methods of aggregation, whether done by a strictly dominant type, or using more information on subcell tree cover, can have an important impact on the final output and need to be considered by the user. Finally, by integrating the vegetation continuous fields data into our analyses we are able to show that the principal differences in terms of discrete land cover classes are in fact transition zones between similar classes.

  10. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  11. Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos

    DOE Data Explorer

    ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL 0.5 pc OF THE GALAXY. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. R.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Matthews, K. E-mail: tuan.do@uci.edu E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-02-20

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M {sub Sun} above 1 M {sub Sun} and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  13. Stellar Populations in the Central 0.5 pc of the Galaxy. II. The Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. R.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Matthews, K.

    2013-02-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is α = 1.7 ± 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M ⊙ above 1 M ⊙ and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  14. Apparatus for drilling enlarged boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.

    1982-10-19

    A rotary bore hole enlarging bit is connected to a rotary pipe string having a drilling fluid flow path and an actuator flow path. The bit comprises a body structure including inner and outer telescopic body sections, expansible and retractible arms carrying cutters on the outer body section and an expander on the inner body section engageable with the arms to expand the arms and cutters upon telescopic movement of body sections in one relative direction. A piston and cylinder is provided between the inner and outer body sections to secure relative telescopic movement between the body sections. A first passage is disposed in the body structure and expansible arms and cutters for conducting drilling fluid to the cutters from the drilling fluid flow path, there being a second passage in the body structure for conducting actuator fluid to the piston and cylinder from the actuator fluid flow path.

  15. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  16. 75 FR 49891 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4345 (January 27, 2010). The affirmative...: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 33245 (June 11, 2010) (Preliminary...), Jiangyin Sanliang Petroleum Machinery Co., Ltd. (SPM), Jiangyin Liangda Drill Pipe Co., Ltd....

  17. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to present a performance study of the digital beam attenuator (DBA) for implementing fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) using a simulation framework developed to model the incorporation of the DBA into an existing CT system. Additionally, initial results will be presented using a prototype DBA and the realization of the prototype will be described. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental use of a device capable of modulating x-ray fluence as a function of fan angle using a CT geometry. Methods: To realize FFMCT, the authors propose to use a wedge design in which one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. Due to the wedge shape, the composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. This design allows for the wedges to modulate the photon fluence incident onto a patient. Using a simulation environment, the effect of changing the number of wedges has on dose, scatter, detector dynamic range, and noise uniformity is explored. Experimental results are presented using a prototype DBA having ten Fe wedges and a c-arm CT system geometry. The experimental DBA results are compared to non-DBA scans using scatter and detector dynamic range as metrics. Both flat field and bowtie filtered CT acquisitions were simulated for comparison with the DBA. Results: Numerical results suggest that substantial gains in noise uniformity and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) can be obtained using only seven wedges. After seven wedges, the decrease in noise ununiformity and SPR falls off at a lower rate. Simulations comparing CT acquisitions between flat field, bowtie enabled, and DBA CT acquisitions suggest DBA-FFMCT can reduce dose relative to flat field CT by Almost-Equal-To 3 times. A bowtie filter under the same imaging conditions was shown to only allow a dose reduction of 1.65 times. Experimentally, a 10 wedge DBA prototype result showed

  18. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to present a performance study of the digital beam attenuator (DBA) for implementing fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) using a simulation framework developed to model the incorporation of the DBA into an existing CT system. Additionally, initial results will be presented using a prototype DBA and the realization of the prototype will be described. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental use of a device capable of modulating x-ray fluence as a function of fan angle using a CT geometry. Methods: To realize FFMCT, the authors propose to use a wedge design in which one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. Due to the wedge shape, the composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. This design allows for the wedges to modulate the photon fluence incident onto a patient. Using a simulation environment, the effect of changing the number of wedges has on dose, scatter, detector dynamic range, and noise uniformity is explored. Experimental results are presented using a prototype DBA having ten Fe wedges and a c-arm CT system geometry. The experimental DBA results are compared to non-DBA scans using scatter and detector dynamic range as metrics. Both flat field and bowtie filtered CT acquisitions were simulated for comparison with the DBA. Results: Numerical results suggest that substantial gains in noise uniformity and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) can be obtained using only seven wedges. After seven wedges, the decrease in noise ununiformity and SPR falls off at a lower rate. Simulations comparing CT acquisitions between flat field, bowtie enabled, and DBA CT acquisitions suggest DBA-FFMCT can reduce dose relative to flat field CT by ≈3 times. A bowtie filter under the same imaging conditions was shown to only allow a dose reduction of 1.65 times. Experimentally, a 10 wedge DBA prototype result showed a SPR

  19. Near-Term Developments in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1989-03-21

    The DOE Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling geothermal wells. Current projects include: R & D in lost circulation control, high temperature instrumentation, underground imaging with a borehole radar insulated drill pipe development for high temperature formations, and new technology for data transmission through drill pipe that can potentially greatly improve data rates for measurement while drilling systems. In addition to this work, projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization are managed. During 1988, GDO projects include developments in five areas: high temperature acoustic televiewer, pneumatic turbine, urethane foam for lost circulation control, geothermal drill pipe protectors, an improved rotary head seals.

  20. Directional drilling and earth curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, H.S.; Wilson, H.F.

    2000-03-01

    This paper provides a review of current practices for calculating directional drilling placement in the light of modern extended-reach applications. The review highlights the potential for gross errors in the application of geodetic reference information and errors inherent in the calculation method. Both types of error are quantified theoretically and illustrated with a real example. The authors borrow established land surveying calculation methods to develop a revised best practice for directional drilling. For the elimination of gross errors they prescribe increased awareness and a more disciplined approach to the handling of positional data.

  1. Drilling's value stressed at hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A Senate subcommittee recently heard testimony from government, university, and industry geoscientists in support of a bill that would formalize the planning and coordination of continental scientific drilling. Among the reasons given in favor of the bill by the 13 witnesses at the July 24, 1986, hearing were the possible benefits of a continental drilling program for our understanding of the history of the earth's crust, the origins of mineral and energy resources, the mechanisms of earthquakes and volcanos, and the migration of toxic wastes. The hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production, chaired by Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.).

  2. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  3. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  4. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  5. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  6. Pattern Drill. ZE-Diskussion. (Pattern Drill. ZE [Zielsprache Englisch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This "Zielsprache Englisch" Discussion consists of 8 articles on pattern drill. They will be found under the authors' names: Freudenstein, R.; Gutschow, H.; Hill, L. A.; Mugglestone, P.; Piepho, H-E; Raasch, A.; Schmitz, A.; Schrand, H. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  8. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  9. Environmental measurement while drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented.

  10. Do You Know the Drill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses one of the best defenses against a violent threat in schools -- practicing emergency and lockdown drills. In some buildings, classroom doors lack locks and exterior doors are old. Other buildings have public announcement systems that do not work well throughout a school building, or that lack speakers in restrooms. Still…

  11. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

    1984-06-05

    The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

  12. Hydrate control in deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Gas-hydrate formation during deepwater offshore drilling and production is a well-recognized operational hazard. In water depths greater than 1,000 ft, seabed conditions of pressure and temperature become conducive to gas-hydrate formation. In a well-control situation, although the kick fluid leaves the formation at a high temperature, it can cool to seabed temperature with an extended shut-in period. With high enough hydrostatic pressure at the mudline, hydrates could form in the blowout-preventer (BOP) stack and choke and kill lines, as has been observed in field operations. The current practice in deepwater drilling is to suppress the hydrate-formation temperature by use of highly saline drilling fluids formulated from NaCl or other salts. This solution is applicable for the Gulf of Mexico but insufficient for the conditions encountered in Norwegian deep waters. At extreme water depths or extremely low mudline temperatures, this thermodynamic inhibition alone may not be sufficient to prevent hydrate formation. Instead, the use of kinetic inhibitors or crystal modifiers, in conjunction with thermodynamic inhibitors, may allow successful operations in such an environment. The definition of kinetic inhibitors (to distinguish them from the classic thermodynamic inhibitors, such as polar compounds and electrolytes) comes from the effect of the chemicals on the nucleation and growth of natural gas hydrates, both of which are time-dependent, stochastic processes. The paper describes deepwater drilling fluids, polar and surface-active additives, kinetic inhibition and crystal modifiers, laboratory measurements, and test results.

  13. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  14. Horizontal drilling installs dutch waterline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    A 32-in. potable water line system, installed by Van Eijk Leidingen B.V. in Holland, was laid through an intensively cultivated vegetable gardening area, and designed to furnish additional irrigation water. Using a horizontally drilled 42-in. hole under the Maasdijk, though a difficult job, reduced the length by more than 3 miles.

  15. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  16. Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

  17. Drilling on midway atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, H.S.; Tracey, J.I., Jr.; Gross, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    Two holes drilled through reef sediments into basalt have established a geologic section through the Miocene. Midway was built above the sea by flows that were weathered and partially truncated in pre-Miocene time. After submergence, volcanic clays were reworked and covered by limestones. Overall submergence was interrupted at least twice by emergence. The limestones have been leached, recrystallized, and partially dolomitized.

  18. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  19. Acoustic data transmission through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-04-21

    Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

  20. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face.

  1. PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

    1983-02-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

  2. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pass under or step over a moving stem or auger. (e) In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be placed in the neutral position until power is restored. (f) When churn drills or vertical...

  4. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  5. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  6. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOEpatents

    Hall; David R. , Fox; Joe

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  7. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  8. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Current research and development in the following areas are presented: geothermal roller cone bits, polycrystalline diamond compact bits, a continuous chain drill, drilling fluids test equipment, mud research, inert fluids, foam fluids, lost circulation control, completion technology, and advanced drilling and completion systems. (MHR)

  9. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  10. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  11. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  12. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  13. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  14. Improve dust capture on your surface drill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, S.J.; Listak, J.M.; Reed, R.

    2008-09-15

    Researchers have developed a model to describe airborne respirable dust (ARD) generation on surface coal mine drills. By measuring a few basic parameters and using a graph, a drill operator or engineer can estimate the relative severity of drill dust emissions as well as how much of a reduction in ARD can be obtained by changing any given parameter. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  17. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  19. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  20. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  1. Drilling-induced core fractures and in situ stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyi; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    1998-03-01

    The relationship between the shapes of drilling-induced core fractures and the in situ state of stress is developed. The stress concentrations at the well bore bottom are first determined using a complete three-dimensional finite element analysis. Existing in situ compressional stresses generate large tensions in the immediate vicinity of the bottom hole which are sufficient to rupture the rock. Tensile fracture trajectories within these concentrated stress fields are predicted using a simple model of fracture propagation. These modeled fracture trajectories resemble well the observed shapes of drilling-induced core disking, petal, and petal-centerline fractures. Further, this agreement suggests that both the shape of the drilling-induced fracture and the location at which it initiates depends on the in situ stress state existing in the rock mass prior to drilling; the core fractures contain substantial information on in situ stress conditions. In all faulting regimes the coring-induced fractures initiate near the bit cut except for most cases under thrust faulting regime where the fracture initiates on the well bore axis. Further, under thrust faulting conditions only disk fractures appear possible. Both petal and disking fractures can be produced in strike-slip and normal faulting regimes depending upon the relative magnitudes between the least compressive horizontal principal stress and the vertical overburden stress. The predicted fracture shapes are in good qualitative agreement with observations of drilling-induced fractures described in the literature from laboratory experiments and field programs in which in situ stresses are measured by other means. The relationship of the morphology of coring induced fractures and in situ stresses suggests that the fractures can be used as independent complementary indicators in identifying stress regimes.

  2. Effect Of Drill String Rotation On The Dynamic Response Of Drilling Risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, I. E.; Big-Alabo, A.; Odi-Owei, S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the rotation of a drill string on the response of a drilling riser has been studied. A governing equation for the flexural response that incorporates the effect of the drill string rotation is developed from first principles, and the resulting differential equation is found to have a variable coefficient, which is a function of the drill string rotational speed. Results simulated for the free vibration response show that the drill string rotation reduces the natural frequency and increases the amplitude of vibration of the drilling riser. The implication of these findings is that neglecting the effect of rotation of the drill string leads to under-estimation of the deflection and over-estimation of the natural frequency. Further analysis reveals that for a drilling riser of given dimensions, a drill string rotational speed exists at which the natural frequency of the drilling riser is theoretical equal to zero, and this rotational speed is the threshold rotational speed.

  3. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  4. Robotic Drilling Technology and Applications to Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J. L.; Reiter, J. W.; Rumann, A.; Wu, D.; Wang, G. Y.; Meyers, M.; Craig, J.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: Robotic drilling has great potential to become a vital, enabling technology in the context of future human and robotic exploration of the Solar System. Specific needs for human exploration relate to the ability for remote missions to scout potential locations for habitability and/or resource recovery. We will describe relevant challenges to robotic drilling and development pertaining to operations within hostile planetary environments. From the perspective of a system concept for mission architectures and exploration approaches, the ability to drill into extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and recover samples for analysis and/or utilization can provide vital references, resources, and opportunities for mission enrichment. The technology for supporting and planning such missions presents a feed-forward advantage for a human presence in such environments. Future space missions for drilling in the shallow and mid-to-deep subsurface face issues unfamiliar to terrestrial analogues, including limited power, very low or very high pressures, and widely varying thermal environments. We will discuss the means and approaches for establishing drilling operations, managing drilling sites, and mitigating environmental effects. Early robotic phases will leverage system-of-systems collaborations among humans and machines on and above the surface of planetary bodies. Such "precursor missions" will be charged with the task of mapping subsurface geology, understanding soil/rock particle distributions, obtaining geologic history, and determining local resource profiles. An example of the need for this kind of information is given to good effect by one of the lessons learned by NASA's Apollo program: the effects of lunar dust on humans, drilling mechanisms, and mission expectations were far greater than initially expected, and are still being critically considered. Future missions to Solar System bodies, including the Moon and Mars, will need to have advance information

  5. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arnis Judzis

    2001-04-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting January 2001 through March 2001. Accomplishments to date include the following: (1) On January 9th of 2001, details of the Mud Hammer Drilling Performance Testing Project were presented at a ''kick-off'' meeting held in Morgantown. (2) A preliminary test program was formulated and prepared for presentation at a meeting of the advisory board in Houston on the 8th of February. (3) The meeting was held with the advisory board reviewing the test program in detail. (4) Consensus was achieved and the approved test program was initiated after thorough discussion. (5) This new program outlined the details of the drilling tests as well as scheduling the test program for the weeks of 14th and 21st of May 2001. (6) All the tasks were initiated for a completion to coincide with the test schedule. (7) By the end of March the hardware had been designed and the majority was either being fabricated or completed. (8) The rock was received and cored into cylinders.

  7. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have includedmore » a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  8. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  9. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano-tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  10. Drilling applications expand snubbing unit use

    SciTech Connect

    Lagendyk, R.; Loring, G.; Aasen, J. |

    1996-05-01

    Snubdrilling with variations of proven hydraulic workover unit technology provides several advantages over conventional and coiled tubing drilling for special cases. For several decades, snubbing has been used to drill cement, packers, shale, barium sulfate, and other wellbore obstructions in live and dead wells. Recently, a snubbing jack was used to drill a 5,165-ft well in South America. And the oil industry is showing a tremendous interest for snub-drilling. This article describes how this new application compares to conventional and coiled tubing drilling. The recent high-pressure snubdrill operation in Venezuela is reviewed.

  11. Stacked rig refurbished for ultradeep gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Noevig, T.; Gutsche, W. )

    1995-01-09

    A heavy drilling rig, cold stacked for several years, recently underwent numerous structural, equipment, and computer upgrades for drilling ultradeep (8,000 m) gas wells in Germany. The technical improvements on the rig included supplementary installations and modifications to safety, quality, engineering, noise abatement, and environmental protection systems. With a maximal hook load of 700 tons, the drilling rig is one of the heaviest of its kind in Europe. The rig has a drilling depth range of 7,000--8,000 m, and the top drive system enables horizontal drilling. The paper describes the rig site, mast, top drive, substructure, draw works, power station, mud system, instrumentation, and other equipment.

  12. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  13. Pellet impact drilling operational parameters: experimental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Aliev, F. R.; Gorbenko, M. V.; Baranova, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the study of particle-impact drilling that is designed to enhance the rate-of-penetration function in hard and tough drilling environments. It contains the experimental results on relation between drilling parameters and drilling efficiency, the experiments being conducted by means of a specially designed laboratory model. To interpret the results properly a high-speed camera was used to capture the pellet motion. These results can be used to choose optimal parameters, as well as to develop enhanced design of ejector pellet impact drill bits.

  14. Directional drilling and equipment for hot granite wells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.; Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C.; Brittenham, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    The following drilling equipment and experience gained in drilling to date are discussed: positive displacement motors, turbodrills, motor performance experience, rotary-build and rotary-hold results, steering devices and surveying tools, shock absorbers, drilling and fishing jars, drilling bits, control of drill string drag, and control of drill string degradation. (MHR)

  15. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  16. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7008 - Moving the drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving the drill. 56.7008 Section 56.7008... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7008 Moving the drill. When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7008 - Moving the drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving the drill. 56.7008 Section 56.7008... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7008 Moving the drill. When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7008 - Moving the drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving the drill. 56.7008 Section 56.7008... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7008 Moving the drill. When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to...

  20. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7008 - Moving the drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving the drill. 56.7008 Section 56.7008... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7008 Moving the drill. When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7008 - Moving the drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving the drill. 56.7008 Section 56.7008... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7008 Moving the drill. When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to...

  3. Heterologous assembly of type IV pili by a type II secretion system reveals the role of minor pilins in assembly initiation.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, David A; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Francetic, Olivera

    2012-11-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pilus assembly (T4PS) and type II secretion (T2SS) systems polymerize inner membrane proteins called major pilins or pseudopilins respectively, into thin filaments. Four minor pilins are required in both systems for efficient fibre assembly. Escherichia coli K-12 has a set of T4PS assembly genes that are silent under standard growth conditions. We studied the heterologous assembly of the E. coli type IV pilin PpdD by the Klebsiella oxytoca T2SS called the Pul system. PpdD pilus assembly in this context depended on the expression of the K. oxytoca minor pseudopilin genes pulHIJK or of the E. coli minor pilin genes ppdAB-ygdB-ppdC. The E. coli minor pilins restored assembly of the major pseudopilin PulG in a pulHIJK mutant, but not the secretion of the T2SS substrate pullulanase. Thus, minor pilins and minor pseudopilins are functionally interchangeable in initiating major pilin assembly, further extending the fundamental similarities between the two systems. The data suggest that, in both systems, minor pilins activate the assembly machinery through a common self-assembly mechanism. When produced together, PulG and PpdD assembled into distinct homopolymers, establishing major pilins as key determinants of pilus elongation and structure. PMID:23006128

  4. Filter for a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; McPherson, James

    2007-12-04

    A filter for a drill string comprises a perforated receptacle having an open end and a perforated end and first and second mounting surfaces are adjacent the open end. A transmission element is disposed within each of the first and second mounting surfaces. A capacitor may modify electrical characteristics of an LC circuit that comprises the transmission elements. The respective transmission elements are in communication with each other and with a transmission network integrated into the drill string. The transmission elements may be inductive couplers, direct electrical contacts, or optical couplers. In some embodiments of the present invention, the filter comprises an electronic component. The electronic component may be selected from the group consisting of a sensor, a router, a power source, a clock source, a repeater, and an amplifier.

  5. Ouachitas need more exploratory drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suneson, Neil H.; Campbell, Jock A.

    1990-01-01

    The Ouachita Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas are part of a mostly buried late Paleozoic fold and thrust belt that extends from Alabama to northern Mexico. The principal hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Ouachita tectonic province can be subdivided into those that produce natural gas from shallow-water units and those that produce oil and/or natural gas from deep-water units. They can also be divided into those that are fractured and those that produce from primary pore spaces or vugs. The first successful oil well in the Ouachita Mountains was drilled in 1913 or 1914. Since the discovery of the Redden field, over 800 oil and gas wells have been drilled in the Ouachita tectonic province in Oklahoma. Yet, most of the region remains little explored.

  6. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  7. Underbalanced drilling with air offers many pluses

    SciTech Connect

    Shale, L.

    1995-06-26

    A pressure overbalance during conventional drilling can cause significant fluid filtrate invasion and lost circulation. Fluid invasion into the formation can lead to formation damage, high mud costs, a need for expensive completions, and well productivity impairment. Because underbalanced drilling creates a natural tendency for fluid and gas to flow from the formation to the borehole, successful underbalanced drilling depends upon the appropriate selection of circulating fluid. The use of a compressible fluid in the circulating system, referred to as air drilling, lowers the downhole pressure, allowing drilling into and beyond these sensitive formations. The paper discusses the equipment needed; well control; downhole air requirements; air drilling techniques using dry air, air-mist, stable foam, stiff foam, and aerated-fluid; downhole fires; directional air drilling; and well completions.

  8. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-02-02

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility.

  9. Conformable apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Fox, Joe

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube. The metal tube may be adapted to stretch as the drill pipes stretch.

  10. Drilling fluids and thinners therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.M. III

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

  11. Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

  12. Innovations aid frontier offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, C.

    1986-04-14

    In the past 3 years, new water-depth records have been established for the drilling of exploration wells and for the installation of subsea completion systems. In addition, development of equipment for drilling and completing wells in harsh environments has been accelerating. Three significant systems, manufactured and installed during this time, have enabled the industry to expand its capabilities and extend its frontiers. The three developments, with the points that will be discussed, are: A riser system used in world-record water depth off the U.S. East Coast (major system components, computer analysis of flanged riser coupling, and modifications based on field input); A caisson drilling system installed off the East Coast of Canada designed for iceberg scouring conditions (design philosophy, unique design); Further riser system developments for deep-water and severe environmental conditions (design of riser tensioning ring that eliminates goosenecks and does not require removal of drape hoses when running/retrieving riser). Primary among the conclusions drawn from these and other developments is the solid technological base being developed for use in further extending industry hardware capabilities.

  13. The Effect of Simplifying Dental Implant Drilling Sequence on Osseointegration: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Giro, Gabriela; Tovar, Nick; Marin, Charles; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Suzuki, Marcelo; Janal, Malvin N.; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To test the hypothesis that there would be no differences in osseointegration by reducing the number of drills for site preparation relative to conventional drilling sequence. Methods. Seventy-two implants were bilaterally placed in the tibia of 18 beagle dogs and remained for 1, 3, and 5 weeks. Thirty-six implants were 3.75 mm in diameter and the other 36 were 4.2 mm. Half of the implants of each diameter were placed under a simplified technique (pilot drill + final diameter drill) and the other half were placed under conventional drilling where multiple drills of increasing diameter were utilized. After euthanisation, the bone-implant samples were processed and referred to histological analysis. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO) were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed by GLM ANOVA at 95% level of significance considering implant diameter, time in vivo, and drilling procedure as independent variables and BIC and BAFO as the dependent variables. Results. Both techniques led to implant integration. No differences in BIC and BAFO were observed between drilling procedures as time elapsed in vivo. Conclusions. The simplified drilling protocol presented comparable osseointegration outcomes to the conventional protocol, which proved the initial hypothesis. PMID:23431303

  14. Design of a Pneumatic Tool for Manual Drilling Operations in Confined Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Benjamin

    This master's thesis describes the design process and testing results for a pneumatically actuated, manually-operated tool for confined space drilling operations. The purpose of this device is to back-drill pilot holes inside a commercial airplane wing. It is lightweight, and a "locator pin" enables the operator to align the drill over a pilot hole. A suction pad stabilizes the system, and an air motor and flexible drive shaft power the drill. Two testing procedures were performed to determine the practicality of this prototype. The first was the "offset drill test", which qualified the exit hole position error due to an initial position error relative to the original pilot hole. The results displayed a linear relationship, and it was determined that position errors of less than .060" would prevent the need for rework, with errors of up to .030" considered acceptable. For the second test, a series of holes were drilled with the pneumatic tool and analyzed for position error, diameter range, and cycle time. The position errors and hole diameter range were within the allowed tolerances. The average cycle time was 45 seconds, 73 percent of which was for drilling the hole, and 27 percent of which was for positioning the device. Recommended improvements are discussed in the conclusion, and include a more durable flexible drive shaft, a damper for drill feed control, and a more stable locator pin.

  15. Heteroleptic tin(II) initiators for the ring-opening (co)polymerization of lactide and trimethylene carbonate: mechanistic insights from experiments and computations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfang; Kefalidis, Christos E; Sinbandhit, Sourisak; Dorcet, Vincent; Carpentier, Jean-François; Maron, Laurent; Sarazin, Yann

    2013-09-27

    The tin(II) complexes {LO(x)}Sn(X) ({LO(x)}(-) =aminophenolate ancillary) containing amido (1-4), chloro (5), or lactyl (6) coligands (X) promote the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters. Complex 6, which models the first insertion of L-lactide, initiates the living ROP of L-LA on its own, but the amido derivatives 1-4 require the addition of alcohol to do so. Upon addition of one to ten equivalents of iPrOH, precatalysts 1-4 promote the ROP of trimethylene carbonate (TMC); yet, hardly any activity is observed if tert-butyl (R)-lactate is used instead of iPrOH. Strong inhibition of the reactivity of TMC is also detected for the simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC, or for the block copolymerization of TMC after that of L-LA. Experimental and computational data for the {LO(x)}Sn(OR)complexes (OR=lactyl or lactidyl) replicating the active species during the tin(II)-mediated ROP of L-LA demonstrate that the formation of a five-membered chelate is largely favored over that of an eight-membered one, and that it constitutes the resting state of the catalyst during this (co)polymerization. Comprehensive DFT calculations show that, out of the four possible monomer insertion sequences during simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC: 1) TMC then TMC, 2) TMC then L-LA, 3) L-LA then L-LA, and 4) L-LA then TMC, the first three are possible. By contrast, insertion of L-LA followed by that of TMC (i.e., insertion sequence 4) is endothermic by +1.1 kcal mol(-1), which compares unfavorably with consecutive insertions of two L-LA units (i.e., insertion sequence 3) (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)). The copolymerization of L-LA and TMC thus proceeds under thermodynamic control. PMID:23955851

  16. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  17. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch{reg_sign}) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion.

  18. Drill cuttings disposal method and system

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.E.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a system for producing a slurry of finely ground drill cuttings and a carrier liquid suitable for injection into an earth formation and the like and wherein the drill cuttings are produced during drilling operations from a drill cuttings/drilling fluids separation means. It comprises: receiving means for receiving a quantity of the drill cuttings; means for conducting the drill cuttings to the receiving means; means for conducting the carrier liquid to the receiving means; conduit means in communication with the receiving means for discharging a mixture of the drill cuttings and the carrier liquid from the receiving means; and a centrifugal pump connected to the receiving means for reducing the particle size of the drill cuttings so that a slurry of the drill cuttings and the carrier liquid may be prepared for injection into the space. A method for disposing of solids particles including earth particles into an earth formation comprising the steps of; providing a wellbore penetrating the earth formation and forming with the earth formation a space for receiving a slurry of the solids particles and a carrier liquid; providing a system for generating a slurry formed of the solids particles and the carrier liquid, mixing the solids particles with the carrier liquid; reducing the particle size of the solids particles by shearing action on the solids particles to form a viscous fluid comprising the slurry; and conducting the slurry to the injection pump and injecting the slurry into the space.

  19. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

  20. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  1. Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

    2014-05-01

    discuss the potential for establishing a collaborative, integrated, worldwide drilling programme to obtain the pristine samples and continuous sections needed to refine Neoproterozoic Earth history, inform assessment of resource potential, and address the major questions noted above. Such an initiative would be a platform to define complementary research and discovery between cutting-edge interdisciplinary scientific studies and synergistic collaborations with national agencies (Geological Surveys) and industry partners. A number of potential sites have been identified and discussed, along with identifying the mechanisms by which the Neoproterozoic research community can development data archives, open access data, sample archiving, and the approaches to multi-national funding. We will, amongst other things, present a summary of the workshop discussions. For more information visit: https://sites.google.com/site/drillingtheneoproterozoic/

  2. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

    2001-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids

  4. Methods and systems for determining angular orientation of a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-03-23

    Preferred methods and systems generate a control input based on a periodically-varying characteristic associated with the rotation of a drill string. The periodically varying characteristic can be correlated with the magnetic tool face and gravity tool face of a rotating component of the drill string, so that the control input can be used to initiate a response in the rotating component as a function of gravity tool face.

  5. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  6. The LSST Deep Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Cook, K. H.; Lacy, M.; Dhital, S.; LSST Deep Drilling Interest Group

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of LSST's survey time will be dedicated to mini-surveys designed to enhance science beyond the Wide, Fast Deep (WFD) mode of typical LSST operations. One planned type of mini-survey is the Deep Drilling (DD) program, which proposes to survey a limited number of fields to deeper limiting magnitudes and with higher cadence than the WFD baseline. By observing more frequently and using many filters during each sequence, the DD program will provide rich data sets for discovering and characterizing supernovae and other transient objects. By observing to much deeper limiting magnitudes, the DD program delivers higher SNR for galaxy shape and photometric redshift measurements, providing a clean calibration sample to correct for biases within the WFD, and will also detect objects to much higher redshifts. Deep drilling fields will be targeted towards a wide range of science goals, including discovering faint (r=27) solar system objects to explore planetesimal size distributions, characterizing L and T dwarfs by adding deeper i band exposures, and obtaining dense light curves for variable stars and transients within our Local Group. A DD Interest Group, drawn from the LSST Science Collaborations, has been tasked with exploring deep drilling program implementations. Members of this group have written a series of white papers, available on the web, detailing their various science goals and observational requirements. The LSST Operations Simulation group has completed a first set of runs to investigate how these requirements mesh with the overall survey; preliminary analysis of these runs is presented here. The first four DD pointings have been announced by the LSST Science Council to provide opportunities for precovery or multiwavelength surveys, and are discussed here. Further refinement of the DD program to optimize science return of both DD and WFD fields will continue until shortly before the start of LSST operations.

  7. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  8. Deep drilling pushes technology to the limit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Deep drilling has tapered off in recent years - particularly in the last 6 months, as the result of lower oil and gas prices. The number of well drilled to depths greater than 15,000 ft dropped from a record high of 1,205 wells in 1982 to 566 wells last year. Early estimates show the pace to slow further in 1986. Eventually, as oil and gas prices rebound, deep drilling should make a comeback, as well. With this return in deep drilling activity, engineers will be faced once again with technical problems the industry was learning to overcome. When bottomhole temperatures exceed 400/sup 0/F and bottomhole pressures rise above 15,000 psi, corrosion problems are magnified. These high temperatures and pressures complicate decisions about the drilling fluid system and drill string program. Further, the pressure integrity of the deep liner and casing strings and the associated cementing jobs become more critical.

  9. Drag-type drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Short, L.W. Jr.; Barr, J.D.

    1987-04-28

    A drag-type drill bit is described comprising: a bit body having an operating end face; and a multiplicity of superhard cutting elements interlocked to the body. The cutting elements define a multiplicity of cutting areas dispersed over the operating end face of the bit body in a pattern adapted to cause the cutting areas to cut an earth formation to a desired three-dimensional profile as the bit body is rotated, the cutting areas having back rake angles which become more negative with distance from the profile.

  10. High temperature drilling mud composition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a composition having improved rheological properties and improved stability at high temperatures and pressure for use in a water-based drilling mud comprising a high-yield bentonite, a low-yield bentonite and leonardite, wherein the weight ratio of the high-yield bentonite to the low-yield bentonites in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1, and the leonardite is present in the amount of about 0.1% to 1.0% by total dry weight of the composition.

  11. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  12. Experimental drilling in Chattanooga shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Andrew

    1948-01-01

    Information on which specifications were originally drawn for drilling the Chattanooga shale was obtained largely from the TVA, whose geologists and driller laid great stress on the difficulties of maintaining circulation in their ho;es. The stated that the shale itself was not particularly difficult to core, the trouble being in the overburden. They did not use deep casing, depending on cementing to hold the holes open. On this basis, the Survey's specifications called for mid casing only, it being assumed that solid rock would be encountered at relatively shallow depths. This belief was borne out by examination of such road cuts and other exposures as were available.

  13. Slant hole drilling for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowen, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    This work discusses the slant hole project undertaken by Ocelot Industries Ltd. in the Bantry field located in SE Alberta. Slant hole drilling is not uncommon to Canada; however, it has been primarily used in the heavy oil projects. This study begins with Ocelot's need for slant hole drilling and the planning of the wells. The drilling and completion operations and some of the equipment that was developed as the project progressed are discussed.

  14. Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

  15. U. S. horizontal drilling continues to spread

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1990-12-10

    This paper reports that horizontal drilling is still spreading in onshore U.S. oil fields. One company completed a shallow well producing oil by gravity drainage through three horizontal legs about 120{sup {degrees}} apart on the La Barge platform in Wyoming. The author reports successful Austin chalk horizontal drilling in Sabine County, East Texas. Another horizontal completion of Cretaceous Niobrara was reported and several other wells were drilling or staked in Silo field, Laramie County, Wyoming.

  16. Basic Services for Children: A Continuing Search for Learning Priorities. A Dossier for Initiating a Dialogue--Part II, 1978. Experiments and Innovations in Education No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Both parts I and II of the dossier are collections of selected activities directed toward the deprived young in a developing world. This book, part II, departs from its predecessor in that it takes a more global view of education services to both children and adults in developing countries. Part A discusses the philosophy and scope of the dossier.…

  17. Non-destructive microwave evaluation of TBC delamination induced by acute angle laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.; Li, Lin; Wu, Z.; Anderson, B.; Williams, P.

    2007-01-01

    Laser drilling has been applied to the production of cooling holes of various size and angles in the modern aerospace gas turbine components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, combustion chambers and afterburner. These parts are usually made of heat resistant nickel superalloys. The superalloy substrate is coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to protect them from reaching excessive temperatures in hot engine environments. Drilling the parts at acute angles to the surface is complicated because (i) multiple layers are being drilled through, (ii) the melt ejection and heat flow patterns around the hole are non-symmetrical and (iii) the drilling distance is greater than when drilling normal to the surface. In a previous investigation by the authors, delamination of TBC was addressed as a main problem of angled drilling and mechanisms involved were discussed. Characterization of delamination cracks was normally performed via metallographic techniques. It involves sectioning the samples using an abrasive cutting machine, grinding with successively finer silicon carbide paper up to the centre of the hole and polishing to allow optical microscopic analysis of the cracks. However, clamping and sectioning process of thermal-spray-coated workpieces can introduce cracks in brittle coatings due to the drag of the cut-off wheels. Hence, it is not possible to decide if the delamination is caused as a result of post-process sectioning or laser drilling. In this paper, a microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is employed to evaluate the integrity of TBC after acute angle laser drilling. An Agilent 8510 XF network analyser operating over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 110 GHz was used to measure the amplitude and phase variations of scattered waves. The results significantly indicated the existence of delamination of 1-1.5 mm long at the TBC/substrate interface on the leading edge part of an acute-angled hole laser drilled

  18. First riser drilling in Scientific Ocean Drilling history, Observatory drilling and casing in the Nankai Trough (IODP Exp 319)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toczko, S.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Expedition 319 (“Riser and Riserless Observatory-1”, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2) was the first time in IODP history that scientific riser operations were conducted. As part of this groundbreaking advance in scientific drilling, other technologies and sampling methods were also introduced: scientific mud-gas monitoring, drilling cuttings collection and analysis, MDT, and VSP (walk-away and zero-offset). Although the goals and achievements for Expedition 319 were modest, we will describe the operational portions of these technologies, and also discuss the potential and benefits of future riser drilling operations. JAMSTEC’s Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX), the Japanese Implementing Organization and operator of the riser drillship Chikyu, this year performed the inaugural riser drilling expedition for IODP, as part of NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, Expedition 319, “Riser and Riserless Observatories”. Riser drilling is a typical method of drilling in industry, since it helps prevent loss of petroleum while drilling at sea, and also allows for deeper drilling depths, when compared with the usual non-riser drilling. The system aboard Chikyu is an industrial design riser system, which has just completed drilling operations in the Kumano Basin, drilling and casing a riser hole, Hole C0009A, to 1607.3 mBSF in water 2054 m BSL deep. The riser drilling system maintains a connection between the riser pipe suspended from the drillship to the sea floor blowout preventer (BOP), which makes a seal between the riser pipe and well head, and below to the cased intervals of the borehole below the seafloor. This allows the drilling mud to circulate down through the drillpipe, out the bit, and back up the casing and riser pipe to the drillship. This cools the bit, clears the borehole of cuttings (recovered aboard ship in the shale shakers) and allows real-time mud-gas monitoring. Mud weight can be more carefully controlled and adjusted, improving the quality of mudcake on the

  19. Strong growth projected for underbalanced drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, J.R.; Medley, G.H. Jr.; Deskins, W.G.

    1996-09-23

    The use of underbalanced drilling technology should grow steadily during the next decade. The projected growth is primarily driven by increased concern about formation damage, the potential for higher penetration rates, and the ability to reduce lost circulation in depleted reservoirs. The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center manages a portfolio of drilling-related research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects designed to reduce costs and improve efficiencies. The Department of Energy sponsored Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) to develop a user-friendly foam drilling model that can accurately predict pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocities, foam quality, and other foam drilling variables. A second objective of the project was to develop a light-weight drilling fluid that would allow underbalanced drilling in low-pressure reservoirs without the limitations commonly associated with existing light-weight fluids. Maurer performed a study to gauge the potential for light-weight drilling fluids and the extent of underbalanced drilling activity in the US. Data from many industry sources, including recent publications on the potential for air drilling, were evaluated and incorporated into this study. This paper discusses the findings from this survey.

  20. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.