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Sample records for ii halo motion

  1. Accretion History and Mass of the Milky Way Halo: HST Proper Motions and Keck Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, A. J.; Guhathakurta, P.; Rockosi, C. M.; Barro, G.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Sohn, S.; Anderson, J.; HSTPROMO Collaboration; HALO7D Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Milky Way (MW) is shrouded in a faint metal-poor stellar halo. Its structure and kinematics provide a unique archaeological record of the MW's formation, past evolution, and accretion history. These data also help us constrain the dark matter mass out to large radii (50 to 100 kpc). The stellar density profile and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile of the halo are known, but our understanding of the halo is limited by a striking lack of knowledge about the transverse motions of its stars. It is difficult from the ground to determine proper motions (PMs) far outside of the solar neighborhood. We have recently developed techniques for making PM measurements from multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data using distant background galaxies to define an absolute astrometric reference frame. We will obtain very deep (8 to 24 hr integrations) Keck II 10-m telescope/DEIMOS spectra of hundreds of faint Milky Way halo stars with HST-measured proper motions, to measure their line-of-sight velocities and chemical abundances, giving us 6D phase-space information plus chemical abundance information. Our primary fields of interest include the CANDELS HST/MCT program fields GOODS-N, COSMOS, and EGS. These fields are characterized by deep HST photometry at wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared. This dataset, which will be unique even in the era of Gaia, will vastly improve our understanding of the Milky Way structure, evolution and mass in a way that neither the HST proper motions or Keck spectroscopy can do on their own. This research is part of two large collaborations: The HST Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) collaboration and the Halo Assembly in Lambda-CDM: Observations in 7-Dimensions (HALO7D). We acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  2. Structure in the motions of the fastest halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Helmi, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Spagna, A.

    2005-08-01

    We analyzed the catalog published by Beers et al. (2000, ApJ, 119, 2866) of 2106 non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solar neighborhood, with the goal of quantifying the amount of substructure in the motions of the fastest halo stars. We computed the two-point velocity correlation function for a subsample of halo stars within 1-2 kpc of the Sun, and found statistical evidence of substructure with a similar amplitude to that predicted by high resolution CDM simulations. The signal is due to a small kinematic group whose dynamical properties are compared to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi et al. (1999). If real, this high velocity moving group would provide further support for the idea that substructures remain as fossils from the formation of the Galaxy as expected in the CDM scenario.

  3. Galactic evolution. II - Disk galaxies with massive halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, J. P.; Thuan, T. X.

    1975-01-01

    Models of galactic evolution are computed in which matter shed by dying halo stars accumulates in a smaller, more rapidly rotating disk. The models are simpler and more successful than one-zone (pure disk) models in that (1) the observed absence of low-metal-abundance low-mass dwarfs is expected, not anomalous and (2) the relative birthrate function (or IMF) need not be a strongly variable function of time in agreement with recent interpretations of observed stellar populations and neutral hydrogen in our own and other galaxies. Even a simple 'Salpeter' IMF for both disk and halo will produce an acceptable model. The model with a halo 'Salpeter' IMF, roughly one-quarter of the mass in the secondary disk, and approximately half the metals produced in the halo seems most compatible with observations of the metal abundance in low-mass stars, the deuterium abundance, halo planetary nebulae, and light from Population II stars, as well as with arguments on the stability of the disk.

  4. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  5. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs. PMID:10702128

  6. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  7. Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  8. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  9. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: THE MASS OF THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina

    2013-05-10

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M{sub vir,MW}). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s{sup -1}) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M{sub vir,MW} > 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M{sub vir,MW}. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M{sub vir,MW} would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted {Lambda}CDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M{sub vir,MW} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  10. The Space Motion of Leo I: The Mass of the Milky Way's Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Besla, Gurtina; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2013-05-01

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M vir, MW). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s-1) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M vir, MW > 1012 M ⊙ at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M vir, MW. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M vir, MW would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted ΛCDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M vir, MW = 1.6 × 1012 M ⊙, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] × 1012 M ⊙. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  11. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Relation to DH Type-II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.

    2015-10-01

    A set of 88 halo CMEs observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle Solar Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) during the period 2005 to 2010 is considered to study the relationship of these halo CMEs with Type-II radio bursts in the deca-hectametric (DH) wavelength range observed by Wind/(Plasma and Radio Waves: WAVES). Among the 88 events, 39 halo CMEs are found to be associated with DH Type-II radio bursts and their characteristics are analyzed with the following results: i) The heights of the CME leading edge at the time of the starting frequencies of many of the selected DH Type-II events (74 %) are in the range (2 - 10 R_{⊙}) where the shocks are formed. ii) The mean speed of DH-associated halo CMEs (1610 km s-1) is nearly twice the mean speed (853 km s-1) of halo CMEs without DH Type-II radio bursts, implying that the peak of the Alfvén speed profile in the outer corona where DH Type-II radio bursts start might be around 800 km s-1. iii) The shock speed of DH Type-II radio bursts calculated using the heights of shock signatures of the corresponding CME events is found to be slightly higher than the CME speed. iv) The CME speed plays a major role in the determination of the ending frequency of DH Type-II radio bursts but not the starting frequency. v) The relationship between the characteristics of DH Type-II radio bursts and CMEs is explained in the context of the universal drift-rate spectrum.

  12. Globular Cluster Orbits from HST Proper Motions: Constraining the Formation and Mass of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Deason, Alis J.; Bellini, Andrea; Besla, Gurtina; Watkins, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW's present structure and past evolution. GCs in the halo are particularly useful tracers; because of their long dynamical timescales, their orbits retain imprints of their origin or accretion history. Full 3D motions are required to calculate past orbits. While most GCs have known line of sight velocities, accurate proper motion (PM) measurements are currently available for only a few halo GCs. Our goal is to create the first high-quality PM database for halo GCs. We have identified suitable 1st-epoch data in the HST Archive for 20 halo GCs at 10-100 kpc from the Galactic Center. We are in the process of obtaining the necessary 2nd-epoch data to determine absolute PMs of the target GCs through our HST program GO-14235. We will use the same advanced astrometric techniques that allowed us to measure the PMs of M31 and Leo I. Previous studies of the halo GC system based on e.g., stellar populations, metallicities, RR Lyrae properties, and structural properties have revealed a dichotomy between old and young halo GCs. This may reflect distinct formation scenarios (in situ vs. accreted). Orbit calculations based on our PMs will directly test this. The PMs will also yield the best handle yet on the velocity anisotropy profile of any tracer population in the halo. This will resolve the mass-anisotropy degeneracy to provide an improved estimate of the MW mass, which is at present poorly known. In summary, our project will deliver the first accurate PMs for halo GCs, and will significantly increase our understanding of the formation, evolution, and mass of the MW.

  13. The MassiveBlack-II simulation: The evolution of haloes and galaxies to z ~ 0

    SciTech Connect

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao -Sheng

    2015-04-24

    We investigate the properties and clustering of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z = 0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). MBII evolves a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubical comoving volume Vbox = (100Mpc/h)³. It is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of the halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs to the scientific community. Our analysis of the halo mass function in MBII reveals that baryons have strong effects with changes in the halo abundance of 20–35% below the knee of the mass function (Mhalo 1013.2 M h at z = 0) when compared to dark-matter-only simulations. We provide a fitting function for the halo MF out to redshift z = 11 and discuss its limitations.

  14. Characterizing stellar halo populations II: The age gradient in blue horizontal-branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Williams, Angus; Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of Milky Way halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars is examined using action-based extended distribution functions (EDFs) that describe the locations of stars in phase space, metallicity, and age. The parameters of the EDFs are fitted using stars observed in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-II (SEGUE-II) survey that trace the phase-space kinematics and chemistry out to ˜70 kpc. A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate method and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method are applied, taking into account the selection function in positions, distance, and metallicity for the survey. The best-fit EDF declines with actions less steeply at actions characteristic of the inner halo than at the larger actions characteristic of the outer halo, and older ages are found at smaller actions than at larger actions. In real space, the radial density profile steepens smoothly from -2 at ˜2 kpc to -4 in the outer halo, with an axis ratio ˜0.7 throughout. There is no indication for rotation in the BHBs, although this is highly uncertain. A moderate level of radial anisotropy is detected, with βs varying from isotropic to between ˜0.1 and ˜0.3 in the outer halo depending on latitude. The BHB data are consistent with an age gradient of -0.03 Gyr kpc-1, with some uncertainty in the distribution of the larger ages. These results are consistent with a scenario in which older, larger systems contribute to the inner halo, whilst the outer halo is primarily comprised of younger, smaller systems.

  15. The MassiveBlack-II simulation: The evolution of haloes and galaxies to z ~ 0

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao -Sheng

    2015-04-24

    We investigate the properties and clustering of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z = 0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). MBII evolves a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubical comoving volume Vbox = (100Mpc/h)³. It is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of the halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs to the scientific community. Our analysis of the halo mass function in MBII reveals thatmore » baryons have strong effects with changes in the halo abundance of 20–35% below the knee of the mass function (Mhalo 1013.2 M⊙ h at z = 0) when compared to dark-matter-only simulations. We provide a fitting function for the halo MF out to redshift z = 11 and discuss its limitations.« less

  16. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  17. THE SMOOTH Mg II GAS DISTRIBUTION THROUGH THE INTERSTELLAR/EXTRA-PLANAR/HALO INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2013-11-01

    We report the first measurements of Mg II absorption systems associated with spectroscopically confirmed z ∼ 0.1 star-forming galaxies at projected distances of D < 6 kpc. We demonstrate that the data are consistent with the well-known anti-correlation between rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), and impact parameter, D, represented by a single log-linear relation derived by Nielsen et al. (MAGIICAT) that converges to ∼2 Å at D = 0 kpc. Incorporating MAGIICAT, we find that the halo gas covering fraction is unity below D ∼ 25 kpc. We also report that our D < 6 kpc absorbers are consistent with the W{sub r} (2796) distributions of the Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM) and ISM+halo. In addition, quasar sight lines of intermediate redshift galaxies with 6 < D < 25 kpc have an equivalent width distribution similar to that of the Milky Way halo, implying that beyond ∼6 kpc, quasar sight lines are likely probing halo gas and not the ISM. As inferred by the Milky Way and our new data, the gas profiles of galaxies can be fit by a single log-linear W{sub r} (2796)-D relation out to large scales across a variety of gas-phase conditions and is maintained through the halo/extra-planar/ISM interfaces, which is remarkable considering their kinematic complexity. These low-redshift, small impact parameter absorption systems are the first steps to bridge the gap between quasar absorption-line studies and H I observations of the circumgalactic medium.

  18. The first Population II stars formed in externally enriched mini-haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Britton D.; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    We present a simulation of the formation of the earliest Population II stars, starting from cosmological initial conditions and ending when metals created in the first supernovae are incorporated into a collapsing gas cloud. This occurs after a supernova blast-wave collides with a nearby mini-halo, inducing further turbulence that efficiently mixes metals into the dense gas in the centre of the halo. The gas that first collapses has been enriched to a metallicity of Z ˜ 2 × 10-5 Z⊙. Due to the extremely low metallicity, collapse proceeds similarly to metal-free gas until dust cooling becomes efficient at high densities, causing the cloud to fragment into a large number of low-mass objects. This external enrichment mechanism provides a plausible origin for the most metal-poor stars observed, such as SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, that appear to have formed out of gas enriched by a single supernova. This mechanism operates on shorter time-scales than the time for low-mass mini-haloes (M ≤ 5 × 105 M⊙) to recover their gas after experiencing a supernova. As such, metal-enriched stars will likely form first via this channel if the conditions are right for it to occur. We identify a number of other externally enriched haloes that may form stars in this manner. These haloes have metallicities as high as 0.01 Z⊙, suggesting that some members of the first generation of metal-enriched stars may be hiding in plain sight in current stellar surveys.

  19. The MassiveBlack-II simulation: the evolution of haloes and galaxies to z ˜ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the properties of haloes, galaxies and black holes to z = 0 in the high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII) which evolves a Λ cold dark matter cosmology in a comoving volume Vbox = (100 Mpc h-1)3. MBII is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of the MBII data set and publicly release our galaxy catalogues. We find that baryons affect strongly the halo mass function (MF), with 20-33 per cent change in the halo abundance below the knee of the MF (Mhalo < 1013.2 M⊙ h-1 at z = 0) when compared to dark-matter-only simulations. We provide a fitting function for the halo MF out to redshift z = 11 and discuss its limitations. We study the halo occupation distribution and clustering of galaxies, in particular the evolution and scale dependence of stochasticity and bias finding reasonable agreement with observational data. The shape of the cosmic spectral energy distribution of galaxies in MBII is consistent with observations, but lower in amplitude. The Galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) function is broadly consistent with observations at z ≥ 2. At z < 2, the population of passive low-mass (M* < 109 M⊙) galaxies in MBII makes the GSMF too steep compared to observations whereas at the high-mass end (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies hosting bright AGNs make significant contributions to the GSMF. The quasar bolometric luminosity function is also largely consistent with observations. We note however that more efficient AGN feedback is necessary for the largest, rarest objects/clusters at low redshifts.

  20. Absolute proper motions to B approximately 22.5: Evidence for kimematical substructure in halo field stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    1994-01-01

    Radial velocities have been obtained for six of nine stars identified on the basis of similar distances and common, extreme transverse velocities in the proper motion survey of Majewski (1992) as a candidate halo moving group at the north Galactic pole. These radial velocities correspond to velocities perpendicular to the Galactic plane which span the range -48 +/- 21 to -128 +/- 9 km/sec (but a smaller range, -48 +/- 21 to -86 +/- 19 km/sec, when only our own measurements are considered), significantly different than the expected distribution, with mean 0 km/sec, for a random sample of either halo or thick disk stars. The probability of picking such a set of radial velocities at random is less than 1%. Thus the radial velocity data support the hypothesis that these stars constitute part of a halo moving group or star stream at a distance of approximately 4-5 kpc above the Galactic plane. If real, this moving group is evidence for halo phase space substructure which may be the fossil remains of a destroyed globular cluster, Galactic satellite, or Searle & Zinn (1978) 'fragment.'

  1. The inner structure of ΛCDM haloes - II. Halo mass profiles and low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, E.; Navarro, J. F.; Power, C.; Jenkins, A.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Springel, V.; Stadel, J.; Quinn, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    We use a set of high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations to investigate the inner mass profile of galaxy-sized cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. These simulations extend the numerical convergence study presented in Paper I of this series, and demonstrate that the mass profile of CDM galaxy haloes can be robustly estimated beyond a minimum converged radius of order rconv~ 1h-1 kpc in our highest-resolution runs. The density profiles of simulated haloes become progressively shallower from the virial radius inwards, and show no sign of approaching a well-defined power law near the centre. At rconv, the density profile is steeper than expected from the formula proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White, which has a ρ~r-1 cusp, but significantly shallower than the steeply divergent ρ~r-1.5 cusp proposed by Moore et al. We perform a direct comparison of the spherically averaged dark matter circular velocity profiles with Hα rotation curves of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We find that most galaxies in the sample (about 70 per cent) have rotation curves that are consistent with the structure of CDM haloes. Of the remainder, 20 per cent have rotation curves which cannot be fit by any smooth fitting function with few free parameters, and 10 per cent are inconsistent with CDM haloes. However, the latter consist mostly of rotation curves that do not extend to large enough radii to accurately determine their shapes and maximum velocities. We conclude that the inner structure of CDM haloes is not manifestly inconsistent with the rotation curves of LSB galaxies.

  2. Exploring the Milky Way halo with SDSS-II SN survey RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, Nathan

    This thesis details the creation of a large catalog of RR Lyrae stars, their lightcurves, and their associated photometric and kinematic parameters. This catalog contains 421 RR Lyrae stars with 305 RRab and 116 RRc. Of these, 241 stars have stellar spectra taken with either the Blanco 4m RC spectrograph or the SDSS/SEGUE survey, and in some cases taken by both. From these spectra and photometric methods derived from them, an analysis is conducted of the RR lyrae's distribution, metallicity, kinematics, and photometric properties within the halo. All of these RR Lyrae originate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II SN Survey covers a 2.5 degree equatorial stripe ranging from -60 to +60 degrees in RA. This corresponds to relatively high southern galactic latitudes in the anti-center direction. The full catalog ranges from g 0 magnitude 13 to 20 which covers a distance of 3 to 95 kpc from the sun. Using this sample, we explore the Oosterhoff dichotomy through the D log P method as a function of | Z | distance from the plane. This results in a clear division of the RRab stars into OoI and OoII groups at lower | Z |, but the population becomes dominated by OoI stars at higher | Z |. The idea of a dual halo is explored primarily in the context of radial velocity distributions as a function of | Z |. In particular, V gsr , the radial velocity in the galactic standard of rest, is used as a proxy for V [straight phi] , the cylindrical rotational velocity. This is then compared against a single halo model galaxy, which results in very similar V gsr histograms for both at low to medium | Z |. However, at high | Z | there is a clear separation into two distinct velocity groups for the data without a corresponding separation in the model, suggesting that at least a two-component model for the halo is necessary. The final part of the analysis involves [Fe/H] measurements from both spectra and photometric relations cut in both | Z | and radial velocity. In this case

  3. More evidence of substructure in the motions of nearby halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Helmi, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Spagna, A.

    2004-07-01

    We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers. We use the Beers et al. (2000) catalog of non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solar neighborhood to select subsets of halo stars within 1-2 kpc of the Sun. Motivated by the results of high resolution CDM simulations, we look for substructure in the kinematics of the fastest stars. When a two-point velocity correlation function is applied to these subsets, statistical evidence of substructure is found. This appears to be due to a small moving group with dynamical properties similar to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi et al. (1999).

  4. An Absolute Proper motions and position catalog in the galaxy halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxiang

    2015-08-01

    We present a new catalog of absolute proper motions and updated positions derived from the same Space Telescope Science Institute digitized Schmidt survey plates utilized for the construction of the Guide Star Catalog II. As special attention was devoted to the absolutization process and removal of position, magnitude and color dependent systematic errors through the use of both stars and galaxies, this release is solely based on plate data outside the galactic plane, i.e. |b| ≥ 27o. The resulting global zero point error is less than 0.6 mas/yr, and the precision better than 4.0 mas/yr for objects brighter than RF = 18.5, rising to 9.0 mas/yr for objects with magnitude in the range 18.5 < RF < 20.0. The catalog covers 22,525 square degrees and lists 100,777,385 objects to the limiting magnitude of RF ˜ 20.8. Alignment with the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) was made using 1288 objects common to the second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) at radio wavelengths. As a result, the coordinate axes realized by our astrometric data are believed to be aligned with the extragalactic radio frame to within ±0.2 mas at the reference epoch J2000.0. This makes our compilation one of the deepest and densest ICRF-registered astrometric catalogs outside the galactic plane. Although the Gaia mission is poised to set the new standard in catalog astronomy and will in many ways supersede this catalog, the methods and procedures reported here will prove useful to remove astrometric magnitude- and color-dependent systematic errors from the next generation of ground-based surveys reaching significantly deeper than the Gaia catalog.

  5. Ground Motion Studies at NSLS II

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In this study, an array of vibration measurements at the undisturbed NSLS II site has been performed in order to establish the 'green-field' vibration environment and its spectral characteristics. The interaction of the green-field vibration environment with the NSLS II accelerator structure and the quantification of the storage ring vibration, both in terms of amplitude and spectral content have been assessed through a state-of-the-art wave propagation and scattering analysis. This paper focuses on the wave propagation and scattering aspect as well as on the filtering effects of accelerator structural parameters.

  6. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  7. PRESENT-DAY DESCENDANTS OF z = 3 Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II HALO MERGER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Soler, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold

    2012-06-20

    Using the Millennium-II Simulation dark matter sub-halo merger histories, we created mock catalogs of Ly{alpha}-emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 3.1 to study the properties of their descendants. Several models were created by selecting the sub-halos to match the number density and typical dark matter mass determined from observations of these galaxies. We used mass-based and age-based selection criteria to study their effects on descendant populations at z {approx_equal} 2, 1, and 0. For the models that best represent LAEs at z = 3.1, the z = 0 descendants have a median dark matter halo mass of 10{sup 12.7} M{sub Sun }, with a wide scatter in masses (50% between 10{sup 11.8} and 10{sup 13.7} M{sub Sun }). Our study differentiated between central and satellite sub-halos and found that {approx}55% of z = 0 descendants are central sub-halos with M{sub Median} {approx} 10{sup 12}. This confirms that central z = 0 descendants of z = 3.1 LAEs have halo masses typical of L*-type galaxies. The satellite sub-halos reside in group/cluster environments with dark matter masses around 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. The median descendant mass is robust to various methods of age determination, but it could vary by a factor of five due to current observational uncertainties in the clustering of LAEs used to determine their typical z = 3.1 dark matter mass.

  8. Simulation results of corkscrew motion in DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K. D.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Chen, Y. J.; Hughes, T. P.

    2003-01-01

    DARHT-II, the second axis of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test Facility, is being commissioned. DARHT-II is a linear induction accelerator producing 2-microsecond electron beam pulses at 20 MeV and 2 kA. These 2-microsecond pulses will be chopped into four short pulses to produce time resolved x-ray images. Radiographic application requires the DARHT-II beam to have excellent beam quality, and it is important to study various beam effects that may cause quality degradation of a DARHT-II beam. One of the beam dynamic effects under study is 'corkscrew' motion. For corkscrew motion, the beam centroid is deflected off axis due to misalignments of the solenoid magnets. The deflection depends on the beam energy variation, which is expected to vary by {+-}0.5% during the 'flat-top' part of a beam pulse. Such chromatic aberration will result in broadening of beam spot size. In this paper, we will report simulation results of our study of corkscrew motion in DARHT-II. Sensitivities of beam spot size to various accelerator parameters and the strategy for minimizing corkscrew motion will be described. Measured magnet misalignment is used in the simulation.

  9. Cosmology with massive neutrinos II: on the universality of the halo mass function and bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Sheth, Ravi K.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo

    2014-02-01

    We use a large suite of N-body simulations to study departures from universality in halo abundances and clustering in cosmologies with non-vanishing neutrino masses. To this end, we study how the halo mass function and halo bias factors depend on the scaling variable σ2(M,z), the variance of the initial matter fluctuation field, rather than on halo mass M and redshift z themselves. We show that using the variance of the cold dark matter rather than the total mass field, i.e., σ2cdm(M,z) rather than σ2m(M,z), yields more universal results. Analysis of halo bias yields similar conclusions: when large-scale halo bias is defined with respect to the cold dark matter power spectrum, the result is both more universal, and less scale- or k-dependent. These results are used extensively in Papers I and III of this series.

  10. Global Properties of M31's Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. II. Metallicity Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, Rachael L.; Geha, Marla C.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Patterson, Richard J.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Bullock, James S.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ~100 kpc, with a magnitude of ~ - 0.01 dex kpc-1. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Global properties of M31's stellar halo from the splash survey. II. Metallicity profile

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ∼100 kpc, with a magnitude of ∼ – 0.01 dex kpc{sup –1}. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo.

  12. The Dual Origin of Stellar Halos. II. Chemical Abundances as Tracers of Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi; Willman, Beth; Brooks, Alyson M.; Governato, Fabio; Hogg, David W.; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2010-09-01

    Fully cosmological, high-resolution N-body+smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the chemical abundance trends of stars in simulated stellar halos as a function of their origin. These simulations employ a physically motivated supernova feedback recipe, as well as metal enrichment, metal cooling, and metal diffusion. As presented in an earlier paper, the simulated galaxies in this study are surrounded by stellar halos whose inner regions contain both stars accreted from satellite galaxies and stars formed in situ in the central regions of the main galaxies and later displaced by mergers into their inner halos. The abundance patterns ([Fe/H] and [O/Fe]) of halo stars located within 10 kpc of a solar-like observer are analyzed. We find that for galaxies which have not experienced a recent major merger, in situ stars at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function are more [α/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at similar [Fe/H]. This dichotomy in the [O/Fe] of halo stars at a given [Fe/H] results from the different potential wells within which in situ and accreted halo stars form. These results qualitatively match recent observations of local Milky Way halo stars. It may thus be possible for observers to uncover the relative contribution of different physical processes to the formation of stellar halos by observing such trends in the halo populations of the Milky Way and other local Lsstarf galaxies.

  13. THE DUAL ORIGIN OF STELLAR HALOS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AS TRACERS OF FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, Adi; Hogg, David W.; Willman, Beth; Brooks, Alyson M.; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James E-mail: bwillman@haverford.ed

    2010-09-20

    Fully cosmological, high-resolution N-body+smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the chemical abundance trends of stars in simulated stellar halos as a function of their origin. These simulations employ a physically motivated supernova feedback recipe, as well as metal enrichment, metal cooling, and metal diffusion. As presented in an earlier paper, the simulated galaxies in this study are surrounded by stellar halos whose inner regions contain both stars accreted from satellite galaxies and stars formed in situ in the central regions of the main galaxies and later displaced by mergers into their inner halos. The abundance patterns ([Fe/H] and [O/Fe]) of halo stars located within 10 kpc of a solar-like observer are analyzed. We find that for galaxies which have not experienced a recent major merger, in situ stars at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function are more [{alpha}/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at similar [Fe/H]. This dichotomy in the [O/Fe] of halo stars at a given [Fe/H] results from the different potential wells within which in situ and accreted halo stars form. These results qualitatively match recent observations of local Milky Way halo stars. It may thus be possible for observers to uncover the relative contribution of different physical processes to the formation of stellar halos by observing such trends in the halo populations of the Milky Way and other local L{sup *} galaxies.

  14. A Comparison of HALOE V19 with SAGE II V6.00 Ozone Observations using Trajectory Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Gleason, James F.; Russell, James R., III; Schoeberl, Mark R.; McCormick, M. Patrick; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We apply trajectory mapping to an eight-year intercomparison of ozone observations from HALOE (V19) and SAGE II (V6.00) for the months March, May, June, September, October, and December from the period December 1991 - October 1999. Our results, which represent the most extensive such intercomparison of these two data sets to date, suggest a root-mean -square difference between the two data sets of greater than 15% below 22 km and of 4 - 12% throughout most of the rest of the stratosphere. In addition, we find a bias with HALOE ozone low relative to SAGE II by 5 - 20% below 22 km between 40degS and 40degN. Biases throughout most of the rest of the stratosphere are nearly nonexistent. Finally, our analysis suggests almost no drift in the bias between the data sets is observed over the period of study. In the course of our study, we also determine that the employment of the Wang-Cunnold criteria is still recommended with the V6.00 SAGE II ozone data. Results with the new versions of the data sets show significant improvement over previous versions, particularly in the elimination of mid-stratospheric biases and the elimination of the previously observed drifts in the biases between the data sets in the lower stratosphere. Since HALOE V19 and V18 ozone are very similar, these changes can likely be attributed to improvements in the SAGE II retrieval.

  15. Motion control design of the Bearcat II mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ming; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    1999-08-01

    Motion control is one of the most critical factors in the design of a robot. The purpose of this paper is to describe the research for applying motion control principles for a mobile robot systems design, which is on going at the University of Cincinnati Robotics Center. The mobile robot was constructed during the 1998-1999 academic year, and called BEARCAT II. Its design has inherited many features of its predecessor, BEARCAT II, such as vision guidance, sonar detection and digital control. In addition, BEARCAT II achieved many innovative motion control features as rotating sonar, zero turning radius, current control loop, and multi- level controller. This paper will focus on the motion control design, development and programming for the vehicle steering control and rotating sonar systems. The systems have been constructed and tested at the 1999 International Ground Robotics Competition with the BEARCAT II running an obstacle course for 153.5 feet and finishing fourth in the competition. The significance of this work is in the increased understanding of robot control and the potential application of autonomous guided vehicle technology for industry, defense and medicine.

  16. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. II. HALO STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE TRACED BY RR LYRAE STARS TO 30 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan M.; Becker, Andrew C.; Stuart, J. Scott; Sharma, Sanjib; Palaversa, Lovro; Juric, Mario; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Oluseyi, Hakeem

    2013-08-01

    We present a sample of {approx}5000 RR Lyrae stars selected from the recalibrated LINEAR data set and detected at heliocentric distances between 5 kpc and 30 kpc over {approx}8000 deg{sup 2} of sky. The coordinates and light curve properties, such as period and Oosterhoff type, are made publicly available. We analyze in detail the light curve properties and Galactic distribution of the subset of {approx}4000 type ab RR Lyrae (RRab) stars, including a search for new halo substructures and the number density distribution as a function of Oosterhoff type. We find evidence for the Oosterhoff dichotomy among field RR Lyrae stars, with the ratio of the type II and I subsamples of about 1:4, but with a weaker separation than for globular cluster stars. The wide sky coverage and depth of this sample allow unique constraints for the number density distribution of halo RRab stars as a function of galactocentric distance: it can be described as an oblate ellipsoid with an axis ratio q = 0.63 and with either a single or a double power law with a power-law index in the range -2 to -3. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Oosterhoff type II subsample has a steeper number density profile than the Oosterhoff type I subsample. Using the group-finding algorithm EnLink, we detected seven candidate halo groups, only one of which is statistically spurious. Three of these groups are near globular clusters (M53/NGC 5053, M3, M13), and one is near a known halo substructure (Virgo Stellar Stream); the remaining three groups do not seem to be near any known halo substructures or globular clusters and seem to have a higher ratio of Oosterhoff type II to Oosterhoff type I RRab stars than what is found in the halo. The extended morphology and the position (outside the tidal radius) of some of the groups near globular clusters are suggestive of tidal streams possibly originating from globular clusters. Spectroscopic follow-up of detected halo groups is encouraged.

  17. Use of HART-II Measured Motion in CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation examines the use of HART-II measured rotor blade motion in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Historically, comprehensive analyses were used for input to acoustic calculations. These analyses focused on lifting line aerodynamics and beam models. However, there is a a need to evolve lifting line aerodynamics to first principles, notably the use of CFD instead of lifting line. The current analysis focuses on CFD and computational structural dynamics (CSD) coupling. Beam models are still very good (CSD is typically from comprehensive analysis), but generally CFD replaced aerodynamics in comprehensive analysis. This presentation examines both CFD and CSD individually and includes predictions using measured motion as well as predictions using measured motion versus coupled motion and calculations of "correct" airloads, noise and vibration.

  18. Spin flips - II. Evolution of dark matter halo spin orientation, and its correlation with major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip E.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-09-01

    We expand our previous study on the relationship between changes in the orientation of the angular momentum vector of dark matter haloes (`spin flips') and changes in their mass, to cover the full range of halo masses in a simulation cube of length 100 h-1 Mpc. Since strong disturbances to a halo (such as might be indicated by a large change in the spin direction) are likely also to disturb the galaxy evolving within, spin flips could be a mechanism for galaxy morphological transformation without involving major mergers. We find that 35 per cent of haloes have, at some point in their lifetimes, had a spin flip of at least 45° that does not coincide with a major merger. Over 75 per cent of large spin flips coincide with non-major mergers; only a quarter coincide with major mergers. We find a similar picture for changes to the inner halo spin orientation, although here there is an increased likelihood of a flip occurring. Changes in halo angular momentum orientation, and other such measures of halo perturbation, are therefore very important quantities to consider, in addition to halo mergers, when modelling the formation and evolution of galaxies and confronting such models with observations.

  19. CaII K interstellar observations towards early-type disc and halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Rolleston, W. R. J.; Kay, H. R. M.; Kilkenny, D.; Morras, R.; Arnal, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Mooney, C. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Ryans, R. S. I.; Hambly, N. C.; O'Donoghue, D.; McGillivray, H.

    2003-11-01

    We present high-resolution (R=λ/Δλ~ 40000) CaII K interstellar observations (λair= 3933.66Å) towards 88 mainly B-type stars, of which 74 are taken from the Edinburgh-Cape or Palomar-Green surveys, and 81 have |b| > 25°. The majority of the data come from previously existing spectroscopy, although also included are 18 new observations of stars with echelle spectra taken with UVES on the Very Large Telescope UT2 (Kueyen). Some 49 of the sample stars have distance estimates above the Galactic plane (|z|) >= 1 kpc, and are thus good probes of the halo interstellar medium. Of the 362 interstellar Ca K components that we detect, 75 (21 per cent) have absolute values of their LSR velocity values exceeding 40 km s-1. In terms of the deviation velocity for the sightlines with distance estimates, 46/273 (17 per cent) of components have velocity values exceeding those predicted by standard Galactic rotation by more than 40 km s-1. Combining this data set with previous observations, we find that the median value of the reduced equivalent width (REW) of stars with |z| >= 1 kpc (EW×sin|b|) is ~115 mÅ (n= 80), similar to that observed in extragalactic sightlines by Bowen. Using data of all z distances, the REW at infinity is found to be ~130 mÅ, with the scaleheight (l) of the CaII K column density distribution being ~800 pc (n= 196) and reduced column density at infinity of log[N(CaII K) cm-2]~12.24. This implies that ~30 per cent of CaII K absorption occurs at distances exceeding ~1 kpc. For nine sightlines with distance exceeding 1 kpc and with a companion object within 5°, we find that all but two have values of CaII reduced equivalent width the same to within ~20 per cent, when the REW of the nearest object is extrapolated to the distance of the further of the pair, and assuming l= 800 pc. For 29 of our sightlines with |z| >= 1 kpc and a HI detection from the Leiden-Dwingeloo survey (beamsize of 0.5°), we find log(N(CaII K)/N(HI)) ranging from -7.4 to -8.4. Values

  20. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey. II. Further results and analysis of the full sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, R.; Venturi, T.; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Cuciti, V.; Macario, G.; Athreya, R.

    2015-07-01

    The intra-cluster medium contains cosmic rays and magnetic fields that are manifested through the large scale synchrotron sources, termed radio haloes, relics, and mini-haloes. The Extended Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS) is an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS) designed to search for radio haloes using GMRT 610/235 MHz observations. The GRHS and EGRHS consists of 64 clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.4 that have an X-ray luminosity larger than 5 × 1044 erg s-1 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band and declination, δ > -31° in the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray cluster catalogues. In this second paper in the series, GMRT 610/235 MHz data on the last batch of 11 galaxy clusters and the statistical analysis of the full sample are presented. A new mini-halo in RX J2129.6+0005 and candidate diffuse sources in Z5247, A2552, and Z1953 have been discovered. A unique feature of this survey are the upper limits on the detections of 1 Mpc sized radio haloes; 4 new are presented here, making a total of 31 in the survey. Of the sample, 58 clusters with adequately sensitive radio information were used to obtain the most accurate occurrence fractions so far. The occurrence fractions of radio haloes, mini-haloes and relics in our sample are ~22%, ~16% and ~5%, respectively. The P1.4 GHz-LX diagrams for the radio haloes and mini-haloes are presented. The morphological estimators - centroid shift (w), concentration parameter (c), and power ratios (P3/P0) derived from the Chandra X-ray images - are used as proxies for the dynamical states of the GRHS and EGRHS clusters. The clusters with radio haloes and mini-haloes occupy distinct quadrants in the c-w, c-P3/P0 and w-P3/P0 planes, corresponding to the more and less morphological disturbance, respectively. The non-detections span both the quadrants. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. NIOS II processor-based acceleration of motion compensation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Mookherjee, Soumak; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on the hardware acceleration of motion compensation techniques suitable for the MPEG video compression. A plethora of representative motion estimation search algorithms and the new perspectives are introduced. The methods and designs described here are qualified for medical imaging area where are involved larger images. The structure of the processing systems considered has a good fit for reconfigurable acceleration. The system is based in a platform like FPGA working with the Nios II Microprocessor platform applying C2H acceleration. The paper shows the results in terms of performance and resources needed.

  2. The GHOSTS survey - II. The diversity of halo colour and metallicity profiles of massive disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Bailin, Jeremy; de Jong, Roelof S.; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David; Silverstein, Grace

    2016-04-01

    We study the stellar halo colour properties of six nearby massive highly inclined disc galaxies using Hubble space telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 observations in both F606W and F814W filters from the GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters) survey. The observed fields probe the stellar outskirts out to projected distances of ˜50-70 kpc from their galactic centre along the minor axis. The 50 per cent completeness levels of the colour-magnitude diagrams are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). We find that all galaxies have extended stellar haloes out to ˜50 kpc and two out to ˜70 kpc. We determined the halo colour distribution and colour profile for each galaxy using the median colours of stars in the RGB. Within each galaxy, we find variations in the median colours as a function of radius which likely indicates population variations, reflecting that their outskirts were built from several small accreted objects. We find that half of the galaxies (NGC 0891, NGC 4565, and NGC 7814) present a clear negative colour gradient in their haloes, reflecting a declining metallicity; the other have no significant colour or population gradient. In addition, notwithstanding the modest sample size of galaxies, there is no strong correlation between their halo colour/metallicity or gradient with galaxy's properties such as rotational velocity or stellar mass. The diversity in halo colour profiles observed in the GHOSTS galaxies qualitatively supports the predicted galaxy-to-galaxy scatter in halo stellar properties, a consequence of the stochasticity inherent in the assembling history of galaxies.

  3. The MICE Grand Challenge lightcone simulation - II. Halo and galaxy catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocce, M.; Castander, F. J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Fosalba, P.; Carretero, J.

    2015-10-01

    This is the second in a series of three papers in which we present an end-to-end simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC) run. The N-body contains about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 h-1 Gpc)3 comoving volume spanning five orders of magnitude in dynamical range. Here, we introduce the halo and galaxy catalogues built upon it, both in a wide (5000 deg2) and deep (z < 1.4) lightcone and in several comoving snapshots. Haloes were resolved down to few 1011 h-1 M⊙. This allowed us to model galaxies down to absolute magnitude Mr < -18.9. We used a new hybrid halo occupation distribution and abundance matching technique for galaxy assignment. The catalogue includes the spectral energy distributions of all galaxies. We describe a variety of halo and galaxy clustering applications. We discuss how mass resolution effects can bias the large-scale two-pt clustering amplitude of poorly resolved haloes at the ≲5 per cent level, and their three-pt correlation function. We find a characteristic scale-dependent bias of ≲6 per cent across the BAO feature for haloes well above M⋆ ˜ 1012 h-1 M⊙ and for luminous red galaxy like galaxies. For haloes well below M⋆ the scale dependence at 100 h-1 Mpc is ≲2 per cent. Lastly, we discuss the validity of the large-scale Kaiser limit across redshift and departures from it towards non-linear scales. We make the current version of the lightcone halo and galaxy catalogue (MICECATv1.0) publicly available through a dedicated web portal to help develop and exploit the new generation of astronomical surveys.

  4. Cosmology with massive neutrinos II: on the universality of the halo mass function and bias

    SciTech Connect

    Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Sheth, Ravi K.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it

    2014-02-01

    We use a large suite of N-body simulations to study departures from universality in halo abundances and clustering in cosmologies with non-vanishing neutrino masses. To this end, we study how the halo mass function and halo bias factors depend on the scaling variable σ{sup 2}(M,z), the variance of the initial matter fluctuation field, rather than on halo mass M and redshift z themselves. We show that using the variance of the cold dark matter rather than the total mass field, i.e., σ{sup 2}{sub cdm}(M,z) rather than σ{sup 2}{sub m}(M,z), yields more universal results. Analysis of halo bias yields similar conclusions: when large-scale halo bias is defined with respect to the cold dark matter power spectrum, the result is both more universal, and less scale- or k-dependent. These results are used extensively in Papers I and III of this series.

  5. N-body simulations with generic non-Gaussian initial conditions II: halo bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia

    2012-03-01

    We present N-body simulations for generic non-Gaussian initial conditions with the aim of exploring and modelling the scale-dependent halo bias. This effect is evident on very large scales requiring large simulation boxes. In addition, the previously available prescription to implement generic non-Gaussian initial conditions has been improved to keep under control higher-order terms which were spoiling the power spectrum on large scales. We pay particular attention to the differences between physical, inflation-motivated primordial bispectra and their factorizable templates, and to the operational definition of the non-Gaussian halo bias (which has both a scale-dependent and an approximately scale-independent contributions). We find that analytic predictions for both the non-Gaussian halo mass function and halo bias work well once a fudge factor (which was introduced before but still lacks convincing physical explanation) is calibrated on simulations. The halo bias remains therefore an extremely promising tool to probe primordial non-Gaussianity and thus to give insights into the physical mechanism that generated the primordial perturbations. The simulation outputs and tables of the analytic predictions will be made publicly available via the non-Gaussian comparison project web site http://icc.ub.edu/~liciaverde/NGSCP.html.

  6. Theory of longitudinal beam halo in RF linacs: II. envelope-particle resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.M.; Barnard, J.J.

    1997-05-01

    Using the core/test-particle model described in a companion paper in these proceedings (``Theory of Longitudinal Halo in rf Linacs: I. Core/Test Particle Formulation,`` by J. J. Barnard and S. M. Lund), we analyze longitudinal beam halo produced by resonant self-field interactions in intense, ion-beam rf linacs. It is shown that particles moving in the presence of the space-charge forces of an oscillating, mismatched ellipsoidal beam bunch can be resonantly driven to large longitudinal amplitude. This resonantly produced halo is first analyzed in a limit where it is most simply understood, with particles moving purely longitudinally and with linear rf focusing. Then modifications of the resonance induced by nonlinear rf and transverse-longitudinal coupling are explored.

  7. THE HALO MASS FUNCTION FROM EXCURSION SET THEORY. II. THE DIFFUSING BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiore, Michele; Riotto, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    In excursion set theory, the computation of the halo mass function is mapped into a first-passage time process in the presence of a barrier, which in the spherical collapse model is a constant and in the ellipsoidal collapse model is a fixed function of the variance of the smoothed density field. However, N-body simulations show that dark matter halos grow through a mixture of smooth accretion, violent encounters, and fragmentations, and modeling halo collapse as spherical, or even as ellipsoidal, is a significant oversimplification. In addition, the very definition of what is a dark matter halo, both in N-body simulations and observationally, is a difficult problem. We propose that some of the physical complications inherent to a realistic description of halo formation can be included in the excursion set theory framework, at least at an effective level, by taking into account that the critical value for collapse is not a fixed constant {delta}{sub c}, as in the spherical collapse model, nor a fixed function of the variance {sigma} of the smoothed density field, as in the ellipsoidal collapse model, but rather is itself a stochastic variable, whose scatter reflects a number of complicated aspects of the underlying dynamics. Solving the first-passage time problem in the presence of a diffusing barrier we find that the exponential factor in the Press-Schechter mass function changes from exp{l_brace}-{delta}{sup 2}{sub c}/2{sigma}{sup 2{r_brace}} to exp{l_brace}-a{delta}{sup 2}{sub c}/2{sigma}{sup 2{r_brace}}, where a = 1/(1 + D{sub B}) and D{sub B} is the diffusion coefficient of the barrier. The numerical value of D{sub B} , and therefore the corresponding value of a, depends among other things on the algorithm used for identifying halos. We discuss the physical origin of the stochasticity of the barrier and, from recent N-body simulations that studied the properties of the collapse barrier, we deduce a value D{sub B} {approx_equal} 0.25. Our model then predicts a

  8. Chaotic motion and the evolution of morphological components in a time-dependent model of a barred galaxy within a dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, R. E. G.; Manos, T.

    2016-06-01

    Studies of dynamical stability (chaotic versus regular motion) in galactic dynamics often rely on static analytical models of the total gravitational potential. Potentials based upon self-consistent N-body simulations offer more realistic models, fully incorporating the time-dependent nature of the systems. Here we aim at analysing the fractions of chaotic motion within different morphological components of the galaxy. We wish to investigate how the presence of chaotic orbits evolves with time, and how their spatial distribution is associated with morphological features of the galaxy. We employ a time-dependent analytical potential model that was derived from an N-body simulation of a strongly barred galaxy. With this analytical potential, we may follow the dynamical evolution of ensembles of orbits. Using the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI) chaos detection method, we study the fraction of chaotic orbits, sampling the dynamics of both the stellar disc and of the dark matter halo. Within the stellar disc, the global trend is for chaotic motion to decrease in time, specially in the region of the bar. We scrutinized the different changes of regime during the evolution (orbits that are permanently chaotic, permanently regular, those that begin regular and end chaotic, and those that begin chaotic and end regular), tracing the types of orbits back to their common origins. Within the dark matter halo, chaotic motion also decreases globally in time. The inner halo (r < 5 kpc) is where most chaotic orbits are found and it is the only region where chaotic orbits outnumber regular orbits, in the early evolution.

  9. Halo masses of Mg II absorbers at z˜ 0.5 from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-René; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Cooksey, Kathy L.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Seyffert, Eduardo N.; O'Meara, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the cross-correlation function of Mg II absorbers with respect to a volume-limited sample of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z = 0.45-0.60 using the largest Mg II absorber sample and a new LRG sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We present the clustering signal of absorbers on projected scales rp = 0.3-35 h-1 Mpc in four W_r^{λ 2796} bins spanning W_r^{λ 2796}=0.4-5.6 Å. We found that on average Mg II absorbers reside in haloes ≈ 12.1, similar to the halo mass of an L* galaxy. We report that the weakest absorbers in our sample with W_r^{λ 2796}=0.4-1.1 Å reside in relatively massive haloes with < log M_h > ≈ 12.5^{+0.6}_{-1.3}, while stronger absorbers reside in haloes of similar or lower masses ≈ 11.6+ 0.9. We compared our bias data points, b, and the frequency distribution function of absorbers, f_{W_r}, with a simple model incorporating an isothermal density profile to mimic the distribution of absorbing gas in haloes. We also compared the bias data points with Tinker & Chen who developed halo occupation distribution models of Mg II absorbers that are constrained by b and f_{W_r}. The simple isothermal model can be ruled at a ≈2.8σ level mostly because of its inability to reproduce f_{W_r}. However, b values are consistent with both models, including Tinker & Chen. In addition, we show that the mean b of absorbers does not decrease beyond W_r^{λ 2796} ≈ 1.6 Å. The flat or potential upturn of b for W_r^{λ 2796}≳ 1.6 Å absorbers suggests the presence of additional cool gas in massive haloes.

  10. The clustering of baryonic matter. II: halo model and hydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fedeli, C.; Semboloni, E.; Velliscig, M.; Daalen, M. Van; Schaye, J.; Hoekstra, H. E-mail: sembolon@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: daalen@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: hoekstra@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-08-01

    We recently developed a generalization of the halo model in order to describe the spatial clustering properties of each mass component in the Universe, including hot gas and stars. In this work we discuss the complementarity of the model with respect to a set of cosmological simulations including hydrodynamics of different kinds. We find that the mass fractions and density profiles measured in the simulations do not always succeed in reproducing the simulated matter power spectra, the reason being that the latter encode information from a much larger range in masses than that accessible to individually resolved structures. In other words, this halo model allows one to extract information on the growth of structures from the spatial clustering of matter, that is complementary with the information coming from the study of individual objects. We also find a number of directions for improvement of the present implementation of the model, depending on the specific application one has in mind. The most relevant one is the necessity for a scale dependence of the bias of the diffuse gas component, which will be interesting to test with future detections of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. This investigation confirms the possibility to gain information on the physics of galaxy and cluster formation by studying the clustering of mass, and our next work will consist of applying the halo model to use future high-precision cosmic shear surveys to this end.

  11. Clustering in the phase space of dark matter haloes - II. Stable clustering and dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesús; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the structure of the particle phase space average density (P2SAD) in galactic haloes, introduced recently as a novel measure of the clustering of dark matter. Our model is based on the stable clustering hypothesis in phase space, the spherical collapse model, and tidal disruption of substructures, which is calibrated against the Aquarius simulations. Using this model, we can predict the behaviour of P2SAD in the numerically unresolved regime, down to the decoupling mass limit of generic weakly interacting massive particle models. This prediction can be used to estimate signals sensitive to the small-scale structure of dark matter. For example, the dark matter annihilation rate can be estimated for arbitrary velocity-dependent cross-sections in a convenient way using a limit of P2SAD to zero separation in physical space. We illustrate our method by computing the global and local subhalo annihilation boost to that of the smooth dark matter distribution in a Milky Way-sized halo. Two cases are considered, one where the cross-section is velocity independent and one that approximates Sommerfeld-enhanced models. We find that the global boost is ˜10-30, which is at the low end of current estimates (weakening expectations of large extragalactic signals), while the boost at the solar radius is below the percent level. We make our code to compute P2SAD publicly available, which can be used to estimate various observables that probe the nanostructure of dark matter haloes.

  12. A MEGACAM SURVEY OF OUTER HALO SATELLITES. II. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE LOWEST STELLAR DENSITY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Santana, Felipe A.; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Geha, Marla; Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter; Simon, Joshua D.; Djorgovski, S. G. E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl

    2013-09-10

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across 10 outer halo globular clusters, 3 classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and 9 ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low-density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters, we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue stragglers and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers is well fit by a single trend with a smooth transition between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; this result points to a common origin for these satellites' blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr and they represent {approx}1%-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low-density systems.

  13. Ultra-flat galaxies selected from RFGC catalog. II. Orbital estimates of halo masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Kudrya, Yu. N.

    2016-04-01

    We used the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalog (RFGC) to select 817 ultra-flat (UF) edge-on disk galaxies with blue and red apparent axial ratios of ( a/ b)B > 10.0 and ( a/ b)R > 8.5. The sample covering the whole sky, except the Milky Way zone, contains 490 UF galaxies with measured radial velocities. Our inspection of the neighboring galaxies around them revealed only 30 companions with radial velocity difference of | ΔV |< 500 kms-1 inside the projected separation of R p < 250 kpc. Wherein, the wider area around the UF galaxy within R p < 750 kpc contains no other neighbors brighter than the UF galaxy itself in the same velocity span. The resulting sample galaxies mostly belong to the morphological types Sc, Scd, Sd. They have a moderate rotation velocity curve amplitude of about 120 km s-1 and a moderate K-band luminosity of about 1010 L ⊙. The median difference of radial velocities of their companions is 87 km s-1, yielding the median orbital mass estimate of about 5 × 1011 M ⊙. Excluding six probable non-isolated pairs, we obtained a typical halo-mass-to-stellar-mass of UF galaxies of about 30, what is almost the same one as in the principal spiral galaxies, like M31 and M81 in the nearest groups. We also note that ultra-flat galaxies look two times less "dusty" than other spirals of the same luminosity.

  14. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-01

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997-2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15-30% (30-50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the ± 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.

  15. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with themore » OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.« less

  16. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.

  17. STELLAR ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VI. URSA MAJOR II

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Ora, M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it; and others

    2012-06-10

    We present a B, V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the Milky Way dwarf satellite Ursa Major II (UMa II), spanning the magnitude range from V {approx} 15 to V {approx} 23.5 mag and extending over an 18 Multiplication-Sign 18 arcmin{sup 2} area centered on the Galaxy. Our photometry goes down to about 2 mag below the Galaxy's main-sequence turnoff that we detected at V {approx} 21.5 mag. We have discovered a bona fide RR Lyrae variable star in UMa II, which we use to estimate a conservative dereddened distance modulus for the galaxy of (m - M){sub 0} = 17.70 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.12 mag, where the first error accounts for the uncertainties of the calibrated photometry, and the second reflects our lack of information on the metallicity of the star. The corresponding distance to UMa II is 34.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.7}({sup +2.0}{sub -1.9}) kpc. Our photometry shows evidence of a spread in the Galaxy's subgiant branch, compatible with a spread in metal abundance in the range between Z = 0.0001 and Z = 0.001. Based on our estimate of the distance, a comparison of the fiducial lines of the Galactic globular clusters M68 and M5 ([Fe/H] = -2.27 {+-} 0.04 dex and -1.33 {+-} 0.02 dex, respectively), with the position on the CMD of spectroscopically confirmed Galaxy members, may suggest the existence of stellar populations of different metal abundance/age in the central region of UMa II.

  18. Nucleosynthesis Modes in The High-Entropy Wind of Type II Supernovae: Comparison of Calculations With Halo-Star Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Pfeiffer, B.; Cowan, J. J.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Truran, J. W.

    2009-03-01

    While the high-entropy wind (HEW) of Type II supernovae remains one of the more promising sites for the rapid neutron-capture (r-) process, hydrodynamic simulations have yet to reproduce the astrophysical conditions under which the latter occurs. We have performed large-scale network calculations within an extended parameter range of the HEW, seeking to identify or to constrain the necessary conditions for a full reproduction of all r-process residuals N r,sun = N sun-N s,sun by comparing the results with recent astronomical observations. A superposition of weighted entropy trajectories results in an excellent reproduction of the overall N r,sun pattern beyond Sn. For the lighter elements, from the Fe group via Sr-Y-Zr to Ag, our HEW calculations indicate a transition from the need for clearly different sources (conditions/sites) to a possible co-production with r-process elements, provided a range of entropies are contributing. This explains recent halo-star observations of a clear noncorrelation of Zn and Ge and a weak correlation of Sr-Zr with heavier r-process elements. Moreover, new observational data on Ru and Pd also seem to confirm a partial correlation with Sr as well as the main r-process elements (e.g., Eu).

  19. Lagrangian satellites of Tethys and Dione. II - Theory of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberti, P.

    1990-02-01

    Numerical simulations of the motion of Tethys and Dione's Lagrangian satellites have been fitted to the observations collected from 1980 to 1985. From these experiments, amplitudes and periods of different perturbations due to the Lagrangian satellite environment have been estimated, and the accuracy of a basic analytical model of the motion have been tested. This model has then been modified to take the most important perturbation into account, and the constants of the motion have been fitted to the observations. The resulting theory provides positions differing from those observed by about 0.5 arcsec for Telesto and Calypso, and less for Helen, primarily due to observation uncertainties.

  20. General-relativistic celestial mechanics. II. Translational equations of motion

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, T. Departement d'Astrophysique Relativiste et de Cosmologie, Observatoire de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 92195 Meudon CEDEX ); Soffel, M.; Xu, C. )

    1992-02-15

    The translational laws of motion for gravitationally interacting systems of {ital N} arbitrarily composed and shaped, weakly self-gravitating, rotating, deformable bodies are obtained at the first post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. The derivation uses our recently introduced multi-reference-system method and obtains the translational laws of motion by writing that, in the local center-of-mass frame of each body, relativistic inertial effects combine with post-Newtonian self- and externally generated gravitational forces to produce a global equilibrium (relativistic generalization of d'Alembert's principle). Within the first post-Newtonian approximation (i.e., neglecting terms of order ({ital v}/{ital c}){sup 4} in the equations of motion), our work is the first to obtain complete and explicit results, in the form of infinite series, for the laws of motion of arbitrarily composed and shaped bodies. We first obtain the laws of motion of each body as an infinite series exhibiting the coupling of all the (Blanchet-Damour) post-Newtonian multipole moments of this body to the post-Newtonian tidal moments (recently defined by us) felt by this body. We then give the explicit expression of these tidal moments in terms of post-Newtonian multipole moments of the other bodies.

  1. Kull ALE: II. Grid Motion on Unstructured Arbitrary Polyhedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P

    2002-02-11

    Several classes of mesh motion algorithms are presented for the remap phase of unstructured mesh ALE codes. The methods range from local shape optimization procedures to more complex variational minimization methods applied to arbitrary unstructured polyhedral meshes necessary for the Kull code.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  3. EFFECTS OF TUMORS ON INHALED PHARMACOLOGIC DRUGS: II. PARTICLE MOTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Computer simulations were conducted to describe drug particle motion in human lung bifurcations with tumors. The computations used FIDAP with a Cray T90 supercomputer. The objective was to better understand particle behavior as affected by particle characteristics...

  4. Artificial halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmke, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  5. INSIGHT INTO THE FORMATION OF THE MILKY WAY THROUGH COLD HALO SUBSTRUCTURE. II. THE ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES OF ECHOS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos E-mail: crockosi@ucolick.org E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu

    2011-06-10

    We determine the average metallicities of the elements of cold halo substructure (ECHOS) that we previously identified in the inner halo of the Milky Way within 17.5 kpc of the Sun. As a population, we find that stars kinematically associated with ECHOS are chemically distinct from the background kinematically smooth inner halo stellar population along the same Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) line of sight. ECHOS are systematically more iron-rich, but less {alpha}-enhanced than the kinematically smooth component of the inner halo. ECHOS are also chemically distinct from other Milky Way components: more iron-poor than typical thick-disk stars and both more iron-poor and {alpha}-enhanced than typical thin-disk stars. In addition, the radial velocity dispersion distribution of ECHOS extends beyond {sigma} {approx} 20 km s{sup -1}. Globular clusters are unlikely ECHOS progenitors, as ECHOS have large velocity dispersions and are found in a region of the Galaxy in which iron-rich globular clusters are very rare. Likewise, the chemical composition of stars in ECHOS does not match predictions for stars formed in the Milky Way and subsequently scattered into the inner halo. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are possible ECHOS progenitors, and if ECHOS are formed through the tidal disruption of one or more dSph galaxies, the typical ECHOS [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.0 and radial velocity dispersion {sigma} {approx} 20 km s{sup -1} implies a dSph with M{sub tot} {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. Our observations confirm the predictions of theoretical models of Milky Way halo formation that suggest that prominent substructures are likely to be metal-rich, and our result implies that the most likely metallicity for a recently accreted star currently in the inner halo is [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.0.

  6. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. II. TRACING THE INNER M31 HALO WITH BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Bell, Eric F.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Seth, Anil C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Girardi, Leo E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu E-mail: philrose@astro.washington.edu E-mail: raja@uco.lick.org E-mail: aseth@astro.utah.edu E-mail: lgirardi@pd.astro.it

    2012-11-01

    We attempt to constrain the shape of M31's inner stellar halo by tracing the surface density of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars at galactocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc to 35 kpc. Our measurements make use of resolved stellar photometry from a section of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, supplemented by several archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. We find that the ratio of BHB to red giant stars is relatively constant outside of 10 kpc, suggesting that the BHB is as reliable a tracer of the halo population as the red giant branch. In the inner halo, we do not expect BHB stars to be produced by the high-metallicity bulge and disk, making BHB stars a good candidate to be a reliable tracer of the stellar halo to much smaller galactocentric distances. If we assume a power-law profile r {sup -{alpha}} for the two-dimensional (2D) projected surface density BHB distribution, we obtain a high-quality fit with a 2D power-law index of {alpha} = 2.6{sup +0.3} {sub -0.2} outside of 3 kpc, which flattens to {alpha} < 1.2 inside of 3 kpc. This slope is consistent with previous measurements but is anchored to a radial baseline that extends much farther inward. Finally, assuming azimuthal symmetry and a constant mass-to-light ratio, the best-fitting profile yields a total halo stellar mass of 2.1{sup +1.7} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun }. These properties are comparable with both simulations of stellar halo formation by satellite disruption alone and simulations that include some in situ formation of halo stars.

  7. HALO GAS AND GALAXY DISK KINEMATICS OF A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF Mg II ABSORPTION-SELECTED GALAXIES AT z {approx} 0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Churchill, Christopher W.; Barton, Elizabeth J. E-mail: jcooke@astro.swin.edu.au E-mail: ebarton@uci.edu

    2011-06-01

    We have directly compared Mg II halo gas kinematics to the rotation velocities derived from emission/absorption lines of the associated host galaxies. Our 0.096 {<=} z {<=} 0.148 volume-limited sample comprises 13 {approx}L{sub *} galaxies, with impact parameters of 12-90 kpc from background quasar sight lines, associated with 11 Mg II absorption systems with Mg II equivalent widths 0.3 A {<=} W{sub r} (2796) {<=} 2.3 A. For only 5/13 galaxies, the absorption resides to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity and trends to align with one side of the galaxy rotation curve. The remainder have absorption that spans both sides of the galaxy systemic velocity. These results differ from those at z {approx} 0.5, where 74% of the galaxies have absorption residing to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity. For all the z {approx} 0.1 systems, simple extended disk-like rotation models fail to reproduce the full Mg II velocity spread, implying that other dynamical processes contribute to the Mg II kinematics. In fact 55% of the galaxies are 'counter-rotating' with respect to the bulk of the Mg II absorption. These Mg II host galaxies are isolated, have low star formation rates (SFRs) in their central regions ({approx}< 1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), and SFRs per unit area well below those measured for galaxies with strong winds. The galaxy Na ID (stellar+ISM) and Mg Ib (stellar) absorption line ratios are consistent with a predominately stellar origin, implying kinematically quiescent interstellar media. These facts suggest that the kinematics of the Mg II absorption halos for our sample of galaxies are not influenced by galaxy-galaxy environmental effects, nor by winds intrinsic to the host galaxies. For these low-redshift galaxies, we favor a scenario in which infalling gas accretion provides a gas reservoir for low-to-moderate SFRs and disk/halo processes.

  8. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  9. Smart Rehabilitation Devices: Part II – Adaptive Motion Control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J. Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of adaptive motion control of smart versatile rehabilitation devices using MR fluids. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and is reconfigurable for several human joints. Adaptive controls are developed to regulate resistance force based on the prescription of the therapist. Special consideration has been given to the human–machine interaction in the adaptive control that can modify the behavior of the device to account for strength gains or muscle fatigue of the human subject. PMID:18548131

  10. Connecting apparatus for limited rotary of rectilinear motion (II)

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, Jr., Roy T.; Kurinko, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for providing connection between two members having relative movement in a horizontal plane in a rotary or linear fashion. The apparatus includes a set of vertical surfaces affixed to each of the members, laterally aligned across a selected vertical gap. A number of cables or hoses, for electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic connection are arranged between consecutive surfaces in a C-shaped traveling loop, connected through their end portions to the two respective members, so that through a sliding motion portions of the cable are transferred from between one set of surfaces to the other aligned set, across the gap, upon relative motion of the members. A number of flexible devices are affixed to the upper set of surfaces for supporting the upper portion of each looped cable. The apparatus is particularly adaptable to an area having limited lateral clearances and requiring signal level separation between electrical cables, such as found in the rotating plugs and associated equipment of the reactor vessel head of a nuclear reactor.

  11. Looking for building blocks of the Galactic halo: variable stars in the Fornax, Bootes I, Canes Venatici II dwarfs and in NGC 2419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Claudia; Clementini, Gisella; Held, E. V.; Poretti, E.; Catelan, M.; Federici, L.; Maio, M.; Gullieuszik, M.; Ripepi, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Kinemuchi, K.; Di Crescienzo, M.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Pritzl, B.; Rest, A.; De Lee, N.; Smith, H.

    2010-01-01

    Λ cold-dark-matter hierarchical models of galaxy formation suggest that the halo of the Milky Way (MW) has been assembled, at least in part, through accretion of protogalactic fragments partially resembling the present-day dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the MW. Investigation of the stellar populations of the MW's globular clusters (GCs) and dSph companions can thus provide excellent tests to infer the dominant Galaxy-formation scenario, whether merger/accretion or cloud collapse. Pulsating variable stars offer a very powerful tool in this context, since variables of different types allow tracing the different stellar generations in a galaxy and to reconstruct the galaxy's star-formation history and assembly back to the first epochs of galaxy formation. In particular, the RR Lyrae stars, belonging to the old population (t > 10 Gyr), witnessed the epoch of halo formation, and thus hold a crucial role to identify the MW satellites that may have contributed to build up the Galactic halo. In the MW, most GCs with an RR Lyrae population sharply divide into two distinct groups (Oosterhoff types I and II) based on the mean periods and relative proportion of fundamental-mode (RRab) and first-overtone (RRc) RR Lyrae stars. On the other hand, the Galactic-halo field RR Lyrae stars show a dominance of Oosterhoff I properties. Here, we investigate the Oosterhoff properties of a number of different stellar systems, starting from relatively undisturbed dwarf galaxies (the Fornax dSph and its globular clusters), through distorted and tidally disrupting ones (the Bootes and Canes Venatici II dSphs), to possible final relics of the disruption process (the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419). We are addressing the crucial question of whether the RR Lyrae pulsation properties in these systems conform to the Oosterhoff dichotomy characterizing the MW variables. If they do not, the Galaxy's halo cannot have been assembled by dSph-like protogalactic fragments resembling the

  12. Anaphase chromatid motion: involvement of type II DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed Central

    Duplantier, B; Jannink, G; Sikorav, J L

    1995-01-01

    Sister chromatids are topologically intertwined at the onset of anaphase: their segregation during anaphase is known to require strand-passing activity by type II DNA topoisomerase. We propose that the removal of the intertwinings involves at the same time the traction of the mitotic spindle and the activity of topoisomerases. This implies that the velocity of the chromatids is compatible with the kinetic constraints imposed by the enzymatic reaction. We show that the greatest observed velocities (about 0.1 microns s-1) are close to the theoretical upper bound compatible with both the diffusion rate (calculated here within a probabilistic model) and the measured reaction rate of the enzyme. PMID:8534830

  13. INTERPLAY OF THREE KINDS OF MOTION IN THE DISK COUNTERPART OF TYPE II SPICULES: UPFLOW, TRANSVERSAL, AND TORSIONAL MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sekse, D. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.; Scullion, E.

    2013-05-20

    Recently, it was shown that the complex dynamical behavior of spicules has to be interpreted as the result of simultaneous action of three kinds of motion: (1) field aligned flows, (2) swaying motions, and (3) torsional motions. We use high-quality observations from the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope to investigate signs of these different kinetic modes in spicules on the disk. Earlier, rapid blue-shifted excursions (RBEs), short-lived absorption features in the blue wing of chromospheric spectral lines, were identified as the disk counterpart of type II spicules. Here we report the existence of similar absorption features in the red wing of the Ca II 8542 and H{alpha} lines: rapid redshifted excursions (RREs). RREs are found over the whole solar disk and are located in the same regions as RBEs: in the vicinity of magnetic field concentrations. RREs have similar characteristics as RBEs: they have similar lengths, widths, lifetimes, and average Doppler velocity. The striking similarity of RREs to RBEs implies that RREs are a manifestation of the same physical phenomenon and that spicules harbor motions that can result in a net redshift when observed on-disk. We find that RREs are less abundant than RBEs: the RRE/RBE detection count ratio is about 0.52 at disk center and 0.74 near the limb. We interpret the higher number of RBEs and the decreased imbalance toward the limb as an indication that field-aligned upflows have a significant contribution to the net Dopplershift of the structure. Most RREs and RBEs are observed in isolation, but we find many examples of parallel and touching RRE/RBE pairs which appear to be part of the same spicule. We interpret the existence of these RRE/RBE pairs and the observation that many RREs and RBEs have varying Dopplershift along their width as signs that torsional motion is an important characteristic of spicules. The fact that most RBEs and RREs are observed in isolation agrees with the idea

  14. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253 --- II. Extended emission from hot gas in the nuclear area, disk, and halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, W.; Vogler, A.; Klein, U.; Zinnecker, H.

    2000-08-01

    Spatial and spectral analysis of deep ROSAT HRI and PSPC observations of the near edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 253 reveal diffuse soft X-ray emission, which contributes 80% to its total X-ray luminosity (LX = 5 1039 erg s-1, corrected for foreground absorption). The nuclear area, disk, and halo contribution to the luminosity is about equal. The starburst nucleus itself is highly absorbed and not visible in the ROSAT band. The emission from the nuclear area stems from a heavily absorbed source with an extent of 250 pc (FWHM) about 100 pc above the nucleus along the SE minor axis ("nuclear source", X34), and the "X-ray plume". The nuclear source is best described as having a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of T = 1.2 keV (NH = 3 1021 cm-2) and LXexgal = 3 1038 erg s-1 (corrected for Galactic foreground absorption). The spectrum of the hollow-cone shaped plume (opening angle of 32̂ and extent of ~ 700 pc along the SE minor axis) is best modeled by a composite of a thermal bremsstrahlung (NH = 3 1020 cm-2, T = 1.2 keV, LXexgal = 4.6 1038 erg s-1) and a thin thermal plasma (Galactic foreground absorption, T = 0.33 keV, LXexgal = 4 1038 erg s-1). The diffuse nuclear emission components trace interactions between the galactic super-wind emitted by the starburst nucleus, and the dense interstellar medium of the disk. Diffuse emission from the disk is heavily absorbed and follows the spiral structure. It can be described by a thin thermal plasma spectrum (T = 0.7 keV, intrinsic luminosity LXintr = 1.2 1039 erg s-1), and most likely reflects a mixture of sources (X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and emission from H II regions) and the hot interstellar medium. The surface brightness profile reveals a bright inner and a fainter outer component along the major axis with extents of ∓3.4 kpc and ∓7.5 kpc. We analysed the total halo emission separated into two geometrical areas; the "corona" (scale height ~ 1 kpc) and the "outer halo". The coronal

  15. Measuring the Stellar Halo Velocity Anisotropy With 3D Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sohn, S. Tony

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematic information outside of the solar neighborhood. Our sample consists of 13 Milky Way halo stars with measured proper motions and radial velocities in the line of sight of M31. Proper motions were measured using deep, multi-epoch HST imaging, and radial velocities were measured from Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We measure β = -0.3-0.9 +0.4, which is consistent with isotropy, and inconsistent with measurements in the solar neighborhood. We suggest that this may be the kinematic signature of a relatively early, massive accretion event, or perhaps several such events.

  16. Temporal control of bidirectional lipid-droplet motion in Drosophila depends on the ratio of kinesin-1 and its co-factor Halo.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gurpreet K; Tran, Susan L; Rizzo, Nicholas; Jain, Ankit; Welte, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    During bidirectional transport, individual cargoes move continuously back and forth along microtubule tracks, yet the cargo population overall displays directed net transport. How such transport is controlled temporally is not well understood. We analyzed this issue for bidirectionally moving lipid droplets inDrosophilaembryos, a system in which net transport direction is developmentally controlled. By quantifying how the droplet distribution changes as embryos develop, we characterize temporal transitions in net droplet transport and identify the crucial contribution of the previously identified, but poorly characterized, transacting regulator Halo. In particular, we find that Halo is transiently expressed; rising and falling Halo levels control the switches in global distribution. Rising Halo levels have to pass a threshold before net plus-end transport is initiated. This threshold level depends on the amount of the motor kinesin-1: the more kinesin-1 is present, the more Halo is needed before net plus-end transport commences. Because Halo and kinesin-1 are present in common protein complexes, we propose that Halo acts as a rate-limiting co-factor of kinesin-1. PMID:26906417

  17. Integral Field Unit Observations of NGC 891: Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-08-01

    We present high and moderate spectral resolution spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) emission in the halo of NGC 891. The data were obtained with the SparsePak integral field unit at the WIYN Observatory. The wavelength coverage includes the [N II] λλ6548, 6583, Hα, and [S II] λλ6716, 6731 emission lines. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams, constructed using spectra extracted from four SparsePak pointings in the halo, are used to examine the kinematics of the DIG. Using two independent methods, a vertical gradient in azimuthal velocity is found to be present in the northeast quadrant of the halo, with magnitude approximately 15-18 km s-1 kpc-1, in agreement with results from H I observations. The kinematics of the DIG suggests that this gradient begins at approximately 1 kpc above the midplane. In another part of the halo, the southeast quadrant, the kinematics is markedly different and suggest rotation at about 175 km s-1, much slower than the disk but with no vertical gradient. We use an entirely ballistic model of disk-halo flow in an attempt to reproduce the kinematics observed in the northeast quadrant. Analysis shows that the velocity gradient predicted by the ballistic model is far too shallow. Based on intensity cuts made parallel to the major axis in the ballistic model and an Hα image of NGC 891 from the literature, we conclude that the DIG halo is much more centrally concentrated than the model, suggesting that hydrodynamics dominate over ballistic motion in shaping the density structure of the halo. Velocity dispersion measurements along the minor axis of NGC 891 seem to indicate a lack of radial motions in the halo, but the uncertainties do not allow us to set firm limits.

  18. Dynamical flows through dark matter haloes - II. One- and two-point statistics at the virial radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Dominique; Pichon, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    In a series of three papers, the dynamical interplay between environments and dark matter haloes is investigated, while focusing on the dynamical flows through the virtual virial sphere. It relies on both cosmological simulations, to constrain the environments, and an extension to the classical matrix method to derive the responses of the halo. A companion paper (Paper I) showed how perturbation theory allows us to propagate the statistical properties of the environment to an ensemble description of the dynamical response of the embedded halo. The current paper focuses on the statistical characterization of the environments surrounding haloes, using a set of large-scale simulations; the large statistic of environments presented here allows us to put quantitative and statistically significant constrains on the properties of flows accreted by haloes. The description chosen in this paper relies on a `fluid' halocentric representation. The interactions between the halo and its environment are investigated in terms of a time-dependent external tidal field and a source term characterizing the infall. The former accounts for fly bys and interlopers. The latter stands for the distribution function of the matter accreted through the virial sphere. The method of separation of variables is used to decouple the temporal evolution of these two quantities from their angular and velocity dependence by means of projection on a 5D basis. It is shown that how the flux densities of mass, momentum and energy can provide an alternative description to the 5D projection of the source. Such a description is well suited to regenerate synthetic time lines of accretion which are consistent with environments found in simulations as discussed in the Appendix. The method leading to the measurements of these quantities in simulations is presented in detail and applied to 15000 haloes, with masses between 5 × 1012 and 1014Msolar evolving between z = 1 and 0. The influence of resolution, class of

  19. A FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE LEO II DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Kuijken, Konrad

    2011-11-10

    We use 14 year baseline images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to derive a proper motion for one of the Milky Way's most distant dwarf spheroidal companions, Leo II, relative to an extragalactic background reference frame. Astrometric measurements are performed in the effective point-spread function formalism using our own developed code. An astrometric reference grid is defined using 3224 stars that are members of Leo II and brighter than a magnitude of 25 in the F814W band. We identify 17 compact extragalactic sources, for which we measure a systemic proper motion relative to this stellar reference grid. We derive a proper motion [{mu}{sub {alpha},{mu}{delta}}] = [+104 {+-}113,-33 {+-} 151] {mu}as yr{sup -1} for Leo II in the heliocentric reference frame. Though marginally detected, the proper motion yields constraints on the orbit of Leo II. Given a distance of d {approx_equal} 230 kpc and a heliocentric radial velocity v{sub r} = +79 km s{sup -1}, and after subtraction of the solar motion, our measurement indicates a total orbital motion v{sub G} = 266.1 {+-} 128.7 km s{sup -1} in the Galactocentric reference frame, with a radial component v{sub r{sub G}}=21.5{+-}4.3 km s{sup -1} and tangential component v{sub t{sub G}} = 265.2 {+-} 129.4 km s{sup -1}. The small radial component indicates that Leo II either has a low-eccentricity orbit or is currently close to perigalacticon or apogalacticon distance. We see evidence for systematic errors in the astrometry of the extragalactic sources which, while close to being point sources, are slightly resolved in the HST images. We argue that more extensive observations at later epochs will be necessary to better constrain the proper motion of Leo II. We provide a detailed catalog of the stellar and extragalactic sources identified in the HST data which should provide a solid early-epoch reference for future astrometric measurements.

  20. Study of the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Fawley, W M; Houck, T L

    1998-08-20

    The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will accelerate a 4-kA, 3-MeV, 2--µs long electron current pulse to 20 MeV. The energy variation of the beam within the flat-top portion of the current pulse is (plus or equal to) 0.5%. The performance of the DARHT Phase II radiographic machine requires the transverse beam motion to be much less than the beam spot size which is about 1.5 mm diameter on the x-ray converter. In general, the leading causes of the transverse beam motion in an accelerator are the beam breakup instability (BBU) and the corkscrew motion. We have modeled the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator with various magnetic tunes and accelerator cell configurations by using the BREAKUP code. The predicted sensitivity of corkscrew motion and BBU growth to different tuning algorithms will be presented.

  1. Measurements of reduced corkscrew motion on the ETA-II linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.; Brand, H.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Chen, Y.J.; Coffield, F.E.; Deadrick, F.J.; Griffith, L.V.; Lager, D.L.; Mauer, W.J.; Nexsen, W.E.; Paul, A.C.; Sampayan, S.; Turner, W.C.

    1991-05-01

    The ETA-II linear induction accelerator is used to drive a microwave free electron laser (FEL). Corkscrew motion, which previously limited performance, has been reduced by: (1) an improved pulse distribution system which reduces energy sweep, (2) improved magnetic alignment achieved with a stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) and (3) a unique magnetic tuning algorithm. Experiments have been carried out on a 20-cell version of ETA-II operating at 1500 A and 2.7 MeV. The measured transverse beam motion is less than 0.5 mm for 40 ns of the pulse, an improvement of a factor of 2 to 3 over previous results. Details of the computerized tuning procedure, estimates of the corkscrew phase, and relevance of these results to future FEL experiments are presented. 11 refs.

  2. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD; i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was two times larger than those derived from the other datasets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), and a nudged chemical-transport model (the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All datasets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  3. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD, i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was 2 times larger than those derived from the other data sets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and a nudged chemical transport model (the specified dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All data sets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  4. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task II. Effects of ground motion characteristics on structural response considering localized structural nonlinearities and soil-structure interaction effects. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Kincaid, R.H.; Short, S.A.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of part of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. Task I of the study, which is presented in NUREG/CR-3805, Vol. 1, developed a basis for selecting design response spectra taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage. Task II incorporates additional considerations of effects of spatial variations of ground motions and soil-structure interaction on foundation motions and structural response. The results of Task II are presented in four parts: (1) effects of ground motion characteristics on structural response of a typical PWR reactor building with localized nonlinearities and soil-structure interaction effects; (2) empirical data on spatial variations of earthquake ground motion; (3) soil-structure interaction effects on structural response; and (4) summary of conclusions and recommendations based on Tasks I and II studies. This report presents the results of the first part of Task II. The results of the other parts will be presented in NUREG/CR-3805, Vols. 3 to 5.

  5. The shape of self-motion perception--II. framework and principles for simple and complex motion.

    PubMed

    Holly, J E; McCollum, G

    1996-01-01

    There have been numerous experimental studies on human perception and misperception of self-motion and orientation relative to the earth, each focusing on one or a few types of motion. We present a formal framework encompassing many types of motion and including all angular and linear components of velocity and acceleration. Using a mathematically rigorous presentation, the framework defines the space of all possible motions, the map from motion to sensor status, the space containing each possible status of the sensors, and the map from sensor status to perceived motion. The shape of the full perceptual map from actual motion to perceived motion is investigated with the framework, using formal theory and a number of published experimental results. Two principles of simple motion perception and four principles of complex motion perception are presented. The framework also distinguishes the roles of physics and the nervous system in the process of self-motion perception for both simple and complex motions. The present rigorous development of the self-motion perception framework allows the scientist to compare and contrast results from many studies with differing types of motion. The six principles formalized here comprise a foundation with which to explain and predict perceptual phenomena, both those observed in the past and those to be encountered in the future. The framework is especially aimed to expand our capacity to investigate complex motions such as those encountered in everyday life or in unusual motion environments. PMID:8848155

  6. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r){sub 0} color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  7. The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project. II. Global Properties and the Luminosity Function of Field Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2005-09-01

    We discuss a 175 deg2 spectroscopic survey for blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the Galactic halo. We use the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to select BHB candidates, and we find that the 2MASS and SDSS color selection is 38% and 50% efficient, respectively, for BHB stars. Our samples include one likely runaway B7 star 6 kpc below the Galactic plane. The global properties of the BHB samples are consistent with membership in the halo population: the median metallicity is [Fe/H]=-1.7, the velocity dispersion is 108 km s-1, and the mean Galactic rotation of the BHB stars 3 kpc<|z|<15 kpc is -4+/-30 km s-1. We discuss the theoretical basis of the Preston, Shectman, and Beers MV-color relation for BHB stars and conclude that the intrinsic shape of the BHB MV-color relation results from the physics of stars on the horizontal branch. We calculate the luminosity function for the field BHB star samples using the maximum likelihood method of Efstathiou and coworkers, which is unbiased by density variations. The field BHB luminosity function exhibits a steep rise at bright luminosities, a peak between 0.8

  8. The local density of halo giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Heather L.

    1993-01-01

    A new estimate of the local density of halo giants - 36 +/- 7 with M(V) less than 0.5 per cu kpc - is presented. This number is derived from an objective-prism survey for nearby metal-weak stars, and so is free from many of the assumptions needed to derive the local halo density in the traditional way, from high proper motion surveys. This number agrees well with estimates of the local density of halo horizontal-branch stars, but is approximately a factor of 2 smaller than the density derived by Bahcall and Casertano (1986). This may be due to the inclusion of some thick disk stars in their proper-motion selected sample. The halo density derived from giants can be expressed as a disk-to-halo ratio of 850:1 (+/- 35 percent). Using these results, a simple model is built to predict numbers of halo giants in specified directions in the Galaxy. It is shown that it performs much better than the Bahcall-Soniera model, in the specific case of halo giants. The surface brightness due to the halo at the solar radius is calculated to be 27.7 V magnitudes per sq arcsec, if the Galaxy was viewed from the outside, edge-on, thus raising the possibility of detecting light from halo field stars in other galaxies similar to our own.

  9. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-02-10

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 {+-} 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  10. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  11. TIDAL IMPRINTS OF A DARK SUB-HALO ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE MILKY WAY. II. PERTURBER AZIMUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Blitz, Leo

    2011-04-10

    We extend our analysis of the observed disturbances on the outskirts of the H I disk of the Milky Way. We employ the additional constraints of the phase of the modes of the observed H I image and asymmetry in the radial velocity to derive the azimuth of the perturber inferred to be responsible for the disturbances in the H I disk. Specifically, we carry out a modal analysis of the phase of the disturbances in the H I image and in high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a Milky Way like galaxy tidally interacting with dark perturbers, the relative offset of which we utilize to derive the perturber azimuth. Under the assumption that the asymmetry in the radial velocity is due to the perturber, we derive the best fit to the radial velocity at l = 0, 180, and use this constraint to also derive the perturber azimuth. To make a direct connection with observations, we express our results in Sun-centered coordinates, predicting that the perturber responsible for the observed disturbances is between -50 {approx}< l {approx}< -10. We explicitly show that the phase of the disturbances in the outskirts of simulated galaxies, our primary metric for the azimuth determination, is relatively insensitive to the equation of state (for the range of gas fractions of local spirals). Our calculations here represent our continuing efforts to develop the 'tidal analysis' method of Chakrabarti and Blitz (CB09). CB09 employed SPH simulations to examine tidal interactions between perturbing dark sub-halos and the Milky Way. They found that the amplitudes of the Fourier modes of the observed planar disturbances are best fit by a perturbing dark sub-halo with mass {approx}one-hundredth that of the Milky Way, and a pericentric approach distance of {approx}5-10 kpc. The overarching goal of this work is to attempt to outline an alternate procedure to optical studies for characterizing and potentially discovering dwarf galaxies-whereby one can approximately infer the

  12. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  13. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  14. Single-Molecule Motions of MHC Class II Rely on Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kozono, Haruo; Matsushita, Yufuku; Ogawa, Naoki; Kozono, Yuko; Miyabe, Toshihiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Okimoto, Noriaki; Taiji, Makoto; Kanagawa, Osami; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein can bind peptides of different lengths in the region outside the peptide-binding groove. Peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) contribute to the binding affinity of the peptide for MHC and change the immunogenicity of the peptide/MHC complex with regard to T cell receptor (TCR). The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are currently unknown. The molecular flexibility of the peptide/MHC complex may be an important determinant of the structures recognized by certain T cells. We used single-molecule x-ray analysis (diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)) and fluorescence anisotropy to investigate these mechanisms. DXT enabled us to monitor the real-time Brownian motion of the peptide/MHC complex and revealed that peptides without PFRs undergo larger rotational motions than peptides with PFRs. Fluorescence anisotropy further revealed that peptides without PFRs exhibit slightly larger motions on the nanosecond timescale. These results demonstrate that peptides without PFRs undergo dynamic motions in the groove of MHC and consequently are able to assume diverse structures that can be recognized by T cells. PMID:25606683

  15. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom; Alvarez, Marcelo A. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-20

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10{sup 12±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10{sup 15±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  16. THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: cthom@stsci.edu

    2011-11-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R {approx}15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R {approx}35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < -3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< - 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire {approx}500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

  17. Polarization of He II films upon the relative motion of the superfluid component and the quantized vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, E. K.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical study of the electrical activity of the saturated superfluid helium (He II) film upon the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components in the film was performed. The polarization vector due to the dipole moments of the quantized vortex rings in He II in the field of van der Waals forces was calculated taking into account the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components. An explicit analytical expression for the electric potential difference arising upon the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components in a torsional oscillator was derived. The obtained time, temperature and relative velocity dependences of the potential difference were in agreement with the experimental data.

  18. The Lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs: A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that observations of the Lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs - A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Lawrence; Schramm, David N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that observations of the lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations.

  20. WHERE ARE THE FOSSILS OF THE FIRST GALAXIES? II. TRUE FOSSILS, GHOST HALOS, AND THE MISSING BRIGHT SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Bovill, Mia S.; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-11-01

    We use a new set of cold dark matter simulations of the local universe to investigate the distribution of fossils of primordial dwarf galaxies within and around the Milky Way. Throughout, we build upon previous results showing agreement between the observed stellar properties of a subset of the ultra-faint dwarfs and our simulated fossils. Here, we show that fossils of the first galaxies have galactocentric distributions and cumulative luminosity functions consistent with observations. In our model, we predict {approx}300 luminous satellites orbiting the Milky Way, 50%-70% of which are well-preserved fossils. Within the Milky Way virial radius, the majority of these fossils have luminosities L{sub V} < 10{sup 6} L{sub sun}. Despite our multidimensional agreement with observations at low masses and luminosities, the primordial model produces an overabundance of bright dwarf satellites (L{sub V} > 10{sup 4} L{sub sun}) with respect to observations where observations are nearly complete. The 'bright satellite problem' is most evident in the outer parts of the Milky Way. We estimate that, although relatively bright, the primordial stellar populations are very diffuse, producing a population with surface brightnesses below surveys' detection limits, and are easily stripped by tidal forces. Although we cannot yet present unmistakable evidence for the existence of the fossils of first galaxies in the Local Group, the results of our studies suggest observational strategies that may demonstrate their existence: (1) the detection of 'ghost halos' of primordial stars around isolated dwarfs would prove that stars formed in minihalos (M < 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) before reionization and strongly suggest that at least a fraction of the ultra-faint dwarfs are fossils of the first galaxies; and (2) the existence of a yet unknown population of {approx}150 Milky Way ultra-faints with half-light radii r{sub hl} {approx} 100-1000 pc and luminosities L{sub V} < 10{sup 4} L{sub sun

  1. Oscillations of the Sun's chromosphere. VIII. Horizontal motions of CA II K bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellstein, S.; Kneer, F.; von Uexkuell, M.

    1998-07-01

    We present a re-analysis of a time series of solar disc centre Ca ii K2v filtergrams taken with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. We concentrate on the measurements of proper motions of K grains in the internetwork regions and of bright points in the chromospheric network. For the K grains we find horizontal velocities of 2-15 km s(-1) , values much lower than those deduced by Steffens et al. (1996) from a smaller sample, analyzed differently. In accord with our earlier conclusion from k-omega diagrams (Kneer & von Uexkuell 1993) and with numerical simulations by Carlsson & Stein (1997) high-frequency (pseudo-) p-modes can viably explain the K grains. Yet, the rareness of the K grains may indicate a connection to magnetic fields. The proper motions of the network bright points are non-periodic, very impulsive, with velocities of 7-10 km s(-1) . Estimating the energy flux if these motions are magnetic kink waves (cf. Choudhuri et al. 1993, Muller et al. 1994), we find it sufficient to heat the solar corona, but too small to cover the radiative losses of the chromospheric network.

  2. Viscous flux motion in anisotropic type-II superconductors in low fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zhidong; Clem, J.R. Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    The Bardeen-Stephen model of viscous flux motion in isotropic Type-II superconductors is extended to the anisotropic case characterized by a phenomenological effective mass tensor m{sub ij}. When the magnetic field is low and the vortex lines are aligned along one of the three principal axes, simple expressions for the viscosity tensor {eta}{sub ij} of the viscous flux motion are obtained as functions of m{sub ij} and the normal state conductivity tensor {sigma}{sub ij} for temperature T close to the critical temperature {Tc}. For the high-temperature oxide superconductors the theory predicts that {eta}{sub b}{sup (a)}:{eta}{sub b}{sup (c)}:{eta}{sub c}{sup (a)} {approx} 1:4{gamma}:3{gamma}{sup 2}, where {eta}{sub i}{sup (j)} is the viscosity for the motion along the i-axis of a vortex parallel to the j-axis and {gamma} = {radical}m{sub c}/m{sub a} is the anisotropy parameter (m{sub i}, i = a,b,c, are the principal values of the mass tensor satisfying m{sub a} {approx} m{sub b} {much lt} m{sub c}). 9 refs., 1 fig.

  3. An absorption-selected survey of neutral gas in the Milky Way halo. New results based on a large sample of Ca ii, Na i, and H i spectra towards QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Bekhti, N.; Winkel, B.; Richter, P.; Kerp, J.; Klein, U.; Murphy, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We aim at analysing systematically the distribution and physical properties of neutral and mildly ionised gas in the Milky Way halo, based on a large absorption-selected data set. Methods: Multi-wavelength studies were performed combining optical absorption line data of Ca ii and Na i with follow-up H i 21-cm emission line observations along 408 sight lines towards low- and high-redshift QSOs. We made use of archival optical spectra obtained with UVES/VLT. H i data were extracted from the Effelsberg-Bonn H i survey and the Galactic All-Sky survey. For selected sight lines we obtained deeper follow-up observations using the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. Results: Ca ii (Na i) halo absorbers at intermediate and high radial velocities are present in 40-55% (20-35%) of the sightlines, depending on the column density threshold chosen. Many halo absorbers show multi-component absorption lines, indicating the presence of sub-structure. In 65% of the cases, absorption is associated with H i 21-cm emission. The Ca ii (Na i) column density distribution function follows a power-law with a slope of β ≈ -2.2 (-1.4). Conclusions: Our absorption-selected survey confirms our previous results that the Milky Way halo is filled with a large number of neutral gas structures whose high column density tail represents the population of common H i high- and intermediate-velocity clouds seen in 21-cm observations. We find that Na i/Ca ii column density ratios in the halo absorbers are typically smaller than those in the Milky Way disc, in the gas in the Magellanic Clouds, and in damped Lyman α systems. The small ratios (prominent in particular in high-velocity components) indicate a lower level of Ca depletion onto dust grains in Milky Way halo absorbers compared to gas in discs and inner regions of galaxies. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A110

  4. Stratospheric aerosol optical depth: comparison of global model results with SAGE II and HALOE observations in the visible and near-, far-infrared channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Mancini, Eva; Bekki, Slimane; Mills, Michael; Timmreck, Claudia; Weisenstein, Debra

    2010-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol optical depth: comparison of global model results with SAGE II and HALOE observations in the visible and near-, far-infrared channels G. Pitari (1), N. De Luca (1), E. Mancini (1), S. Bekki (2), M. Mills (3), C. Timmreck (4), D. Weisenstein (5) (1) Università degli Studi de L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy (2) Université Pierre e Marie Curie, Paris, France (3) University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA (4) Max-Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany (5) Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA, USA Stratospheric aerosols have been recognized to play an important role in the global climate system by influencing the Earth radiative balance and by providing a surface for heterogeneous chemistry. The accurate modeling of the shape and characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer requires the knowledge of their microphysical properties and the atmospheric distribution of their tropospheric precursor gases (SO2, OCS). The background aerosol distribution in the stratosphere may be sporadically perturbed for a time period of about five years after major explosive volcanic eruptions, that may inject in the stratosphere large amounts of SO2 and H2S. The most extensive coverage of the stratospheric aerosol distribution has been made using instruments on board of satellites (SAGE and HALOE in particular). Here we compare the distribution of stratospheric aerosols calculated by five global models with aerosol modules on-line against satellite observations. The results of two 3-D models (MPI and ULAQ) and three 2-D models (AER, LASP, UPMC) are used for this comparison, for both non-volcanic and volcanically perturbed conditions. The comparison is made in terms of aerosol extinction and optical depth: these are calculated using Mie scattering programs where the model calculated aerosol mass distribution is used as input as a function of the particle radius. The size distribution calculated in the models is the final product of

  5. Studying Stellar Halos with Future Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Falomo, Renato; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos around galaxies retain fundamental evidence of the processes which lead to their build up. Sophisticated models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context yield quantitative predictions about various observable characteristics, including the amount of substructure, the slope of radial mass profiles and three dimensional shapes, and the properties of the stellar populations in the galaxies halos. The comparison of such models with the observations leads to constraints on the general picture of galaxy formation in the hierarchical Universe, as well as on the physical processes taking place in the halos formation. With the current observing facilities, stellar halos can be effectively probed only for a limited number of nearby galaxies. In this contribution we illustrate the progress which we expect in this field with the future large aperture ground based telescopes (E-ELT and TNT), and with JWST. In particular we adress the following issues: (I) the characterization of the stellar populations in the halos innermost regions and substructures, (ii) the measurement of the halos profiles and shapes , and the halos mass content, (iii) the study of Globular Clusters inhabiting the halos of distant galaxies. In order to assess the expected capabilities of future facilities we present the results of a set of simulated images to evaluate to which level of accuracy it will be possible to probe the halos of distant galaxies.

  6. A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system. PMID:23201989

  7. A low cost matching motion estimation sensor based on the NIOS II microprocessor.

    PubMed

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system. PMID:23201989

  8. Transpedicular screw fixation for type II Hangman's fracture: a motion preserving procedure.

    PubMed

    ElMiligui, Yasser; Koptan, Wael; Emran, Ihab

    2010-08-01

    Opinions have varied regarding the optimal treatment of an unstable Hangman's fracture. C2 pedicle screw instrumentation is a biomechanically strong fixation which although done through a simple posterior approach, is a technically demanding procedure. This prospective, non-randomized multicentre study included 15 consecutive patients with displaced type II traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis. There were nine males and six females with a mean age of 37 years at surgery. The cause of injury was a road traffic accident in 11 patients and a fall from height in 4 patients. All patients had a single stage reduction and direct transpedicular screw fixation through the C2 pedicles. During follow-up, clinical evaluation and plain X-rays were performed at each visit; at 6-month follow-up, additional dynamic lateral flexion/extension views and a CT scan were performed. The average follow-up period was 32 months (range 25-56 months). At final follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic and regained a good functional outcome with no limitation of range of motion; all the patients showed solid union with no implant failure. There were no neurological complications. At 6-month follow-up, CT evaluation showed fusion in all patients and an adequate position of 28 screws. Two pedicle screws (6.6%) showed minimal (defined as <2 mm) intrusion; one into the spinal canal and the other into the vertebral foreamen. Transpedicular screw fixation through the C2 pedicles is a safe and effective method in treating type II traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis resulting in good clinical and radiological outcomes. Adequate reduction was achieved and motion segments were preserved with its use. PMID:20401619

  9. Description of Charge Radii in Halo Nuclei within the Gamow Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Papadimitriou, G.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.; Ploszajczak, M.; Rotureau, J.

    2009-05-07

    The charge radius of the halo nucleus {sup 6}He is studied within the framework of the Gamow Shell Model (GSM). The charge radius carries information about the size of the neutron halo, the recoil of the core, and the effective interaction between valence nucleons. The motivation for this work stems from the precise measurements of charge radii in {sup 6,8}He, {sup 11}Li, and {sup 11}Be. For these weakly bound nuclei, the proper treatment of the particle continuum turns out to be crucial. The GSM is a tool that can properly account for the coupling of the continuum space (of both resonant and scattering character) with that of the bound states. We use a GSM Hamiltonian written explicitly in intrinsic coordinates. This guarantees that the core recoil effect is properly described and the spurious center-of-mass motion is removed. According to our calculations for {sup 6}He, the charge radius is very sensitive to (i) the halo extent given by the two-neutron separation energy of the system, and (ii) the p{sub 3/2} occupation. In particular, we show that the two-body wave function of halo neutrons in {sup 6}He should contain {approx}91% of a p{sub 3/2} partial wave to reproduce the charge radius. This observation will help us to construct a GSM effective interaction on the interface of p and sd shells that is needed to describe other halo systems.

  10. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND STELLAR HALO. II. SODIUM, IRON-PEAK, AND NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, M. N.; Aoki, W.; Chiba, M. E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    We present chemical abundance analyses of sodium, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements for 97 kinematically selected thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo stars with metallicities -3.3 < [Fe/H] <-0.5. The main aim of this study is to examine chemical similarities and differences among metal-poor stars belonging to these old Galactic components as a clue to determine their early chemodynamical evolution. In our previous paper, we obtained abundances of {alpha} elements by performing a one-dimensional LTE abundance analysis based on the high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) spectra obtained with the Subaru/HDS. In this paper, a similar analysis is performed to determine abundances of an additional 17 elements. We show that, in metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx}-2, the abundance ratios of many elements in the thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo subsamples are largely similar. In contrast, in higher metallicities ([Fe/H] {approx}> -1.5), differences in some of the abundance ratios among the three subsamples are identified. Specifically, the [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] ratios in the inner and outer halo subsamples are found to be lower than those in the thick disk subsample. A modest abundance difference between the two halo subsamples in this metallicity range is also seen for the [Na/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios. In contrast to that observed for [Mg/Fe] in our previous paper, [Eu/Fe] ratios are more enhanced in the two halo subsamples rather than in the thick disk subsample. The observed distinct chemical abundances of some elements between the thick disk and inner/outer halo subsamples with [Fe/H] >-1.5 support the hypothesis that these components formed through different mechanisms. In particular, our results favor the scenario that the inner and outer halo components formed through an assembly of multiple progenitor systems that experienced various degrees of chemical enrichments, while the thick disk formed through rapid star formation with an

  11. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin C.

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over-densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE and SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionized as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  12. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - II. Spin and concentration parameters for dark matter haloes during the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Poole, Gregory B.; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-06-01

    We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the concentration and spin parameters of dark matter haloes in the mass range 108 M⊙ h-1 < M < 1011 M⊙ h-1 and redshifts 5 < z < 10, corresponding to the haloes of galaxies thought to be responsible for reionization. We build a subsample of equilibrium haloes and contrast their properties to the full population that also includes unrelaxed systems. Concentrations are calculated by fitting both NFW and Einasto profiles to the spherically averaged density profiles of individual haloes. After removing haloes that are out of equilibrium, we find a z > 5 concentration-mass (c(M)) relation that is almost flat and well described by a simple power law for both NFW and Einasto fits. The intrinsic scatter around the mean relation is Δcvir ˜ 1 (or 20 per cent) at z = 5. We also find that the analytic model proposed by Ludlow et al. reproduces the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. Our best-fitting Einasto shape parameter, α, depends on peak height, ν, in a manner that is accurately described by α = 0.0070ν2 + 0.1839. The distribution of the spin parameter, λ, has a weak dependence on equilibrium state; λ peaks at roughly ˜0.033 for our relaxed sample, and at ˜0.04 for the full population. The spin-virial mass relation has a mild negative correlation at high redshift.

  13. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    SciTech Connect

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  14. Ground-motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes, part II: Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Graves, Robert W.; Rodgers, Arthur; Brocher, Thomas M.; Simpson, Robert W.; Dreger, Douglas; Petersson, N. Anders; Larsen, Shawn C.; Ma, Shuo; Jachens, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate long-period (T>1.0–2.0 s) and broadband (T>0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenario earthquakes (Mw 6.7–7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault, we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions, compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with about 50% of the urban area experiencing modified Mercalli intensity VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland earthquake and the 2007 Mw 5.45 Alum Rock earthquake show that the U.S. Geological Survey’s Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area for Hayward fault earthquakes, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions for the suite of scenarios exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute much of this difference to the seismic velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay area and how the NGA models account for basin amplification; the NGA relations may underpredict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins. The simulations also suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period.

  15. Motion as perturbation. II. Development of the method for dosimetric analysis of motion effects with fixed-gantry IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In this work, the feasibility of implementing a motion-perturbation approach to accurately estimate volumetric dose in the presence of organ motion—previously demonstrated for VMAT-–is studied for static gantry IMRT. The method's accuracy is improved for the voxels that have very low planned dose but acquire appreciable dose due to motion. The study describes the modified algorithm and its experimental validation and provides an example of a clinical application. Methods: A contoured region-of-interest is propagated according to the predefined motion kernel throughout time-resolved 4D phantom dose grids. This timed series of 3D dose grids is produced by the measurement-guided dose reconstruction algorithm, based on an irradiation of a staticARCCHECK (AC) helical dosimeter array (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). Each moving voxel collects dose over the dynamic simulation. The difference in dose-to-moving voxel vs dose-to-static voxel in-phantom forms the basis of a motion perturbation correction that is applied to the corresponding voxel in the patient dataset. A new method to synchronize the accelerator and dosimeter clocks, applicable to fixed-gantry IMRT, was developed. Refinements to the algorithm account for the excursion of low dose voxels into high dose regions, causing appreciable dose increase due to motion (LDVE correction). For experimental validation, four plans using TG-119 structure sets and objectives were produced using segmented IMRT direct machine parameters optimization in Pinnacle treatment planning system (v. 9.6, Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI). All beams were delivered with the gantry angle of 0°. Each beam was delivered three times: (1) to the static AC centered on the room lasers; (2) to a static phantom containing a MAPCHECK2 (MC2) planar diode array dosimeter (Sun Nuclear); and (3) to the moving MC2 phantom. The motion trajectory was an ellipse in the IEC XY plane, with 3 and 1.5 cm axes. The period was 5

  16. The halo Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Dark matter halos are the building blocks of the universe as they host galaxies and clusters. The knowledge of the clustering properties of halos is therefore essential for the understanding of the galaxy statistical properties. We derive an effective halo Boltzmann equation which can be used to describe the halo clustering statistics. In particular, we show how the halo Boltzmann equation encodes a statistically biased gravitational force which generates a bias in the peculiar velocities of virialized halos with respect to the underlying dark matter, as recently observed in N-body simulations.

  17. MHF: MLAPM Halo Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Stuart P. D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    MHF is a Dark Matter halo finder that is based on the refinement grids of MLAPM. The grid structure of MLAPM adaptively refines around high-density regions with an automated refinement algorithm, thus naturally "surrounding" the Dark Matter halos, as they are simply manifestations of over-densities within (and exterior) to the underlying host halo. Using this grid structure, MHF restructures the hierarchy of nested isolated MLAPM grids into a "grid tree". The densest cell in the end of a tree branch marks center of a prospective Dark Matter halo. All gravitationally bound particles about this center are collected to obtain the final halo catalog. MHF automatically finds halos within halos within halos.

  18. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  19. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    SciTech Connect

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  20. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 Wide Binaries Identified in SDSS without Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Saurav; West, Andrew A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P.

    2015-08-01

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ˜1-20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  1. The Vestibulo-ocular Reflex During Active Head Motion in Chiari II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a developmental anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, which are important structures for processing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We investigated the effects of the deformity of CII on the angular VOR during active head motion. Methods Eye and head movements were recorded using an infrared eye tracker and magnetic head tracker in 20 participants with CII [11 males, age range 8-19 years, mean (SD) 14.4 (3.2) years]. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy children and adolescents (21 males) constituted the control group. Participants were instructed to ‘look’ in darkness at the position of their thumb, placed 25 cm away, while they made horizontal and vertical sinusoidal head rotations at frequencies of about 0.5 Hz and 2 Hz. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the two groups. Results The VOR gains, the ratio of eye to head velocities, were abnormally low in two participants with CII and abnormally high in one participant with CII. Conclusion The majority of participants with CII had normal VOR performance in this investigation. However, the deformity of CII can impair the active angular VOR in some patients with CII. Low gain is attributed to brainstem damage and high gain to cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:18973069

  2. CARS: the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey. II. Weighing dark matter halos of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Pielorz, J.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Simon, P.; Capak, P.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We measure the clustering properties for a large samples of u- (z˜3), g- (z˜4), and r- (z˜5) dropouts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Deep fields. Methods: Photometric redshift distributions along with simulations allow us to de-project the angular correlation measurements and estimate physical quantities such as the correlation length, halo mass, galaxy bias, and halo occupation as a function of UV luminosity. Results: For the first time we detect a significant one-halo term in the correlation function at z˜5. The comoving correlation lengths and halo masses of LBGs are found to decrease with decreasing rest-frame UV-luminosity. No significant redshift evolution is found in either quantity. The typical halo mass hosting an LBG is M⪆1012~h-1~M_⊙ and the halos are typically occupied by less than one galaxy. Clustering segregation with UV luminosity is clearly observed in the dropout samples, however redshift evolution cannot clearly be disentangled from systematic uncertainties introduced by the redshift distributions. We study a range of possible redshift distributions to illustrate the effect of this choice. Spectroscopy of representative subsamples is required to make high-accuracy absolute measurements of high-z halo masses. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on zCOSMOS and VVDS observations carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under Programme IDs: LP175.A

  3. Photoplethysmograph signal reconstruction based on a novel motion artifact detection-reduction approach. Part II: Motion and noise artifact removal.

    PubMed

    Salehizadeh, S M A; Dao, Duy K; Chong, Jo Woon; McManus, David; Darling, Chad; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a new method to reconstruct motion and noise artifact (MNA) contaminated photoplethysmogram (PPG) data. A method to detect MNA corrupted data is provided in a companion paper. Our reconstruction algorithm is based on an iterative motion artifact removal (IMAR) approach, which utilizes the singular spectral analysis algorithm to remove MNA artifacts so that the most accurate estimates of uncorrupted heart rates (HRs) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) values recorded by a pulse oximeter can be derived. Using both computer simulations and three different experimental data sets, we show that the proposed IMAR approach can reliably reconstruct MNA corrupted data segments, as the estimated HR and SpO2 values do not significantly deviate from the uncorrupted reference measurements. Comparison of the accuracy of reconstruction of the MNA corrupted data segments between our IMAR approach and the time-domain independent component analysis (TD-ICA) is made for all data sets as the latter method has been shown to provide good performance. For simulated data, there were no significant differences in the reconstructed HR and SpO2 values starting from 10 dB down to -15 dB for both white and colored noise contaminated PPG data using IMAR; for TD-ICA, significant differences were observed starting at 10 dB. Two experimental PPG data sets were created with contrived MNA by having subjects perform random forehead and rapid side-to-side finger movements show that; the performance of the IMAR approach on these data sets was quite accurate as non-significant differences in the reconstructed HR and SpO2 were found compared to non-contaminated reference values, in most subjects. In comparison, the accuracy of the TD-ICA was poor as there were significant differences in reconstructed HR and SpO2 values in most subjects. For non-contrived MNA corrupted PPG data, which were collected with subjects performing walking and stair climbing tasks, the IMAR significantly

  4. Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. II. Dark and Stellar Mass Concentrations for 13 Nearby Face-on Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  5. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  6. Stability of star clusters as galactic satellits. II - Motion perpendicular to the cluster orbital plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletti, L.; Giannone, P.

    1983-05-01

    Continuing the linear stability analysis of spherically symmetric star clusters orbiting a point-mass galaxy, whose stellar motion stability in the cluster orbital plane has previously been studied (by means of the Floquet theory, in the scheme of a modified elliptic restricted problem of three bodies), an analysis is undertaken of the stability of stellar motion perpendicular to the cluster orbital plane. It is found that the ranges of the free parameters, for which the full three-dimensional motion is stable, virtually coincide with those obtained for the motion in the cluster orbital plane. Comments and conclusions from the previous work by Angeletti and Giannone (1983) can therefore be extended to three-dimensional motion without substantial modifications.

  7. Cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John Joseph

    The dark halos arising in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmology are simulated to investigate the relationship between the structure and kinematics of dark halos and galaxies. Realistic cosmological initial conditions and tidal field boundary conditions are used in N-body simulations of the collapse of density peaks to form dark halos. The core radii of dark halos are no greater than the softening radius, rs = 1.4 kpc. The density profiles can be fit with an analytical Hernquist (1990) profile with an effective power law which varies between -1 in the center to -4 at large radii. The rotation curves of dark halos resemble the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the observed range, 1.5 approximately less than r approximately less than 30 kpc. The halos are strongly triaxial and very flat with (c/a) = 0.50 and (b/a) = 0.71. The distribution of ellipticities for dark halos reaches a maximum at epsilon = 0.5 in contrast to the distribution for elliptical galaxies which peaks at epsilon = 0.2 suggesting that ellipticals are much rounder than dark halos. Dark halos are generally flatter than their progenitor density peaks. The final shape and orientation of a dark halo are largely determined by tidal torquing and are sensitive to changes in the strength and orientation of a tidal field. Dark halos are pressure supported objects with negligible rotational support as indicated by the mean dimensionless spin, lamda = 0.042 +/- 0.024. The angular momentum vector tends to align with the true minor axis of dark halos. Elliptical galaxies have a similar behavior implied by the observation of the tendency for alignment of the rotation vector and the apparent minor axis. The origin of this behavior may be traced to the tendency for tidal torques to misalign with the major axis of a density peak. Tidal torques are found to isotropize the velocity ellipsoids of dark halos at large radii, contrary to the expectation of radially anisotropic velocity ellipsoids in cold collapse

  8. Light-element abundance variations in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Grebel, E. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present evidence for the contribution of high-mass globular clusters to the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Using SDSS-II/SEGUE spectra of over 1900 G- and K-type halo giants, we identify for the first time a subset of stars with CN bandstrengths significantly larger, and CH bandstrengths lower, than the majority of halo field stars, at fixed temperature and metallicity. Since CN bandstrength inhomogeneity and the usual attendant abundance variations are presently understood as a result of star formation in globular clusters, we interpret this subset of halo giants as a result of globular cluster dissolution into the Galactic halo. We find that 2.5% of our sample is CN-strong, and can infer based on recent models of globular cluster evolution that the fraction of halo field stars initially formed within globular clusters may be as large as 50%.

  9. Synthesis, spectral, electrochemical, crystal structure studies of two novel di-μ-halo-bis[halo(2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)cadmium(II)] dimer complexes and their thermolysis to nanometal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warad, Ismail; Abdoh, Muneer; Shivalingegowda, Naveen; Lokanath, Neartur Krishnappagowda; Salghi, Rachid; Al-Nuri, Mohammed; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Radi, Smaail; Hammouti, Belkheir

    2015-11-01

    Two new neutral dimer Cadmium(II) complexes, [Cd2(dmdphphen)2X4] and where X = Cl (complex 1), Br (complex 2), and dmdphphen = 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, TG/DTA, CV and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system with the space group P-1 with unit cell parameters a = 10.1124(8) Å, b = 10.8875(8) Å, c = 11.5730(9) Å, α = 108.323(3)°, β = 107.010(3)°, γ = 91.260(3)° V = 1147.51(15) Å3 and Z = 1. The Cd(II) ions are located in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron response at -570 mV vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+, which has been assigned Cd(II)/Cd(III) couples. TG/DTA result shows that these complexes are very stable and decomposed through one step reaction. Calcination of Complex 1, revealed the formation of Cubic nanoparticle CdO.

  10. Spectroscopic study of globular clusters in the halo of M31 with the Xinglong 2.16 m telescope II: dynamics, metallicity and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhou; Huang, Ya-Fang; Li, Jin-Zeng; Zhou, Xu; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-07-01

    In Paper I, we performed spectroscopic observations on 11 confirmed globular clusters (GCs) in M31 with the Xinglong 2.16 m telescope. We mainly focused on the fitting method and the metallicity gradient for the M31 GC sample. Here, we analyze and further discuss the dynamics, metallicity and age, and their distributions, as well as the relationships between these parameters. In our work, eight more confirmed GCs in the halo of M31 were observed, most of which lack previous spectroscopic information. These star clusters are located far from the galactic center at a projected radius of ~ 14 to ~ 117 kpc, which is more spatially extended than that in the previous work. Firstly, we measured the Lick absorption-line indices and the radial velocities. Then the ages and metallicity values of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] were fitted by comparing the observed spectral feature indices and the Single Stellar Population model of Thomas et al. in the Cassisi and Padova stellar evolutionary tracks, respectively. Our results show that most of the star clusters in our sample are older than 10 Gyr except B290, which is ~ 5.5 Gyr, and most of them are metal-poor with metallicity [Fe/H] < -1, suggesting that these clusters were born at the early stage of the galaxy's formation. We find that the metallicity gradient for the outer halo clusters with rp > 25 kpc may have an insignificant slope of -0.005 ± 0.005 dex kpc-1 and if the outliers G001 and H11 are excluded, the slope does not change significantly, with a value of -0.002 ± 0.003 dex kpc-1. We also find that the metallicity is not a function of age for the GCs with age < 7 Gyr, but for the old GCs with age > 7 Gyr, there seems to be a trend that the older ones have lower metallicity. Additionally, we plot metallicity distributions with the largest sample of M31 GCs so far and show the bimodality is not significant, and the number of metal-poor and metal-rich groups becomes comparable. The spatial distributions show that the metal

  11. CdC-SF Catalogue.II: Application of its Proper Motions to Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, B.; Garzón, F.

    We present an astrometric catalogue of positions and proper motions derived from the Carte du Ciel plates of the San Fernando zone, photographic material with a mean epoch 1901.4 with a limiting magnitude V˜15.Digitization has been made using a conventional flatbed scanner. Special techniques have been developed to handle the combination of plate material and the large distortion introduced by the scanner. A variety of post-scan corrections are shown to be necessary. The equatorial coordinates are on the ICRS system defined by Tycho-2. Comparison with the reference catalog indicates external errors of 0.;​​''2. The UCAC2 Catalogue was used as second-epoch positions to derive proper motions with a mean accuracy of 1.2 mas/year for the proper motions for well-measure stars. The usefulness of the resulting catalogue of proper motions is demonstrated by means of a proper-motion analysis of seven open clusters ASCC 30, BOCHUM 3, NGC 2215, NGC 2302, NGC 2311, NGC 2323 and NGC 2548, determining individual membership probabilities and characterizing the gross properties of each cluster.

  12. SOFTWARE REVIEW: Multimedia Motion II. CD-ROM and Teacher's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaife, Jon A.

    2000-05-01

    expect. This is an issue that is in the teacher's hands; the package is flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of learning aims. Audio clips are brief and to the point, with both female and male speakers. The commentary goes beyond the descriptive, raising interesting questions and issues and setting challenges for the user. The optional screen text is pitched at A-level. Video clips can be viewed at full screen, which is a big improvement over the first edition. There are some new clips and a few omissions from the first edition; further CDs of movie data are planned. Clips may be played forwards or backwards at various speeds using a scroll bar. This allows close control and analysis, which is useful for critical events in which changes are rapid, such as collisions. Printing of data and graphs is straightforward and the results are clear. Unlike the first edition, Multimedia Motion II only gives direct support to graphs with time as the abscissa. For graphs such as v(x) versus v(y), however, it is a simple matter to save the data directly into Excel or another spreadsheet. I encountered only one snag in using the CD: if I forgot to save my data before moving to a new clip I could not recover it. This failing could be mine, but I did try hard. The Teacher's Guide contains photocopiable worksheets and detailed discussion and graphs of the video clips. For each clip there is a section of `useful data and formulae'. The guide is not a necessity for using the CD-ROM but it would be a very handy A-level teaching resource, allowing the option of independent use by students. It is accompanied by a floppy disc containing sets of experimental data for the video clips, a useful option for quick demonstrations. In addition, the guide explains the interesting and creative option of making your own movie sequences from videotape, though access to a video card would be needed to do this. Imagine the motivational value of students recording themselves playing various sports, or

  13. Tokamak halo currents

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2013-08-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components. Two discordant constraints are central to the theory: (1) Halo currents must produce the magnetic field distribution required to maintain plasma force balance—a distribution that depends on the two angular coordinates of a torus. (2) Halo currents must flow along the magnetic field lines in the plasma, which implies a dependence on a linear combination of the two angular coordinates—only one angular coordinate is free. The physics basis of these two constraints is explained as is their application to the calculation of the properties of halo currents, such as their broad toroidal spectrum. Existing codes could be used to (1) provide detailed comparisons with experiments to validate that the critical elements of physics are adequately included, (2) allow more complete predictions for future machines such as ITER, and (3) design shunts and resistive elements to ensure halo currents follow paths that are the least damaging to the machine. The physics of halo currents implies that it may be possible to feedback stabilize resistive wall modes beyond the ideal-wall limit.

  14. Third-epoch Magellanic Cloud proper motions. II. The large Magellanic Cloud rotation field in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detailed assessment of the large-scale rotation of any galaxy based on full three-dimensional velocity measurements. We do this for the LMC by combining our Hubble Space Telescope average proper motion (PM) measurements for stars in 22 fields, with existing line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements for 6790 individual stars. We interpret these data with a model of circular rotation in a flat disk. The PM and LOS data paint a consistent picture of the LMC rotation, and their combination yields several new insights. The PM data imply a stellar dynamical center that coincides with the H I dynamical center, and a rotation curve amplitude consistent with that inferred from LOS velocity studies. The implied disk viewing angles agree with the range of values found in the literature, but continue to indicate variations with stellar population and/or radius. Young (red supergiant) stars rotate faster than old (red and asymptotic giant branch) stars due to asymmetric drift. Outside the central region, the circular velocity is approximately flat at V {sub circ} = 91.7 ± 18.8 km s{sup –1}. This is consistent with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and implies an enclosed mass M(8.7 kpc) = (1.7 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. The virial mass is larger, depending on the full extent of the LMC's dark halo. The tidal radius is 22.3 ± 5.2 kpc (24.°0 ± 5.°6). Combination of the PM and LOS data yields kinematic distance estimates for the LMC, but these are not yet competitive with other methods.

  15. Quaternion regularization and trajectory motion control in celestial mechanics and astrodynamics: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    2014-07-01

    Problems of regularization in celestial mechanics and astrodynamics are considered, and basic regular quaternion models for celestial mechanics and astrodynamics are presented. It is shown that the effectiveness of analytical studies and numerical solutions to boundary value problems of controlling the trajectory motion of spacecraft can be improved by using quaternion models of astrodynamics. In this second part of the paper, specific singularity-type features (division by zero) are considered. They result from using classical equations in angular variables (particularly in Euler variables) in celestial mechanics and astrodynamics and can be eliminated by using Euler (Rodrigues-Hamilton) parameters and Hamilton quaternions. Basic regular (in the above sense) quaternion models of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics are considered; these include equations of trajectory motion written in nonholonomic, orbital, and ideal moving trihedrals whose rotational motions are described by Euler parameters and quaternions of turn; and quaternion equations of instantaneous orbit orientation of a celestial body (spacecraft). New quaternion regular equations are derived for the perturbed three-dimensional two-body problem (spacecraft trajectory motion). These equations are constructed using ideal rectangular Hansen coordinates and quaternion variables, and they have additional advantages over those known for regular Kustaanheimo-Stiefel equations.

  16. Fine structure in sunspots. II. Intensity variations and proper motions of umbral dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Michal; Brandt, Peter N.; Simon, George W.

    1997-12-01

    Temporal intensity variations of umbral dots (UDs) and dark nuclei (DNs), and proper motions of UDs, were analyzed in a 4 1/2 hour time series of high resolution white light images of the umbra in a medium-size sunspot (NOAA 7519). The observations were made on 5 June 1993 at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope, La Palma. An identification and tracking algorithm was applied to UDs observed in a destretched movie of 360 frames. In total, 662 UDs were tracked, and their intensities, positions, and proper motions were measured. Power spectra of temporal intensity variations of UDs and DNs were computed, and several typical periods were found. The histogram of time-averaged intensities of UDs has two maxima; the UDs belonging to the brighter part of the population are located mostly at or near the umbral-penumbral boundary. The number of UDs decreases with increasing magnitude of the proper motion velocity. Speeds of UDs are grouped at 100 and 400 m/s. The observed spatial distribution of UDs with different proper motion velocities is found to be in contradiction to the generally accepted idea of moving ``peripheral'' and stationary ``central'' UDs. Both ``fast'' and ``slow'' UDs are present in all parts of the umbra. Thus velocity does not appear to be a good criterion for separating UDs into ``peripheral'' and ``central'' ones.

  17. Hα kinematics of S4G spiral galaxies - II. Data description and non-circular motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Leaman, Ryan; Cisternas, Mauricio; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Díaz-García, Simón; Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Taehyun; Laurikainen, Eija; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Meidt, Sharon E.; Salo, Heikki

    2015-07-01

    We present a kinematical study of 29 spiral galaxies included in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies, using Hα Fabry-Perot (FP) data obtained with the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot System instrument at the William Herschel Telescope in La Palma, complemented with images in the R band and in Hα. The primary goal is to study the evolution and properties of the main structural components of galaxies through the kinematical analysis of the FP data, complemented with studies of morphology, star formation and mass distribution. In this paper we describe how the FP data have been obtained, processed and analysed. We present the resulting moment maps, rotation curves, velocity model maps and residual maps. Images are available in FITS format through the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database and the Centre de Données Stellaires. With these data products we study the non-circular motions, in particular those found along the bars and spiral arms. The data indicate that the amplitude of the non-circular motions created by the bar does not correlate with the bar strength indicators. The amplitude of those non-circular motions in the spiral arms does not correlate with either arm class or star formation rate along the spiral arms. This implies that the presence and the magnitude of the streaming motions in the arms is a local phenomenon.

  18. Kinematic imprint of clumpy disk formation on halo objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2013-02-01

    Context. Clumpy disk galaxies in the distant universe, at redshift of z ≳ 1, have been observed to host several giant clumps in their disks. They are thought to correspond to early formative stages of disk galaxies. On the other hand, halo objects, such as old globular clusters and halo stars, are likely to consist of the oldest stars in a galaxy (age ≳ 10 Gyr), clumpy disk formation can thus be presumed to take place in a pre-existing halo system. Aims: Giant clumps orbit in the same direction in a premature disk and are so massive that they may be expected to interact gravitationally with halo objects and exercise influence on the kinematic state of the halo. Accordingly, I scrutinize the possibility that the clumps leave a kinematic imprint of the clumpy disk formation on a halo system. Methods: I perform a restricted N-body calculation with a toy model to study the kinematic influence on a halo by orbital motions of clumps and the dependence of the results on masses (mass loss), number, and orbital radii of the clumps. Results: I show that halo objects can catch clump motions and acquire disky rotation in a dynamical friction time scale of the clumps, ~0.5 Gyr. The influence of clumps is limited within a region around the disk, while the halo system shows vertical gradients of net rotation velocity and orbital eccentricity. The significance of the kinematic influence strongly depends on the clump masses; the lower limit of postulated clump mass would be ~5 × 108 M⊙. The result also depends on whether the clumps are subjected to rapid mass loss or not, which is an open question under debate in recent studies. The existence of such massive clumps is not unrealistic. I therefore suggest that the imprints of past clumpy disk formation could remain in current galactic halos.

  19. N-body dark matter haloes with simple hierarchical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lilian; Helly, John C.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2014-05-01

    We present a new algorithm which groups the subhaloes found in cosmological N-body simulations by structure finders such as SUBFIND into dark matter haloes whose formation histories are strictly hierarchical. One advantage of these `Dhaloes' over the commonly used friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes is that they retain their individual identity in the cases when FoF haloes are artificially merged by tenuous bridges of particles or by an overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. Dhaloes are thus well suited for modelling galaxy formation and their merger trees form the basis of the Durham semi-analytic galaxy formation model, GALFORM. Applying the Dhalo construction to the Λ cold dark matter Millennium II Simulation, we find that approximately 90 per cent of Dhaloes have a one-to-one, bijective match with a corresponding FoF halo. The remaining 10 per cent are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. Although the mass functions of both types of haloes are similar, the mass of Dhaloes correlates much more tightly with the virial mass, M200, than FoF haloes. Approximately 80 per cent of FoF and bijective and non-bijective Dhaloes are relaxed according to standard criteria. For these relaxed haloes, all three types have similar concentration-M200 relations and, at fixed mass, the concentration distributions are described accurately by log-normal distributions.

  20. A ''LIGHT'', CENTRALLY CONCENTRATED MILKY WAY HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M.; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-08-20

    We discuss a novel approach to ''weighing'' the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include ''Eris'', one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M{sub vir} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M{sub vir} = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} ''Via Lactea II'' (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same ''cold veil'' recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as {sigma}{sub los} Almost-Equal-To 50 km s{sup -1} between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a ''heavy'' M{sub vir} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a ''light'', centrally concentrated MW halo.

  1. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  2. UC Berkeley Seismic Guidelines, Appendix II: Ground Motion Time Histories for the UC Berkeley Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    2003-06-03

    Three sets of ten time histories each were developed to represent the ground motions for each of the three return periods. All of the time histories are provided as pairs of fault-normal and fault-parallel components. The ground motion time histories are provided in two forms: unmodified, and spectrally modified to match the probabilistic response spectra. The unmodified time histories can be scaled to match the probabilistic response spectra at a specified period, such as the first mode period of the structure being analyzed, while leaving the shape of the response spectrum unmodified. This approach preserves the particular characteristics of the individual time history, together with the peaks and troughs of its response spectrum. These individual characteristics are modified in the spectrally matched time histories, resulting in a suite of ten time histories (for a given return period) that all have the same response spectrum for a given component (fault normal or fault parallel) that follows the smooth shape of the probabilistic response spectrum.

  3. UC Berkeley Seismic Guidelines, Appendix II: Ground Motion TimeHistories for the UC Berkeley Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-06-03

    Three sets of ten time histories each were developed to represent the ground motions for each of the three return periods. All of the time histories are provided as pairs of fault-normal and fault-parallel components. The ground motion time histories are provided in two forms: unmodified, and spectrally modified to match the probabilistic response spectra. The unmodified time histories can be scaled to match the probabilistic response spectra at a specified period, such as the first mode period of the structure being analyzed, while leaving the shape of the response spectrum unmodified. This approach preserves the particular characteristics of the individual time history, together with the peaks and troughs of its response spectrum. These individual characteristics are modified in the spectrally matched time histories, resulting in a suite of ten time histories (for a given return period) that all have the same response spectrum for a given component (fault normal or fault parallel) that follows the smooth shape of the probabilistic response spectrum.

  4. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-21

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  5. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  6. PARAMETERS FOR QUANTIFYING BEAM HALO

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. ALLEN; T.P. WANGLER

    2001-06-01

    Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are introduced, both based on moments of the particle distribution. One parameter is a measure of spatial halo formation and has been defined previously by Wangler and Crandall [3], termed the profile parameter. The second parameter relies on kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in phase space; we call it the halo parameter. The profile parameter can be computed from experimental beam profile data. The halo parameter provides a theoretically more complete description of halo in phase space, but is difficult to obtain experimentally.

  7. HALOE Science Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris

    1998-01-01

    This cooperative agreement has investigated a number of spectroscopic problems of interest to the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). The types of studies performed are in two parts, namely, those that involve the testing and characterization of correlation spectrometers and those that provide basic molecular spectroscopic information. In addition, some solar studies were performed with the calibration data returned by HALOE from orbit. In order to accomplish this a software package was written as part of this cooperative agreement. The HALOE spectroscopic instrument package was used in various tests of the HALOE flight instrument. These included the spectral response test, the early stages of the gas response test and various spectral response tests of the detectors and optical elements of the instruments. Considerable effort was also expended upon the proper laboratory setup for many of the prelaunch tests of the HALOE flight instrument, including the spectral response test and the gas response test. These tests provided the calibration and the assurance that the calibration was performed correctly.

  8. Milky Way halo gas kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of high resolution, short wavelength absorption data taken by IUE toward high latitude O and B stars are presented in a discussion of the large scale kinematic properties of Milky Way Halo gas. An analysis of these data demonstrates that: (1) the obsrved absorption widths (FWHM) of Si II are very large, ranging up to 150 Km/s for the most distant halo star; this is much larger than is generally appreciated from optical data; (2) the absorption is observed to be systematically negative in radial velocity, indicating that cool material is, on the whole, flowing toward the disk of the galaxy; (3) there is some evidence for asymmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, in accordance with the HI 21 cm data toward the galactic poles; (4) low column density gas with highly negative radial LSR velocity (V less than -70 km/s) can be found toward stars beyond 1-3 kpc in the northern galactic hemisphere in all four quadrants of galactic longitude; and (5) only the profiles toward stars in the direction of known high velocity HI features show a clear two component structure.

  9. Reconnaissance of the HR 8799 Exosolar System. II. Astrometry and Orbital Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, L.; Soummer, R.; Hoffmann, J.; Oppenheimer, R.; Graham, J. R.; Zimmerman, N.; Zhai, C.; Wallace, J. K.; Vescelus, F.; Veicht, A.; Vasisht, G.; Truong, T.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Shao, M.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Roberts, J. E.; Rice, E.; Parry, I. R.; Nilsson, R.; Lockhart, T.; Ligon, E. R.; King, D.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hale, D.; Dekany, R.; Crepp, J. R.; Cady, E.; Burruss, R.; Brenner, D.; Beichman, C.; Baranec, C.

    2015-04-01

    We present an analysis of the orbital motion of the four substellar objects orbiting HR 8799. Our study relies on the published astrometric history of this system augmented with an epoch obtained with the Project 1640 coronagraph with an integral field spectrograph (IFS) installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. We first focus on the intricacies associated with astrometric estimation using the combination of an extreme adaptive optics system (PALM-3000), a coronagraph, and an IFS. We introduce two new algorithms. The first one retrieves the stellar focal plane position when the star is occulted by a coronagraphic stop. The second one yields precise astrometric and spectrophotometric estimates of faint point sources even when they are initially buried in the speckle noise. The second part of our paper is devoted to studying orbital motion in this system. In order to complement the orbital architectures discussed in the literature, we determine an ensemble of likely Keplerian orbits for HR 8799bcde, using a Bayesian analysis with maximally vague priors regarding the overall configuration of the system. Although the astrometric history is currently too scarce to formally rule out coplanarity, HR 8799d appears to be misaligned with respect to the most likely planes of HR 8799bce orbits. This misalignment is sufficient to question the strictly coplanar assumption made by various authors when identifying a Laplace resonance as a potential architecture. Finally, we establish a high likelihood that HR 8799de have dynamical masses below 13 MJup, using a loose dynamical survival argument based on geometric close encounters. We illustrate how future dynamical analyses will further constrain dynamical masses in the entire system.

  10. Gaseous Halos and the Interstellar Disk-Halo Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmar, Ralf Jurgen

    The presence of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the halos of spiral galaxies is discussed in the framework of the disk-halo interaction. The halo DIG is typically correlated with the presence of other components of the ISM in the halo including X-ray hot gas, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields. All these tracers of an extraplanar ISM correlate well with star formation in the disk thus corroborating the paradigm of an ISM driven by multiple and clustered supernovae.

  11. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  12. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-no stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon; these are the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Methods: High-resolution, low S/N spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over a time span of up to eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Radial velocities of ~100 m s-1 precision were determined by cross-correlation after each observing night, allowing immediate, systematic follow-up of any variable object. Results: Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocity variation over this period and appear to be single, while four are found to be binaries with orbital periods of 300-2000 days and normal eccentricity; the binary frequency for the sample is 17 ± 9%. The single stars mostly belong to the recently identified low-C band, while the binaries have higher absolute carbon abundances. Conclusions: We conclude that the nucleosynthetic process responsible for the strong carbon excess in these ancient stars is unrelated to their binary status; the carbon was imprinted on their natal molecular clouds in the early Galactic interstellar

  13. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  14. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    1994-08-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  15. Radio haloes in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected clusters of galaxies: the making of a halo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonafede, A.; Intema, H.; Brüggen, M.; Vazza, F.; Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Ebeling, H.; de Gasperin, F.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Cassano, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radio haloes are synchrotron radio sources detected in some massive galaxy clusters. Their size of Mpc indicates that (re)acceleration processes are taking place in the host cluster. X-ray catalogues of galaxy clusters have been used in the past to search for radio haloes and to understand their connection with cluster-cluster mergers and with the thermal component of the intracluster medium. More recently, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect has been proven to be a better route to search for massive clusters in a wider redshift range. With the aim of discovering new radio haloes and understanding their connection with cluster-cluster mergers, we have selected the most massive clusters from the Planck early source catalogue and we have observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 323 MHz those objects for which deep observations were not available. We have discovered new peculiar radio emission in three of the observed clusters, finding (i) a radio halo in the cluster RXCJ0949.8+1708, (ii) extended emission in Abell 1443 that we classify as a radio halo plus a radio relic, with a bright filament embedded in the radio halo, and (iii) low-power radio emission in CIZA J1938.3+5409 that is ten times below the radio-X-ray correlation and represents the first direct detection of the radio emission in the `upper-limit' region of the radio-X-ray diagram. We discuss the properties of these new radio haloes in the framework of theoretical models for the radio emission.

  16. Giant Radio Sources as a Probe of the Cosmological Evolution of the IGM. II. The Observational Constraint on the Model of Radio-Jets Propagation through the X-ray Halo-IGM Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuligowska, E.; Jamrozy, M.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Machalski, J.

    2009-12-01

    Three limited samples of high-redshift radio sources of FRII-type are used to constrain the dynamical model for the jets' propagation through the two-media environment: the X-ray emitting halo with the power-law density profile surrounding the parent galaxy and the much hotter intergalactic medium (IGM) of a constant density. The model, originally developed by Gopal-Krishna and Wiita, is modified adopting modern values of its free parameters taken from recent X-ray measurements with the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatories. We find that (i) giant-sized radio sources (≍1 Mpc) exist at redshifts up to z≍2, (ii) all newly identified the largest radio sources with 1

  17. The Outer Halo -- Halo Origins and Mass of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Heather; Arabadjis, John; Dohm-Palmer, Robbie; Freeman, Ken; Harding, Paul; Mateo, Mario; Norris, John; Olszewski, Ed; Sneden, Chris

    2000-02-01

    Through our detection of distant halo stars, we are now well placed to map the regions of the Galactic halo where previously only satellite galaxies and a few globular clusters were known. Mapping this region is crucial for answering questions like: How and over what timescales was the Milky Way's stellar halo assembled? What is the total mass and shape of its dark halo? The Sagittarius dwarf has demonstrated that at least some of the stellar halo was accreted. But, HOW MUCH of the halo was accreted? Our previous efforts have proven that the Washington photometric system, in conjuction with spectroscopy, is capable of efficiently and unambiguously identifying halo stars out to 100 kpc or more. We require followup spectroscopy to map velocity substructure, which is more likely visible in the outer halo because of the long dynamical timescales, and to identify the rare objects in the extreme outer halo which will constrain the shape and size of its dark halo. We are applying for 4m/RCSP time at both CTIO and KPNO to observe faint outer-halo giant and BHB candidates.

  18. An Improved Catalog of Halo Wide Binary Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christine; Monroy-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved catalog of halo wide binaries compiled from an extensive literature search. Most of our binaries stem from the common proper motion binary catalogs by Allen et al. and Chanamé & Gould, but we have also included binaries from the lists of Ryan and Zapatero-Osorio & Martín. All binaries were carefully checked and their distances and systemic radial velocities are included when available. Probable membership to the halo population was tested by means of reduced proper motion diagrams for 251 candidate halo binaries. After eliminating obvious disk binaries, we ended up with 211 probable halo binaries, 150 of which have radial velocities available. We compute galactic orbits for these 150 binaries and calculate the time they spend within the galactic disk. Considering the full sample of 251 candidate halo binaries as well as several subsamples, we find that the distribution of angular separations (or expected major semiaxes) follows a power law f(a) ~ a -1 (Oepik's relation) up to different limits. For the 50 most disk-like binaries, those that spend their entire lives within z = ±500 pc, this limit is found to be 19,000 AU (0.09 pc), while for the 50 most halo-like binaries, those that spend on average only 18% of their lives within z = ±500 pc, the limit is 63,000 AU (0.31 pc). In a companion paper, we employ this catalog to establish limits on the masses of the halo massive perturbers (massive compact halo objects).

  19. An improved catalog of halo wide binary candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Christine; Monroy-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved catalog of halo wide binaries compiled from an extensive literature search. Most of our binaries stem from the common proper motion binary catalogs by Allen et al. and Chanamé and Gould, but we have also included binaries from the lists of Ryan and Zapatero-Osorio and Martín. All binaries were carefully checked and their distances and systemic radial velocities are included when available. Probable membership to the halo population was tested by means of reduced proper motion diagrams for 251 candidate halo binaries. After eliminating obvious disk binaries, we ended up with 211 probable halo binaries, 150 of which have radial velocities available. We compute galactic orbits for these 150 binaries and calculate the time they spend within the galactic disk. Considering the full sample of 251 candidate halo binaries as well as several subsamples, we find that the distribution of angular separations (or expected major semiaxes) follows a power law f(a) ∼ a {sup –1} (Oepik's relation) up to different limits. For the 50 most disk-like binaries, those that spend their entire lives within z = ±500 pc, this limit is found to be 19,000 AU (0.09 pc), while for the 50 most halo-like binaries, those that spend on average only 18% of their lives within z = ±500 pc, the limit is 63,000 AU (0.31 pc). In a companion paper, we employ this catalog to establish limits on the masses of the halo massive perturbers (massive compact halo objects).

  20. INVESTIGATION OF HALO FORMATION IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS USING WEIGHTED POLYNOMIAL EXPANSIONS AND PERTURBATIONAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    C. ALLEN

    2000-08-01

    We consider halo formation in continuous beams oscillating at natural modes by inspecting particle trajectories. Trajectory equations containing field nonlinearities are derived from a weighted polynomial expansion. We then use perturbational techniques to further analyze particle motion.

  1. The formation of the smooth halo component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    The detection and characterization of debris in the integral-of-motion space is a promising avenue to uncover the hierarchical formation of the Milky Way. Yet, the fact that the integrals do not remain constant during the assembly process adds considerable complexity to this approach. Indeed, in time-dependent potentials tidal substructures tend to be effaced from the integral-of-motion space through an orbital diffusion process, which naturally leads to the formation of a `smooth' stellar halo. In this talk I will introduce a new probability theory that describes the evolution of collisionless systems subject to a time-dependent potential. The new theory can be used to reconstruct the hierarchical assembly of our Galaxy through modelling the observed distribution of accreted stars in the integral-of-motion space.

  2. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  3. Detection of ultraviolet halos around highly inclined galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-07-10

    We report the discovery of diffuse ultraviolet light around late-type galaxies out to 5-20 kpc from the midplane using Swift and GALEX images. The emission is consistent with the stellar outskirts in the early-type galaxies but not in the late-type galaxies, where the emission is quite blue and consistent with a reflection nebula powered by light escaping from the galaxy and scattering off dust in the halo. Our results agree with expectations from halo dust discovered in extinction by Ménard et al. to within a few kpc of the disk and imply a comparable amount of hot and cold gas in galaxy halos (a few× 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} within 20 kpc) if the dust resides primarily in Mg II absorbers. The results also highlight the potential of UV photometry to study individual galaxy halos.

  4. The motion of the earth-moon system in modern tabular ephemerides. II - Inertial motion, mean longitude of the sun, and general precession in longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stumpff, P.; Lieske, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Properties of astronomical time scales (ET and UT) are considered, with particular emphasis on correctly determining of-date longitude as the sum of inertial mean longitude of the sun relative to the mean equinox of a fixed epoch (1950.0), and the general precession in longitude accumulated since the epoch. The inertial mean longitude and motion (relative to the mean equinox) are derived from tabular ephemerides such as the Jet Propulsion Laboratories' DE 102 and DE 96, by comparisons with subroutines based on Newcomb's perturbation theory. An unresolved inconsistency of approximately 1 second per century among the mean inertial motion of DE 102, IAU precession speed (1976), and the classical Newcomb of-date mean motion is found. Interpretation difficulties arising from the use of different systems of Ephemeris Time are also discussed.

  5. Contributions of Platform Motion to Simulator Training Effectiveness: Study II--Aerobatics. Interim Report for Period March 1976-November 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth L.; Waag, Wayne L.

    A transfer-of-training design was used to evaluate the contributions of simulator training with synergistic six-degrees-of-freedom platform motion to aerobatic skills acquisition in the novice pilot. Thirty-six undergraduate pilot trainees were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: motion, no-motion, and control. Those in the control…

  6. The kinematics of Milky Way halo gas. I - Observations of low-ionization species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet interstellar line day observed with the IUE toward 70 halo stars and four extragalactic sight lines are analyzed in a study of the large-scale kinematic properties of the Milky Way halo gas. The motions of the low-ionization gas is focused on. Large systematic velocities are found, and a pronounced asymmetry in the absorption characteristics of halo gas toward the Galactic poles is indicated. In the north, substantial amounts of material are falling toward the disk at velocities up to about 120 km/s in the most extreme case. Toward the south, low-ionization material shows no extreme or systematic motions.

  7. A halo bias function measured deeply into voids without stochasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Jeong, Donghui; Wang, Xin

    2014-06-01

    We study the relationship between dark-matter haloes and matter in the MIP (multum in parvo) N-body simulation ensemble, which allows precision measurements of this relationship, even deeply into voids. What enables this is a lack of discreteness, stochasticity, and exclusion, achieved by averaging over hundreds of possible sets of initial small-scale modes, while holding fixed large-scale modes that give the cosmic web. We find (i) that dark-matter-halo formation is greatly suppressed in voids; there is an exponential downturn at low densities in the otherwise power-law matter-to-halo density bias function. Thus, the rarity of haloes in voids is akin to the rarity of the largest clusters, and their abundance is quite sensitive to cosmological parameters. The exponential downturn appears both in an excursion-set model, and in a model in which fluctuations evolve in voids as in an open universe with an effective Ωm proportional to a large-scale density. We also find that (ii) haloes typically populate the average halo-density field in a super-Poisson way, i.e. with a variance exceeding the mean; and (iii) the rank-order-Gaussianized halo and dark-matter fields are impressively similar in Fourier space. We compare both their power spectra and cross-correlation, supporting the conclusion that one is roughly a strictly increasing mapping of the other. The MIP ensemble especially reveals how halo abundance varies with `environmental' quantities beyond the local matter density; (iv) we find a visual suggestion that at fixed matter density, filaments are more populated by haloes than clusters.

  8. Characterization of Disruption Halo Currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Gerhardt, J. Menard, S. Sabbagh and F. Scotti

    2012-04-25

    This paper describes the general characteristics of disruptions halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The commonly observed types of vertical motion and resulting halo current patterns are described, and it is shown that plasma discharges developing between components can facilitate halo current flow. The halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors at various locations in the device are presented. The maximum product of these two metrics for localized halo current measurements is always significantly less than the worst-case expectations from conventional aspect ratio tokamaks (which are typically written in terms of the total halo current). The halo current fraction and impulse is often largest in cases with the fastest plasma current quenches and highest quench rates. The effective duration of the halo current pulse is comparable to or shorter than the plasma current quench time. The largest halo currents have tended to occur in lower β and lower elongation plasmas. The sign of the poloidal halo current is reversed when the toroidal field direction is reversed.

  9. Stellar halos around Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.

    2016-08-01

    The Local Group is now home to 102 known galaxies and candidates, with many new faint galaxies continuing to be discovered. The total stellar mass range spanned by this population covers a factor of close to a billion, from the faintest systems with stellar masses of order a few thousand to the Milky Way and Andromeda, with stellar masses of order 1011 M ⊙. Here, I discuss the evidence for stellar halos surrounding Local Group galaxies spanning from dwarf scales (with the case of the Andromeda II dwarf spheroidal), though to intermediate mass systems (M33) and finishing with M31. Evidence of extended stellar populations and merging is seen across the luminosity function, indicating that the processes that lead to halo formation are common at all mass scales.

  10. The Mount Wilson Halo Mapping Project 1975-1985. II. Photometric Properties of the Mount Wilson Catalogue of Photographic Magnitudes in Selected Areas 1-139

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan

    2001-03-01

    This paper is partly a review of the history of the making of the Mount Wilson Catalogue of Photographic Magnitudes in Selected Areas 1-139 (hereafter the MWC), begun in 1909 and completed in 1930, and it is partly the presentation of new photometric results concerning it. Photoelectric photometry of 435 stars in the 11 Selected Areas of SA 28, 29, 45, 55, 57, 71, 82, 94, 106, 107, and 118 of the MWC is given. The data are used to derive magnitude corrections to the MWC for these areas. Ten of the areas are in the Galactic meridional plane (Galactic longitudes of 0° and 180°). These are the same areas used by Becker in his Basel program of star counts for the study of Galactic structure. The first purpose of the paper is to extend the Basel star counts to fainter magnitudes. For this, 200 inch photographic plates were measured to the plate limits near B=22, calibrated with the photoelectric photometry listed here. A second purpose is to derive certain properties of the catalog. The interests are (1) to determine the internal (random) measuring errors of the MWC as a function of magnitude after correcting for the systematic scale error in each area, (2) to test for a color equation between the corrected mpg(MWC) values and the Bpe system that must be present because of the difference in reflectivity between silvered and aluminized mirrors, and (3) to test for possible distance-to-center corrections of the scale-corrected MWC magnitudes. Photographic photometry is used to complete the count surveys in each of the program areas to the limit of the 200 inch plates. Color-magnitude diagrams are shown for each area, generally complete to V=20, B-V=2.0. The work is preparatory to an analysis for Galactic structure when the larger database is available in a program by Majewski using Kitt Peak 4 m plates, epoch circa 1975, that will be to provide both a deeper count survey in B and V and proper motions for the larger sample.

  11. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  12. Methods for Identifying Pair Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brendan; Caputo, Regina; Atwood, William; Ritz, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The flux of very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is attenuated via interactions with extragalactic background photons and is converted into e+e- pairs. With non-zero intergalactic magnetic fields, the electrons and positrons will deflect as they propagate and simultaneously lose energy by upscattering cosmic microwave background photons. "Pair halos," the visible consequences of these electromagnetic cascades, are faint and difficult to observe against their AGN counterparts. We investigate three methods for indirectly identifying pair halos, using a two-component approach to model the AGN core/halo image. We estimate each method's sensitivity by utilizing a new, detailed Monte Carlo pair-halo simulation.

  13. Dissipative exciton motion in a chlorophyll a/b dimer of the light harvesting complex of photosystem II: Simulation of pump-probe spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Renger, T.; Voigt, J.; May, V.; Kuehn, O.

    1996-09-26

    The ultrafast dissipative exciton motion in a molecular dimer of the light harvesting complex II of higher plants is investigated theoretically. The density matrix formalism is applied to simulate the one- and two-color pump-probe spectra measured by Bittner et al. To incorporate coherent vibrational motion we use a representation in localized exciton vibrational states. The observed ultrafast transfer dynamics on the subpicosecond time scale can be well explained by means of a delocalization of the exciton wave function over both monomers. For the low-temperature one-color pump-probe measurement we predict quantum beats in the signal due to coherent nuclear wave packet motion. Furthermore, our calculations support the in-line geometry for the Chlorophyll a/b dimers in the pigment-protein complex. 32 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, part II: Ground-motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  15. The very wide-field gzK Galaxy Survey - II. The relationship between star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2 and their host haloes based upon HOD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Hamana, Takashi; Toshikawa, Jun; Onoue, Masafusa

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of an halo occupation distribution (HOD) analysis of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2. We obtained high-quality angular correlation functions based on a large sgzK sample, which enabled us to carry out the HOD analysis. The mean halo mass and the HOD mass parameters are found to increase monotonically with increasing K-band magnitude, suggesting that more luminous galaxies reside in more massive dark haloes. The luminosity dependence of the HOD mass parameters was found to be the same as in the local Universe; however, the masses were larger than in the local Universe over all ranges of magnitude. This implies that galaxies at z ˜ 2 tend to form in more massive dark haloes than in the local Universe, a process known as downsizing. By analysing the dark halo mass evolution using the extended Press-Schechter formalism and the number evolution of satellite galaxies in a dark halo, we find that faint Lyman break galaxies at z ˜ 4 could evolve into the faintest sgzKs (22.0 < K ≤ 23.0) at z ˜ 2 and into the Milky-Way-like galaxies or elliptical galaxies in the local Universe, whereas the most luminous sgzKs (18.0 ≤ K ≤ 21.0) could evolve into the most massive systems in the local Universe. The stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) of the sgzKs was found to be consistent with the prediction of the model, except that the SHMR of the faintest sgzKs was smaller than the prediction at z ˜ 2. This discrepancy may be explained by the confinement of our samples to star-forming galaxies.

  16. Very Metal-poor Outer-halo Stars with Round Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) BHB stars significantly lags behind that of the relatively more metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  17. VERY METAL-POOR OUTER-HALO STARS WITH ROUND ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2013-01-20

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) BHB stars significantly lags behind that of the relatively more metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  18. Jupiter's Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow.

    A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest

  19. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: Detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesh, M.; Kalangi, Suresh K.; Sivarama Krishna, L.; Reddy, A. Varada

    2014-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1 = 2.1228, g2 = 2.0706 and g3 = 2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM.

  20. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, M; Kalangi, Suresh K; Sivarama Krishna, L; Reddy, A Varada

    2014-01-24

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1=2.1228, g2=2.0706 and g3=2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM. PMID:24084484

  1. Scaling Limit Analysis of Borromean Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, L. A.; Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is performed within a model of halo nuclei described by a core and two neutrons dominated by the s-wave channel. We adopt the renormalized three-body model with a zero-range force, which accounts for the Efimov physics. This model is applicable to nuclei with large two-neutron halos compared to the core size, and a neutron-core scattering length larger than the interaction range. The halo wave function in momentum space is obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei Lithium-11 (^{11}Li), Berylium-14 (^{14}Be) and Carbon-22 (^{22}C). A fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained in the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of ^{11}Li and ^{14}Be, without free parameters. By extending the model to ^{22}C, the combined analysis of the core momentum distribution and matter radius suggest (i) a ^{21}C virtual state well below 1 MeV; (ii) an overestimation of the extracted matter ^{22}C radius; and (iii) a two-neutron separation energy between 100 and 400 keV.

  2. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ-σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin-tilde g plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tilde h(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g(vmin) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  3. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  4. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  5. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR),more » the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.« less

  6. HALOE test and evaluation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming, system development and analysis efforts during this contract were carried out in support of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) at NASA/Langley. Support in the major areas of data acquisition and monitoring, data reduction and system development are described along with a brief explanation of the HALOE project. Documented listings of major software are located in the appendix.

  7. Merger rates of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neistein, Eyal; Dekel, Avishai

    2008-08-01

    We derive analytic merger rates for dark matter haloes within the framework of the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism. These rates become self-consistent within EPS once we realize that the typical merger in the limit of a small time-step involves more than two progenitors, contrary to the assumption of binary mergers adopted in earlier studies. We present a general method for computing merger rates that span the range of solutions permitted by the EPS conditional mass function, and focus on a specific solution that attempts to match the merger rates in N-body simulations. The corrected EPS merger rates are more accurate than the earlier estimates of Lacey & Cole by ~20 per cent for major mergers and by up to a factor of ~3 for minor mergers of mass ratio 1:104. Based on the revised merger rates, we provide a new algorithm for constructing Monte Carlo EPS merger trees, which could be useful in semi-analytic modelling. We provide analytic expressions and plot numerical results for several quantities that are very useful in studies of galaxy formation. This includes (i) the rate of mergers of a given mass ratio per given final halo, (ii) the fraction of mass added by mergers to a halo and (iii) the rate of mergers per given main progenitor. The creation and destruction rates of haloes serve for a self-consistency check. Our method for computing merger rates can be applied to conditional mass functions beyond EPS, such as those obtained by the ellipsoidal collapse model or extracted from N-body simulations.

  8. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  9. Near Ballistic Halo-to-Halo Transfers between Planetary Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantoine, Gregory; Russell, Ryan P.

    2011-07-01

    Intermoon transfers are important components of planetary tour missions. However, these transfers are challenging to design due in part to the chaotic environment created by the multi-body dynamics. The specific objective of this work is to develop a systematic methodology to find fuel optimal, near ballistic Halo-to-Halo trajectories between planetary moons, and we achieve this goal by combining dynamical systems theory with a variety of nonlinear programming techniques. The spacecraft is constrained to start at a Halo orbit of a moon and end at another Halo orbit of a second moon. Our approach overcomes the obstacles of the chaotic dynamics by combining multiple "resonant-hopping" gravity assists with manifolds that control the low-energy transport near the Halo orbits of the moons. To help construct good initial guesses, contours of semimajor axes that can be reached by falling off a Halo orbit are presented. An empirical relationship is then derived to find quickly the boundary conditions on the Halo orbits that lead to ballistic capture and escape trajectories, and connect to desired resonances. The overall optimization procedure is broken into four parts of increasing fidelity: creation of the initial guess from unstable resonant orbits and manifolds, decomposition and optimization of the trajectory into two independent ideal three-body portions, end-to-end refinement in a patched three-body model, and transition to an ephemeris model using a continuation method. Each step is based on a robust multiple shooting approach to reduce the sensitivities associated with the close approach trajectories. Numerical results of an intermoon transfer in the Jovian system are presented. In an ephemeris model, using only 55 m/s and 205 days, a spacecraft can transfer between a Halo orbit of Ganymede and a Halo orbit of Europa.

  10. Isotropic at the Break? 3D Kinematics of Milky Way Halo Stars in the Foreground of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Toloba, Elisa; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Dorman, Claire E.

    2016-03-01

    We present the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for 13 distant main sequence Milky Way halo stars with published proper motions (PMs). The PMs were measured using long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry, and the LOS velocities were extracted from deep (5-6 hr integrations) Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We estimate the parameters of the velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo using a Markov chain Monte Carlo ensembler sampler method. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b, LOS) coordinate system are {< {v}l2> }1/2={138}-26+43 km s-1, {< {v}b2> }1/2={88}-17+28 {\\text{km s}}-1, and {< {v}{{LOS}}2> }1/2={91}-14+27 {\\text{km s}}-1. We use these ellipsoid parameters to constrain the velocity anisotropy of the stellar halo. Ours is the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematics outside of the solar neighborhood. We find β =-{0.3}-0.9+0.4, consistent with isotropy and lower than solar neighborhood β measurements by 2σ (βSN ˜ 0.5-0.7). We identify two stars in our sample that are likely members of the known TriAnd substructure, and excluding these objects from our sample increases our estimate of the anisotropy to β ={0.1}-1.0+0.4, which is still lower than solar neighborhood measurements by 1σ. The potential decrease in β with Galactocentric radius is inconsistent with theoretical predictions, though consistent with recent observational studies, and may indicate the presence of large, shell-type structure (or structures) at r ˜ 25 kpc. The methods described in this paper will be applied to a much larger sample of stars with 3D kinematics observed through the ongoing HALO7D program.

  11. THE CASE FOR THE DUAL HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Carollo, Daniela; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C. E-mail: lee@pa.msu.edu E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au; and others

    2012-02-10

    Carollo et al. have recently resolved the stellar population of the Milky Way halo into at least two distinct components, an inner halo and an outer halo. This result has been criticized by Schoenrich et al., who claim that the retrograde signature associated with the outer halo is due to the adoption of faulty distances. We refute this claim, and demonstrate that the Schoenrich et al. photometric distances are themselves flawed because they adopted an incorrect main-sequence absolute magnitude relationship from the work of Ivezic et al. When compared to the recommended relation from Ivezic et al., which is tied to a Milky Way globular cluster distance scale and accounts for age and metallicity effects, the relation adopted by Schoenrich et al. yields up to 18% shorter distances for stars near the main-sequence turnoff (TO). Use of the correct relationship yields agreement between the distances assigned by Carollo et al. and Ivezic et al. for low-metallicity dwarfs to within 6%-10%. Schoenrich et al. also point out that intermediate-gravity stars (3.5 {<=}log g < 4.0) with colors redder than the TO region are likely misclassified, with which we concur. We implement a new procedure to reassign luminosity classifications for the TO stars that require it. New derivations of the rotational behavior demonstrate that the retrograde signature and high velocity dispersion of the outer-halo population remain. We summarize additional lines of evidence for a dual halo, including a test of the retrograde signature based on proper motions alone, and conclude that the preponderance of evidence strongly rejects the single-halo interpretation.

  12. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    SciTech Connect

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-05-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  13. A strip search for new very wide halo binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, D. P.; Smith, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a search for new wide halo binary stars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. A list of new halo wide binary candidates which satisfy common proper motion and photometric constraints is provided. The projected separations of the sample lie between 0.007 and 0.25 pc. Although the sample is not large enough to improve constraints on dark matter in the halo, we find the wide binary angular separation function is broadly consistent with past work. We discuss the significance of the new sample for a number of astrophysical applications, including as a testbed for ideas about wide binary formation. For the subset of candidates which have radial velocity information, we make use of integrals of motion to investigate one such scheme in which the origin of Galactic wide binaries is associated with the accretion/disruption of stellar systems in the Galaxy. Additional spectroscopic observations of these candidate binaries will strengthen their usefulness in many of these respects. Based on our search experience in Stripe 82 we estimate that the upcoming Pan-STARRS survey will increase the sample size of wide halo binaries by over an order of magnitude.

  14. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  15. Evidence for core-halo decoupling in halo systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, E. F.; Kolata, J. J.; Acosta, L.

    2010-01-15

    Evidence is presented showing that for the {sup 6}He+{sup 209}Bi system, the reaction cross sections can be entirely accounted for by interactions of the halo state of {sup 6}He plus reactions that occur with the {sup 4}He core. These and similar conclusions about core-halo decoupling reported earlier for {sup 8}B+{sup 58}Ni are further supported by proving that no such decoupling occurs for reactions with {sup 17}O, whose valence neutron is rather weakly bound but does not form a halo. The preceding conclusions are based on comparisons with purely experimental data, using a quite reasonable scaling. Thus such a decoupling seems to stand out as a characteristic feature of true halo systems.

  16. The Fractions of Inner- and Outer-halo Stars in the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Santucci, Rafael M.; Carollo, Daniela; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    We obtain a new determination of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of stars within ˜5-10 kpc of the Sun, based on recently improved co-adds of ugriz photometry for Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new estimate uses the methodology developed previously by An et al. to study in situ halo stars, but is based on a factor of two larger sample than available before, with much-improved photometric errors and zero-points. The newly obtained MDF can be divided into multiple populations of halo stars, with peak metallicities at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.4 and -1.9, which we associate with the inner-halo and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, respectively. We find that the kinematics of these stars (based on proper-motion measurements at high Galactic latitude) supports the proposed dichotomy of the halo, as stars with retrograde motions in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal-poor than stars with prograde motions, consistent with previous claims. In addition, we generate mock catalogs of stars from a simulated Milk Way halo system, and demonstrate for the first time that the chemically and kinematically distinct properties of the inner- and outer-halo populations are qualitatively in agreement with our observations. The decomposition of the observed MDF and our comparison with the mock catalog results suggest that the outer-halo population contributes on the order of ˜35%-55% of halo stars in the local volume.

  17. Towards a self-consistent halo model for the nonlinear large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    The halo model is a theoretically and empirically well-motivated framework for predicting the statistics of the nonlinear matter distribution in the Universe. However, current incarnations of the halo model suffer from two major deficiencies: (i) they do not enforce the stress-energy conservation of matter; (ii) they are not guaranteed to recover exact perturbation theory results on large scales. Here, we provide a formulation of the halo model (EHM) that remedies both drawbacks in a consistent way, while attempting to maintain the predictivity of the approach. In the formulation presented here, mass and momentum conservation are guaranteed on large scales, and results of the perturbation theory and the effective field theory can, in principle, be matched to any desired order on large scales. We find that a key ingredient in the halo model power spectrum is the halo stochasticity covariance, which has been studied to a much lesser extent than other ingredients such as mass function, bias, and profiles of halos. As written here, this approach still does not describe the transition regime between perturbation theory and halo scales realistically, which is left as an open problem. We also show explicitly that, when implemented consistently, halo model predictions do not depend on any properties of low-mass halos that are smaller than the scales of interest.

  18. Halo model and halo properties in Galileon gravity cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lombriser, Lucas; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the performance of semi-analytical modelling of large-scale structure in Galileon gravity cosmologies using results from N-body simulations. We focus on the Cubic and Quartic Galileon models that provide a reasonable fit to CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the Sheth-Tormen mass function and linear halo bias can be calibrated to provide a very good fit to our simulation results. We also find that the halo concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law. The nonlinear matter power spectrum computed in the halo model approach is found to be inaccurate in the mildly nonlinear regime, but captures reasonably well the effects of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on small scales. In the Cubic model, the screening mechanism hides essentially all of the effects of the fifth force inside haloes. In the case of the Quartic model, the screening mechanism leaves behind residual modifications to gravity, which make the effective gravitational strength time-varying and smaller than the standard value. Compared to normal gravity, this causes a deficiency of massive haloes and leads to a weaker matter clustering on small scales. For both models, we show that there are realistic halo occupation distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies that can match both the observed large-scale clustering amplitude and the number density of these galaxies.

  19. Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totten, E. J.; Irwin, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    A byproduct of the APM high redshift quasar survey (Irwin et al. 1991) was the discovery of ~ 20 distant (20-100kpc) cool AGB carbon stars (all N-type) at high Galactic latitude. In August we used the INT+IDS to survey the rest of the high latitude SGC sky visible from La Palma and found 10 more similar carbon stars. Before this work there were only a handful of published faint high latitude cool carbon stars known (eg. Margon et al., 1984, Mould et al., 1985) and there has been speculation as to their origin (eg. Sanduleak, 1980, van den Bergh & Lafontaine, 1984). Intermediate age carbon stars (3 -- 7 Gyrs) seem unlikely to have formed in the halo in isolation from other star forming regions so how did they get there ? One possiblity that we are investigating, is that they arise from either the disruption of tidally captured dSph galaxies or are a manifestion of the long sought after optical component of the Magellanic Stream. Lack of proper motion rules out the possibility of them being dwarf carbon stars (eg. Warren et al., 1992); indeed no N-type carbon stars have been found to be dwarf carbon stars. Our optical spectroscopy confirms their carbon star type (they are indistinguishable from cool AGB carbon stars in nearby dwarf galaxies) and hence probable large distances. We are extending our survey to the NGC region, obtaining radial velocities and good S:N fluxed spectra for all the carbon stars. This will enable us to investigate their kinematics, true spatial distribution and hence their origin. Even, in the event that these objects are somehow an integral part of the Galactic halo, then their velocities and large distances will enable direct studies of the velocity ellipsoid and rotation of the outer halo (eg. Green et al., 1994).

  20. Analysis of the halo background in femtosecond slicing experiments.

    PubMed

    Schick, Daniel; Le Guyader, Loïc; Pontius, Niko; Radu, Ilie; Kachel, Torsten; Mitzner, Rolf; Zeschke, Thomas; Schüßler-Langeheine, Christian; Föhlisch, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten

    2016-05-01

    The slicing facility FemtoSpeX at BESSY II offers unique opportunities to study photo-induced dynamics on femtosecond time scales by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, resonant and non-resonant X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments in the soft X-ray regime. Besides femtosecond X-ray pulses, slicing sources inherently also produce a so-called `halo' background with a different time structure, polarization and pointing. Here a detailed experimental characterization of the halo radiation is presented, and a method is demonstrated for its correct and unambiguous removal from femtosecond time-resolved data using a special laser triggering scheme as well as analytical models. Examples are given for time-resolved measurements with corresponding halo correction, and errors of the relevant physical quantities caused by either neglecting or by applying a simplified model to describe this background are estimated. PMID:27140149

  1. The Outer Halo Metallicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MA, ZHIBO; Morrison, H.; Harding, P.; Xue, X.; Rix, H.; Rockosi, C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y.; Cudworth, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new determination of the metallicity distribution function in the Milky Way halo, based on an in situ sample of more than 5000 K giants from SDSS/SEGUE. We have also measured the metallicity gradient in the halo, using our sample which stretches from 5 kpc to more than 100 kpc from the galactic center. The halo metallicity gradient has been a controversial topic in recent studies, but our in-situ study overcomes the problems caused in these studies by their extrapolations from local samples to the distant halo. We also describe our extensive checks of the log g and [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters pipeline, using globular and open cluster stars and SEGUE stars with follow-up high-resolution analysis. In addition, we present a new Bayesian estimate of distances to the K giants, which avoids the distance bias introduced by the red giant branch luminosity function.

  2. Supernumerary ice-crystal halos?

    PubMed

    Berry, M V

    1994-07-20

    Geometric-optics singularities in the intensity profiles of refraction halos formed by randomly oriented ice crystals are softened by diffraction and decorated with fine supernumerary fringes. If the crystals have a fixed symmetry axis (as in parhelia), the geometric singularity is a square-root divergence, as in the rainbow. However, the universal curve that describes diffraction is different from the rainbow's Airy function, with weak maxima (supernumerary fringes) on the geometrically dark region inside the halo (and even fainter fringes outside); these are much smaller than their counterparts on the light side of rainbows. If the crystals have no preferred orientation (as in the 22° halo), the geometric singularity is a step. In this case the universal diffraction function has no maxima, and its supernumeraries are shoulders rather than maxima. The low contrast of the fringes is probably the main reason why supernumerary halos are rarely if ever seen. PMID:20935824

  3. A GRAVITATIONAL DOUBLE-SCATTERING MECHANISM FOR GENERATING HIGH-VELOCITY OBJECTS DURING HALO MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.

  4. A Gravitational Double-scattering Mechanism for Generating High-velocity Objects during Halo Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.

  5. Scale dependence of halo and galaxy bias: Effects in real space

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert E.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2007-03-15

    We examine the scale dependence of dark matter halo and galaxy clustering on very large scales (0.01halo bias. We pursue a two line offensive: high-resolution numerical simulations are used to establish some old and some new results, and an analytic model is developed to understand their origins. Our simulations show: (i) that the z=0 dark matter power spectrum is suppressed relative to linear theory by {approx}5% on scales 0.05ii) that, indeed, halo bias is nonlinear over the scales we probe and that the scale dependence is a strong function of halo mass. High mass haloes show no suppression of power on scales k<0.07[h Mpc{sup -1}], and only show amplification on smaller scales, whereas low mass haloes show strong, {approx}5%-10%, suppression over the range 0.05haloes, which circumvents the thorny issue of shot-noise correction. The halo-halo power spectrum, however, is highly sensitive to the shot-noise correction; we show that halo exclusion effects make this sub-Poissonian and a new correction is presented. Our results have special relevance for studies of the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the halo power spectra. Nonlinear mode-mode coupling: (i) damps these features on progressively larger scales as halo mass increases; (ii) produces small shifts in the positions of the peaks and troughs which depend on halo mass. We show that these effects on halo clustering are important over the redshift range relevant to such studies (0halo model.' The halo-halo clustering term is propagated into the nonlinear regime using '1-loop' perturbation theory and a nonlinear

  6. The Making of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    The VLT Watches a Dissolving Stellar Cluster A group of ESO astronomers [1] has used new observations, obtained with the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1) during the "Science Verification" programme, to show that a globular cluster in the Milky Way galaxy is "evaporating" and has already lost its faintest stars. This is the first observational result of its kind and has important implications for future studies. It may be explained by a gradual loss of such stars from the cluster into the Milky Way halo, a roughly spherical region around the much flatter, spiral structure in which most of the stars and nebulae are located. The new result lends strong support to current theories about the evolution of the structure of this halo and also provides insights into the formation of the galaxy in which we live. Globular clusters and the halo of the Milky Way The stars that we observe in the halo of the Milky Way represent only a small fraction of the total mass in this region. Investigations of the motions of stars in our Galaxy have shown that this halo must harbour much more matter, which is hidden from our view. The same phenomenon has been observed in other galaxies, and astronomers refer to it as "dark matter". It is at this moment not known what this matter consists of. The brightest objects in the halo are the globular clusters . They are large groupings of stars that were formed together in the very early evolutionary phases of the Milky Way, some 12,000 - 14,000 million years ago. This happened soon after the moment when the first structures emerged in the large cloud of primordial hydrogen in which our Galaxy was born. A popular scenario describes the first build-up of galactic structure, i.e. of stars and gas, as when normal matter began to collect inside the dark-matter halo, due to its strong gravitational attraction. The globular clusters were most probably the first denizens of this protogalaxy . It is believed that the Milky Way Galaxy subsequently

  7. GCN: a gaseous Galactic halo stream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shoko

    2010-10-01

    We show that a string of HI clouds that form part of the high-velocity cloud complex known as GCN is a probable gaseous stream extending over more than 50° in the Galactic halo. The radial velocity gradient along the stream is used to deduce transverse velocities as a function of distance, enabling a family of orbits to be computed. We find that a direction of motion towards the Galactic disc coupled with a mid-stream distance of ~20kpc provides a good match to the observed sky positions and radial velocities of the HI clouds comprising the stream. With an estimated mass of 105Msolar, its progenitor is likely to be a dwarf galaxy. However, no stellar counterpart has been found amongst the currently known Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies or stellar streams and the exact origin of the stream is therefore currently unknown.

  8. Molecular motions in the solid state: the thermochromic nitro-nitrito Interconversion in nickel(II) bis(diamine) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ansa Hortalá, Marta; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Foti, Francesco; Licchelli, Maurizio; Poggi, Antonio; Zema, Michele

    2003-02-10

    The NO(2)(-) ion, in the trans-octahedral [Ni(II)(N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine)(2)(NO(2))(2)](H(2)O) complex, coordinates the metal through the nitrogen atom (nitro form). On heating the solid complex, the anion rotates to give nitrito coordination (oxygen bound), according to a reversible process. The coordination mode of NO(2)(-) to Ni(II) is related to the steric interplay between the anion and the alkyl substituents on the diamine. PMID:12562176

  9. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and Foreign Body Response—Part II: Examples and Application

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) affect tissue physiology around a sensor and in turn, impact sensor performance. Here in Part II, a literature review is presented that summarizes examples of motion or pressure affecting sensor performance. Data are presented that show how both acute and chronic forces can impact continuous glucose monitor signals. Also presented are potential strategies for countering the ill effects of motion and pressure on glucose sensors. Improved engineering and optimized chemical biocompatibility have advanced sensor design and function, but we believe that mechanical biocompatibility, a rarely considered factor, must also be optimized in order to achieve an accurate, long-term, implantable sensor. PMID:21722579

  10. Observational and theoretical constraints for an Hα-halo around the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziamtzis, A.; Schirmer, M.; Lundqvist, P.; Sollerman, J.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: We searched for a fast moving Hα shell around the Crab nebula. Such a shell could account for this supernova remnant's missing mass, and carry enough kinetic energy to make SN 1054 a normal type II event. Methods: Deep Hα images were obtained with WFI at the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope and with MOSCA at the 2.56 m NOT. The data are compared with theoretical expectations derived from shell models with ballistic gas motion, constant temperature, constant degree of ionisation, and a power law for the density profile. Results: We reach a surface brightness limit of 5 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 sr-1. A halo is detected, but at a much higher surface brightness than our models of recombination emission and dust scattering predict. Only collisional excitation of Lyβ with partial de-excitation to Hα could explain such amplitudes. We show that the halo seen is caused by PSF scattering and thus not related to a real shell. We also investigated the feasibility of a spectroscopic detection of high-velocity Hα gas towards the centre of the Crab nebula. Modelling the emission spectra shows that such gas easily evades detection in the complex spectral environment of the Hα-line. Conclusions: PSF scattering significantly contaminates our data, preventing a detection of the predicted fast shell. A real halo with observed peak flux of about 2 × 10-7 erg s-1 cm-2 sr-1 could still be accomodated within our error bars, but our models predict a factor 4 lower surface brightness. Eight meters class telescopes could detect such fluxes unambiguously, provided that a sufficiently accurate PSF model is available. Finally, we note that PSF scattering also affects other research areas where faint haloes are searched for around bright and extended targets. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile (ESO Programmes 66.D-0489, 68.D-0096 and 170.A-0519). Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  11. Rotation of tokamak halo currents

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-05-15

    During tokamak disruptions, halo currents, which can be tenths of the total plasma current, can flow at the plasma edge along the magnetic field lines that intercept the chamber walls. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are required to maintain force balance as the plasma kinks when the edge safety factor drops to about two in a vertical displacement event. The plasma quickly assumes a definite toroidal velocity v{sub a}(r) with respect to that of the magnetic kink, v{sub k}, where v{sub a}(r) is set by the radial electric field required for ambipolarity. The plasma velocity, v{sub pl}=v{sub a}+v{sub k}, near the edge is influenced by the interaction with neutrals and with the potential in the halo required for quasi-neutrality on open magnetic field lines, and the plasma velocity in the core is influenced by external error fields. When plasma effects dominate magnetic locking, the magnetic kink should rotate at a diamagnetic speed of either the edge or the core. If the magnetic field lines of the halo plasma intercept the wall at locations of very different electrical conductivity, the toroidal rotation of the halo currents can intermittently stall at wall locations of high conductivity. Such stalling is seen in experiments. The toroidal phase difference between the stalled halo currents and the kink, which is expected to rotate smoothly, must satisfy {delta}{phi}<{+-}{pi}/2. A concern cited by ITER engineers is that the time varying force of the rotating halo could substantially increase the disruption loads on in-vessel components.

  12. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  13. Rotation of tokamak halo currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-05-01

    During tokamak disruptions, halo currents, which can be tenths of the total plasma current, can flow at the plasma edge along the magnetic field lines that intercept the chamber walls. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are required to maintain force balance as the plasma kinks when the edge safety factor drops to about two in a vertical displacement event. The plasma quickly assumes a definite toroidal velocity va(r) with respect to that of the magnetic kink, vk, where va(r) is set by the radial electric field required for ambipolarity. The plasma velocity, vpl=va+vk, near the edge is influenced by the interaction with neutrals and with the potential in the halo required for quasi-neutrality on open magnetic field lines, and the plasma velocity in the core is influenced by external error fields. When plasma effects dominate magnetic locking, the magnetic kink should rotate at a diamagnetic speed of either the edge or the core. If the magnetic field lines of the halo plasma intercept the wall at locations of very different electrical conductivity, the toroidal rotation of the halo currents can intermittently stall at wall locations of high conductivity. Such stalling is seen in experiments. The toroidal phase difference between the stalled halo currents and the kink, which is expected to rotate smoothly, must satisfy δϕ <±π/2. A concern cited by ITER engineers is that the time varying force of the rotating halo could substantially increase the disruption loads on in-vessel components.

  14. VISITORS FROM THE HALO: 11 Gyr OLD WHITE DWARFS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; McLeod, B.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGennaro, Steven; Kowalski, P. M.; Von Hippel, Ted; Jeffery, Elizabeth J.

    2010-05-20

    We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg{sup 2} proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0.''4-0.''5 yr{sup -1}. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T {sub eff} {approx} 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances of 70-80 pc, and tangential velocities of 140-200 km s{sup -1}. Based on the UVW space velocities, we conclude that they most likely belong to the halo. Furthermore, the combined main-sequence and WD cooling ages are 10-11 Gyr. Along with SDSS J1102+4113, they are the oldest field WDs currently known. These three stars represent only a small fraction of the halo WD candidates in our proper motion survey, and they demonstrate that deep imaging surveys like the Pan-STARRS and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find many old thick disk and halo WDs that can be used to constrain the age of the Galactic thick disk and halo.

  15. Statistics of substructures in dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.

    2012-03-01

    We study the amount and distribution of dark matter substructures within dark matter haloes, using a large set of high-resolution simulations ranging from group-size to cluster-size haloes, and carried out within a cosmological model consistent with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year data. In particular, we study how the measured properties of subhaloes vary as a function of the parent halo mass, the physical properties of the parent halo and redshift. The fraction of halo mass in substructures increases with increasing mass: it is of the order of 5 per cent for haloes with M200˜ 1013 M⊙ and of the order of 10 per cent for the most massive haloes in our sample, with M200˜ 1015 M⊙. There is, however, a very large halo-to-halo scatter that can be explained only in part by a range of halo physical properties, e.g. concentration. At a given halo mass, less concentrated haloes contain significantly larger fractions of mass in substructures because of the reduced strength of tidal disruption. Most of the substructure mass is located at the outskirts of the parent haloes, in relatively few massive subhaloes. This mass segregation appears to become stronger at increasing redshift, and should reflect into a more significant mass segregation of the galaxy population at different cosmic epochs. When haloes are accreted on to larger structures, their mass is significantly reduced by tidal stripping. Haloes that are more massive at the time of accretion (these should host more luminous galaxies) are brought closer to the centre on shorter time-scales by dynamical friction, and therefore suffer a more significant stripping. The halo merger rate depends strongly on the environment with substructure in more massive haloes suffering more important mergers than their counterparts residing in less massive systems. This should translate into a different morphological mix for haloes of different mass.

  16. The 3-D motion of the centre of gravity of the human body during level walking. II. Lower limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Tesio, L; Lanzi, D; Detrembleur, C

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the motion of the centre of gravity (CG) of the body during gait in unilateral lower limb amputees with good kinematic patterns. DESIGN: Three transtibial (below-knee, BK) and four transfemoral (above-knee, AK) amputees were required to perform successive walks over a 2.4 m long force plate, at freely chosen cadence and speed. BACKGROUND: In previous studies it has been shown that in unilateral lower limb amputee gait, the motion of the CG can be more asymmetric than might be suspected from kinematic analysis. METHODS: The mechanical energy changes of the CG due to its motion in the vertical, forward and lateral direction were measured. Gait speed ranged 0.75-1.32 m s(-1) in the different subjects. This allowed calculation of (a) the positive work done by muscles to maintain the motion of the CG with respect to the ground ('external' work, W(ext)) and (b) the amount of the pendulum-like, energy-saving transfer between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy of the CG during each step (percent recovery, R). Step length and vertical displacement of the CG were also measured. RESULTS: The recorded variables were kept within the normal limits, calculated in a previous work, when an average was made of the steps performed on the prosthetic (P) and on the normal (N) limb. Asymmetries were found, however, between the P and the N step. In BK amputees, the P step R was 5% greater and W(ext) was 21% lower than in the N step; in AK amputees, in the P step R was 54% greater and W(ext) was 66% lower than in the N step. Asymmetries were also found in the relative magnitude of the external work provided by each lower limb during the single stance as compared with the double stance: a marked deficit of work occurred at the P to N transition. PMID:11415775

  17. A Numerical Study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part II; Shear and the Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Wu, Liguang

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical simulation of Hurricane Erin (2001) is used to examine the organization of vertical motion in the eyewall and how that organization responds to a large and rapid increase in the environmental vertical wind shear and subsequent decrease in shear. During the early intensification period, prior to the onset of significant shear, the upward motion in the eyewall was concentrated in small-scale convective updrafts that formed in association with regions of concentrated vorticity (herein termed mesovortices) with no preferred formation region in the eyewall. Asymmetric flow within the eye was weak. As the shear increased, an azimuthal wavenumber 1 asymmetry in storm structure developed with updrafts tending to form on the downshear to downshear-left side of the eyewall. Continued intensification of the shear led to increasing wavenumber 1 asymmetry, large vortex tilt, and a change in eyewall structure and vertical motion organization. During this time, the eyewall structure was dominated by a vortex couplet with a cyclonic (anticyclonic) vortex on the downtilt-left (downtilt-right) side of the eyewall and strong asymmetric flow across the eye that led to strong mixing of eyewall vorticity into the eye. Upward motion was concentrated over an azimuthally broader region on the downtilt side of the eyewall, upstream of the cyclonic vortex, where low-level environmental inflow converged with the asymmetric outflow from the eye. As the shear diminished, the vortex tilt and wavenumber 1 asymmetry decreased, while the organization of updrafts trended back toward that seen during the weak shear period.

  18. Analysis of functional motions in Brownian molecular machines with an efficient block normal mode approach: myosin-II and Ca2+ -ATPase.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohui; Cui, Qiang

    2004-02-01

    The structural flexibilities of two molecular machines, myosin and Ca(2+)-ATPase, have been analyzed with normal mode analysis and discussed in the context of their energy conversion functions. The normal mode analysis with physical intermolecular interactions was made possible by an improved implementation of the block normal mode (BNM) approach. The BNM results clearly illustrated that the large-scale conformational transitions implicated in the functional cycles of the two motor systems can be largely captured with a small number of low-frequency normal modes. Therefore, the results support the idea that structural flexibility is an essential part of the construction principle of molecular motors through evolution. Such a feature is expected to be more prevalent in motor proteins than in simpler systems (e.g., signal transduction proteins) because in the former, large-scale conformational transitions often have to occur before the chemical events (e.g., ATP hydrolysis in myosin and ATP binding/phosphorylation in Ca(2+)-ATPase). This highlights the importance of Brownian motions associated with the protein domains that are involved in the functional transitions; in this sense, Brownian molecular machines is an appropriate description of molecular motors, although the normal mode results do not address the origin of the ratchet effect. The results also suggest that it might be more appropriate to describe functional transitions in some molecular motors as intrinsic elastic motions modulating local structural changes in the active site, which in turn gets stabilized by the subsequent chemical events, in contrast with the conventional idea of local changes somehow getting amplified into larger-scale motions. In the case of myosin, for example, we favor the idea that Brownian motions associated with the flexible converter propagates to the Switch I/II region, where the salt-bridge formation gets stabilized by ATP hydrolysis, in contrast with the textbook notion that

  19. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  20. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew

    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  1. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  2. Universality in molecular halo clusters.

    PubMed

    Stipanović, P; Markić, L Vranješ; Bešlić, I; Boronat, J

    2014-12-19

    The ground state of weakly bound dimers and trimers with a radius extending well into the classically forbidden region is explored, with the goal to test the predicted universality of quantum halo states. The focus of the study is molecules consisting of T↓, D↓, ^{3}He, ^{4}He, and alkali atoms, where the interaction between particles is much better known than in the case of nuclei, which are traditional examples of quantum halos. The study of realistic systems is supplemented by model calculations in order to analyze how low-energy properties depend on the interaction potential. The use of variational and diffusion Monte Carlo methods enabled a very precise calculation of both the size and binding energy of the trimers. In the quantum halo regime, and for large values of scaled binding energies, all clusters follow almost the same universal line. As the scaled binding energy decreases, Borromean states separate from tango trimers. PMID:25554880

  3. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle.

  4. BEAM HALO IN PROTON LINAC BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    T. WANGLER; K. CRANDALL

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we review the present picture of km halo in proton linacs. Space-charge forces acting in mismatched beams have been identified as a major cause of beam-halo. We present a definition of halo based on a ratio of moments of the distribution of the beam coordinates. We find from our initial studies that for halo detined in this way, a beam can have rms emittance growth without halo growth, but halo growth is always accompanied by rms emittance growth. We describe the beam-halo experiment that is in preparation at Los Alamos, which will address questions about the beam profiles, maximum particle amplitudes, and rms emittance growth associated with the halo.

  5. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  6. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  7. A Rotation Signature in the Hot Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Bregman, Joel N.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2016-04-01

    The hot halo of the Milky Way is massive and dynamically important to the evolution of the Galaxy over cosmic time, so it is important to constrain its basic thermal, chemical, and structural properties. The kinematic structure remains unknown, so we measured the centroids of local OVII(r) absorbers seen towards background quasars in XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer data and compared them to simple models for bulk halo motion. The data rule out a stationary halo and suggest a scenario in which the halo gas rotates at about 150 km/s in the prograde direction, at least within 50 kpc of the Sun. We also measured an inflow/outflow velocity consistent with zero.

  8. The kinematics of halo red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, B. W.; Latham, D. W.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have obtained 337 radial velocities with typical accuracies of ± 0.7 km s-1 for 85 metal-poor field red giants, selected from the kinematically unbiased samples of Bond (1980) and Bidelman and MacConnell (1973). The multiply observed stars suggest the field halo giant binary fraction exceeds 10%. Using their own velocities and those published by others, the authors have a sample of 174 red giants with [Fe/H] ≤ -1.5. Their mean motion with respect to the local standard of rest is >V< = -206±23 km s-1, and the velocity dispersions are σR = 154±18 km s-1, σθ = 102±27 km s-1, and σφ = 107±15 km s-1. Using photometrically derived absolute magnitudes and published proper motions, the authors compute orbital eccentricities for 72 stars not already considered in a similar study of southern stars by Norris, Bessell, and Pickles (1985). They find a few (5% - 8%) stars with e < 0.4.

  9. Formation of a Giant Galactic Gaseous Halo: Metal-Absorption Lines and High-Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan

    1992-04-01

    A Galactic gaseous halo formed through the interstellar disk-halo connection is simulated by means of a two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic code based upon the chimney model of the interstellar medium, a new version of the galactic fountain. Galactic rotation, heating processes by diffuse UV flux, and radiative cooling processes are taken into account. The resulting gaseous halo can be divided into three categories, i.e., wind-type halo, bound-type halo, and cooled-type halo. In this way, we try to reproduce the column densities of C IV, N V, O VI, and Si IV in the observed absorption lines of halo stars. Assuming that the radiatively cooled halo gas condenses into clouds due to thermal instabilities, we can calculate their distribution and ballistic motions in the Galactic gravitational field. These correspond to the high- and intermediate-velocity clouds observed at high Galactic latitudes. We find that a cooled-type halo with a gas temperature between 5 X 10^5 and 10^6 K and a density between 10^-3 and 10^-2 cm^-3 at the disk-halo interface can reproduce the observational facts about our Galaxy. Supposing that the metal-absorption-line systems of QSOs arise from the halos of intervening galaxies formed by similar processes, we calculate features of the Ca II, Mg II, C IV, and Si IV absorption lines in various stages of galactic evolution. We conclude that C IV systems which are greater than 50 kpc in size correspond to the wind-type halo. On the other hand, Mg II and Ca II systems can only be detected in a very restricted region ( Metaxa, SMALL FAINT CLUSTERS IN THE LMC This is a short review of the main results of my Ph.D. thesis concerning some important problems on the dynamical properties of the LMC star clusters. The topic of this thesis was to find and study the dynamical paramters (tidal radius r_t core radius r_c concentration parameters log (r_t/r_c), and total mass M) for a large sample of small LMC clusters and to define their location in the

  10. Velocity Structure and Plasma Properties in Halo CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, William (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.

    2003-01-01

    We have identified a set of 23 Halo CMEs through July 2002 and 21 Partial Halo CMEs from the LASCO Halo CME Mail Archive for which Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) spectra exist. For each event we have collected basic information such as the event speed, whether or not UVCS caught the bright front, lines detected, Doppler shift and associated flare class. We have also obtained excellent observations of some of the spectacular events in November 2003, and we have made theoretical calculations pertaining to CME expansion at the heights observed by UVCS. We first analyzed the halo CMEs on 21 April and 24 August 2002 and the partial halo on 23 July 2002, because the X-class flares associated with these CMEs were extensively observed by RHESSI and other instruments as part of the MAX MILLENIUM campaign. These very fast CMEs showed extremely violent disruption of the pre-CME streamers, little or no cool prominence material, and the unusual (for UVCS heights) hot emission line [Fe XVIII]. Results, including a discussion of the current sheet interpretation for the [Fe XVIII] emission, are published in Raymond et al. and presented at the Fall 2002 AGU meeting and the solar physics summer school in L'Aquila, Italy. We are currently preparing two papers on the Dec. 28, 2000 partial halo event. This event was chosen to take advantage of the SEP event measured by WIND and ACE, and because a Type II radio burst coincides with the time that broad, blue-shifted O VI emission appeared in the UVCS spectra. One paper deals with a new density and velocity diagnostic for very fast CMEs; pumping of O VI lambda 1032 by Ly beta and pumping of O VI lambda 1038 by O VI lambda 1032. The other discusses physics of the shock wave and association with the SEP event. In the coming year we plan to expand the list of Halo and Partial Halo events observed by UVCS through the end of 2003. We will look at those events as a class to search for correlation between UV spectral characteristics

  11. Halo Orbits in Cosmological Disk Galaxies: Tracers of Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Monica; Debattista, Victor P.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Quinn, Thomas R.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the orbits of stars and dark matter particles in the halo of a disk galaxy formed in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. The halo is oblate within the inner ~20 kpc and triaxial beyond this radius. About 43% of orbits are short axis tubes—the rest belong to orbit families that characterize triaxial potentials (boxes, long-axis tubes and chaotic orbits), but their shapes are close to axisymmetric. We find no evidence that the self-consistent distribution function of the nearly oblate inner halo is comprised primarily of axisymmetric short-axis tube orbits. Orbits of all families and both types of particles are highly eccentric, with mean eccentricity >~ 0.6. We find that randomly selected samples of halo stars show no substructure in "integrals of motion" space. However, individual accretion events can clearly be identified in plots of metallicity versus formation time. Dynamically young tidal debris is found primarily on a single type of orbit. However, stars associated with older satellites become chaotically mixed during the formation process (possibly due to scattering by the central bulge and disk, and baryonic processes), and appear on all four types of orbits. We find that the tidal debris in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations experiences significantly more chaotic evolution than in collisionless simulations, making it much harder to identify individual progenitors using phase space coordinates alone. However, by combining information on stellar ages and chemical abundances with the orbital properties of halo stars in the underlying self-consistent potential, the identification of progenitors is likely to be possible.

  12. HALO ORBITS IN COSMOLOGICAL DISK GALAXIES: TRACERS OF FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Valluri, Monica; Debattista, Victor P.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Quinn, Thomas R.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2013-04-10

    We analyze the orbits of stars and dark matter particles in the halo of a disk galaxy formed in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. The halo is oblate within the inner {approx}20 kpc and triaxial beyond this radius. About 43% of orbits are short axis tubes-the rest belong to orbit families that characterize triaxial potentials (boxes, long-axis tubes and chaotic orbits), but their shapes are close to axisymmetric. We find no evidence that the self-consistent distribution function of the nearly oblate inner halo is comprised primarily of axisymmetric short-axis tube orbits. Orbits of all families and both types of particles are highly eccentric, with mean eccentricity {approx}> 0.6. We find that randomly selected samples of halo stars show no substructure in 'integrals of motion' space. However, individual accretion events can clearly be identified in plots of metallicity versus formation time. Dynamically young tidal debris is found primarily on a single type of orbit. However, stars associated with older satellites become chaotically mixed during the formation process (possibly due to scattering by the central bulge and disk, and baryonic processes), and appear on all four types of orbits. We find that the tidal debris in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations experiences significantly more chaotic evolution than in collisionless simulations, making it much harder to identify individual progenitors using phase space coordinates alone. However, by combining information on stellar ages and chemical abundances with the orbital properties of halo stars in the underlying self-consistent potential, the identification of progenitors is likely to be possible.

  13. Stochastic Model of the Spin Distribution of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juhan; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-09-01

    We employ a stochastic approach to probing the origin of the log-normal distributions of halo spin in N-body simulations. After analyzing spin evolution in halo merging trees, it was found that a spin change can be characterized by a stochastic random walk of angular momentum. Also, spin distributions generated by random walks are fairly consistent with those directly obtained from N-body simulations. We derived a stochastic differential equation from a widely used spin definition and measured the probability distributions of the derived angular momentum change from a massive set of halo merging trees. The roles of major merging and accretion are also statistically analyzed in evolving spin distributions. Several factors (local environment, halo mass, merging mass ratio, and redshift) are found to influence the angular momentum change. The spin distributions generated in the mean-field or void regions tend to shift slightly to a higher spin value compared with simulated spin distributions, which seems to be caused by the correlated random walks. We verified the assumption of randomness in the angular momentum change observed in the N-body simulation and detected several degrees of correlation between walks, which may provide a clue for the discrepancies between the simulated and generated spin distributions in the voids. However, the generated spin distributions in the group and cluster regions successfully match the simulated spin distribution. We also demonstrated that the log-normality of the spin distribution is a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation of the halo spin, which is well described by the Geometric Brownian Motion model.

  14. A halo model for intrinsic alignments of galaxy ellipticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Bridle, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    Correlations between intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies are a potentially important systematic error when constraining dark energy properties from weak gravitational lensing (cosmic shear) surveys. In the absence of perfectly known galaxy redshifts, some modelling of the galaxy intrinsic alignments is likely to be required to extract the lensing signal to sufficient accuracy. We present a new model based on the placement of galaxies into dark matter haloes. The central galaxy ellipticity follows the large-scale potential and, in the simplest case, the satellite galaxies point at the halo centre. The two-halo term is then dominated by the linear-alignment model and the one-halo term provides a motivated extension of intrinsic alignment models to small scales. We provide fitting formulae for the spatial projected source power spectra for both intrinsic-intrinsic (II) and gravitational-intrinsic (GI) correlations. We illustrate the potential impact of ignoring intrinsic alignments on cosmological parameter constraints from non-tomographic surveys, finding that σ8 could be underestimated by up to the size of the current 1σ error bar from cosmic shear if very small scales are included in the analysis. Finally, we highlight areas of interest for numerical simulations of dark matter clustering and galaxy formation that can further constrain the intrinsic alignment signal.

  15. On halo formation from space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagniel, Jean-Michel

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, as in J.S. O'Connell, T.P. Wangler, R.S. Mills and K.R. Crandall, Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels, PAC Washington, 1993, the interaction of particles with a zero-emittance, uniform-density beam core is described. When this core is mismatched in a uniform linear focusing channel, its envelope oscillates, just like a matched beam in an alternating gradient channel. As is usual for this kind of channel, the particle evolution in the transverse phase plane has been followed period by period. For a strong core modulation, this analysis clearly shows i) how the particles nearest to the core move to the halo, ii) two stable areas separated from the core, and iii) how trajectories develop along the ``lattice''. Also the halo formation problem is compared with similar phenomena from stellar dynamics in order to demonstrate that it is the mechanism of resonance overlap which leads to the formation of a halo area where the particle trajectories are stochastic. The chaotic behaviour of the particle trajectories in this area is subsequently discussed.

  16. Visibility of halos and rainbows.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1980-09-15

    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), halo is visible much more frequently than the bottom. (This is shown to result in good part from extinction by the turbid atmosphere.) With the rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories. PMID:20234562

  17. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, I show that the discrepancies in the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reported in the literature arise due to the varied definitions of halo CMEs used by different authors. In particular, I show that the low geoeffectiveness rate is a direct consequence of including partial halo CMEs. The geoeffectiveness of partial halo CMEs is lower because they are of low speed and likely to make a glancing impact on Earth. Key words: Coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic storms, geoeffectiveness, halo CMEs.

  18. Molecular Spin Crossover in Slow Motion: Light-Induced Spin-State Transitions in Trigonal Prismatic Iron(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Deck, Eva; Hohnstein, Silvia; Korzekwa, Jana; Meyer, Karsten; Heinemann, Frank W; Breher, Frank; Hörner, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    A straightforward access is provided to iron(II) complexes showing exceedingly slow spin-state interconversion by utilizing trigonal-prismatic directing ligands (L(n)) of the extended-tripod type. A detailed analysis of the interrelations between complex structure (X-ray diffraction, density functional theory) and electronic character (SQUID magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy) of the iron(II) center in mononuclear complexes [FeL(n)] reveals spin crossover to occur along a coupled breathing/torsion reaction coordinate, shuttling the complex between the octahedral low-spin state and the trigonal-prismatic high-spin state along Bailar's trigonal twist pathway. We associate both the long spin-state lifetimes in the millisecond domain close to room temperature and the substantial barriers against thermal scrambling (Ea ≈ 33 kJ mol(-1), from Arrhenius analysis) with stereochemical constraints. In particular, the topology of the κ(6)N ligands controls the temporary and structural dynamics during spin crossover. PMID:27159332

  19. Recovery of the poisoned topoisomerase II for DNA religation: coordinated motion of the cleavage core revealed with the microsecond atomistic simulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases resolve topological problems of DNA double helices by passing one duplex through the reversible double-stranded break they generated on another duplex. Despite the wealth of information in the cleaving operation, molecular understanding of the enzymatic DNA ligation remains elusive. Topoisomerase poisons are widely used in anti-cancer and anti-bacterial therapy and have been employed to entrap the intermediates of topoisomerase IIβ with religatable DNA substrate. We removed drug molecules from the structure and conducted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the enzyme-mediated DNA religation. The drug-unbound intermediate displayed transitions toward the resealing-compliant configuration: closing distance between the cleaved DNA termini, B-to-A transformation of the double helix, and restoration of the metal-binding motif. By mapping the contact configurations and the correlated motions between enzyme and DNA, we identified the indispensable role of the linker preceding winged helix domain (WHD) in coordinating the movements of TOPRIM, the nucleotide-binding motifs, and the bound DNA substrate during gate closure. We observed a nearly vectorial transition in the recovery of the enzyme and identified the previously uncharacterized roles of Asn508 and Arg677 in DNA rejoining. Our findings delineate the dynamic mechanism of the DNA religation conducted by type II topoisomerases. PMID:26150421

  20. The Case for the Dual Halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Ivezic, Zeljko; An, Deokkeun; Chiba, Masashi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C.; Lee, Young Sun; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Fiorentin, Paola Re; Sivarani, Thirupathi; /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys. /Kentucky U.

    2011-04-01

    similar to those previously derived. An additional test of the reality of the retrograde signature is provided, based exclusively on the observed proper motions of low-metallicity stars. Further evidence for a complex halo comes from inspection of the metallicity distribution function of the Carollo et al. sample as a function of distance from the Galactic plane. We summarize additional lines of evidence for a dual halo, based on different stellar samples from the SDSS and other surveys. We conclude that the overwhelming body of evidence rejects the single-halo interpretation beyond reasonable doubt.

  1. Wart with Depigmented Halo and Generalized Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takamichi; Yoshida, Yuichi; Adachi, Koji; Furue, Masutaka; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Depigmented haloes sometimes appear around melanocytic tumors or non-melanocytic tumors, but coexistence of warts and depigmented haloes is extremely rare. We report here an unusual case of warts accompanied by depigmented haloes and subsequently-triggered generalized vitiligo. A 55-year-old Japanese man presented with a 3-year history of brown nodules on the back, upper eyelid and dorsum of the left hand. Depigmented haloes appeared around the noldules and then gradually spread over a wide area, resulting in the development of generalized vitiligo. He had no history of antecedent treatment for these lesions before consultation. Histopathologically, the lesion showed papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis with lymphocytic exocytosis into the epidermis, which compatible to warts. Based on these clinical and histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of warts with depigmented halo and subsequently-triggered generalized vitiligo was made. None of the warts had resolved spontaneously after the appearance of haloes, and the depigmented haloes and generalized vitiligo remain unchanged. PMID:24031144

  2. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-σ{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, σ {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ∼2000 (σ {sub m} = 3 km s{sup –1}) or as few as ∼70 (σ {sub m} = 12 km s{sup –1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ≲ 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the σ {sub m} = 12 km s{sup –1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup –1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  3. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  4. Clouds Dominate the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Using the exquisite sensitivity of the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), astronomer Jay Lockman of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, W. Va., has produced the best cross-section ever of the Milky Way Galaxy's diffuse halo of hydrogen gas. This image confirms the presence of discrete hydrogen clouds in the halo, and could help astronomers understand the origin and evolution of the rarefied atmosphere that surrounds our Galaxy. Lockman presented his findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of cross-section of neutral atomic Hydrogen Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation Patricia Smiley, NRAO. "The first observations with the Green Bank Telescope suggested that the hydrogen in the lower halo, the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, is very clumpy," said Lockman. "The latest data confirm these results and show that instead of trailing away smoothly from the Galactic plane, a significant fraction of the hydrogen gas in the halo is concentrated in discrete clouds. There are even some filaments." Beyond the star-filled disk of the Milky Way, there exists an extensive yet diffuse halo of hydrogen gas. For years, astronomers have speculated about the origin and structure of this gas. "Even the existence of neutral hydrogen in the halo has been somewhat of a puzzle," Lockman remarked. "Unlike the Earth's atmosphere, which is hot enough to hold itself up against the force of gravity, the hydrogen in the halo is too cool to support itself against the gravitational pull of the Milky Way." Lockman points out that some additional factor has to be involved to get neutral hydrogen to such large distances from the Galactic plane. "This force could be cosmic rays, a supersonic wind, the blast waves from supernovae, or something we have not thought of

  5. Dispersal of Tidal Debris in a Milky-Way-sized Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Wayne; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Bozek, Brandon; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Madau, Piero

    2016-02-01

    We simulate the tidal disruption of a collisionless N-body globular star cluster in a total of 300 different orbits selected to have galactocentric radii between 10 and 30 kpc in four dark matter halos: (a) a spherical halo with no subhalos, (b) a spherical halo with subhalos, (c) a realistic halo with no subhalos, and (d) a realistic halo with subhalos. This allows us to isolate and study how the halo’s (lack of) dynamical symmetry and substructures affect the dispersal of tidal debris. The realistic halos are constructed from the snapshot of the Via Lactea II simulation at redshift zero. We find that the overall halo’s symmetry disperses tidal debris to make the streams fluffier, consistent with previous studies of tidal debris of dwarf galaxies in larger orbits than ours in this study. On the other hand, subhalos in realistic potentials can locally enhance the densities along streams, making streams denser than their counterparts in smooth potentials. We show that many long and thin streams can survive in a realistic and lumpy halo for a Hubble time. This suggests that upcoming stellar surveys will likely uncover more thin streams which may contain density gaps that have been shown to be promising probes for dark matter substructures.

  6. Colliding Winds in Symbiotic Binary Systems. II. Colliding Winds Geometries and Orbital Motion in the Symbiotic Nova AG Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, H. T.; Taylor, A. R.

    2007-06-01

    AG Pegasi has been observed at high angular resolution and sensitivity at the Very Large Array (VLA) at 5 GHz in four epochs between 1984 and 1991. Analysis of the radio visibilities indicate that a mass of 4.0+/-0.5×10-5 Msolar is concentrated in the inner nebula and is moving outward at a velocity of 53+/-4 km s-1 (D=600 pc assumed). In order to explain the observed morphology of the inner nebula, a new colliding winds model is derived, which includes the effects of orbital motion (CWo model). Orbital effects cannot be ignored in AG Pegasi since the orbital timescale (2.25 yr; Meinunger 1981) is short compared to the likely timescale of wind collision (symbiotic nova eruption beginning ~1850 Merrill 1959). When these effects are considered, the interaction front between binary stellar winds is wrapped into spiral walls whose density decreases outward with 1/r2. Distinctive geometries are found to arise depending on which wind dominates the interaction, the late-type wind from the symbiotic ``cool component,'' or the high-velocity wind from the ``hot component.'' Application of the CWo model to AG Peg suggests that the observed transient lobe enhancements of the inner nebula arise due to changes in the mass-loss rate from the hot component. Hot component mass-loss rates ranging between 2.1 and 6.0×10-8 Msolar yr-1 are derived. The model is also successful in reproducing the radio spectrum of the central unresolved object of the system. A position angle of -15deg+/-10deg is inferred for the orbital pole as projected on the plane of the sky.

  7. The evolution of disk galaxies in cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Andreea S.

    2005-11-01

    We use high resolution N-body simulations to investigate the dynamical effects that substructure in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos have on galactic disks, with particular emphasis on their secular evolution, heating, tilting and warping. The simulations analyzed here are some of the largest and most realistic simulations of disk heating/warping available in the appropriate cosmological context. Our detailed treatment of the dark matter distinguishes them from previous numerical simulations that have focused on the interaction with a single satellite. Our study shows that substructure halos with masses, densities and orbits expected in the CDM paradigm typically play only a minor dynamical role in the heating of the disk over several Gyrs, and thus do not typically pose a danger to the stability of thin disks. This is largely because the most massive dark satellites, which dominate the secular heating, seldom approach the disk, where tidal effects are strongest. Occasionally, however, massive subhalos couple effectively with the disk, resulting in noticeable tidal effects on the structure of the stellar disk, including: (i) tilting and (ii) the forcing of short-lived, asymmetric warps as a result of tidal impulses that arise during each pericentric passage. I show that this is a viable mechanism for creating asymmetric disk warps such as those observed in the local Universe. Moreover, the fact that a satellite can have recurrent interactions with the disk suggests a natural explanation for the observed frequency of the warps, which would otherwise be very short lived. I conclude that dark matter halo substructure does not preclude virialized CDM halos from being acceptable hosts of thin stellar disks like that of the Milky Way and that the ubiquity of minor stellar warps may be associated with the recurrent tidal influence on the disk of the most massive substructure halos.

  8. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project. II. Details on Nine Wide Common Proper Motion Very Low Mass Companions to Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Shara, Michael M.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on nine wide common proper motion systems containing late-type M, L, or T companions. We confirm six previously reported companions, and identify three new systems. The ages of these systems are determined using diagnostics for both stellar primaries and low-mass secondaries and masses for the secondaries are inferred using evolutionary models. Of our three new discoveries, the M3+T6.5 pair G 204-39 and SDSS J1758+4633 has an age constrained to 0.5-1.5 Gyr making the secondary a potentially useful brown dwarf benchmark. The G5+L4 pair G 200-28 and SDSS J1416+5006 has a projected separation of ~25,000 AU making it one of the widest and lowest binding energy systems known to date. The system containing NLTT 2274 and SDSS J0041+1341 is an older M4+L0 (>4.5 Gyr) pair which shows Hα activity in the secondary but not the primary making it a useful tracer of age/mass/activity trends. Two of the nine systems have discrepant component ages that emerge from stellar or ultracool diagnostics indicating possible shortcomings in our understanding of the age diagnostics of stars and brown dwarfs. We find a resolved binary frequency for widely separated (>100 AU) low-mass companions (i.e., at least a triple system) which is at least twice the frequency found for the field ultracool dwarf population. The ratio of triples to binaries and quadruples to binaries is also high for this sample: 3:5 and 1:4, respectively, compared to 8 pc sample values of 1:4 and 1:26. The additional components in these wide companion systems indicates a formation mechanism that requires a third or fourth component to maintain gravitational stability or facilitate the exchange of angular momentum. The binding energies for the nine multiples discussed in this text are among the lowest known for wide low-mass systems, suggesting that weakly bound, low-to-intermediate mass (0.2 M sun < M tot< 1.0 M sun) multiples can form and survive to exist in the field (1-8 Gyr). This paper includes data

  9. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT. II. DETAILS ON NINE WIDE COMMON PROPER MOTION VERY LOW MASS COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Burgasser, Adam J.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2010-01-15

    We report on nine wide common proper motion systems containing late-type M, L, or T companions. We confirm six previously reported companions, and identify three new systems. The ages of these systems are determined using diagnostics for both stellar primaries and low-mass secondaries and masses for the secondaries are inferred using evolutionary models. Of our three new discoveries, the M3+T6.5 pair G 204-39 and SDSS J1758+4633 has an age constrained to 0.5-1.5 Gyr making the secondary a potentially useful brown dwarf benchmark. The G5+L4 pair G 200-28 and SDSS J1416+5006 has a projected separation of {approx}25,000 AU making it one of the widest and lowest binding energy systems known to date. The system containing NLTT 2274 and SDSS J0041+1341 is an older M4+L0 (>4.5 Gyr) pair which shows H{alpha} activity in the secondary but not the primary making it a useful tracer of age/mass/activity trends. Two of the nine systems have discrepant component ages that emerge from stellar or ultracool diagnostics indicating possible shortcomings in our understanding of the age diagnostics of stars and brown dwarfs. We find a resolved binary frequency for widely separated (>100 AU) low-mass companions (i.e., at least a triple system) which is at least twice the frequency found for the field ultracool dwarf population. The ratio of triples to binaries and quadruples to binaries is also high for this sample: 3:5 and 1:4, respectively, compared to 8 pc sample values of 1:4 and 1:26. The additional components in these wide companion systems indicates a formation mechanism that requires a third or fourth component to maintain gravitational stability or facilitate the exchange of angular momentum. The binding energies for the nine multiples discussed in this text are among the lowest known for wide low-mass systems, suggesting that weakly bound, low-to-intermediate mass (0.2 M {sub sun} < M {sub tot}< 1.0 M {sub sun}) multiples can form and survive to exist in the field (1-8 Gyr)

  10. Column density profiles of multiphase gaseous haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Cameron J.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Agertz, Oscar

    2016-05-01

    We analyse circumgalactic medium (CGM) in a suite of high-resolution cosmological re-simulations of a Milky Way size galaxy and show that CGM properties are quite sensitive to details of star formation-feedback loop modelling. The simulation that produces a realistic late-type galaxy, fails to reproduce existing observations of the CGM. In contrast, simulation that does not produce a realistic galaxy has the predicted CGM in better agreement with observations. This illustrates that properties of galaxies and properties of their CGM provide strong complementary constraints on the processes governing galaxy formation. Our simulations predict that column density profiles of ions are well described by an exponential function of projected distance d: N ∝ e^{-d/h_s}. Simulations thus indicate that the sharp drop in absorber detections at larger distances in observations does not correspond to a `boundary' of an ion, but reflects the underlying steep exponential column density profile. Furthermore, we find that ionization energy of ions is tightly correlated with the scaleheight hs: h_s ∝ E_ion^{0.74}. At z ≈ 0, warm gas traced by low-ionization species (e.g. Mg II and C IV) has hs ≈ 0.03 - 0.07Rvir, while higher ionization species (O VI and Ne VIII) have hs ≈ 0.32 - 0.45Rvir. Finally, the scaleheights of ions in our simulations evolve slower than the virial radius for z ≤ 2, but similarly to the halo scale radius, rs. Thus, we suggest that the column density profiles of galaxies at different redshifts should be scaled by rs rather than the halo virial radius.

  11. Bar Instability in Disk-Halo Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  12. The Anemic Stellar Halo of M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2014-10-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context predict that massive disk galaxies should have richly-structured extended stellar halos, containing ~10% of a galaxy's stars, originating in large part from the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies. Observations of a number of nearby disk galaxies have generally agreed with these expectations. Recent new observations in integrated light with a novel array of low scattered-light telephoto lenses have failed to convincingly detect a stellar halo in the nearby massive face-on disk galaxy M101 (van Dokkum et al. 2014). They argue that any halo has to have <0.3% of the mass of the galaxy. This halo would be the least massive of any massive disk galaxy in the local Universe (by factors of several) -- such a halo is not predicted or naturally interpreted by the models, and would present a critical challenge to the picture of ubiquitous stellar halos formed from the debris of disrupting dwarf galaxies.We propose to resolve the stellar populations of this uniquely anemic stellar halo for 6 orbits with HST (ACS and WFC3), allowing us to reach surface brightness limits sufficient to clearly detect and characterize M101's stellar halo if it carries more than 0.1% of M101's mass. With resolved stellar populations, we can use the gradient of stellar populations as a function of radius to separate stellar halo from disk, which is impossible using integrated light observations. The resolved stellar populations will reveal the halo mass to much greater accuracy, measure the halo radial profile, constrain any halo lopsidedness, estimate the halo's stellar metallicity, and permit an analysis of outer disk stellar populations.

  13. Halo ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel E; Wang, Miao; Tolley, Samuel E; Maas, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rockwood, Alan L; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Edgar D; Lee, Milton L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a novel radio frequency ion trap mass analyzer based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology. The device, called the halo ion trap, consists of two parallel ceramic plates, the facing surfaces of which are imprinted with sets of concentric ring electrodes. Radii of the imprinted rings range from 5 to 12 mm, and the spacing between the plates is 4 mm. Unlike conventional ion traps, in which hyperbolic metal electrodes establish equipotential boundary conditions, electric fields in the halo ion trap are established by applying different radio frequency potentials to each ring. The potential on each ring can be independently optimized to provide the best trapping field. The halo ion trap features an open structure, allowing easy access for in situ ionization. The toroidal geometry provides a large trapping and analyzing volume, increasing the number of ions that can be stored and reducing the effects of space-charge on mass analysis. Preliminary mass spectra show resolution (m/Deltam) of 60-75 when the trap is operated at 1.9 MHz and 500 Vp-p. PMID:17335180

  14. The Contribution of Halos with Different Mass Ratios to the Overall Growth of Cluster-sized Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemze, Doron; Postman, Marc; Genel, Shy; Ford, Holland C.; Balestra, Italo; Donahue, Megan; Kelson, Daniel; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Biviano, Andrea; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; Sand, David; Koekemoer, Anton; Meneghetti, Massimo; Melchior, Peter; Newman, Andrew B.; Bhatti, Waqas A.; Voit, G. Mark; Medezinski, Elinor; Zitrin, Adi; Zheng, Wei; Broadhurst, Tom; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Graves, Genevieve; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Jouvel, Stephanie; Lahav, Ofer; Maoz, Dan; Merten, Julian; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas; Ogaz, Sara; Scodeggio, Marco; Seitz, Stella

    2013-10-01

    We provide a new observational test for a key prediction of the ΛCDM cosmological model: the contributions of mergers with different halo-to-main-cluster mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. We perform this test by dynamically analyzing 7 galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.13 < z c < 0.45 and caustic mass range 0.4-1.5 10^{15}\\, h_{0.73}^{-1} M ⊙, with an average of 293 spectroscopically confirmed bound galaxies to each cluster. The large radial coverage (a few virial radii), which covers the whole infall region, with a high number of spectroscopically identified galaxies enables this new study. For each cluster, we identify bound galaxies. Out of these galaxies, we identify infalling and accreted halos and estimate their masses and their dynamical states. Using the estimated masses, we derive the contribution of different mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. For mass ratios between ~0.2 and ~0.7, we find a ~1σ agreement with ΛCDM expectations based on the Millennium simulations I and II. At low mass ratios, <~ 0.2, our derived contribution is underestimated since the detection efficiency decreases at low masses, ~2 × 1014 h_{0.73}^{-1} M ⊙. At large mass ratios, >~ 0.7, we do not detect halos probably because our sample, which was chosen to be quite X-ray relaxed, is biased against large mass ratios. Therefore, at large mass ratios, the derived contribution is also underestimated.

  15. THE CONTRIBUTION OF HALOS WITH DIFFERENT MASS RATIOS TO THE OVERALL GROWTH OF CLUSTER-SIZED HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland C.; Medezinski, Elinor; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Genel, Shy; Balestra, Italo; Nonino, Mario; Biviano, Andrea; Kelson, Daniel; Voit, G. Mark; Mercurio, Amata; Umetsu, Keiichi; Sand, David; Meneghetti, Massimo; Melchior, Peter; Newman, Andrew B.; Bhatti, Waqas A.; and others

    2013-10-20

    We provide a new observational test for a key prediction of the ΛCDM cosmological model: the contributions of mergers with different halo-to-main-cluster mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. We perform this test by dynamically analyzing 7 galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.13 < z{sub c} < 0.45 and caustic mass range 0.4-1.5 10{sup 15} h{sub 0.73}{sup -1} M{sub ☉}, with an average of 293 spectroscopically confirmed bound galaxies to each cluster. The large radial coverage (a few virial radii), which covers the whole infall region, with a high number of spectroscopically identified galaxies enables this new study. For each cluster, we identify bound galaxies. Out of these galaxies, we identify infalling and accreted halos and estimate their masses and their dynamical states. Using the estimated masses, we derive the contribution of different mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. For mass ratios between ∼0.2 and ∼0.7, we find a ∼1σ agreement with ΛCDM expectations based on the Millennium simulations I and II. At low mass ratios, ∼< 0.2, our derived contribution is underestimated since the detection efficiency decreases at low masses, ∼2 × 10{sup 14} h{sub 0.73}{sup -1} M{sub ☉}. At large mass ratios, ∼> 0.7, we do not detect halos probably because our sample, which was chosen to be quite X-ray relaxed, is biased against large mass ratios. Therefore, at large mass ratios, the derived contribution is also underestimated.

  16. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  17. A spectrophotometric search for the halo of Markarian 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. B.; Green, R. F.; Morton, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of a faint halo around the Mk 10 galaxy nucleus with the Palomar multichannel spectrophotometer reveal blue continuum emission forbidden lines of O II and O III, the hydrogen Balmer series, and stellar absorption series. The flux is detected at the surface brightness of 27.2 + or - 0.2 mag arc/sq sec at wavelengths of 5000 A at the radial distance of 27 kpc from the nucleus. The surface photometry of the inner parts of Mk 10 are depicted, and the radial brightness profile is decomposed into disk and bulge components. No evidence of a halo component was observed; the extended bulge is sufficient for the stabilization of the disk against bar-like instabilities.

  18. Halo Microlensing and Dark Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A. P. S.

    1993-12-01

    (While Pierce lectures review past accomplishments, customarily, this talk concerns efforts which we have pursued for some years and which are now reaching fruition. We present elsewhere at this meeting results from research cited for the Prize.) Dark matter exists in the halos of spiral galaxies, and the least radical alternative for its identity is normal matter produced by primordial nucleosynthesis. This matter could easily be hidden in large, condensed objects. Paczynski pointed out in 1986 that if condensations of Galactic halo matter are sufficiently massive, they will produce detectable amplification of background starlight by gravitational lensing. Several groups recently reported possible detections of this effect after surveying large numbers of stars in the Galactic Bulge and LMC. The connection between these events and massive, dark halos is unclear and likely to remain so for some time, given the rate at which they are detected. Following Paczynski's realization, we stressed that a much higher event rate, a statistical control sample, sensitivity to a much broader mass range, and modulation of the predicted lensing rate with galactocentric distance can all be realized by a different experiment: observing the halo of M31 (and the Galaxy) using stars in M31. In some ways, M31 is a more difficult target than the LMC or the Bulge, given the faintness of its stars, but our observations in 1991 and 1993 indicate that these problems have been surmounted. We can detect stellar variability even under extremely crowded conditions like those in M31's inner disk, and can monitor a sufficient number of stars to study halo lensing. We present results from our initial survey which indicates that the required sensitivity can be reached to confirm or reject the hypothesis that sub-solar masses like those detected in our Galaxy make up the missing spiral galaxy mass. It is possible that we may use the data already obtained (and still being analyzed) to place

  19. Magnetized galactic haloes and velocity lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Irwin, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas (not with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height z. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, r.

  20. Procedure for simulating divergent-light halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislén, Lars

    2003-11-01

    Divergent-light halos are halos produced by light from nearby light sources, like street lamps being scattered by small crystals of ice floating in the air. The use of ``brute-force'' Monte Carlo methods to simulate such halos is extremely inefficient, as most scattered rays will not hit the eye of the observer. I present a new procedure for Monte Carlo simulations of divergent-light halos. This procedure uses rotational symmetries to make a selected sampling of events that greatly improves the computational efficiency of the algorithm. We can typically generate a simulated halo display in minutes using a personal computer, several orders of magnitude more rapid than a simple brute-force method. The algorithm can also optionally generate three-dimensional pictures of divergent-light halo displays.

  1. Halotools: Galaxy-Halo connection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew; Tollerud, Erik; Robitaille, Thomas; Droettboom, Michael; Zentner, Andrew; Bray, Erik; Craig, Matt; Bradley, Larry; Barbary, Kyle; Deil, Christoph; Tan, Kevin; Becker, Matthew R.; More, Surhud; Günther, Hans Moritz; Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Halotools builds and tests models of the galaxy-halo connection and analyzes catalogs of dark matter halos. The core functions of the package include fast generation of synthetic galaxy populations using HODs, abundance matching, and related methods; efficient algorithms for calculating galaxy clustering, lensing, z-space distortions, and other astronomical statistics; a modular, object-oriented framework for designing galaxy evolution models; and end-to-end support for reducing halo catalogs and caching them as hdf5 files.

  2. Halo Effective Field Theory of 6He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapaliya, Arbin; Ji, Chen; Phillips, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    6He has a cluster structure with a tight 4He (α) core surrounded by two loosely bound neutrons (n) making it a halo nucleus. The leading-order (LO) Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT) [1, 2] calculations using momentum-space Faddeev equations pertinent to a bound 6He were carried out in [3]. In this work, we investigate 6He up to next-to-leading order (NLO) within Halo EFT.

  3. PAHs in the halo of NGC 5529

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, J. A.; Kennedy, H.; Parkin, T.; Madden, S.

    2007-11-01

    We present sensitive ISO λ 6.7~μm observations of the edge-on galaxy, NGC 5529, finding an extensive MIR halo around NGC 5529. The emission is dominated by PAHs in this band. The PAH halo has an exponential scale height of 3.7 kpc but can still be detected as far as ≈10 kpc from the plane to the limits of the high dynamic range (1770/1) data. This is the most extensive PAH halo yet detected in a normal galaxy. This halo shows substructure and the PAHs likely originate from some type of disk outflow. PAHs are long-lived in a halo environment and therefore continuous replenishment from the disk is not required (unless halo PAHs are also being destroyed or removed), consistent with the current low SFR of the galaxy. The PAHs correlate spatially with halo Hα emission, previously observed by Miller & Veilleux (2003, ApJS, 148, 383); both components are likely excited/ionized by in-disk photons that are leaking into the halo. The presence of halo gas may be related to the environment of NGC 5529 which contains at least 17 galaxies in a small group of which NGC 5529 is the dominant member. Of these, we have identified two new companions from the SDSS.

  4. Bolometric luminosities and colors for K and M dwarfs and the subluminous stars of the halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, Jesse L.

    1989-09-01

    The H-R diagrams of dM, sdK, and sdM proper-motion stars are examined. A method for integrating energy distributions using discrete weights is proposed. The bolometric corrections are assessed at various wavelengths and a method for obtaining luminosities even if a star lacks IR data is presented. The color-luminosity diagrams suggest that high-velocity, low-metallicity stars of the halo are subluminous. It is found that the apparent cutoff in the halo is a bolometric magnitude of about 12 m.

  5. Probing the structure of the cold dark matter halo using ancient mica

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, E.A.; Westphal, A.J.; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Mica can store (for {gt}1thinspGyr) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from WIMPs. Ancient mica is a directional detector despite the complex motions it makes with respect to the WIMP {open_quotes}wind.{close_quotes} We can exploit the properties of directionality and long integration time to probe for structure in the dark matter halo of our galaxy. We compute a sample of possible signals in mica for a plausible model of halo structure. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Kinematics of Baryons Cycling Through Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2015-01-01

    In a modern view of galaxy evolution, the baryon cycle is key to understanding the observed global properties of galaxies. Red galaxies passively evolve due to quenching of their star formation, whereas blue galaxies actively evolve, presumably due to a replenishing gas supply. Signatures of the baryon cycle such as IGM accretion, minor mergers, and stellar-driven outflows and fountains are best probed in gaseous halos, i.e., the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We study the spatial and kinematic distribution of the low-ionization metal-enriched CGM with QSO absorption lines for a population of 182 galaxies in the MgII Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT). We present our findings detailing how the extent and patchiness of the CGM depends on MgII absorption strength, and galaxy luminosity and color. For the first time, we placed the kinematics of 39 MgII absorbers with high-resolution spectra in the context of their host galaxy color, redshift, and orientation. By examining the velocity dispersions of absorbers, we find possible effects of quenching on red galaxies where the velocity dispersions decrease over 2 Gyrs time and are smaller at larger radii. The velocity dispersions for blue galaxies remain constant over time and radius and possibly indicate a sustained flow of baryons feeding star formation. Blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis show the largest velocity dispersions to very high significance. This result provides the strongest direct evidence to date for galactic-scale outflows which, for this orientation, are pointing nearly towards the observer. We discuss how our results place observational constraints on simulations which are just now beginning to accurately model the baryon cycle and its role in galaxy evolution.

  7. Haloes seen in UVIS reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.; Colwell, J. E.; Sremcevic, M.

    2012-12-01

    UVIS SOI reflectance spectra show bright 'haloes' around the locations of some of the strongest resonances in Saturn's A ring (Esposito etal 2005). UV spectra constrain the size and composition of the icy ring particles (Bradley etal 2010, 2012). We investigate the Janus 4:3, 5:3, 6:5 and Mimas 5:3 inner Lindblad resonances as well as at the Mimas 5:3 vertical resonance (bending wave location). Models of ring particle regolith evolution (Elliott and Esposito 2010) indicate the deeper regolith is made of older and purer ice. The strong resonances can cause streamline crowding (Lewis and Stewart 2005) which damps the interparticle velocity, allowing temporary clumps to grow, which in turn increase the velocity, eroding the clumps and releasing smaller particles and regolith (see the predator-prey model of Esposito etal 2012). This cyclic behavior, driven by the resonant perturbation from the moon, can yield collision velocities at particular azimuths greater than 1m/sec, sufficient to erode the aggregates (Blum 2006), exposing older, purer materials. Thus, the radial location of the strongest resonances can be where we find both large aggregates and disrupted fragments, in a balance maintained by the periodic moon forcing. If this stirring exposes older, and purer ice, the velocity threshold for eroding the aggregates can explain why only the strongest Lindblad resonances show haloes. Diffusion can explain the morphology of these haloes, although they are not well-resolved spatially by UVIS. Spectra determine the relative contributions of particle size and purity at these locations, for comparison to estimates from the regolith evolution models.

  8. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-03-20

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M{sub 200{rho}-bar} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  9. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the disks of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of $33^{\\circ}$ in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner $10$ kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central - satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of $52^{\\circ}$) and we find that around $20\\%$ of systems have a misalignment angle larger than $78^{\\circ}$, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central - satellite alignment is a consequence of the tendency of both components to align with the dark matter halo. As a consequence, when the central is parallel to the satellite system, it also tends to be parallel to the halo. In contrast, if the central is perpendicular to the satellite system, as in the case of the Milky Way and Andromeda, then the central - halo alignment is much weaker. Dispersion-dominated (spheroidal) centrals have a stronger alignment with both their halo and their satellites than rotation-dominated (disk) centrals. We also found that the halo, the central galaxy and the satellite system tend to be aligned with the surrounding large-scale distribution of matter, with the halo being the better aligned of the three.

  10. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the discs of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of 33° in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner 10 kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central-satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of 52°) and we find that around 20 per cent of systems have a misalignment angle larger than 78°, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central-satellite alignment is a consequence of the tendency of both components to align with the dark matter halo. As a consequence, when the central is parallel to the satellite system, it also tends to be parallel to the halo. In contrast, if the central is perpendicular to the satellite system, as in the case of the Milky Way and Andromeda, then the central-halo alignment is much weaker. Dispersion-dominated (spheroidal) centrals have a stronger alignment with both their halo and their satellites than rotation-dominated (disc) centrals. We also found that the halo, the central galaxy and the satellite system tend to be aligned with the surrounding large-scale distribution of matter, with the halo being the better aligned of the three.

  11. Rotational signature of the Milky Way stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermani, Francesco; Schönrich, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    We measure the rotation of the Milky Way stellar halo on two samples of blue horizontal branch (BHB) field halo stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with four different methods. The two samples comprise 1582 and 2563 stars, respectively, and reach out to ˜50 kpc in galactocentric distance. Two of the methods to measure rotation rely exclusively on line-of-sight (l.o.s.) velocities, namely the popular double power-law model and a direct estimate of the de-projected l.o.s. velocity. The other two techniques use the full 3D motions: the radial velocity based rotation estimator of Schönrich et al. and a simple 3D azimuthal velocity mean. In this context we (a) critique the popular model and (b) assess the reliability of the estimators. All four methods agree on a weakly prograde or non-rotating halo. Further, we observe no duality in the rotation of sub-samples with different metallicities or at different radii. We trace the rotation gradient across metallicity measured by Deason et al. on a similar sample of BHB stars back to the inclusion of regions in the apparent magnitude-surface gravity plane known to be contaminated. In the spectroscopically selected sample of Xue et al., we flag ˜500 hot metal-poor stars for their peculiar kinematics w.r.t. to both their cooler metal-poor counterparts and the metal-rich stars in the same sample. They show a seemingly retrograde behaviour in l.o.s. velocities, which is not confirmed by the 3D estimators. Their anomalous vertical motion hints at either a pipeline problem or a stream-like component rather than a smooth retrograde population.

  12. Correlating galaxy colour and halo concentration: a tunable halo model of galactic conformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Kovač, Katarina; Hartley, William G.; Pahwa, Isha

    2015-12-01

    We extend the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework to generate mock galaxy catalogues exhibiting varying levels of `galactic conformity', which has emerged as a potentially powerful probe of environmental effects in galaxy evolution. Our model correlates galaxy colours in a group with the concentration of the common parent dark halo through a `group quenching efficiency' ρ which makes older, more concentrated haloes at fixed mass preferentially host redder galaxies. We find that, for a specific value of ρ, this 1-halo conformity matches corresponding measurements in a group catalogue based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our mocks also display conformity at large separations from isolated objects, potentially an imprint of halo assembly bias. A detailed study - using mocks with assembly bias erased while keeping 1-halo conformity intact - reveals a rather nuanced situation, however. At separations ≲4 Mpc, conformity is mainly a 1-halo effect dominated by the largest haloes and is not a robust indicator of assembly bias. Only at very large separations (≳8 Mpc) does genuine 2-halo conformity, driven by the assembly bias of small haloes, manifest distinctly. We explain all these trends in standard halo model terms. Our model opens the door to parametrized HOD analyses that self-consistently account for galactic conformity at all scales.

  13. Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites in the Common Surface-density Dark Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Yusuke; Chiba, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the growth histories of dark matter halos associated with dwarf satellites in Local Group galaxies and the resultant evolution of the baryonic component. Our model is based on the recently proposed property that the mean surface density of a dark halo inside a radius at maximum circular velocity {V}{{\\max }} is universal over a large range of {V}{{\\max }}. Given that a surface density of 20 M ⊙ pc‑2 well explains dwarf satellites in the Milky Way and Andromeda, we find that the evolution of the dark halo in this common surface-density scale is characterized by the rapid increase of the halo mass assembled by the redshift {z}{{TT}} of the tidal truncation by its host halo, at early epochs of {z}{{TT}}≳ 6 or {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s‑1. This mass growth of the halo is slow at lower {z}{{TT}} or larger {V}{{\\max }}. Taking into account the baryon content in this dark halo evolution, under the influence of the ionizing background radiation, we find that the dwarf satellites are divided into roughly two families: those with {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s‑1 having high star formation efficiency and those with larger {V}{{\\max }} having less efficient star formation. This semianalytical model is in agreement with the high-resolution numerical simulation for galaxy formation and with the observed star formation histories for Fornax and Leo II. This suggests that the evolution of a dark halo may play a key role in understanding star formation histories in dwarf satellites.

  14. Correlates of Halo Error in Teacher Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritsch, Brian G.; Suter, W. Newton

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of 300 undergraduate psychology student ratings of teachers was undertaken to assess the magnitude of halo error and a variety of rater, ratee, and course characteristics. The raters' halo errors were significantly related to student effort in the course, previous experience with the instructor, and class level. (TJH)

  15. Confounding among Measures of Leniency and Halo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliger, George M.; Williams, Kevin J.

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationships among halo and leniency rating errors were examined using simulated rating data. As leniency increased, halo decreased when measured by dimension intercorrelations but increased when measured by standard deviations across dimensions. Implications of these results for the use of the various measures are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Comments on the Measurement of Halo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisicaro, Sebastiano A.; Vance, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents arguments that the correlation measure "r" of halo is not conceptually more appropriate than the standard deviation (SD) measure. It also describes conditions under which halo effects occur and when the SD and r measures can be used. Neither measure is uniformly superior to the other. (SLD)

  17. OUTFLOW VERSUS INFALL IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: METAL ABSORPTION IN THE HALO OF NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Joel N.; Seitzer, Patrick; Cowley, C. R.; Miller, Matthew J.; Miller, Eric D.

    2013-03-20

    Gas accreting onto a galaxy will be of low metallicity while halo gas due to a galactic fountain will be of near-solar metallicity. We test these predictions by measuring the metal absorption line properties of halo gas 5 kpc above the plane of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, using observations taken with HST/STIS toward a bright background quasar. Metal absorption lines of Fe II, Mg II, and Mg I in the halo of NGC 891 are clearly seen, and when combined with recent deep H I observations, we are able to place constraints on the metallicity of the halo gas for the first time. The H I line width defines the line broadening, from which we model opacity effects in these metal lines, assuming that the absorbing gas is continuously distributed in the halo. The gas-phase metallicities are [Fe/H] = -1.18 {+-} 0.07 and [Mg/H] = -0.23 + 0.36/ - 0.27 (statistical errors) and this difference is probably due to differential depletion onto grains. When corrected for such depletion using Galactic gas as a guide, both elements have approximately solar or even supersolar abundances. This suggests that the gas is from the galaxy disk, probably expelled into the halo by a galactic fountain, rather than from accretion of intergalactic gas, which would have a low metallicity. The abundances would be raised by significant amounts if the absorbing gas lies in a few clouds with thermal widths smaller than the rotational velocity of the halo. If this is the case, both the abundances and [Mg/Fe] would be supersolar.

  18. Radiative reactions in halo effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupak, Gautam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we review the recent progress in radiative reaction calculations in halo effective field theory. We look at radiative capture and breakup processes that involve a halo nucleus with a single valence neutron or proton. Looking at 7Li(n,γ) 8Li,14C(n,γ)15C and related reactions, the dominant source of theoretical uncertainty in s- and p-wave halo nuclei reaction calculations is quantified in a model-independent framework. The analysis for neutron halos is extended to proton halo systems. The effective field theory results quantify which observable parameters of the strong interaction at low energy need to be determined more precisely for accurate cross-section calculations.

  19. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  20. THE RESOLVED STELLAR HALO OF NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Chappell, Samantha N.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2011-07-20

    We have obtained Magellan/IMACS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging data that resolve red giant branch stars in the stellar halo of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The HST data cover a small area, and allow us to accurately interpret the ground-based data, which cover 30% of the halo to a distance of 30 kpc, allowing us to make detailed quantitative measurements of the global properties and structure of a stellar halo outside of the Local Group. The geometry of the halo is significantly flattened in the same sense as the disk, with a projected axis ratio of b/a {approx} 0.35 {+-} 0.1. The total stellar mass of the halo is estimated to be M{sub halo} {approx} (2.5 {+-} 1.5) x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, or 6% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy, and has a projected radial dependence that follows a power law of index -2.8 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to a three-dimensional power-law index of {approx} - 4. The total luminosity and profile shape that we measure for NGC 253 are somewhat larger and steeper than the equivalent values for the Milky Way and M31, but are well within the scatter of model predictions for the properties of stellar halos built up in a cosmological context. Structure within the halo is seen at a variety of scales: there is small kpc-scale density variation and a large shelf-like feature near the middle of the field. The techniques that have been developed will be essential for quantitatively comparing our upcoming larger sample of observed stellar halos to models of halo formation.

  1. The stability of stellar discs in Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurin, Denis; Springel, Volker

    2015-09-01

    We employ an improved methodology to insert live stellar discs into high-resolution dark matter simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes, allowing us to investigate the fate of thin stellar discs in the tumultuous environment of cold dark matter structures. We study a set of eight different haloes, drawn from the Aquarius simulation project, in which stellar discs are adiabatically grown with a prescribed structure, and then allowed to self-consistently evolve. The initial velocity distribution is set-up in very good equilibrium with the help of the GALIC code. We find that the residual triaxiality of the haloes leads to significant disc tumbling, qualitatively confirming earlier work. We show that the disc turning motion is unaffected by structural properties of the galaxies such as the presence or absence of a bulge or bar. In typical Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes, we expect an average turning of the discs by about 40°between z = 1 and 0, over the course of 7.6 Gyr. We also investigate the impact of the discs on substructures, and conversely, the disc heating rate caused by the dark matter halo substructures. The presence of discs reduces the central subhalo abundance by a about a factor of 2, due to an increased evaporation rate by gravitational shocks from disc passages. We find that substructures are important for heating the outer parts of stellar discs but do not appear to significantly affect their inner parts.

  2. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besançon disc/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the GALAXIA code, suggesting that no other structures at different radial velocities are present in our field. The metallicities of these stars are estimated using equivalent width measurements of the near-infrared calcium triplet absorption lines and are found, within the limitations of this method, to be consistent with that of NGC 1851. In addition we recover 110 red giant cluster members from previous studies based on their radial velocities and identify three stars with unusually high radial velocities.

  3. The Abundance of Deuterium in the Warm Neutral Medium of the Lower Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lehner, Nicolas; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart; Sembach, Kenneth

    2007-04-01

    We use high-resolution ultraviolet spectra to obtain Milky Way interstellar column densities of H I, D I, O I, S II, Fe II, and P II toward the QSO HE 0226-4110 in the Galactic direction l=253.4deg and b=-65.77deg. We obtain D/H=21+8-6 ppm from an analysis of the strong damped Lyα line of H I and the weak higher Lyman series absorption of D I. Correcting for a small amount of foreground contamination from D and H in the Local Bubble we obtain D/H=22+8-6 for the warm neutral medium of the lower Galactic halo. The medium sampled has [O/H]=0.12+0.41-0.20 and [Fe/H]=-1.01+0.10-0.09. This suggests the abundances in the gas in the halo toward HE 0226-4110 are not affected by the infall of low-metallicity gas and that the gas originates in the disk and is elevated into the halo by energetic processes that erode but do not totally destroy the dust grains. We compare our result to measured values of D/H in other astrophysical sites. The value we measure in the halo gas is consistent with the hypothesis that for many Galactic disk lines of sight D is incorporated into dust. The high average value of D/H=23.1+/-2.4(1 σ) ppm measured along five sight lines through disk gas in the solar neighborhood is similar to D/H in the lower Galactic halo. These disk and halo observations imply the abundance of deuterium in the Galaxy has only been reduced by a factor of 1.12+/-0.13 since its formation. In contrast, current galactic chemical evolution models predict the astration reduction factor should be in the range from 1.39 to 1.83.

  4. Ophthalmic halo reduced lenses design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Ofer; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    The halo effect is a very problematic visual artifact occurring in extended depth of focus or multi-focal ophthalmic lenses such as e.g. intra-ocular (after cataract surgery) or contact lenses when used in dark illumination conditions. This artifact is generated due to surface structures added on top of those lenses in order to increase their depth of focus or to realize multiple focal lengths. In this paper we present novel solution that can resolve this major problem of ophthalmic lenses. The proposed solution involves modification to the surface structure that realizes the extended depth of focus. Our solution is fabricated and numerically and experimentally validated also in preliminary in-vivo trials.

  5. Post-AGB Stars in the Halos of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1999-02-01

    The visually brightest members of Population II are post-AGB (PAGB) stars evolving through spectral types F and A. The aim of this proposal is to find such PAGB stars in the halos of three galaxies that lie just outside the Local Group: Sextans A, NGC 3109, and NGC 5237. The importance of PAGB stars is: (1) they can probe the structure of galactic halos, in the form of test particles much more numerous than planetary nebulae or globular clusters, with which we can look for features such as clumps or tidal streams; (2) the number counts will tell us the theoretically poorly known transition time from AGB to planetary nebula; and (3) we believe that PAGB stars will prove to be a superb new PRIMARY distance indicator, comparable to or better than Cepheids. PAGB stars of types F and A are easily recognized because of their large Balmer jumps. Our uBVI photometric system is optimal for revealing them in galactic halos, due to their unique u-B colors, and the method is extremely efficient in its telescope time requirements. Sextans A and NGC 3109 have Cepheid and TRGB distances, so they are excellent test beds for a confrontation with our proposed Pop II primary standard candles. NGC 5237 has an uncertain distance, which PAGB stars should considerably improve. The 0.9-m telescope will be used (1) to obtain uBVI calibrations of our fields, thus saving the 4-m BTC mosaic for the deep observations; and (2) to complete our survey of Milky Way globular clusters for PAGB stars to used as Galactic calibrators of their luminosities and metallicity dependence.

  6. Post-AGB Stars in the Halos of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1999-02-01

    The visually brightest members of Population II are post-AGB (PAGB) stars evolving through spectral types F and A. The aim of this proposal is to find such PAGB stars in the halos of Sextans A and B (two galaxies just outside the Local Group) and of NGC 4236 (a nearly edge-on spiral in the M81 Group). The importance of these stars is: (1) they will serve as probes of the structure of galactic halos, in the form of test particles much more numerous than planetary nebulae or globular clusters, with which we can look for features such as clumps or tidal streams; (2) the number counts will tell us the theoretically poorly known transition time from AGB to planetary nebula; and (3) we believe that PAGB stars will prove to be a superb new PRIMARY distance indicator, comparable to or better than Cepheids. PAGB stars of types F and A are easily recognized because of their large Balmer jumps. Our uBVI photometric system is optimal for revealing them in galactic halos, due to their unique u-B colors, and the method is extremely efficient in its telescope time requirements. In Sextans A and B PAGB stars will appear at V~eq22.3, and in NGC 4236 at V~eq24. Sextans A and B have Cepheid and TRGB distances, and NGC 4236 is a Tully-Fisher calibrator, so they are excellent test beds for a confrontation with our proposed Pop II primary standard candles. We will use the 0.9-m telescope for uBVI calibrations of our fields, saving the 4-m for the deep observations.

  7. AN EXPERIMENTALLY ROBUST TECHNIQUE FOR HALO MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, J.; Pellico, W.; Spentzouris, P.; Sullivan, T.; Spentzouris, Linda; /IIT, Chicago

    2006-03-01

    We propose a model-independent quantity, L/G, to characterize non-Gaussian tails in beam profiles observed with the Fermilab Booster Ion Profile Monitor. This quantity can be considered a measure of beam halo in the Booster. We use beam dynamics and detector simulations to demonstrate that L/G is superior to kurtosis as an experimental measurement of beam halo when realistic beam shapes, detector effects and uncertainties are taken into account. We include the rationale and method of calculation for L/G in addition to results of the experimental studies in the Booster where we show that L/G is a useful halo discriminator.

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Halo and Reversed Halo Signs for Invasive Mold Infections in Compromised Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadou, Sarah P.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Marom, Edith M.

    2011-01-01

    The halo sign is a CT finding of ground-glass opacity surrounding a pulmonary nodule or mass. The reversed halo sign is a focal rounded area of ground-glass opacity surrounded by a crescent or complete ring of consolidation. In severely immunocompromised patients, these signs are highly suggestive of early infection by an angioinvasive fungus. The halo sign and reversed halo sign are most commonly associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary mucormycosis, respectively. Many other infections and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic and inflammatory processes, may also manifest with pulmonary nodules associated with either sign. Although nonspecific, both signs can be useful for preemptive initiation of antifungal therapy in the appropriate clinical setting. This review aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of the halo sign and reversed halo sign in immunocompromised hosts and describes the wide spectrum of diseases associated with them. PMID:21467021

  9. Symmetry in halo displays and symmetry in halo-making crystals.

    PubMed

    Können, Gunther P

    2003-01-20

    The relation between the symmetry in halo displays and crystal symmetry is investigated for halo displays that are generated by ensembles of crystals. It is found that, regardless of the symmetry of the constituent crystals, such displays are always left-right (L-R) symmetric if the crystals are formed from the surrounding vapor. L-R symmetry of a halo display implies here that the cross sections for formation of a halo arc on the left-hand side of the solar vertical and its right-hand side mirror image are equal. This property leaves room for two types of halo display only: a full symmetric one (mmm-symmetric), and a partial symmetric one (mm2-symmetric) in which halo constituents lack their counterparts on the other side of the parhelic circle. A partial symmetric display can occur only for point halos. Its occurrence implies that a number of symmetry elements are not present in the shape of the halo-making crystals. These elements are a center of inversion, any rotatory-inversion axis that is parallel to the crystal spin axis P, a mirror plane perpendicular to the P axis, and a twofold rotation axis perpendicular to the P axis. A simple conceptual method is presented to reconstruct possible shapes of the halo-generating crystals from the halos in the display. The method is illustrated in two examples. Halos that may occur on the Saturnian satellite Titan are discussed. The possibilities for the Huygens probe to detect these halos during its descent through the Titan clouds in 2005 are detailed. PMID:12570252

  10. Observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers with East-Asian VLBI Network. II. Internal proper motion measurement in G006.79-00.25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Koichiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Motogi, Kazuhito; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Hirano, Daiki; Hayashi, Kyonosuke; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Honma, Mareki; Hirota, Tomoya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Chen, Xi; Xia, Bo; Li, Bin; Sorai, Kazuo; Momose, Munetake; Saito, Yu; Takaba, Hiroshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Kim, Kee-Tae; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2015-10-01

    We detected internal proper motions of the methanol maser features at 6.7 GHz in a high-mass star-forming region G006.79-00.25 with the East-Asian VLBI Network. The spatial distribution of the maser features shows an elliptical morphology. The internal proper motions of 17 methanol maser features relative to the barycenter of the features were measured. The amplitude of the internal motions ranged from 1.30 to 10.25 km s-1. Most of the internal proper motions of the maser features seem to point counterclockwise along the elliptical morphology of the maser features. We applied the disk model, which includes both rotating and expanding components, to the observed positions, l.o.s. velocities, and proper motions. The derived rotation, expansion, and systemic velocities are +3^{+2}_{-2}, +6^{+2}_{-2}, and +21^{+2}_{-2}km s-1, respectively, at the radius of 1260 au on the disk with a position angle of the semi-major axis of - 140° and an inclination of 60°. The derived rotating motion suggests that the methanol maser emissions showing the elliptical spatial morphology possibly trace the rotating disk. The derived expanding motion might be caused by the magnetic-centrifugal wind on the disk, which was estimated on the basis of the typical magnetic field strength at emitting zones of a methanol maser.

  11. New Signatures of the Milky Way Formation in the Local Halo and Inner-halo Streamers in the Era of Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, Paola; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Spagna, Alessandro; Curir, Anna

    2015-10-01

    We explore the vicinity of the Milky Way through the use of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions extracted from the Guide Star Catalog II database. In order to identify and characterize streams as relics of the Milky Way formation, we start with classifying, selecting, and studying 2417 subdwarfs with [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -1.5 up to 3 kpc away from the Sun as tracers of the local halo system. Then, through phase-space analysis, we find statistical evidence of five discrete kinematic overdensities among 67 of the fastest-moving stars and compare them to high-resolution N-body simulations of the interaction between a Milky Way-like galaxy and orbiting dwarf galaxies with four representative cases of merging histories. The observed overdensities can be interpreted as fossil substructures consisting of streamers torn from their progenitors; such progenitors appear to be satellites on prograde and retrograde orbits on different inclinations. In particular, of the five detected overdensities, two appear to be associated, yielding 21 additional main-sequence members, with the stream of Helmi et al. that our analysis confirms is on a high-inclination prograde orbit. The three newly identified kinematic groups could be associated with the retrograde streams detected by Dinescu and Kepley et al.; whatever their origin, the progenitor(s) would be on retrograde orbit(s) and inclination(s) within the range 10^\\circ \\div60^\\circ . Finally, we use our simulations to investigate the impact of observational errors and compare the current picture to the promising prospect of highly improved data expected from the Gaia mission.

  12. Degradation of HaloTag-fused nuclear proteins using bestatin-HaloTag ligand hybrid molecules.

    PubMed

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2015-10-14

    We have developed a protein knockdown technology using hybrid small molecules designed as conjugates of a ligand for the target protein and a ligand for ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). However, this technology has several limitations. Here, we report the development of a novel protein knockdown system to address these limitations. In this system, target proteins are fused with HaloTag to provide a common binding site for a degradation inducer. We designed and synthesized small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride as the HaloTag-binding degradation inducer, which binds to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), which binds to cIAP1. Using this system, we successfully knocked down HaloTag-fused cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (HaloTag-CREB1) and HaloTag-fused c-jun (HaloTag-c-jun), which are ligand-unknown nuclear proteins, in living cells. HaloTag-binding degradation inducers can be synthesized easily, and are expected to be useful as biological tools for pan-degradation of HaloTag-fused proteins. PMID:26338696

  13. X-ray detection of warm ionized matter in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Senatore, F.; Gupta, A.; Guainazzi, M.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Elvis, M.; Piro, L.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of the cold and mildly ionized gaseous baryonic metal components of our Galaxy, through the analysis of high-resolution Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra of two samples of Galactic and extragalactic sources. The comparison between lines of sight towards sources located in the disc of our Galaxy and extragalactic sources allows us for the first time to clearly distinguish between gaseous metal components in the disc and halo of our Galaxy. We find that a warm ionized metal medium (WIMM) permeates a large volume above and below the Galaxy's disc, perhaps up to the circum-galactic space. This halo WIMM imprints virtually the totality of the O I and O II absorption seen in the spectra of our extragalactic targets, has a temperature of T_{WIMM}^{Halo}=2900 ± 900 K, a density < n_H > _{WIMM}^{Halo} = 0.023 ± 0.009 cm-3 and a metallicity Z_{WIMM}^{Halo} = (0.4 ± 0.1) Z⊙. Consistently with previous works, we also confirm that the disc of the Galaxy contains at least two distinct gaseous metal components, one cold and neutral (the CNMM: cold neutral metal medium) and one warm and mildly ionized, with the same temperature of the halo WIMM, but higher density (< n_H > _{WIMM}^{Disc} = 0.09 ± 0.03 cm-3) and metallicity (Z_{WIMM}^{Disc} = 0.8 ± 0.1 Z⊙). By adopting a simple disc+sphere geometry for the Galaxy, we estimate masses of the CNMM and the total (disc + halo) WIMM of MCNMM ≲ 8 × 108 M⊙ and MWIMM ≃ 8.2 × 109 M⊙.

  14. The dark matter distribution function and halo thermalization from the Eddington equation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    We find the distribution function f(E) for dark matter (DM) halos in galaxies and the corresponding equation of state from the (empirical) DM density profiles derived from observations. We solve for DM in galaxies the analogous of the Eddington equation originally used for the gas of stars in globular clusters. The observed density profiles are a good realistic starting point and the distribution functions derived from them are realistic. We do not make any assumption about the DM nature, the methods developed here apply to any DM kind, though all results are consistent with warm dark matter (WDM). With these methods we find: (i) Cored density profiles behaving quadratically for small distances ρ(r)= r → 0ρ(0) ‑ Kr2 produce distribution functions which are finite and positive at the halo center while cusped density profiles always produce divergent distribution functions at the center. (ii) Cored density profiles produce approximate thermal Boltzmann distribution functions for r ≲ 3rh where rh is the halo radius. (iii) Analytic expressions for the dispersion velocity and the pressure are derived yielding at each halo point an ideal DM gas equation of state with local temperature T(r) ≡ mv2(r)/3. T(r) turns out to be constant in the same region where the distribution function is thermal and exhibits the same temperature within the percent. The self-gravitating DM gas can thermalize despite being collisionless because it is an ergodic system. (iv) The DM halo can be consistently considered at local thermal equilibrium with: (a) a constant temperature T(r) = T0 for r ≲ 3rh, (b) a space dependent temperature T(r) for 3rh < r ≲ Rvirial, which slowly decreases with r. That is, the DM halo is realistically a collisionless self-gravitating thermal gas for r ≲ Rvirial. (v) T(r) outside the halo radius nicely follows the decrease of the circular velocity squared.

  15. Genesis Halo Orbit Station Keeping Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M.; Williams, K.; Wilson, R.; Howell, K.; Barden, B.

    2000-01-01

    As the fifth mission of NASA's Directory Program, Genesis is designed to collect solar wind samples for approximately two years in a halo orbit near the Sun-Earth L(sub 1) Lagrange point for return to the Earth.

  16. Few-Body Universality in Halo Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    Few-body systems with resonant S-wave interactions show universal properties which are independent of the interaction at short distances. These properties include a geometric spectrum of three- and higher-body bound states and universal correlations between few-body observables. They can be observed on a wide range of scales from hadrons and nuclei to ultracold atoms. In this contribution, we focus on few-body universality in halo nuclei which can be considered as effective few-body systems consisting of halo nucleons and a core. This concept provides a unifying framework for halo nuclei with calculable corrections. Recent progress in this field with an emphasis on the possibility of finding Efimov states in halo nuclei is discussed.

  17. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R. Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-15

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  18. The Gaseous Halo of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund

    2014-08-01

    The halos of disk galaxies contain a substantial mass of diffuse gas whose properties (temperature, density, structure, and metallicity) are important to understanding how the intergalactic medium was enriched and the long-term star-formation potential of the galaxy. However, we still do not know whether most of the halo material was expelled from the galaxy in a 'galactic fountain' or is fresh infall from the circum/intergalactic medium. NGC 891 is a nearby (D=10 Mpc), edge-on Milky Way analog whose halo has been intensively studied. I will present our recent work in the X-ray and UV bands aimed at trying to determine the origin of the hot and cool components of the halo gas by measuring their metal content, and discuss whether results from NGC 891 can be generalized to other galaxies.

  19. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-01

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  20. The accretion halo in AM Herculis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilleos, N.; Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Wu, Kinwah

    1992-01-01

    Previous phase-resolved spectropolarimetric observations of the AM Herculis systems V834 Centauri (E1405-451) and EF Eridani have shown broad, Zeeman-shifted absorption features during the bright phases. These features are thought to be nonphotospheric in origin, and to arise from a cool 'halo' of unshocked gas surrounding the accretion shock on the surface of the white dwarf primary. Preliminary models for the accretion halo region are presented and these models are used to perform a more detailed analysis of the relevant data for these two systems than has previously been done. To explain the observed halo Zeeman features, geometries which are consistent with the presence of linearly extended cyclotron emission regions are required. Such regions have previously been deduced from different considerations by other investigators. The estimated masses for the accretion halo are comparable to the mass of the cyclotron emission region.

  1. Solar Back-sided Halo CME

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Sun erupted with several CMEs (coronal mass ejections) during a period just over a day (Nov. 8-9, 2012), the largest of which was a halo CME. This CME appears to have originated from an active ...

  2. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Garnett, R.W.; Gray, E.R.; Ryne, R.D.; Wang, T.S.

    1996-09-01

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss.

  3. Simulating rainbows and halos in color.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1994-07-20

    Geometric optics rainbows and ice-crystal halos that include some effects of a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere and a cloud of finite optical thickness are simulated in color by the use of a Monte Carlo approach. PMID:20935829

  4. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-09-10

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  5. Phase transition theory of sprite halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2010-04-01

    We present the phase transition theory for sprite halo using measurable lightning parameters (charge moment and discharge time) on the basis of steady state thermodynamics. A halo is located at the upper part of the tree-like structure of a sprite and is produced through electron impact excitation of neutral species under the lightning-induced electric field. We proposed in our previous studies that the occurrence criteria for halos and sprites are characterized by the above lightning parameters, and additionally, the intensity of a halo weakens rapidly with an increase in the discharge time T. We assume that this phenomenon is quite similar to the phase transition between the vapor and the liquid states of water; here the analogy is between the accelerated electrons and the water molecules. We demonstrate analytically a phase transition for a simply modeled halo based on the quasistatic theory of lightning-induced electric field. Choosing the luminosity of a halo as an order parameter, we show that it has a dependence of T-0.25 - Tc-0.25 near the critical point Tc, which is characteristic of the phase transition. Furthermore, the critical time scale Tc ≈ 5.5 ms is provided naturally from our modeling and is somewhat larger than the typical time scale of the halo luminosity in observations. We consider that this kind of formalism is useful in understanding the detailed relationship between lightning activity and occurrence of halos. We discuss this point for future observations along with the possibilities of the transition model of column and carrot structures.

  6. Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distribution of Weather Data Transponders II. Vertical Transponder Motion Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A.; Errico, R.M.

    1999-11-29

    The vertical motion of constant density atmospheric balloons has been considered via an equation of motion for the vertical displacement of a balloon, due to vertical air motion, which can be numerically solved for balloon positions. Initial calculations are made for a constant density atmosphere. Various vertical wind models with relatively large amplitudes are applied to the model to determine how tightly the balloons are coupled to the reference level and the time scale for the balloons to change to the wind driven reference altitude. A surface launch of a balloon to a 6 km reference altitude is modeled using a detailed atmospheric pressure-density-temperature profile in the equation of motion. The results show the balloons to be relatively tightly coupled ({approx} 50-100 m) to the reference altitude.

  7. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses in the halo system of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Freeman, Ken; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Martell, Sarah L. E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: vplacco@gemini.edu E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au

    2014-06-20

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of 323 very metal-poor stars in the halo system of the Milky Way, selected from the high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up studies of Aoki et al. and Yong et al. The combined sample contains a significant fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars (22% or 29%, depending on whether a strict or relaxed criterion is applied for this definition). Barium abundances (or upper limits) are available for the great majority of the CEMP stars, allowing for their separation into the CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses. A new method to assign membership to the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way is developed, making use of the integrals of motion, and applied to determine the relative fractions of CEMP stars in these two subclasses for each halo component. Although limited by small-number statistics, the data suggest that the inner halo of the Milky Way exhibits a somewhat higher relative number of CEMP-s stars than CEMP-no stars (57% versus 43%), while the outer halo possesses a clearly higher fraction of CEMP-no stars than CEMP-s stars (70% versus 30%). Although larger samples of CEMP stars with known Ba abundances are required, this result suggests that the dominant progenitors of CEMP stars in the two halo components were different; massive stars for the outer halo, and intermediate-mass stars in the case of the inner halo.

  8. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  9. Techniques for the measurement of disruption halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Guttadora, L.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Takahashi, H.

    2011-10-06

    This paper describes techniques for measuring halo currents, and their associated toroidal peaking, in the National Spherical Torus Experiments. The measurements are based on three techniques: (i) measurement of the toroidal field created by the poloidal halo current, either with segmented Rogowski coils or discrete toroidal field sensors, (ii) the direct measurement of halo currents into specially instrument tiles, and (iii) small Rogowski coils placed on the mechanical supports of in-vessel components. For the segmented Rogowski coils and discrete toroidal field detectors, it is shown that the toroidal peaking factor inferred from the data is significantly less than the peaking factor of the underlying halo current distribution, and a simple model is developed to relate the two. For the array of discrete toroidal field detectors and small Rogowski sensors, the compensation steps that are used to isolate the halo current signal are described. The electrical and mechanical design of compact under-tile resistive shunts and mini-Rogowski coils is described. Example data from the various systems is shown.

  10. [α/Fe] ABUNDANCES OF FOUR OUTER M31 HALO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2014-12-10

    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  11. Techniques for the measurement of disruption halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Guttadora, L.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Takahashi, H.

    2011-10-06

    This paper describes techniques for measuring halo currents, and their associated toroidal peaking, in the National Spherical Torus Experiments. The measurements are based on three techniques: (i) measurement of the toroidal field created by the poloidal halo current, either with segmented Rogowski coils or discrete toroidal field sensors, (ii) the direct measurement of halo currents into specially instrument tiles, and (iii) small Rogowski coils placed on the mechanical supports of in-vessel components. For the segmented Rogowski coils and discrete toroidal field detectors, it is shown that the toroidal peaking factor inferred from the data is significantly less than the peakingmore » factor of the underlying halo current distribution, and a simple model is developed to relate the two. For the array of discrete toroidal field detectors and small Rogowski sensors, the compensation steps that are used to isolate the halo current signal are described. The electrical and mechanical design of compact under-tile resistive shunts and mini-Rogowski coils is described. Example data from the various systems is shown.« less

  12. SMASH: Spitzer Merger History and Shape of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn; Scowcroft, Vicky; Madore, Barry; Freedman, Wendy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Clementini, Gisella; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; van der Marel, Roeland; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Soszynski, Igor; Nidever, David; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Besla, Gurtina; Majewski, Steve; Monson, Andy; Seibert, Mark; Smith, Horace; Preston, George; Kollmeier, Juna; Bono, Giuseppe; Marengo, Massimo; Persson, Eric; Law, David; Grillmair, Carl; Cohen, Judy; Sesar, Branimir; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Fabrizio, Michele

    2013-10-01

    The existence of a period-luminosity relation for RR Lyrae variables as measured at IRAC mid-infrared wavelengths allows Spitzer to estimate distances to individual stars with 2% errors. The SMASH program will exploit this unprecedented opportunity to precisely map structures throughout the halo of our Galaxy. SMASH will construct the first 3-D map of one of the larger satellites of the Milky Way (Sagittarius), it will determine precise distances to four more satellites (Ursa Minor, Carina, Sculptor & Bootes) and make the only measurements of stars in tidal streams accurate enough to determine their individual positions within the debris. This proposal describes some of the ground-breaking science enabled by this program, from increased accuracy in determining the orbits of satellite galaxies, to revolutionary constraints on the mass, shape and orientation of our Milky Way's dark matter halo. The foundational importance of these data sets cannot be overstated. These Milky Way structures lie far beyond the reach of any current or proposed future direct parallax measurements. Moreover, the combination of the SMASH results with proper motions from ESA's upcoming astrometric mission, Gaia, can effectively stretch Gaia's horizon for full 6D phase-space maps of our Galaxy by nearly four orders of magnitude in volume! These data and the resulting distance measurements will become Spitzer's legacy to the Galactic Astronomy community for years to come.

  13. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M

    2013-08-28

    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  14. Beam halo studies in LEHIPA DTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Pande, R.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) project at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) consists of a 20 MeV, 30 mA proton linac. The accelerator comprises of a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL). In such high intensity accelerators, beam halos are of concern as they not only cause an increase in emittance, but also lead to beam loss and radio activation. We have studied the effect of beam mismatch at the DTL input on halo formation and propagation. The particle core model is used to excite the three envelope eigen modes; the quadrupole mode, the fast mode and the slow mode by giving input beam mismatch. These modes get damped as the beam progresses through the DTL. The damping mechanism is clearly Landau damping and leads to increase in rms emittance of the beam. The evolution of these modes and the corresponding increase in beam emittance and maximum beam extent, as the beam propagates through the DTL, has been studied for different space charge tunes. The halo parameter based on the definition of Allen and Wangler has been calculated. It is seen that beam halos are very important for LEHIPA DTL, even at 20 MeV and leads to emittance and beam size increase and also to beam loss in some cases. The longitudinal halo is present even without mismatch and transverse halos arise in the presence of beam mismatch.

  15. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  16. Relativistic Motion in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.

    1986-02-01

    This is a summary of an article which will appear in "Highlights of Modern Astrophysics" (Cohen, 1985). The majority of strong core-dominated radio sources show superluminal motion and rapid variations in flux density. Some of them also have X-rays which are weaker than the amount predicted by the inverse-Compton effect. All these characteristics can be explained by rela tivistic motion. The superluminal motion and the unusual rapidity of the variations are kinematic effects. The radiating source nearly keeps up with its own radiation, with a consequent reduction in time scales. The weak X-rays are an artifact introduced when the inverse-Compton cal culation is based on the spectrum measured in the terrestrial coordinate system. When allowance is made for motion towards the observer,the measurements give a lower limit to the Doppler factor of the moving source. The common model uses a narrow jet pointed at angle θ to the line of sight, and carrying luminous blobs moving at Lorentz factor y. This model can explain all the above effects, and also the common core-jet radio morphology. Application of the model gives values of y between 5 and 10, and values of θ less than 200. The Doppler effect boosts t e flux density of those jets which are pointed nearly at us. The strong sources we see must therefore form a small subset of a large population of sources most of which are misdi rected and weak. It is likely that the parent population consists of the "classical double" quasars. Nearly all of the superluminal sources have low surface brightness halos, which could be the outer double radio lobes seen end-on.

  17. Checking for Energetic Flares on Old Halo K Dwarfs with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    This talk describes the unique opportunity offered by Kepler 2 (K2) observations of halo fields to establish whether energetic flaring occurs on stars so old that any global magnetic dynamo present at star formation has died away. Such work is being proposed to Living With a Star as a byproduct of identifying red giants at very large distances from the Galactic plane, 10 to 100 kpc. We have proposed the latter to K2 for the halo field C6, and plan to do so for the upcoming K2 halo fields C8, C10, and C12, to obtain hundreds of giants at these distances. To remove all metallicity bias, our targets include all K2 EPIC stars with Sloan SDSS ugriz photometry, g-r from 0.6 to 1.1, proximity > 12'' (if present) to minimize contamination, and proper motion below 11 mas to remove most foreground stars. Kepler magnitudes Kp are between 16 and 18.5, where long-cadence K2 observations can detect p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure the frequency of maximum power νmax. However, only about 3% of these targets will be halo giants. The remainder will be intervening dwarfs, which at these magnitudes will be more than 1 kpc from the Galactic plane and thus members of the old halo population. Both spotted stars and interacting binaries are recognizable from their light curves; single dwarfs show simple shot noise. Using the properties of superflares as seen in long-cadence Kepler data, we will identify flares and flaring stars among this sample of old halo K dwarfs. Subsequent C6 spectroscopy, if desired, can be pursued from both hemispheres, and need cover an area only four degrees square. Whether positive or negative, the results will constrain mechanisms for energetic flaring on the Sun.

  18. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  19. HaloSat- A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    We propose to develop, build, and fly HaloSat, a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot Galactic halo. A dedicated CubeSat enables an instrument design and observing strategy to maximize the halo signal while minimizing foregrounds from solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. We will use HaloSat to map the distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and determine whether it fills an extended, and thus massive halo, or whether the halo is compact, and thus does not contribute significantly to the total mass of the Milky Way. HaloSat can be accomplished at modest cost using a CubeSat, a novel platform for space astrophysics missions. We will use a commercially available CubeSat bus and commercially available X-ray detectors to reduce development risk and minimize overall mission cost. HaloSat builds on the initiatives of GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in the development of CubeSats for low cost access to space and relies on the technical expertise of WFF personnel for spacecraft and mission design and operations. The team, from University of Iowa (UI), GSFC, Johns Hopkins, and CNRS (France), contains experts in X-ray detector development and data analysis and the astrophysics of hot plasmas and Galactic structure. The UI team will include a number of junior researchers (undergraduates, graduate students, and a postdoc) and help train them for future leadership roles on NASA space flight missions.

  20. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant.

  1. Outer rotation curve of the Galaxy with VERA. II. Annual parallax and proper motion of the star-forming region IRAS 21379+5106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Hiroshi; Burns, Ross A.; Ozawa, Takeaki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    We conducted astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of water-vapor maser emission in the massive star-forming region IRAS 21379+5106 in order to measure the annual parallax and proper motion, using VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The annual parallax measured 0.262 ± 0.031 mas, corresponding to a distance of 3.82^{+0.51}_{-0.41}kpc. The proper motion was (μαcos δ, μδ) = (-2.74 ± 0.08, -2.87 ± 0.18) mas yr-1. By using this result, the Galactic rotational velocity was estimated to be Vθ = 218 ± 19 km s-1 at the galactocentric distance R = 9.22 ± 0.43 kpc, when we adopted the Galactic constants R0 = 8.05 ± 0.45 kpc and V0 = 238 ± 14 km s-1. With the newly determined distance, the bolometric luminosity of the central young stellar object was reestimated to be (2.15 ± 0.54) × 103 L⊙, which corresponds to the spectral type of B2-B3. The maser features were found to be distributed along a straight line extending from the southwest to the northeast. In addition, a vector map of the internal motions, constructed from the residual proper motions, implies that the maser features trace a bipolar flow, and that it cannot be explained by simple ballistic motions.

  2. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  3. STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF THE STELLAR HALOS AND THICK DISKS OF THE MILKY WAY BASED ON CALIBRATION STARS FROM SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Chiba, Masashi; Ivezic, Zeljko; Rockosi, Constance M.; Yanny, Brian E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.a E-mail: beers@pa.msu.ed E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.j E-mail: crockosi@ucolick.or

    2010-03-20

    The structure and kinematics of the recognized stellar components of the Milky Way are explored, based on well-determined atmospheric parameters and kinematic quantities for 32360 'calibration stars' from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first extension, SDSS-II, which included the sub-survey Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). Full space motions for a sub-sample of 16,920 stars, exploring a local volume within 4 kpc of the Sun, are used to derive velocity ellipsoids for the inner- and outer-halo components of the Galaxy, as well as for the canonical thick-disk and proposed metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) populations. This new sample of calibration stars represents an increase of 60% relative to the numbers used in a previous analysis. We first examine the question of whether the data require the presence of at least a two-component halo in order to account for the rotational behavior of likely halo stars in the local volume, and whether more than two components are needed. We also address the question of whether the proposed MWTD is kinematically and chemically distinct from the canonical thick disk, and point out that the Galactocentric rotational velocity inferred for the MWTD, as well as its mean metallicity, appear quite similar to the values derived previously for the Monoceros stream, suggesting a possible association between these structures. In addition, we consider the fractions of each component required to understand the nature of the observed kinematic behavior of the stellar populations of the Galaxy as a function of distance from the plane. Scale lengths and scale heights for the thick-disk and MWTD components are determined. Spatial density profiles for the inner- and outer-halo populations are inferred from a Jeans theorem analysis. The full set of calibration stars (including those outside the local volume) is used to test for the expected changes in the observed stellar metallicity distribution function

  4. The Milky Way, the Galactic Halo, and the Halos of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The Milky Way, ``our'' Galaxy, is currently the subject of intense study with many ground-based surveys, in anticipation of upcoming results from the Gaia mission. From this work we have been learning about the full three-dimensional structure of the Galactic box/peanut bulge, the distribution of stars in the bar and disk, and the many streams and substructures in the Galactic halo. The data indicate that a large fraction of the Galactic halo has been accreted from outside. Similarly, in many external galaxy halos there is now evidence for tidal streams and accretion of satellites. To study these features requires exquisite, deep photometry and spectroscopy. These observations illustrate how galaxy halos are still growing, and sometimes can be used to ``time'' the accretion events. In comparison with cosmological simulations, the structure of galaxy halos gives us a vivid illustration of the hierarchical nature of our Universe.

  5. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  6. Magnetic fields in halos of spiral galaxies and the interstellar disk-halo connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Observations of magnetic fields in halos of edge-on disk galaxies are discussed in relation to the different gaseous phases of the interstellar medium. For this comparison the presence of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is introduced as a valuable tracer for gaseous halos which are originating from the star-formation driven disk-halo connection of the interstellar medium. The distribution of extraplanar DIG correlates on local and global scales with cosmic rays and magnetic fields as inferred from observations of the non-thermal radio continuum radiation and its polarization. From the polarization a large scale and well ordered magnetic field in these gaseous halos can be deduced. These observations indicate the presence of physical processes which generate and maintain magnetic fields on galactic scales. The importance of differential rotation of the gaseous halos for such processes is briefly discussed and the possible influence of magnetic fields on the dynamics of dust particles is addressed.

  7. The Formation and Evolution of Stripped Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jessica; Tuan, Austin Zong; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    We implement a model to describe the density profiles of stripped dark matter halos. Our model generalizes the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) distribution to allow for more flexibility in the slope of the outer halo. We find that the density distributions of stripped halos tend to have outer slopes steeper than assumed by the NFW distribution. We also examine the relationship between severity of stripping and halo shape, spin parameter and concentration, and find that highly stripped halos are more spheroidal, have lower spin parameters, and have higher concentrations compared to less stripped halos.

  8. Sun-Earth L1 Region Halo-To-Halo Orbit and Halo-To-LisaJous Orbit Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig E.; DeFazio, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Practical techniques for designing transfer trajectories between Libration Point Orbits (LPOs) are presented. Motivation for development of these techniques was provided by a hardware contingency experienced by the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) orbiting the L1 point of the Sun-Earth system. A potential solution to the problem involved a transfer from SOHO s periodic halo orbit to a new LPO of substantially different dimensions. Assuming the SOHO halo orbit as the departure orbit, several practical LPO transfer techniques were developed to obtain new Lissajous or periodic halo orbits that satisfy mission requirements and constraints. While not implemented for the SOHO mission, practical LPO transfer techniques were devised that are generally applicable to current and future LPO missions.

  9. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjects in vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D

  10. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pal, Saikat; Beaupré, Gary S.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjectsin vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D

  11. A Universal Model for Halo Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in ΛCDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, c, and peak height, ν, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, n, which affects both the normalization and shape of the c-ν relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed ν, halos at higher z experience steeper slopes n, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven-parameter function of only ν and n. This model matches our ΛCDM results to <~ 5% accuracy up to z = 6, and matches scale-free Ωm = 1 models to <~ 15%. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at z ≈ 30, and thus correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.

  12. A UNIVERSAL MODEL FOR HALO CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in ΛCDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, c, and peak height, ν, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, n, which affects both the normalization and shape of the c-ν relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed ν, halos at higher z experience steeper slopes n, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven-parameter function of only ν and n. This model matches our ΛCDM results to ≲ 5% accuracy up to z = 6, and matches scale-free Ω{sub m} = 1 models to ≲ 15%. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at z ≈ 30, and thus correctly extrapolates over 16 orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.

  13. Mapping the Galactic Halo. VIII. Quantifying Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; van Woerden, Hugo; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan

    2009-06-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the "4distance" measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  14. Static galactic halo and galactic wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Chung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    Although the exact state of the interstellar medium (ISM) in our Galaxy (other galaxies as well) is not clear at all, the 'common consensus' is that a rough pressure balance (or equipartition of energy) exists between different components and phases: cold, warm, hot phases of the ISM, magnetic field, cosmic rays, etc. If the halo of a galaxy is taken to be an extension of the ISM, then its structure is influenced by various ISM components. A 'complete' description of the halo is evidently very complicated. This paper gives a brief account on cosmic ray halo, which emphasizes the role played by cosmic rays. The interaction between cosmic rays and thermal plasma is facilitated by magnetic field. The cosmic rays are scattered by hydromagnetic waves (e.g., Alfven waves) which in turn can be generated by cosmic ray streaming instability. This constitutes a self-consistent picture. Since we are interested in the structure of the halo, we adopted a hydrodynamic model in which the cosmic rays and waves are described by their pressures. In general there are two classes of halos: static and dynamic.

  15. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  16. Helium atoms in the interstellar and interplanetary media. II - Determination of the direction of motion of the interstellar medium relative to the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, V. G.; Mironova, E. N.; Berto, Zh.-L.; Dalode, F.

    1984-01-01

    The direction of motion of the interstellar gas relative to the sun was determined on the basis of Progress-6 interplanetary measurements of the brightness distribution in the atomic helium line at 584 A. The coordinates of the velocity vector in the projection on the celestial sphere are equal: alpha = 77 + or - 2 deg and delta = 17 + or - 2.5 deg.

  17. New Halo White Dwarf Candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Warren R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C.

    2016-08-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19 - 22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. (2014). We use ugriz and JH photometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify ten ultracool white dwarfs with Teff < 4000 K, including the coolest pure H atmosphere white dwarf currently known, J1657+2638, with Teff = 3550 ± 100K. The majority of the objects with cooling ages larger than 9 Gyr display thick disc kinematics and constrain the age of the thick disc to ≥11 Gyr. There are four white dwarfs in our sample with large tangential velocities (vtan > 120 km s-1) and UVW velocities that are more consistent with the halo than the Galactic disc. For typical 0.6M⊙ white dwarfs, the cooling ages for these halo candidates range from 2.3 to 8.5 Gyr. However, the total main-sequence + white dwarf cooling ages of these stars would be consistent with the Galactic halo if they are slightly undermassive. Given the magnitude limits of the current large scale surveys, many of the coolest and oldest white dwarfs remain undiscovered in the solar neighborhood, but upcoming surveys such as GAIA and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should find many of these elusive thick disc and halo white dwarfs.

  18. Beam Halo formation and loss induced by image-charge effects in a small-aperture alternating-gradient focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Qian, B.L.; Chen, C.; Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu S.

    2003-05-01

    Effects of image charges on beam halo formation and beam loss in small-aperture alternating-gradient focusing systems are studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Nonlinear image-charge fields result in chaotic particle motion and the ejection of particles from the beam core into a halo. Detailed chaotic particle motion and structure of the particle phase space is studied, and the beam loss rate is computed for a long transport channel. Image-charge effects are also studied for a short transport channel, and compared with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at LBNL.

  19. The scale-dependence of halo assembly bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Hearin, Andrew P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2016-05-01

    The two-point clustering of dark matter haloes is influenced by halo properties besides mass, a phenomenon referred to as halo assembly bias. Using the depth of the gravitational potential well, Vmax, as our secondary halo property, in this paper, we present the first study of the scale-dependence of assembly bias. In the large-scale linear regime, r ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc, our findings are in keeping with previous results. In particular, at the low-mass end (haloes with high Vmax show stronger large-scale clustering relative to haloes with low Vmax of the same mass; this trend weakens and reverses for Mvir ≳ Mcoll. In the non-linear regime, assembly bias in low-mass haloes exhibits a pronounced scale-dependent `bump' at 500 kpc h-1-5 Mpc h-1. This feature weakens and eventually vanishes for haloes of higher mass. We show that this scale-dependent signature can primarily be attributed to a special subpopulation of ejected haloes, defined as present-day host haloes that were previously members of a higher mass halo at some point in their past history. A corollary of our results is that galaxy clustering on scales of r ˜ 1-2 Mpc h-1 can be impacted by up to ˜15 per cent by the choice of the halo property used in the halo model, even for stellar mass-limited samples.

  20. Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Multiphase Halo of NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Kern, Brian

    2001-07-01

    We have performed narrowband imaging of NGC 4631 in the [O III] 5007 and Hα lines, and long-slit spectroscopy using the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Hα and [O III] λ5007 are detected far from the disk, with the highest [O III]/Hα ratios coincident with the soft X-ray emission. Spectroscopy reveals that the ionization is higher than that of the Milky Way diffuse ionized gas (DIG), with an average ratio [O III]/Hβ~1, rising to 6 in one region. We use the Balmer decrement to probe extinction in the halo. Extinction appears as high as 5 kpc above the disk. Distinct smaller scale variations of [O III], Hβ, and [S II] indicate that we are viewing multiple zones with distinct ionization conditions along the line of sight, in some cases separated by dust. This suggests that the gas has multiple phases and that the ionization may be much higher in some zones. A model using photoionized clouds reproduces the average trends in the line ratios. The inferred densities and pressures are high for halo gas but consistent with observations of other phases that may be colocated with this gas. A combination of high- and low-ionization gas is best for explaining the majority of the fluctuations. The high-ionization phase could be in shocks, but the velocity resolution is not adequate to prove or reject this possibility. Gas at 6×105 K discovered by ROSAT by Wang and colleagues in 1995 could be a source of radiatively cooling gas. We present a new model of optical line emission from cooling clouds and compare it to the data. We show that it can produce part or all of the observed [O III] and fluctuations, may generate part or all of the EDIG gas itself, and may contribute to the photoionization of the upper halo. Our most important conclusions are that the halo is complex and multicomponent and that average line-of-sight line ratios alone cannot be used to determine the ionization conditions. Based on observations obtained at the W. H. Keck

  1. DYNAMICS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AND THEIR HOST HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenthal, James D.; Koo, David C.; Van Kampen, Eelco E-mail: koo@ucolick.or E-mail: evkampen@eso.or

    2009-09-20

    We present deep two-dimensional spectra of 22 candidate and confirmed Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshifts 2 < z < 4 in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) obtained at the Keck II telescope. The targets were preferentially selected with spatial extent and/or multiple knot morphologies, and we used slitmasks and individual slits tilted to optimize measurement of any spatially resolved kinematics. Our sample is more than 1 mag fainter and is at higher redshift than the kinematic LBG targets previously studied by others. The median target magnitude was I {sub 814} = 25.3, and total exposure times ranged from 10 to 50 ks. We measure redshifts, some new, ranging from z = 0.2072 to z = 4.056, including two interlopers at z < 1, and resulting in a sample of 14 LBGs with a median redshift z = 2.424. The morphologies and kinematics of the close pairs and multiple knot sources in our sample are generally inconsistent with galaxy formation scenarios postulating that LBGs occur only at the bottom of the potential wells of massive host halos; rather, they support 'collisional starburst' models with significant major merger rates and a broad halo occupation distribution. For 13 LBGs with possible kinematic signatures, we estimate a simple dynamical mass, subject to numerous caveats and uncertainties, of the galaxies and/or their host dark matter halos. Dynamical mass estimates of individual galaxies range from 4 x 10{sup 9} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} to 1.1 x 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} and mass estimates of halos, based on close LBG pairs, range from <10{sup 10} h {sup -1} to {approx}10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} with a median value 1 x 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}. Comparison with a recent numerical galaxy formation model implies that indeed the pairwise velocities might not reflect true dynamical masses. We compare our dynamical mass estimates directly to stellar masses estimated for the same galaxies from SEDs, and find no evidence for a strong correlation. The diversity of

  2. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    PubMed

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars. PMID:25615301

  3. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Gaseous Halos of Nearby Edge-on Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Richard; Benjamin, Robert; Wood, Kenneth

    2007-05-01

    The majority of ionized gas in galaxies is in a diffuse phase - the so-called Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) - and its maintenance represents a significant power requirement for galaxies. In the past fifteen years, it has been found that DIG layers in spirals are suprisingly thick, and the way in which galaxies maintain these thick ionized layers is not well understood. Diagnostic optical emission line ratios suggest that the dominant ionizing source is photo-ionization by the thin disk of massive stars, but there is evidence that additional sources of ionization in these DIG 'halos' is required. The degree to which such sources are necessary, the nature of the sources, and environment-dependent variations all rely on unambiguous ionization diagnostics. Unfortunately, the optical ratios suffer from complications due to gas temperature, abundance and extinction effects. Spitzer offers access to the [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratio - a diagnostic free of all these complications. A successful pilot IRS study of NGC 891 by us showed the feasibility of detecting these lines in faint gaseous halos and already revealed severe difficulties for pure photo-ionization models. However, this study featured only two positions in the halo of a single spiral. Here we propose to extend this study to observe positions in the halos of three nearby edge-on spiral galaxies, where the optical ratios indicate a variety of ionization requirements, allowing more general conclusions to be drawn about the maintenance of DIG layers, as well as the interpretation of the optical ratios. We will compare results with our own state-of-the-art photo-ionization and shock-ionization models. Our pilot study also featured the first spectroscopic detections of PAHs in an external galaxy halo, and the proposed observations will extend our knowledge of the PAH population in halo environments.

  4. Halo cold dark matter and microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-12-01

    There is good evidence that most of the baryons in the Universe are dark and some evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is nonbaryonic with cold dark matter (cdm) being a promising possibility. We discuss expectations for the abundance of baryons and cdm in the halo of our galaxy and locally. We show that in plausible cdm models the local density of cdm is at least $10^{-25}\\gcmm3$. We also discuss what one can learn about the the local cdm density from microlensing of stars in the LMC by dark stars in the halo and, based upon a suite of reasonable two-component halo models, conclude that microlensing is not a sensitive probe of the local cdm density.

  5. Range corrections in proton halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryberg, Emil; Forssén, Christian; Hammer, H.-W.; Platter, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effects of finite-range corrections in halo effective field theory for S-wave proton halo nuclei. We calculate the charge radius to next-to-leading order and the astrophysical S-factor for low-energy proton capture to fifth order in the low-energy expansion. As an application, we confront our results with experimental data for the S-factor for proton capture on Oxygen-16 into the excited 1 /2+ state of Fluorine-17. Our low-energy theory is characterized by a systematic low-energy expansion, which can be used to quantify an energy-dependent model error to be utilized in data fitting. Finally, we show that the existence of proton halos is suppressed by the need for two fine tunings in the underlying theory.

  6. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P. )

    1993-12-25

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. We describe what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. We present initial results from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  7. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-06-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  8. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  9. Anomalously Weak Dynamical Friction in Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.; Debattista, Victor P.

    A bar rotating in a pressure-supported halo generally loses angular momentum and slows down due to dynamical friction. Valenzuela & Klypin report a counter-example of a bar that rotates in a dense halo with little friction for several Gyr, and argue that their result invalidates the claim by Debattista & Sellwood that fast bars in real galaxies require a low halo density. We show that it is possible for friction to cease for a while should the pattern speed of the bar fluctuate upward. The reduced friction is due to an anomalous gradient in the phase-space density of particles at the principal resonance created by the earlier evolution. The result obtained by Valenzuela & Klypin is probably an artifact of their adaptive mesh refinement method, but anyway could not persist in a real galaxy. The conclusion by Debattista & Sellwood still stands.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF HALO-TO-HALO VARIATION ON SUBSTRUCTURE LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jacqueline; Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Zentner, Andrew R. E-mail: koushiappas@brown.edu

    2011-11-10

    We explore the halo-to-halo variation of dark matter (DM) substructure in galaxy-sized DM halos, focusing on its implications for strongly gravitational lensed systems. We find that the median value for projected substructure mass fractions within projected radii of 3% of the host halo virial radius is approximately f{sub sub} Almost-Equal-To 0.25%, but that the variance is large with a 95 percentile range of 0 {<=} f{sub sub} {<=} 1%. We quantify possible effects of substructure on quadruply imaged lens systems using the cusp relation and the simple statistic, R{sub cusp}. We estimate that the probability of obtaining the large values of the R{sub cusp} which have been observed from substructure effects is roughly {approx}10{sup -3} to {approx}10{sup -2}. We consider a variety of possible correlations between host halo properties and substructure properties in order to probe possible sample biases. In particular, low-concentration host DM halos have more large substructures and give rise to large values of R{sub cusp} more often. However, there is no known observational bias that would drive observed quadruply imaged quasars to be produced by low-concentration lens halos. Finally, we show that the substructure mass fraction is a relatively reliable predictor of the value of R{sub cusp}.

  11. Huge dielectric response and molecular motions in paddle-wheel [Cu(II)2(adamantylcarboxylate)4(DMF)2]⋅(DMF)2.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiong; Takahashi, Kiyonori; Hoshino, Norihisa; Kikuchi, Takemitsu; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Noro, Shin-ichiro; Takeda, Sadamu; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2011-12-16

    The temperature-dependent dynamic properties of [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)(DMF)(2)]⋅(DMF)(2) (1) and [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)(AcOEt)(2)] (2) crystals were examined by X-ray crystallography, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and measurements of the dielectric constants and magnetic susceptibilities (ADCOO = adamantane carboxylate, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide, and AcOEt = ethyl acetate). In both crystals, four ADCOO groups bridged a binuclear Cu(II)-Cu(II) bond, forming a paddle-wheel [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)] structure. The oxygen atoms of two DMF molecules in crystal 1 and two AcOEt molecules in crystal 2 were coordinated at axial positions of the [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)] moiety, forming [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)(DMF)(2)] and [Cu(II)(2)(ADCOO)(4)(AcOEt)(2)], respectively. Two additional DMF molecules were included in the unit cell of crystal 1, whereas AcOEt was not included in the unit cell of crystal 2. The structural analyses of crystal 1 at 300 K showed three-fold rotation of the adamantyl groups, whereas rotation of the adamantyl groups of crystal 2 at 300 K was not observed. Thermogravimetric measurements of crystal 1 indicated a gradual elimination of DMF upon increasing the temperature above 300 K. The dynamic behavior of the crystallized DMF yielded significant temperature-dependent dielectric responses in crystal 1, which showed a huge dielectric peak at 358 K in the heating process. In contrast, only small frequency-dependent dielectric responses were observed in crystal 2 because of the freezing of the molecular rotation of the adamantyl groups. The magnetic behavior was dominated by the strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the two S = 1/2 spins of the Cu(II)-Cu(II) site, with magnetic exchange energies (J) of -265 K (crystal 1) and -277 K (crystal 2). PMID:22102443

  12. Collisional redistribution of radiation. II - The effects of degeneracy on the equations of motion for the density matrix. III - The equation of motion for the correlation function and the scattered spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, K.; Cooper, J.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of correlations between an absorber atom and perturbers in the binary-collision approximation are applied to degenerate atomic systems. A generalized absorption profile which specifies the final state of the atom after an absorption event is related to the total intensities of Rayleigh scattering and fluorescence from the atom. It is suggested that additional dynamical information to that obtainable from ordinary absorption experiments is required in order to describe redistributed atomic radiation. The scattering of monochromatic radiation by a degenerate atom is computed in a binary-collision approximation; an equation of motion is derived for the correlation function which is valid outside the quantum-regression regime. Solutions are given for the weak-field conditions in terms of generalized absorption and emission profiles that depend on the indices of the atomic multipoles.

  13. Collisional redistribution of radiation. II - The effects of degeneracy on the equations of motion for the density matrix. III - The equation of motion for the correlation function and the scattered spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, K.; Cooper, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of correlations between an absorber atom and perturbers in the binary-collision approximation are applied to degenerate atomic systems. A generalized absorption profile which specifies the final state of the atom after an absorption event is related to the total intensities of Rayleigh scattering and fluorescence from the atom. It is suggested that additional dynamical information to that obtainable from ordinary absorption experiments is required in order to describe redistributed atomic radiation. The scattering of monochromatic radiation by a degenerate atom is computed in a binary-collision approximation; an equation of motion is derived for the correlation function which is valid outside the quantum-regression regime. Solutions are given for the weak-field conditions in terms of generalized absorption and emission profiles that depend on the indices of the atomic multipoles.

  14. Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.

  15. Complex artificial halos for the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Halos represent a common and imposing atmospheric optics phenomenon whose displays are caused by tiny air-borne ice crystals. Their variety stems from a certain set of orientation classes to which these crystals belong. We present a robust and inexpensive device, made of modular components, that allows for the replication of most of these orientation classes in the laboratory. Under the illumination of light, the corresponding artificial halo counterparts emerge. The mechanical realization of this device allows a thorough understanding and demonstration of these beautiful atmospheric optics phenomena.

  16. The Shape of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Robert Paul

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing our current knowledge of dark matter (DM) in spiral galaxies (Chapter 1), I present a new method of deriving the shape of these dark halos (Chapter 2). Such information, if obtained for a large number of systems, can provide important boundary conditions for theories of the formation of galaxies (Chapter 5). The halo-shape determination method relies on the comparison of model predictions of the thickness of the gas layer with observations of this flaring. Calculating the model gas layer widths from the observed gaseous velocity dispersion and the potential due to the total mass distribution of the galaxy we learn the following: (a) beyond the optical disk the thickness of the gas layer is sensitive to the shape of the DM halo, (b) the thickness of the gas layer is proportional to the ratio of the gaseous velocity dispersion and the rotation speed, (c) the self-gravity of the gas contributes significantly to the vertical force, (d) the derived shape of the DM halo is independent of the dark matter's radial density distribution, and is independent of the mass-to-light ratio of the stellar disk (f). In Chapter 3 I present a new method (usable for inclinations larger than 60^circ) to determine the thickness of the gas layer of spiral galaxies from high resolution H sc I observations. I use VLA H sc I observations of the almost edge-on Scd galaxy NGC 4244 to determine the gaseous velocity dispersion, and the flaring and rotation curves. From the Keplerian decline of the rotation curve beyond the stellar disks it follows that the dark-to-luminous mass ratio is at most two and a half. Combining the model predictions for the radial variation of the thickness of the gas layer with the measured flaring curve I find that the dark matter halo of NGC 4244 is highly flattened. The best fit occurs for a halo with an E8 shape (with a mass one-eight of an E0 halo), while the uncertainty (E5-E9) is dominated by the errors in the gaseous velocity dispersion: a round

  17. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  18. HALOGEN: Approximate synthetic halo catalog generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila Perez, Santiago; Murray, Steven

    2015-05-01

    HALOGEN generates approximate synthetic halo catalogs. Written in C, it decomposes the problem of generating cosmological tracer distributions (eg. halos) into four steps: generating an approximate density field, generating the required number of tracers from a CDF over mass, placing the tracers on field particles according to a bias scheme dependent on local density, and assigning velocities to the tracers based on velocities of local particles. It also implements a default set of four models for these steps. HALOGEN uses 2LPTic (ascl:1201.005) and CUTE (ascl:1505.016); the software is flexible and can be adapted to varying cosmologies and simulation specifications.

  19. Enhanced subbarrier fusion for proton halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Raj; Lay, J. A.; Vitturi, A.

    2014-02-01

    In this Brief Report we use a simple model to describe the dynamical effects of break-up processes in the subbarrier fusion involving weakly bound nuclei. We model two similar cases involving either a neutron or a proton halo nucleus, both schematically coupled to the break-up channels. We find that the decrease of the Coulomb barrier in the proton break-up channel leads, ceteris paribus, to a larger enhancement of the subbarrier fusion probabilities with respect to the neutron halo case.

  20. HALO-TO-HALO SIMILARITY AND SCATTER IN THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Strigari, Louis E.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Hahn, Oliver; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-02-10

    We examine the velocity distribution function (VDF) in dark matter halos from Milky Way to cluster mass scales. We identify an empirical model for the VDF with a wider peak and a steeper tail than a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and discuss physical explanations. We quantify sources of scatter in the VDF of cosmological halos and their implication for direct detection of dark matter. Given modern simulations and observations, we find that the most significant uncertainty in the VDF of the Milky Way arises from the unknown radial position of the solar system relative to the dark matter halo scale radius.

  1. Ultraviolet Properties of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections: Doppler Shifts, Angles, Shocks, and Bulk Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaravella, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Kahler, S. W.

    2006-11-01

    We present UV spectral information for 22 halo or partial halo CMEs observed by UVCS. The CME fronts show broad line profiles, while the line intensities are comparable to the background corona. The Doppler shifts of the front material are generally small, showing that the motion of gas in the fronts is mostly transverse to the line of sight. This indicates that, at least in halo CMEs, the fronts generally correspond to coronal plasma swept up by a shock or compression wave, rather than plasma carried outward by magnetic loops. This favors an ice cream cone (or a spherical shell) model, as opposed to an expanding arcade of loops. We use the line widths to discriminate between shock heating and bulk expansion. Of 14 cases where we detected the CME front, the line broadening in 7 cases can be attributed to shock heating, while in 3 cases it is the line-of-sight component of the CME expansion. For the CME cores we determine the angles between the motion and the plane of the sky, along with the actual heliocentric distances, in order to provide quantitative estimates of projection effects.

  2. Diluting the hydrogen bonds in viscous solutions of n-butanol with n-bromobutane: II. A comparison of rotational and translational motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederle, Christina; Hiller, Wolf; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland

    2011-02-01

    Mixtures of the monohydroxy alcohol n-butanol with n-bromobutane are investigated via dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Static- and pulsed-field gradient proton NMR yielded self-diffusion coefficients as a function of concentration and temperature. To monitor reorientational motions, broadband dielectric and 13C-spin relaxation time measurements were carried out. The latter demonstrate that the structural relaxation stems from the motion of the alkyl chains. By combining data from translational diffusion coefficients with published shear viscosities, hydrodynamic radii were determined that compare favorably with the van der Waals radii of single molecules. The results for the neat alcohol and for the binary mixtures are discussed with respect to a recent transient chain model. The approach of Debye and structural relaxation times at high temperatures, identified as a general feature of monohydroxy alcohols, is also discussed within that framework.

  3. Halo independent comparison of direct dark matter detection data

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, Paolo; Gelmini, Graciela B. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-12-01

    We extend the halo-independent method of Fox, Liu, and Weiner to include energy resolution and efficiency with arbitrary energy dependence, making it more suitable for experiments to use in presenting their results. Then we compare measurements and upper limits on the direct detection of low mass ( ∼ 10 GeV) weakly interacting massive particles with spin-independent interactions, including the upper limit on the annual modulation amplitude from the CDMS collaboration. We find that isospin-symmetric couplings are severely constrained both by XENON100 and CDMS bounds, and that isospin-violating couplings are still possible at the lowest energies, while the tension of the higher energy CoGeNT bins with the CDMS modulation constraint remains. We find the CRESST-II signal is not compatible with the modulation signals of DAMA and CoGeNT.

  4. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green’s functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model overpredicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  5. r-Process Elements as Tracers of Enrichment Processes in the Early Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Hansen, Terese T.

    2016-08-01

    Significant minorities of extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars exhibit dramatic excesses of neutron capture elements. The standard scenario for their origin is mass transfer and dilution in binary systems, but requires them to be binaries. If not, these excesses must have been implanted in them from birth by processes that are not included in current models of SN II chemical enrichment. The binary population of such EMP subgroups is a test of this scenario.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10392 - Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10392 Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (PMN P-10-426) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10392 - Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10392 Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (PMN P-10-426) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. The Constant Error of the Halo in Educational Outcomes Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    1999-01-01

    Research suggests correlations between student gains and college experiences may be an artifact of halo effect. A study examined whether halo error underlies students' self-reported gains, significance of the error, and its effect on the relationship between college experiences and educational outcomes. Results confirm halo error may be an…

  9. 40 CFR 721.10392 - Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10392 Halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted sulfamidylbenzyluracil (PMN P-10-426) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  11. The Dependence of Subhalo Abundance on Halo Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Williamson, Marc; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical structure formation implies that the number of subhalos within a dark matter halo depends not only on halo mass, but also on the formation history of the halo. This dependence on the formation history, which is highly correlated with halo concentration, can account for the super-Poissonian scatter in subhalo occupation at a fixed halo mass that has been previously measured in simulations. Here we propose a model to predict the subhalo abundance function for individual host halos that incorporates both halo mass and concentration. We combine results of cosmological simulations with a new suite of zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-mass halos to calibrate our model. We show that the model can successfully reproduce the mean and the scatter of subhalo occupation in these simulations. The implications of this correlation between subhalo abundance and halo concentration are further investigated. We also discuss cases in which inferences about halo properties can be affected if this correlation between subhalo abundance and halo concentration is ignored; in these cases, our model would give a more accurate inference. We propose that with future deep surveys, satellite occupation in the low-mass regime can be used to verify the existence of halo assembly bias.

  12. Comment on Halo Effects in Rating and Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2002-01-01

    Considers the existence of halo effects in individuals' evaluations of target communicators across different dimensions. Notes that halo effects result from raters' inability to discriminate among conceptually distinct and theoretically independent aspects of a target's behavior. Discusses current conceptions of halo error and suggests several…

  13. Circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn

    2000-07-01

    An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.

  14. Polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1973-01-01

    Tracking of the Beacon Explorer-C satellite by a precision laser system was used to measure the polar motion and solid earth tide. The tidal perturbation of satellite latitude is plotted as variation in maximum latitude in seconds of arc on earth's surface as a function of the date, and polar motion is shown by plotting the variation in latitude of the laser in seconds of arc along the earth's surface as a function of date

  15. Reputation, Halo, and Ratings of Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that previous ratings of programs in psychology reflect both an experimental psychology and general institutional halo bias. It was found that applied programs in counseling psychology do receive ratings that differ from overall ratings of psychology in general. Programs ranked as strong, good, and adequate are…

  16. Halo and mirage demonstrations in atmospheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Michael; Greenler, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Some laboratory demonstrations on atmospheric optics are presented. The focus is on dispersion effects in mirages, lateral mirages, and inferior mirages produced with small hot plates. We also show a demonstration of the upper-tangent-arc halo, produced with a hexagonal prism, rotating about two axes.

  17. The Hot Gaseous Halos of Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the Milky Way, absorption and emission line measurements of O VII and O VIII show that the halo environment is dominated by a nearly spherical halo of temperature 2 × 10^6 K, metallicity of 0.3-0.5 solar, and with a density decreasing as r^{-3/2}. The mass of the hot gas, estimated through extrapolation to the virial radius, is comparable to the stellar mass, but does not account for the missing mass. The Milky Way hot halo appears to be rotating at about 180 km/s, which is consistent with model expectations, depending on the time of infall. Around massive spiral galaxies, hot halos are seen in emission out to about 70 kpc in the best cases. These show similar gas density laws and metallicities in the range 0.1-0.5 solar. The gas mass is comparable to the stellar mass, but does not account for the missing baryons within the virial radius. If the density law can be extrapolated to about three virial radii, the missing baryons would be accounted for.

  18. GAS CONDENSATION IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, M. Ryan; Bryan, Greg L.; Putman, Mary E.

    2012-02-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamic simulations of vertically stratified hot halo gas, we examine the conditions under which clouds can form and condense out of the hot halo medium to potentially fuel star formation in the gaseous disk. We find that halo clouds do not develop from linear isobaric perturbations. This is a regime where the cooling time is longer than the Brunt-Vaeisaelae time, confirming previous linear analysis. We extend the analysis into the nonlinear regime by considering mildly or strongly nonlinear perturbations with overdensities up to 100, also varying the initial height, the cloud size, and the metallicity of the gas. Here, the result depends on the ratio of cooling time to the time required to accelerate the cloud to the sound speed (similar to the dynamical time). If the ratio exceeds a critical value near unity, the cloud is accelerated without further cooling and gets disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz and/or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. If it is less than the critical value, the cloud cools and condenses before disruption. Accreting gas with overdensities of 10-20 is expected to be marginally unstable; the cooling fraction will depend on the metallicity, the size of the incoming cloud, and the distance to the galaxy. Locally enhanced overdensities within cold streams have a higher likelihood of cooling out. Our results have implications on the evolution of clouds seeded by cold accretion that are barely resolved in current cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and absorption line systems detected in galaxy halos.

  19. Identifying Remote Halo Giants in High-Latitude Fields with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    This talk describes halo-field K2 proposals submitted for C6, and planned for C8, C10, and C12, to identify red giants at distances from the Galactic plane between 10 and 100 kpc. This complements KASC WG8 Galactic Archaeology proposals by identifying and characterizing very remote halo red giants, and also in contributing to MAST a grid of high-resolution spectral calculations for giants useful for determining temperatures, gravities, and abundances from optical spectroscopy. Unlike previous surveys, our targets are unbiased in metallicity, consisting of all EPIC stars with SDSS ugriz photometry, g-r from 0.6 to 1.1, proximity > 12" (if present) to minimize contamination, and proper motion < 11 mas to remove most foreground stars. Kepler magnitudes Kp are between 16 and 18.5, where we establish that K2 can detect p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure the frequency of maximum power νmax. We also show that for these minimally-reddened stars, the g-r color alone yields the effective temperature Teff to 100K for giants with metallicity [Fe/H] below -1. We then illustrate how [Fe/H] will be estimated from νmax from the dependence of red-giant luminosity on metallicity at a given g-r.Only about 3% of these targets will be halo giants. The remainder will be intervening dwarfs, which at these magnitudes will be more than 1 kpc from the Galactic plane and thus members of the old halo population. This sample is valuable in its own right, for problems as diverse as the nature of the thick disk - halo transition and the occurrence of flaring on cool dwarfs so old that any original global magnetic dynamo has died away.

  20. THE STELLAR METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF THE GALACTIC HALO FROM SDSS PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Ivezic, Zeljko; Carollo, Daniela; Newby, Matthew

    2013-01-20

    We explore the stellar metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo based on SDSS ugriz photometry. A set of stellar isochrones is calibrated using observations of several star clusters and validated by comparisons with medium-resolution spectroscopic values over a wide range of metal abundance. We estimate distances and metallicities for individual main-sequence stars in the multiply scanned SDSS Stripe 82, at heliocentric distances in the range 5-8 kpc and |b| > 35 Degree-Sign , and find that the in situ photometric metallicity distribution has a shape that matches that of the kinematically selected local halo stars from Ryan and Norris. We also examine independent kinematic information from proper-motion measurements for high Galactic latitude stars in our sample. We find that stars with retrograde rotation in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal poor than those exhibiting prograde rotation, which is consistent with earlier arguments by Carollo et al. that the halo system comprises at least two spatially overlapping components with differing metallicity, kinematics, and spatial distributions. The observed photometric metallicity distribution and that of Ryan and Norris can be described by a simple chemical evolution model by Hartwick (or by a single Gaussian distribution); however, the suggestive metallicity-kinematic correlation contradicts the basic assumption in this model that the Milky Way halo consists primarily of a single stellar population. When the observed metallicity distribution is deconvolved using two Gaussian components with peaks at [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.7 and -2.3, the metal-poor component accounts for {approx}20%-35% of the entire halo population in this distance range.

  1. The Stellar Metallicity Distribution Function of the Galactic Halo from SDSS Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Ivezić, Željko; Carollo, Daniela; Newby, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We explore the stellar metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo based on SDSS ugriz photometry. A set of stellar isochrones is calibrated using observations of several star clusters and validated by comparisons with medium-resolution spectroscopic values over a wide range of metal abundance. We estimate distances and metallicities for individual main-sequence stars in the multiply scanned SDSS Stripe 82, at heliocentric distances in the range 5-8 kpc and |b| > 35°, and find that the in situ photometric metallicity distribution has a shape that matches that of the kinematically selected local halo stars from Ryan & Norris. We also examine independent kinematic information from proper-motion measurements for high Galactic latitude stars in our sample. We find that stars with retrograde rotation in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal poor than those exhibiting prograde rotation, which is consistent with earlier arguments by Carollo et al. that the halo system comprises at least two spatially overlapping components with differing metallicity, kinematics, and spatial distributions. The observed photometric metallicity distribution and that of Ryan & Norris can be described by a simple chemical evolution model by Hartwick (or by a single Gaussian distribution); however, the suggestive metallicity-kinematic correlation contradicts the basic assumption in this model that the Milky Way halo consists primarily of a single stellar population. When the observed metallicity distribution is deconvolved using two Gaussian components with peaks at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.7 and -2.3, the metal-poor component accounts for ~20%-35% of the entire halo population in this distance range.

  2. The interaction of high-velocity clouds with the galactic halo gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.

    The analysis of the new Leiden/Dwingeloo 21-cm line and the ROSAT all-sky-survey data provided evidence for the interaction of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) with the gas of the galactic halo. The quantitative correlation of both surveys gave evidence that the Milky Way is enclosed within a gaseous halo with a vertical scale height of 4.4 kpc and a radial scale length of 15 kpc. Within this gaseous halo, soft X-ray plasma (T ~= 10^{6.2} K) as well as cold neutral atomic hydrogen seems to coexist. Using this gaseous halo model we can derive the intensity distribution of the soft X-ray background across the entire sky. However, towards the prominent HVC complexes we found excess soft X-ray emission. These areas of enhanced X-ray emission are by a factor of 2 to 3 brighter than the total ``calm'' SXRB intensity. These soft X-ray enhancements, as well as the recently detected H alpha-emission of HVCs may indicate that the HVCs interact with their environment. In the X-ray regime the excess radiation releases about 1036 {erg}/{s}. Compared to the kinetic energy of an HVC complex with MHVC ~= 10^6 - 10^7 M_{\\odot} and Ekin ~= 1053 - 1054 {erg}/{s}, only a tiny fraction of the HVCs motion is transferred into heating of the HVC material. Our results indicate that the HVC matter itself is heated up, not only the surrounding gaseous halo medium, because the determined emission measures of EM ~= 0.015 cm^{-6} pc (T ~= 10^{6.2} - 10^{6.3}) K are an order of magnitude larger than the surrounding volume density.

  3. Non-Gaussian halo mass function and non-spherical halo collapse: theory vs. simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Achitouv, Ixandra E.; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano E-mail: Pier-Stefano.Corasaniti@obspm.fr

    2012-02-01

    The mass distribution of dark matter halos is a sensitive probe of primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). We derive an analytical formula of the halo mass function by perturbatively computing excursion set path-integrals for a non-Gaussian density field with non-vanishing skewness, f{sub NL}. We assume a stochastic barrier model which captures the main features of the ellipsoidal collapse of halos. Contrary to previous results based on extensions of the Press-Schechter formalism to NG initial conditions, we find that the non-spherical collapse of halos directly alter the signature of primordial NG. This points toward a potential degeneracy between the effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and that of non-linear halo collapse. The inferred mass function is found to be in remarkable agreement with N-body simulations of NG local type. Deviations are well within numerical uncertainties for all values of f{sub NL}{sup loc} in the range of validity of the perturbative calculation (|f{sub nl}{sup loc}|∼<200). Moreover, the comparison with simulation results suggests that for |f{sub NL}|∼>30 the non-linear collapse of halos, as described by our barrier model, strongly deviates from that of Gaussian initial conditions. This is not surprising since the effect of non-linear gravitational processes may be altered by initially large NG. Hence, in the lack of prior theoretical knowledge, halo collapse model parameters should be included in statistical halo mass function data analysis which aim to constrain the signature of primordial NG.

  4. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos of NGC 891 and NGC 5775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Rand, R. J.; Benjamin, R. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Collins, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2005-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize the nature of the disk-halo interaction in spiral galaxies, we present an investigation into the kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) halos of two edge-on spirals, NGC 891 and NGC 5775. Observations of optical emission lines were obtained at high spectral resolution with the SparsePak fiber array at WIYN, and the TAURUS-II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the AAT, respectively. Detailed three-dimensional models of the galaxies were created and compared with the data, revealing the presence of a vertical gradient in rotational velocity in each case. The sense of the gradient corresponds to decreasing rotation speed with increasing height above the disk; the magnitude is approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 891, and 8 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 5775. Qualitatively, this behavior is predicted by models of the disk-halo interaction which consider gas being lifted out of the disk, but quantitative agreement has not yet been achieved. We describe the results of our observations, present a comparison with a purely ballistic model of disk-halo flow, and discuss prospects for a better understanding of this critical process in the evolution of galaxies. This material is based on work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST 99-86113.

  5. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-08-10

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h{sup -1} Mpc < r{sub p} < 120 h{sup -1} Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing {approx}48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.5 with median redshift 1.4. We interpret these precise 2PCF measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework and constrain the occupation functions of central and satellite quasars in dark matter halos. In order to explain the small-scale clustering, the HOD modeling requires that a small fraction of z {approx} 1.4 quasars, f{sub sat} = (7.4 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, be satellites in dark matter halos. At z {approx} 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M{sub cen} = 4.1{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and M{sub sat} = 3.6{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos-the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z {approx} 3.2 is M{sub cen} = 14.1{sup +5.8}{sub -6.9} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }. The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f{sub q

  6. On the shoulders of giants: properties of the stellar halo and the Milky Way mass distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kafle, Prajwal Raj; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2014-10-10

    Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components—a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A* proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R {sub ☉} = 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1} kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7{sub −15.8}{sup +15.6} kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with β {sub s} = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass M {sub vir} to be 0.80{sub −0.16}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, concentration c to be 21.1{sub −8.3}{sup +14.8}, disk mass to be 0.95{sub −0.30}{sup +0.24}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, disk scale length to be 4.9{sub −0.4}{sup +0.4} kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91{sub −0.38}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity v{sub esc}=550.9{sub −22.1}{sup +32.4} km s{sup −1} and

  7. The Milky Way, the Galactic halo, and the Halos of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-08-01

    The Milky Way, "our" Galaxy, is currently the subject of intense study with many ground-based surveys, in anticipation of upcoming results from the GAIA mission. From this work we have been learning about the full three-dimensional structure of the Galactic box/peanut bulge, the distribution of stars in the bar and disk, and the many streams in the Galactic halo. The data tell us that most of the Galactic bulge formed from the disk, and that a large fraction of the Galactic halo has been accreted from outside. Similarly, in many external galaxy halos there is now evidence for tidal streams and accretion of satellites. To see these features requires exquisite data - mostly very deep photometry, but some halo substructures have also been found with kinematic data. These observations illustrate how galaxy halos are still growing, and sometimes can be used to "time" the accretion events. In comparison with cosmological simulations, the structure of galaxy halos gives us a vivid illustration of the hierarchical nature of our Universe.

  8. The age of the halo as determined from halo field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Chao; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The age of the Galactic halo is a critical parameter that can constrain the origin of the stellar halo. In general, the Galactic stellar halo is believed to be very old. However, different independent measurements and techniques based on various types of stars are required so that the age estimates of the Galactic halo are accurate, robust, and reliable. In this work, we provide a novel approach to determine the age of the halo with turn-off stars. We first carefully select 63 field halo turn-off stars from the literature. Then, we compare them with the GARSTEC model, which takes the process of atomic diffusion into account in the B - V vs. metallicity plane. Finally, we run Monte Carlo simulations to consider the uncertainty of the color index and obtain the age of 10.5 ± 1.5 Gyr. This result is in agreement with previous studies. Future works are needed to collect more turn-off samples with more accurate photometry to reduce the uncertainty of the age.

  9. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-06-04

    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  10. SIMULATIONS OF RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN THE VIA LACTEA HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, J.; Madau, P.; Diemand, J.; Kuhlen, M.; Zemp, M.

    2009-09-10

    The coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary leads to the gravitational-wave recoil of the system and its ejection from the galaxy core. We have carried out N-body simulations of the motion of a M{sub BH} = 3.7 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} MBH remnant in the 'Via Lactea I' simulation, a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo. The black hole receives a recoil velocity of V{sub kick} = 80, 120, 200, 300, and 400 km s{sup -1} at redshift 1.5, and its orbit is followed for over 1 Gyr within a 'live' host halo, subject only to gravity and dynamical friction against the dark matter background. We show that, owing to asphericities in the dark matter potential, the orbit of the MBH is highly nonradial, resulting in a significantly increased decay timescale compared to a spherical halo. The simulations are used to construct a semi-analytic model of the motion of the MBH in a time-varying triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo plus a spherical stellar bulge, where the dynamical friction force is calculated directly from the velocity dispersion tensor. Such a model should offer a realistic picture of the dynamics of kicked MBHs in situations where gas drag, friction by disk stars, and the flattening of the central cusp by the returning black hole are all negligible effects. We find that MBHs ejected with initial recoil velocities V{sub kick} {approx}> 500 km s{sup -1} do not return to the host center within a Hubble time. In a Milky Way-sized galaxy, a recoiling hole carrying a gaseous disk of initial mass {approx}M{sub BH} may shine as a quasar for a substantial fraction of its 'wandering' phase. The long decay timescales of kicked MBHs predicted by this study may thus be favorable to the detection of off-nuclear quasar activity.

  11. Dark Halo and Disk Galaxy Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. F.

    I highlight recent progress in our understanding of the origin of disk galaxy scaling laws in a hierarchically clustering universe. Numerical simulations of galaxy formation in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated universes indicate that the slope and scatter of the I-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation are well reproduced in this model, although not, as proposed in recent work, because of the cosmological equivalence between halo mass and circular velocity, but rather as a result of the dynamical response of the halo to the assembly of the luminous component of the galaxy. The zero-point of the TF relation is determined mainly by the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ΥI) as well as by the concentration (c) of the dark halo. For c ~ 10, as is typical of halos formed in the `concordance' ΛCDM model, we find that this requires ΥI ~ 1.5, in reasonable agreement with the mass-to-light ratios expected of stellar populations with colors similar to those of TF galaxies. This conclusion supersedes that of Navarro & Steinmetz (2000a,b), who claimed the ΛCDM halos were too concentrated to be consistent with the observed TF relation. The disagreement can be traced to an incorrect normalization of the power spectrum used in that work. Our new results show that simulated disk galaxies in the ΛCDM scenario are not clearly inconsistent with the observed I-band Tully-Fisher relation. On the other hand, their angular momenta is much lower than observed. Accounting simultaneously for the spin, size and luminosity of disk galaxies remains a challenge for hierarchical models of galaxy formation.

  12. PEEK-Halo effect in interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Hogan, Jarred A; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Recent developments have seen poly[aryl-ether-ether-ketone] (PEEK) being increasingly used in vertebral body fusion. More novel approaches to improve PEEK have included the introduction of titanium-PEEK (Ti-PEEK) composites and coatings. This paper aims to describe a potential complication of PEEK based implants relating to poorer integration with the surrounding bone, producing a "PEEK-Halo" effect which is not seen in Ti-PEEK composite implants. We present images from two patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The first patient underwent an L5/S1 ALIF using a PEEK implant whilst the second patient underwent L4/L5 ALIF using a Ti-PEEK composite implant. Evidence of osseointegration was sought using CT imaging and confirmed using histological preparations of a sheep tibia model. The PEEK-Halo effect is demonstrated by a halo effect between the PEEK implant and the bone graft on CT imaging. This phenomenon is secondary to poor osseointegration of PEEK implants. The PEEK-Halo effect was not demonstrated in the second patient who received a Ti-PEEK composite graft. Histological analysis of graft/bone interface surfaces in PEEK versus Ti-PEEK implants in a sheep model further confirmed poorer osseointegration of the PEEK implant. In conclusion, the PEEK-Halo effect is seen secondary to minimal osseointegration of PEEK at the adjacent vertebral endplate following a PEEK implant insertion. This effect is not seen with Ti-PEEK implants, and may support the role of titanium in improving the bone-implant interface of PEEK substrates. PMID:26474500

  13. Comparing halo bias from abundance and clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, K.; Bel, J.; Gaztañaga, E.

    2015-06-01

    We model the abundance of haloes in the ˜(3 Gpc h-1)3 volume of the MICE Grand Challenge simulation by fitting the universal mass function with an improved Jackknife error covariance estimator that matches theory predictions. We present unifying relations between different fitting models and new predictions for linear (b1) and non-linear (c2 and c3) halo clustering bias. Different mass function fits show strong variations in their performance when including the low mass range (Mh ≲ 3 × 1012 M⊙ h-1) in the analysis. Together with fits from the literature, we find an overall variation in the amplitudes of around 10 per cent in the low mass and up to 50 per cent in the high mass (galaxy cluster) range (Mh > 1014 M⊙ h-1). These variations propagate into a 10 per cent change in b1 predictions and a 50 per cent change in c2 or c3. Despite these strong variations, we find universal relations between b1 and c2 or c3 for which we provide simple fits. Excluding low-mass haloes, different models fitted with reasonable goodness in this analysis, show per cent level agreement in their b1 predictions, but are systematically 5-10 per cent lower than the bias directly measured with two-point halo-mass clustering. This result confirms previous findings derived from smaller volumes (and smaller masses). Inaccuracies in the bias predictions lead to 5-10 per cent errors in growth measurements. They also affect any halo occupation distribution fitting or (cluster) mass calibration from clustering measurements.

  14. Near-parabolic comets observed in 2006-2010 - II. Their past and future motion under the influence of the Galaxy field and known nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybczyński, Piotr A.; Królikowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of this research we extensively investigated and carefully determined osculating, original (when entering Solar system) and future (when leaving it), orbits of 22 near-parabolic comets with small perihelion distance (qosc < 3.1 au), discovered in years 2006-2010. Here, we continue this research with a detailed study of their past and future motion during previous and next orbital periods under the perturbing action of our Galactic environment. At all stages of our dynamical study, we precisely propagate in time the observational uncertainties of cometary orbits. For the first time in our calculations, we fully take into account individual perturbations from all known stars or stellar systems that closely (less than 3.5 pc) approach the Sun during the cometary motion in the investigated time interval of several million years. This is done by means of a direct numerical integration of the N-body system comprising of a comet, the Sun and 90 potential stellar perturbers. We show a full review of various examples of individual stellar action on cometary motion. We conclude that perturbations from all known stars or stellar systems do not change the overall picture of the past orbit evolution of long-period comets. Their future motion might be seriously perturbed during the predicted close approach of Gliese 710 star but we do not observe significant energy changes. The importance of stellar perturbations is tested on the whole sample of 108 comets investigated by us so far and our previous results, obtained with only Galactic perturbations included, are fully confirmed. We present how our results can be used to discriminate between dynamically new and old near-parabolic comets and discuss the relevance of the so-called Jupiter-Saturn barrier phenomenon. Finally, we show how the Oort spike in the 1/a-distribution of near-parabolic comets is built from both dynamically new and old comets. We also point out that C/2007 W1 seems to be the first serious

  15. Disc and halo kinematic populations from HIPPARCOS and Geneva-Copenhagen surveys of the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubarsi, R.; Alcobé, S.; Vidojević, S.; Ninković, S.

    2010-02-01

    Discontinuities in the local velocity distribution associated with stellar populations are studied using the Maximum Entropy of the Mixture Probability from HIerarchical Segregation (MEMPHIS) improved statistical method, by combining a sampling parameter, an optimisation of the mixture approach, and a maximisation of the partition entropy for the constituent populations of the stellar sample. The sampling parameter is associated with isolating integrals of the stellar motion and is used to build a hierarchical family of subsamples. We provide an accurate characterisation of the entropy graph, in which a local maximum of entropy takes place simultaneously with a local minimum of the χ^2 error. By analysing different sampling parameters, the method is applied to samples from the HIPPARCOS and Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS) to determine the kinematic parameters and the stellar population mixture of the thin disc, thick disc, and halo. The sampling parameter P=|(U,V,W)|, which is the absolute heliocentric velocity, allows us to build an optimal subsample containing both thin and thick disc stars, omitting most of the halo population. The sampling parameter P=|W|, which is absolute perpendicular velocity, allows us to create an optimal subsample of all disc and halo stars, although it does not allow an optimal differentiation of thin and thick discs. Other sampling parameters, such as P=|(U,W)| or P=|V|, are found to provide less information about the populations. By comparing both samples, HIPPARCOS provides more accurate estimates for the thick disc and halo, and GCS for the total disc. In particular, the radial velocity dispersion of the halo fits perfectly into the empirical Titius-Bode-like law σU = 6.6 (4/3)3n+2, previously proposed for discrete kinematical components, where the values n=0,1,2,3 represent early-type stars, thin disc, thick disc, and halo populations, respectively. The kinematic parameters are used to segregate thin disc, thick disc, and halo

  16. The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ≈5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M⊙ ≤ Mtot ≤ 5 × 109 M⊙), we quantify the impact of the baryons using η, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of η is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a

  17. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2015-10-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  18. Halo mass distribution reconstruction across the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cheng; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Tao, Charling

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation between halo mass and its environment from a probabilistic perspective. We find that halo mass depends not only on local dark matter density, but also on non-local quantities such as the cosmic web environment and the halo-exclusion effect. Given these accurate relations, we have developed the HADRON-code (Halo mAss Distribution ReconstructiON), a technique which permits us to assign halo masses to a distribution of haloes in three-dimensional space. This can be applied to the fast production of mock galaxy catalogues, by assigning halo masses, and reproducing accurately the bias for different mass cuts. The resulting clustering of the halo populations agree well with that drawn from the BigMultiDark N-body simulation: the power spectra are within 1σ up to scales of k = 0.2 h Mpc-1, when using augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory based mock catalogues. Only the most massive haloes show a larger deviation. For these, we find evidence of the halo-exclusion effect. A clear improvement is achieved when assigning the highest masses to haloes with a minimum distance separation. We also compute the two- and three-point correlation functions, and find an excellent agreement with N-body results. Our work represents a quantitative application of the cosmic web classification. It can have further interesting applications in the multitracer analysis of the large-scale structure for future galaxy surveys.

  19. Can MACHOs probe the shape of the galaxy halo ?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua; Scoccimarro, Roman

    1994-01-01

    Microlensing searches in our galaxy have recently discovered several candidates in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We study the prospects for such searches to yield useful information about the flattening of the Galaxy dark matter halo, using a self-consistent oblate halo model and allowing for the possibility of misalignment between the disk and halo symmetry axes. The microlensing optical depth for the LMC, tau(LMC), depends sensitively on the disk-halo tilt angle in the Milky Way, as does the ratio tau(SMC)/tau(LMC). If the tilt angle is as large as 30 deg, a much larger spread in values for tau(LMC) is consistent with rotation curve constraints than previously thought. Disk-halo tilt and halo flattening do not significantly affect the massive compact halo object (MACHO) masses inferred from event durations.

  20. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Gerhardt

    2012-09-27

    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.

  1. The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.

    1995-07-01

    Recent observations indicate that dark matter halos have flat central density profiles. Cosmological simulations with nonbaryonic dark matter, however, predict self-similar halos with central density cusps. This contradiction has lead to the conclusion that dark matter must be baryonic. Here it is shown that the dark matter halos of dwarf spiral galaxies represent a one-parameter family with self-similar density profiles. The observed global halo parameters are coupled with each other through simple scaling relations which can be explained by the standard cold dark matter model if one assumes that all the halos formed from density fluctuations with the same primordial amplitude. We find that the finite central halo densities correlate with the other global parameters. This result rules out scenarios where the flat halo cores formed subsequently through violent dynamical processes in the baryonic component. These cores instead provide important information on the origin and nature of dark matter in dwarf galaxies.

  2. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  3. Intracranial halo pin penetration causing brain injury secondary to poor halo care technique: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Male, Kishore Reddy; Guha, Abhijit; James, Stuart; Ahuja, Sashin

    2008-01-01

    : This is a case report of intra cranial penetration by halo pins resulting in cerebritis and fits secondary to incorrect halo care by the patient and his family. Halo pin penetration into the skull with brain injury is itself a rare incident. Previously documented case reports were in patients with a previous cranioplasties and they were highlight the fact that halo not to be used in cranioplasty patients. Cranial penetration of the halo pins has generally been secondary to a fall/medical condition as epilepsy. This incident how ever highlights the fact the halo care itself along with proper techniques used for tightening the halo pins by the carer plays a crucial role in preventing complications such as this. PMID:19068118

  4. Simultaneous Observation of Melt Flow and Motion of Equiaxed Crystals During Solidification Using a Dual Phase Particle Image Velocimetry Technique. Part II: Relative Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharicha, Abdellah; Stefan-Kharicha, Mihaela; Ludwig, Andreas; Wu, Menghuai

    2013-02-01

    A two-camera Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is applied to study the flow pattern and the equiaxed crystal motion during an equiaxed/columnar solidification process of Ammonium Chloride in a die cast cell. This technique is able to measure simultaneously the liquid and the equiaxed grain velocity pattern as already shown in Part I of this paper. The interaction between the equiaxed grains and the melt flow was explored by means of relative velocities. In single isolated configurations, the settling velocity of equiaxed crystal was found to be 41 times smaller than spheres of equivalent size. The coupling between the fluid flow and the equiaxed crystals was found to be important in areas of high crystal density. Chaotic and turbulent behaviors are found to be damped in regions of high equiaxed crystal density.

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  6. Asteroid Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Mary V.; Moynihan, P. Daniel

    1996-12-01

    Equations are derived which describe the apparent motion of an asteroid traveling on an elliptical orbit in geocentric ecliptic coordinates. At opposition, the equations are identical to those derived by Bowellet al. (Bowell, E., B. Skiff, and L. Wasserman 1990. InAsteroids, Comets, Meteors III(C.-I. Lagerkvist, M. Rickman, B. A. Lindblad, and M. Lindgren, Eds.), pp. 19-24. Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden). These equations can be an important component in the optimization of search strategies for specific asteroid populations based on their apparent motions relative to other populations when observed away from opposition.

  7. The Formation of Dark Matter Halos and High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy

    2011-03-01

    In the concordance ΛCDMcosmological model, galaxies form in the centers of dark matter halos and merge with one another following the mergers of their host halos. Thus, we set out to quantify the growth mechanisms of dark matter halos. For this purpose, we analyze several large N-body simulations of the growth of cosmic structure. We devise a novel merger tree construction algorithm that properly takes into account halo fragmentations. We find that the merger rate evolves rapidly with redshift but depends weakly on mass, and that the proportions between mergers of different mass ratios, e.g.major and minor mergers, are universal. We also show that the merger rate per progenitor halo (related to future mergers and to galaxy pair counting) is smaller than that per descendant halo (related to past mergers and galaxy disturbed morphplogies), and that their redshift and mass dependencies are different. We find that only ~60%of the mass accreted onto halos arrives in mergers that are resolved in our simulations. Moreover, the functional form of the merger rate suggests that the merger contribution saturates at that value. Using full particle histories, we confirm that smoothly-accreted particles make a significant fraction of dark matter halos. This has important implications for the smoothness of gas accretion. Disk galaxies at z~2are rapidly star-forming, but show regular rotation, indicating little merger activity. We use a large dark matter simulation to show that even non-merging z~2 halos grow fast enough to explain observed high star-formation rates. We also follow those halos to z=0, finding that many do not undergo major mergers at all. The z~2disks also show high velocity dispersions and irregular clumpy morphologies. We run "zoom-in" cosmological hydrodynamical simulations focusing on the formation of individual z~2 galaxies. We find that the clumpy morphologies are a result of gravitational instability, where the high random motions make the (turbulent

  8. What's Motion Sickness?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Motion Sickness? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Motion Sickness? Print ... motion sickness might get even worse. continue Avoiding Motion Sickness To avoid motion sickness: Put your best ...

  9. Dark-Matter Halos of Tenuous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    A series of recent deep-imaging surveys has revealed dozens of lurking ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in nearby galaxy clusters. A new study provides key information to help us understand the origins of these faint giants.What are UDGs?There are three main possibilities for how UDGs galaxies with the sizes of giants, but luminosities no brighter than those of dwarfs formed:They are tidal dwarfs, created in galactic collisions when streams of matter were pulled away from the parent galaxies and halos to form dwarfs.They are descended from normal galaxies and were then altered by tidal interactions with the galaxy cluster.They are ancient remnant systems large galaxies whose gas was swept away, putting an early halt to star formation. The gas removal did not, however, affect their large dark matter halos, which permitted them to survive in the cluster environment.The key to differentiating between these options is to obtain mass measurements for the UDGs how large are their dark matter halos? In a recent study led by Michael Beasley (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, University of La Laguna), a team of astronomers has determined a clever approach for measuring these galaxies masses: examine their globular clusters.Masses from Globular ClustersVCC 1287s mass measurements put it outside of the usual halo-mass vs. stellar-mass relationships for nearby galaxies: it has a significantly higher halo mass than is normal, given its stellar mass. [Adapted from Beasley et al. 2016]Beasley and collaborators selected one UDG, VCC 1287, from the Virgo galaxy cluster, and they obtained spectra of the globular clusters around it using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Great Canary Telescope. They then determined VCC 1287s total halo mass in two ways: first by using the dynamics of the globular clusters, and then by relying on a relation between total globular cluster mass and halo mass.The two masses they found are in good agreement with each other; both are around 80

  10. Massive black holes in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, C. G.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    In the present attempt to resolve the problems posed by the composition of dark halos and the heating of stellar disks, under the assumption that galaxy halos are composed of massive black holes, it is noted that the black holes must have masses of the order of one million solar masses. The heating mechanism proposed yields predictions for the dependence of the velocity dispersion on time, and for the shape of the velocity ellipsoid, which are in good agreement with observations. Attention is given to the constraints set by dynamical friction causing black holes to spiral to the Galactic center, by the possible presence of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and by the accretion of interstellar gas by the black holes that produce luminous objects in the Galaxy.

  11. Halo formation in high-power klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pakter, R.; Chen, C.

    1999-07-01

    Beam losses and radio-frequency (rf) pulse shortening are important issues in the development of high-power microwave (HPM) sources such as high-power klystrons and relativistic magnetrons. In this paper, the authors explore the formation and characteristics of halos around intense relativistic electron beams in a Periodic Permanent Magnet focusing klystron as well as in a uniform solenoidal focusing klystron. A self-consistent electrostatic model is used to investigate intense relativistic electron beam transport as an rf field induced mismatch between the electron beam and the focusing field develops. To model the effect of such mismatch in the PPM klystron experiment, they initialize the beam with an envelope mismatch. For zero canonical angular momentum and an initial mismatch of 100 percent, for example, the preliminary results show halo particles with a maximum radius extending up to several core radii at the rf output section. Transient effects and the influence of finite canonical angular momentum are being studied.

  12. Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoyan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we report current status of search and study for Faint High Latitude Carbon Stars (FHLCs). Data for more than 1800 spectroscopically confirmed FHLCs are known, which are found thanks to objective prism surveys and photometric selections. More than half of the detected objects belongs to group of dwarf Carbon (dC) stars. Many-sided investigations based on modern astrophysical databases are necessary to study the space distribution of different groups of the FHLC stars and their possible origin in the Halo of our Galaxy. We report about the selection of FHLCs by the spectroscopic surveys: First Byurakan Survey (FBS), Hamburg/ESO Survey (HES), LAMOST Pilot Survey and SDSS, as well as by photometric selection: APM Survey for Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo, SDSS and 2MASS JHK colours.

  13. Linking the Halo to its Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, N.

    The Galactic halo is unlikely built up from galaxy populations similar to the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) in the Local Group, but it is possible that the halo was formed by accreted dwarf galaxies that had much larger mass and higher star formation rates such as the Saggitarius dSph. Cosmological simulations show that dSph galaxies formed via hierarchical clustering of numerous smaller building blocks. Stars formed at the galaxy centre tend to form from metal-rich infall gas, which builds up the metallicity gradients. Infalling gas has larger rotational velocity and smaller velocity dispersion due to the dissipative processes, resulting the two distinct old stellar populations of different chemical and kinematic properties, which are recently discovered in the Sculptor dSph galaxy.

  14. Beam halo in mismatched proton beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, Thomas P.,; Allen, C. K.; Chan, D.; Colestock, P. L. ,; Crandall, K. R.; Qiang, J.; Garnett, R. W.; Lysenko, W. P.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Schneider, J. D.; Schulze, M. E.; Sheffield, R. L.; Smith, H. V.

    2002-01-01

    Progress was made during the past decade towards a better understanding of halo formation caused by beam mismatch in high-intensity beams. To test these ideas an experiment was carried out at Los Alamos with proton beams in a 52-quadrupole focusing channel. Rms emittances and beam widths were obtained from measured beam profiles for comparison with the maximum emittance growth predictions of a free-energy model and the maximum haloamplitude predictions of a particle-core model. The experimental results are also compared with multiparticle simulations. In this paper we will present the experimental results and discuss the implications with respect to the validity of both the models and the simulations. Keywords: beam halo, emittance growth, beam profiles, simulations, space charge, mismatch

  15. The Red Halos of Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, E.; Bergvall, N.; Flynn, C.; Caldwell, B.; Östlin, G.; Micheva, G.

    2008-10-01

    Deep optical/near-IR surface photometry of galaxies outside the Local Group have revealed the existence of faint and very red halos around objects as diverse as spirals and blue compact galaxies. The colors of these structures are much too extreme to be reconciled with resolved stellar populations like those seen in the halos of the Milky Way or M 31, and alternative explanations like dust reddening, high metallicities or nebular emission are also disfavored. A stellar population obeying an extremely bottom-heavy initial mass function, similar to that recently reported for the LMC field population, is on the other hand consistent with all available data. Because of its high mass-to-light ratio, such a population would effectively behave as baryonic dark matter and could account for some of the baryons still missing from local inventories. Here, we report on a number of recent developments in this field.

  16. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  17. ASSEMBLY BIAS AND THE DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Faltenbacher, Andreas; White, Simon D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Millennium Simulation we examine assembly bias for the halo properties: shape, triaxiality, concentration, spin, shape of the velocity ellipsoid, and velocity anisotropy. For consistency, we determine all these properties using the same set of particles, namely all gravitationally self-bound particles belonging to the most massive substructure of a given friends-of-friends halo. We confirm that near-spherical and high-spin halos show enhanced clustering. The opposite is true for strongly aspherical and low-spin halos. Further, below the typical collapse mass, M{sub *}, more concentrated halos show stronger clustering, whereas less concentrated halos are less clustered which is reversed for masses above M{sub *}. Going beyond earlier work we show that: (1) oblate halos are more strongly clustered than prolate ones; (2) the dependence of clustering on the shape of the velocity ellipsoid coincides with that of the real-space shape, although the signal is stronger; (3) halos with weak velocity anisotropy are more clustered, whereas radially anisotropic halos are more weakly clustered; (4) for all highly clustered subsets we find systematically less radially biased velocity anisotropy profiles. These findings indicate that the velocity structure of halos is tightly correlated with environment.

  18. THE SPHERICALIZATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS BY GALAXY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F. E-mail: mario@oac.uncor.ed

    2010-09-01

    Cosmological simulations indicate that cold dark matter (CDM) halos should be triaxial. Validating this theoretical prediction is, however, less than straightforward because the assembly of galaxies is expected to modify halo shapes and to render them more axisymmetric. We use a suite of N-body simulations to quantitatively investigate the effect of the growth of a central disk galaxy on the shape of triaxial dark matter halos. In most circumstances, the halo responds to the presence of the disk by becoming more spherical. The net effect depends weakly on the timescale of the disk assembly but noticeably on the orientation of the disk relative to the halo principal axes, and it is maximal when the disk symmetry axis is aligned with the major axis of the halo. The effect depends most sensitively on the overall gravitational importance of the disk. Our results indicate that exponential disks whose contribution peaks at less than {approx}50% of their circular velocity are unable to noticeably modify the shape of the gravitational potential of their surrounding halos. Many dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies are expected to be in this regime, and therefore their detailed kinematics could be used to probe halo triaxiality, one of the basic predictions of the CDM paradigm. We argue that the complex disk kinematics of the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 might be the reflection of a triaxial halo. Such signatures of halo triaxiality should be common in galaxies where the luminous component is subdominant.

  19. Galaxy Formation in Triaxial Halos: Black Hole-Bulge-Dark Halo Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr A.; Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Frank, Juhan

    2003-06-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes (SBHs) show correlations with bulge properties in disk and elliptical galaxies. We study the formation of galactic structure within flat-core, mildly triaxial halos and show that these correlations can be understood within the framework of a baryonic component modifying the orbital structure in the underlying potential. In particular, we find that terminal properties of bulges and their central SBHs are constrained by the destruction of box orbits in the harmonic cores of dark halos and the emergence of progressively less eccentric loop orbits there. SBH masses, M•, should exhibit a tighter correlation with bulge velocity dispersions, σB, than with bulge masses, MB, in accord with observations, if there is a significant scatter in the MH-σH relation for the halo. In the context of this model the observed M•-σB relation implies that halos should exhibit a Faber-Jackson type relationship between their masses and velocity dispersions. The most important prediction of our model is that halo properties determine the bulge and SBH parameters. The model also has important implications for galactic morphology and the process of disk formation.

  20. Capture Reactions with Halo Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Loosely bound nuclei far from the stability region emerge as a quantum phenomenon with many universal properties. The connection between these properties and the underlying symmetries can be best explored with halo/cluster EFT, an effective field theory where the softness of the binding momentum and the hardness of the core(s) form the expansion parameter of a given perturbative approach. In the following I highlight a particular application where these ideas are being tested, namely capture reactions.

  1. The Halo B2B Studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  2. Halo abundances within the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, D.; Eardley, E.; Peacock, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dependence of the mass function of dark-matter haloes on their environment within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. A dependence of the halo mass function on large-scale mean density is a standard element of cosmological theory, allowing mass-dependent biasing to be understood via the peak-background split. On the assumption of a Gaussian density field, this analysis can be extended to ask how the mass function depends on the geometrical environment: clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, as classified via the tidal tensor (the Hessian matrix of the gravitational potential). In linear theory, the problem can be solved exactly, and the result is attractively simple: the conditional mass function has no explicit dependence on the local tidal field, and is a function only of the local density on the filtering scale used to define the tidal tensor. There is nevertheless a strong implicit predicted dependence on geometrical environment, because the local density couples statistically to the derivatives of the potential. We compute the predictions of this model and study the limits of their validity by comparing them to results deduced empirically from N-body simulations. We have verified that, to a good approximation, the abundance of haloes in different environments depends only on their densities, and not on their tidal structure. In this sense we find relative differences between halo abundances in different environments with the same density which are smaller than ˜13 per cent. Furthermore, for sufficiently large filtering scales, the agreement with the theoretical prediction is good, although there are important deviations from the Gaussian prediction at small, non-linear scales. We discuss how to obtain improved predictions in this regime, using the `effective-universe' approach.

  3. Revealing the network of periodic orbits in galaxy models with a prolate or an oblate dark matter halo component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    Locating the position of periodic orbits in galaxies is undoubtedly an issue of paramount importance. We reveal the position and the stability of periodic orbits of stars moving in the meridional plane (R,z) of an axially symmetric galactic model with a disk, a spherical nucleus, and a biaxial dark matter halo component. In particular, we study how all the involved parameters of the dynamical system influence the position and the stability of all resonant families. To locate the position and measure the stability of periodic orbits we use a highly sensitive numerical code which is able to identify resonant periodic orbits of the type n:m. Two cases are studied for every parameter: (i) the case where the dark matter halo component is prolate and (ii) the case where an oblate dark matter halo is present. Our numerical exploration reveals that all the dynamical quantities affect, more or less, the position and the stability of the periodic orbits. It is shown that the mass of the nucleus, the mass of the disk, the halo flattening parameter, the scale length of the halo, the angular momentum, and the total orbital energy are the most influential quantities, while the effect of all other parameters is much weaker.

  4. Studying 10Be and 11Be Halo States through the (p,d) Single-Neutron Transfer Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Keri; Sarazin, Fred; (Pcb)2 Collaboration; Tigress Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    One-neutron transfer reactions are being used to study single-particle neutron states in nuclei. For one-neutron halo nuclei, such as 11Be, the (p,d) reaction enables the removal of the halo neutron or of one of the core neutrons. This way, it is possible to simultaneously study the halo wavefunction of the 11Be ground-state but also a possible excited halo state in 10Be. The 11Be(p, d)10Be transfer reaction at 10 MeV/nucleon is being investigated at the TRIUMF-ISAC II facility with the Printed Circuit Board Based Charged Particle ((PCB)2) array inside the TRIUMF ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS). The ground state and first excited state of 10Be can be directly identified using deuteron identification and kinematics from the charged particle array, while the four excited states in10Be around 6 MeV, including the suspected halo state (2- state), are identified using coincident gamma rays from TIGRESS with the identified deuterons. Angular distributions for the 10Be populated states will be shown along with their FRESCO fits. This work is partially supported by the US Department of Energy through Grant/Contract No. DE-FG03-93ER40789 (Colorado School of Mines).

  5. Is the Milky Way's Hot Halo Convectively Unstable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the convective stability of two popular types of model of the gas distribution in the hot Galactic halo. We first consider models in which the halo density and temperature decrease exponentially with height above the disk. These halo models were created to account for the fact that, on some sight lines, the halo's X-ray emission lines and absorption lines yield different temperatures, implying that the halo is non-isothermal. We show that the hot gas in these exponential models is convectively unstable if γ < 3/2, where γ is the ratio of the temperature and density scale heights. Using published measurements of γ and its uncertainty, we use Bayes' theorem to infer posterior probability distributions for γ, and hence the probability that the halo is convectively unstable for different sight lines. We find that, if these exponential models are good descriptions of the hot halo gas, at least in the first few kiloparsecs from the plane, the hot halo is reasonably likely to be convectively unstable on two of the three sight lines for which scale height information is available. We also consider more extended models of the halo. While isothermal halo models are convectively stable if the density decreases with distance from the Galaxy, a model of an extended adiabatic halo in hydrostatic equilibrium with the Galaxy's dark matter is on the boundary between stability and instability. However, we find that radiative cooling may perturb this model in the direction of convective instability. If the Galactic halo is indeed convectively unstable, this would argue in favor of supernova activity in the Galactic disk contributing to the heating of the hot halo gas.

  6. Is the Milky Way's hot halo convectively unstable?

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the convective stability of two popular types of model of the gas distribution in the hot Galactic halo. We first consider models in which the halo density and temperature decrease exponentially with height above the disk. These halo models were created to account for the fact that, on some sight lines, the halo's X-ray emission lines and absorption lines yield different temperatures, implying that the halo is non-isothermal. We show that the hot gas in these exponential models is convectively unstable if γ < 3/2, where γ is the ratio of the temperature and density scale heights. Using published measurements of γ and its uncertainty, we use Bayes' theorem to infer posterior probability distributions for γ, and hence the probability that the halo is convectively unstable for different sight lines. We find that, if these exponential models are good descriptions of the hot halo gas, at least in the first few kiloparsecs from the plane, the hot halo is reasonably likely to be convectively unstable on two of the three sight lines for which scale height information is available. We also consider more extended models of the halo. While isothermal halo models are convectively stable if the density decreases with distance from the Galaxy, a model of an extended adiabatic halo in hydrostatic equilibrium with the Galaxy's dark matter is on the boundary between stability and instability. However, we find that radiative cooling may perturb this model in the direction of convective instability. If the Galactic halo is indeed convectively unstable, this would argue in favor of supernova activity in the Galactic disk contributing to the heating of the hot halo gas.

  7. Constraining the halo mass function with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Tiago; Marra, Valerio; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The abundances of dark matter halos in the universe are described by the halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behavior through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of type Ia supernovae. Our results show that DES is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints on the HMF, while both Euclid and J-PAS can give stronger constraints, comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even more important for measuring the HMF than for constraining the cosmological parameters, and can vastly improve the determination of the halo mass function. Measuring the HMF could thus be used to cross-check simulations and their implementation of baryon physics. It could even, if deviations cannot be accounted for, hint at new physics.

  8. DARK MATTER CORES IN THE FORNAX AND SCULPTOR DWARF GALAXIES: JOINING HALO ASSEMBLY AND DETAILED STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorisco, N. C.; Zavala, J.; De Boer, T. J. L.

    2014-02-20

    We combine the detailed star formation histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter (DM) halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Type II supernovae (SNe II) is sufficient to create a substantial DM core. Assuming the efficiency of energy injection of the SNe II into DM particles is ε{sub gc} = 0.05, we find that a single early episode, z ≳ z {sub infall}, that combines the energy of all SNe II due to explode over 0.5 Gyr is sufficient to create a core of several hundred parsecs in both Sculptor and Fornax. Therefore, our results suggest that it is energetically plausible to form cores in cold dark matter (CDM) halos via early episodic gas outflows triggered by SNe II. Furthermore, based on CDM merger rates and phase-space density considerations, we argue that the probability of a subsequent complete regeneration of the cusp is small for a substantial fraction of dwarf-size halos.

  9. The gaseous galactic halo as inferred from the line spectra of the galaxies Markarian 509 and Fairall 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Songaila, A.; Blades, J. C.; Cowie, L. L.; Morton, D. C.; Wu, C.-C.

    1982-01-01

    Narrow interstellar absorption lines of S II 1259.52, Si II 1260.42, and Fe II 1608.46 due to gas in the disk and the halo of the Galaxy have been detected in the spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 509 with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. This gas is also seen at higher resolution in the Ca II and Na I absorption lines in two components at LSR velocities of +6 and +62 km/s. In addition, narrow Ly-alpha and C IV absorption near the Seyfert redshift seem to be present in the spectrum. Si II 1260.42 absorption from the galactic disk and from the Magellanic Stream or the halo of the SMC have been detected with the IUE in the spectrum of Fairall 9. The observations of these two objects when combined with existing results are shown to be consistent with a corotating galactic halo having a height of less than 10 kpc at the sun.

  10. Beryllium in the Galactic halo - Surface abundances from standard, diffusive, and rotational stellar evolution, and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1990-01-01

    The recently observed upper limits to the beryllium abundances in population II stars are much lower than population I detections. This difference reflects an intrinsic difference in the initial abundances and is not caused by different degrees of depletion driven by stellar evolution processes from similar initial abundances. Evolutionary sequences of models from the early premain sequence to beyond the turnoff that correspond to halo dwarfs with Fe/H abundances of -1.3, -2.3, and -3.3 are constructed, and standard, diffusive, and rotational mechanisms are used to estimate a maximal possible beryllium depletion. Halo star models in the T(eff) range 6000 to 5000 K might be rotationally depleted by a factor of 1.5-2, and the total depletion should be no more than (conservatively) a factor of 3. Implications for cosmology, cosmic-ray theory, and Galactic chemical evolution are discussed.

  11. The Halo of NGC 2438 scrutinized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Haloes and multiple shells around planetary nebulae trace the mass-loss history of the central star. The haloes provide us with information about abundances, ionization or kinematics. Detailed investigations of these haloes can be used to study the evolution of the old stellar population in our galaxy and beyond.Different observations show structures in the haloes like radial rays, blisters and rings (e.g., Ramos-Larios et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 3753 or Matsuura et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1067). The origin of these features has been associated with ionization shadows (Balick 2004, AJ, 127, 2262). They can be observed in regions, where dense knots are opaque to stellar ionizing photons. In this regions we can see leaking UV photons.In this work, we present a detailed investigation of the multiple shell PN NGC 2438. We derive a complete data set of the main nebula. This allows us to analize the physical conditions from photoionization models, such as temperature, density and ionization, and clumping.Data from ESO (3.6m telescope - EFOSC1 - direct imaging and long slit spectroscopy) and from SAAO (spectroscopic observations using a small slit) were available. These data were supplemented by imaging data from the HST archive and by archival VLA observations. The low-excitation species are found to be dominated by clumps. The emission line ratios show no evidence for shocks. We find the shell in ionization equilibrium: a significant amount of UV radiation infiltrates the inner nebula. Thus the shell still seems to be ionized.The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to model the nebular properties and to derive a more accurate distance and ionized mass. The model supports the hypothesis that photoionization is the dominant process in this nebula, far out into the shell.If we want to use extragalactic planetary nebulae as probes of the old stellar population, we need to assess the potential impact of a halo on the evolution. Also the connection of observations and models must

  12. Recent Results from SPLASH: Chemical Abundances and Kinematics of Andromeda's Stellar Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Beaton, Rachael; Dorman, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Large scale surveys of Andromeda's resolved stellar populations have revolutionized our view of this galaxy over the past decade. The combination of large-scale, contiguous photometric surveys and pointed spectroscopic surveys has been particularly powerful for discovering substructure and disentangling the structural components of Andromeda. The SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo) survey consists of broad- and narrow-band imaging and spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in lines of sight ranging in distance from 2 kpc to more than 200 kpc from Andromeda's center. The SPLASH data reveal a power-law surface brightness profile extending to at least two-thirds of Andromeda's virial radius (Gilbert et al. 2012), a metallicity gradient extending to at least 100 kpc from Andromeda's center (Gilbert et al. 2014), and evidence of a significant population of heated disk stars in Andromeda's inner halo (Dorman et al. 2013). We are also using the velocity distribution of halo stars to measure the tangential motion of Andromeda (Beaton et al., in prep).

  13. H I IN LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES AND STRIPPING BY THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E E-mail: mputman@astro.columbia.edu

    2009-05-01

    We examine the H I content and environment of all of the Local Group dwarf galaxies (M {sub tot} < 10{sup 10} M {sub sun}), including the numerous newly discovered satellites of the Milky Way and M31. All of the new dwarfs, with the exception of Leo T, have no detected H I. The majority of dwarf galaxies within {approx}270 kpc of the Milky Way or Andromeda are undetected in H I (<10{sup 4} M {sub sun} for Milky Way dwarfs), while those further than {approx}270 kpc are predominantly detected with masses {approx}10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. Analytical ram-pressure arguments combined with velocities obtained via proper motion studies allow for an estimate of the halo density of the Milky Way at several distances. This halo density is constrained to be greater than 2x 10{sup -4}-3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} out to distances of at least 70 kpc. This is broadly consistent with theoretical models of the diffuse gas in a Milky Way-like halo and is consistent with this component hosting a large fraction of a galaxy's baryons. Accounting for completeness in the dwarf galaxy count, gasless dwarf galaxies could have provided at most 2.1 x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} of H I gas to the Milky Way, which suggests that most of our Galaxy's star formation fuel does not come from accreted small satellites in the current era.

  14. Theory of longitudinal beam halo in RF linacs: I. core/test-particle formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    1997-05-01

    For intense beams, the analysis of tenuous halo components of the particle distribution that surround the main core of the distribution can be challenging. So-called core/test particle models in which a test particle is evolved in the applied and space-charge forces of the beam core have been instrumental in understanding the structure and extent of transverse beam halo produced by resonant particle interactions with the oscillating space-charge forces of a mismatched beam core. Here we present a core/test particle model developed for the analysis of longitudinal beam halo in intense, ion-beam rf linacs. Equations of motion are derived for a test particle moving interior to, and exterior to, a uniform density ellipsoidal beam bunch. Coupled transverse-longitudinal mismatch modes of the ellipsoidal beam envelope are analyzed. Typical parameters suggest the possibility of a low-order resonant interaction between longitudinal particle oscillations and a low-frequency envelope mode. Properties of this resonance are in an accompanying paper by the authors in these proceedings.

  15. Resolved Stellar Halos of M87 and NGC 5128

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.; Harris, William; Flynn, Chris; Blakeslee, John P.; Valtonen, Mauri

    2015-08-01

    We search halo fields of two giant elliptical galaxies: M87, using HST images at 10 kpc from the center, and NGC 5128 (Cen A), using VIMOS VLT images at 65 kpc from the center and archival HST data from 8 to 38 kpc from the center. We resolve thousands of red-giant-branch stars in these stellar halo fields using V and I filters, and, in addition, measure the metallicity using stellar isochrones. In Cen A, we find that the density of metal-rich and metal-poor halo stars falls off with the same slope in the de Vaucouleurs' law profile, from the inner halo of 8 kpc out to 70 kpc, with no sign of a transition to dominance by metal-poor stars. We also find that the metallicity distribution of the inner stellar halo of M87 is most similar to that of NGC 5128's inner stellar halo.

  16. Distribution Function in the Center of the Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ding; He, Ping

    N-body simulations of dark matter halos show that the density profiles of the halos behave as ρ(r) ∝ r-α(r), where the density logarithmic slope α ≃ 1-1.5 in the center and α ≃ 3-4 in the outer parts of the halos. However, some observations are not in agreement with simulations in the very central region of the halos. The simulations also show that the velocity dispersion anisotropy parameter β ≈ 0 in the inner part of the halo and the so-called pseudo-phase-space density ρ/σ3 behaves as a power law in radius r. With these results in mind, we study the distribution function and the pseudo-phase-space density ρ/σ3 of the center of dark matter halos and find that they are closely related.

  17. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part III: halos and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu

    2012-11-01

    It was recently shown that the power spectrum in redshift space can be written as a sum of cross-power spectra between number weighted velocity moments, of which the lowest are density and momentum density. We investigate numerically the properties of these power spectra for simulated galaxies and dark matter halos and compare them to the dark matter power spectra, generalizing the concept of the bias in density-density power spectra. Because all of the quantities are number weighted this approach is well defined even for sparse systems such as massive halos. This contrasts to the previous approaches to RSD where velocity correlations have been explored, but velocity field is a poorly defined concept for sparse systems. We find that the number density weighting leads to a strong scale dependence of the bias terms for momentum density auto-correlation and cross-correlation with density. This trend becomes more significant for the more biased halos and leads to an enhancement of RSD power relative to the linear theory. Fingers-of-god effects, which in this formalism come from the correlations of the higher order moments beyond the momentum density, lead to smoothing of the power spectrum and can reduce this enhancement of power from the scale dependent bias, but are relatively small for halos with no small scale velocity dispersion. In comparison, for a more realistic galaxy sample with satellites the small scale velocity dispersion generated by satellite motions inside the halos leads to a larger power suppression on small scales, but this depends on the satellite fraction and on the details of how the satellites are distributed inside the halo. We investigate several statistics such as the two-dimensional power spectrum P(k,μ), where μ is the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, its multipole moments, its powers of μ{sup 2}, and configuration space statistics. Overall we find that the nonlinear effects in realistic galaxy samples such as luminous

  18. The shapes and alignments of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Michael D.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cole, Shaun E-mail: c.s.frenk@durham.ac.uk

    2012-05-01

    We present measurements of the triaxial dark matter halo shapes and alignment correlation functions in the Millennium and Millennium-2 dark matter N-body simulations. These two simulations allow us to measure the distributions of halo shapes down to 10% of the virial radius over a halo mass range of 6 × 10{sup 9}–2 × 10{sup 14} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. We largely confirm previous results on the distributions of halo axis ratios as a function of halo mass, but we find that the median angle between halo major axes at different halo radii can vary by a factor of 2 between the Millennium-1 and 2 simulations because of the different mass resolution. Thus, error in the shape determinations from limited resolution is potentially degenerate with the misalignment of halo inner and outer shapes used to constrain Brightest Cluster Galaxy alignments in previous works. We also present simplifying parameterizations for the 3-D halo-mass alignment correlation functions that are necessary ingredients for triaxial halo models of large-scale structure and models of galaxy intrinsic alignments as contaminants for cosmic shear surveys. We measure strong alignments between halos of all masses and the surrounding dark matter overdensities out to several tens of h{sup −1} Mpc, in agreement with observed shear-galaxy and cluster shape correlations. We use these measurements to forecast the contribution to the weak lensing signal around galaxy clusters from correlated mass along the line-of-sight. For prolate clusters with major axes aligned with the line-of-sight the fraction of the weak lensing signal from mass external to the cluster can be twice that predicted if the excess halo alignment correlation is assumed to be zero.

  19. Data-Parallel Halo Finder Operator in PISTON

    SciTech Connect

    Widanagamaachchi, W. N.

    2012-08-01

    PISTON is a portable framework which supports the development of visualization and analysis operators using a platform-independent, data-parallel programming model. Operators such as isosurface, cut-surface and threshold have been implemented in this framework, with the exact same operator code achieving good parallel performance on different architectures. An important analysis operator in cosmology is the halo finder. A halo is a cluster of particles and is considered a common feature of interest found in cosmology data. As the number of cosmological simulations carried out in the recent past has increased, the resultant data of these simulations and the required analysis tasks have increased as well. As a consequence, there is a need to develop scalable and efficient tools to carry out the needed analysis. Therefore, we are currently implementing a halo finder operator using PISTON. Researchers have developed a wide variety of techniques to identify halos in raw particle data. The most basic algorithm is the friend-of-friends (FOF) halo finder, where the particles are clustered based on two parameters: linking length and halo size. In a FOF halo finder, all particles which lie within the linking length are considered as one halo and the halos are filtered based on the halo size parameter. A naive implementation of a FOF halo finder compares each and every particle pair, requiring O(n{sup 2}) operations. Our data-parallel halo finder operator uses a balanced k-d tree to reduce this number of operations in the average case, and implements the algorithm using only the data-parallel primitives in order to achieve portability and performance.

  20. The kinematics of intermediate-redshift gaseous galaxy halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Bowen, David V.

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of the absorption lines associated with four intermediate-redshift galaxies are presented. These observations are combined with existing spectroscopy of the redshifted 21-cm absorption lines toward 0235 + 164 and 1229 - 021. Evidence is presented to the effect that the lines of sight through the absorbers toward 0235 + 164 and 1229 - 021 penetrate material for which the velocity fields are dominated by systematic rather than by random motions, and the line profiles are found to be consistent with what is expected for rotating ensembles of clouds. It is suggested that for these two absorbers the absorption arises in individual clouds within single galaxy halos rather than, for example, in collections of coalescing subgalactic fragments, for which the expected velocity fields are more turbulent, or as a result of galaxy-galaxy clustering. It is concluded that lines of sight that impact absorbing regions at small impact parameters intercept many clouds, sample large velocity intervals, and are likely to show redshifted 21-cm absorption, whereas lines of sight that impact absorbing regions at large impact parameters intercept few clouds, sample small velocity intervals, and are unlikely to show redshifted 21-cm absorption.

  1. On detecting halo assembly bias with galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Huang, Yun-Hsin; Huang, Hung-Jin; Dalal, Neal; Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The fact that the clustering and concentration of dark matter halos depend not only on their mass, but also the formation epoch, is a prominent, albeit subtle, feature of the cold dark matter structure formation theory, and is known as assembly bias. At low mass scales (~1012 Msun), early-forming halos are predicted to be more strongly clustered than the late-forming ones. In this study we aim to robustly detect the signature of assembly bias observationally, making use of formation time indicators of central galaxies in low mass halos as a proxy for the halo formation history. Weak gravitational lensing is employed to ensure our early- and late-forming halo samples have similar masses, and are free of contamination of satellites from more massive halos. For the two formation time indicators used (resolved star formation history and current specific star formation rate), we do not find convincing evidence of assembly bias. We attribute the lack of detection to the possibility that these indicators do not correlate well with the halo formation history, and suggest alternatives that should perform better for future studies. In addition, we have developed a method to constrain the probability distribution function of halo mass of a given galaxy sample, and also demonstrate that the abundance matching-based halo mass assignments to galaxy groups and clusters may be biased, likely due to interlopers from more massive galactic systems.

  2. Applications of the Halo Model to Large Scale Structure Measurements of the Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, D. N.; Bode, P.

    2009-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations in the evolved universe provides constraints on cosmological parameters that are complementary to the CMB and other astronomical probes. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample probes a volume of 3 Gpc3, and systematic errors in modeling the nonlinearities limit our ability to extract information on the shape of the linear power spectrum. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation we present the technique `Counts-in-Cylinders' (CiC) and use it to measure the multiplicity function of groups of LRGs in SDSS. We use the Halo Occupation Distribution description of the galaxy-matter mapping and N-body simulations to connect this observation with constraints on the distribution of LRGs in dark matter halos. In Chapter 3 we study the effects of resolution on statistics relating to both the large and small scale distributions and motions of matter and dark matter halos. We combine these results to produce a large set of high quality mock LRG catalogs that reproduce the higher order statistics in the density field probed by the CiC technique. Using these catalogs we present a detailed analysis of the method used in Tegmark et al. 2006 to estimate the LRG power spectrum, and find that the large nonlinear correction necessary for their analysis is degenerate with changes in the linear spectrum we wish to constrain. We show that the CiC group-finding method in Chapter 2 can be used to reconstruct the underlying halo density field. The power spectrum of this field has only percent-level deviations from the underlying matter power spectrum, and will therefore provided tighter constraints on cosmological parameters. Techniques presented in this dissertation will be useful for final analysis of the SDSS LRGs and upcoming surveys probing much larger volumes. B.A.R. gratefully acknowledges support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  3. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  4. Characterizing stellar halo populations - I. An extended distribution function for halo K giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    We fit an extended distribution function (EDF) to K giants in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. These stars are detected to radii ˜80 kpc and span a wide range in [Fe/H]. Our EDF, which depends on [Fe/H] in addition to actions, encodes the entanglement of metallicity with dynamics within the Galaxy's stellar halo. Our maximum-likelihood fit of the EDF to the data allows us to model the survey's selection function. The density profile of the K giants steepens with radius from a slope ˜-2 to ˜-4 at large radii. The halo's axis ratio increases with radius from 0.7 to almost unity. The metal-rich stars are more tightly confined in action space than the metal-poor stars and form a more flattened structure. A weak metallicity gradient ˜-0.001 dex kpc-1, a small gradient in the dispersion in [Fe/H] of ˜0.001 dex kpc-1, and a higher degree of radial anisotropy in metal-richer stars result. Lognormal components with peaks at ˜-1.5 and ˜-2.3 are required to capture the overall metallicity distribution, suggestive of the existence of two populations of K giants. The spherical anisotropy parameter varies between 0.3 in the inner halo to isotropic in the outer halo. If the Sagittarius stream is included, a very similar model is found but with a stronger degree of radial anisotropy throughout.

  5. Characterising stellar halo populations I: An extended distribution function for halo K giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Binney, James

    2016-05-01

    We fit an Extended Distribution Function (EDF) to K giants in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. These stars are detected to radii ˜80 kpc and span a wide range in [Fe/H]. Our EDF, which depends on [Fe/H] in addition to actions, encodes the entanglement of metallicity with dynamics within the Galaxy's stellar halo. Our maximum-likelihood fit of the EDF to the data allows us to model the survey's selection function. The density profile of the K giants steepens with radius from a slope ˜-2 to ˜-4 at large radii. The halo's axis ratio increases with radius from 0.7 to almost unity. The metal-rich stars are more tightly confined in action space than the metal-poor stars and form a more flattened structure. A weak metallicity gradient ˜-0.001 dex/kpc, a small gradient in the dispersion in [Fe/H] of ˜0.001 dex/kpc, and a higher degree of radial anistropy in metal-richer stars result. Lognormal components with peaks at ˜-1.5 and ˜-2.3 are required to capture the overall metallicity distribution, suggestive of the existence of two populations of K giants. The spherical anisotropy parameter varies between 0.3 in the inner halo to isotropic in the outer halo. If the Sagittarius stream is included, a very similar model is found but with a stronger degree of radial anisotropy throughout.

  6. COMPOSITION OF LOW-REDSHIFT HALO GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2013-06-20

    Halo gas in low-z (z < 0.5) {>=}0.1 L{sub *} galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of <10{sup 5}, 10{sup 5-6}, and >10{sup 6} K, respectively. Utilizing O VI {lambda}{lambda}1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at {approx}30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

  7. Composition of Low-redshift Halo Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2013-06-01

    Halo gas in low-z (z < 0.5) >=0.1 L * galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of <105, 105-6, and >106 K, respectively. Utilizing O VI λλ1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at ~30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

  8. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  9. Resolving the stellar halos of six massive disk galaxies beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David

    2016-08-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a `typical' halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.

  10. The formation of massive black holes in z ˜ 30 dark matter haloes with large baryonic streaming velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Li, Miao

    2014-03-01

    The origins of the ˜109 M⊙ quasar supermassive black holes (BHs) at redshifts z > 6 remain a theoretical puzzle. One possibility is that they grew from ˜105 M⊙ BHs formed in the `direct collapse' of pristine, atomic-cooling (temperatures ≳ 8000 K; PAC) gas that did not fragment to form ordinary stars due to a lack of molecular hydrogen and metals. We propose that baryonic streaming - the relic relative motion of gas with respect to dark matter from cosmological recombination - provides a natural mechanism for establishing the conditions necessary for direct collapse. This effect delays the formation of the first stars by inhibiting the infall of gas into dark matter haloes; streaming velocities more than twice the root-mean-square value could forestall star formation until halo virial temperatures ≳ 8000 K. The resulting PAC gas can proceed to form massive BHs by any of the mechanisms proposed in the literature to induce direct collapse in the absence of an ultraviolet background. This scenario produces haloes containing PAC gas at a characteristic redshift z ˜ 30. It can explain the abundance of the most luminous quasars at z ≈ 6, regardless of whether direct collapse occurs in nearly all or less than 1 per cent of PAC haloes.

  11. Simultaneous Visualization of Parental and Progeny Viruses by a Capsid-Specific HaloTag Labeling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-An; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Sun, En-Ze; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-01-26

    Real-time, long-term, single-particle tracking (SPT) provides us an opportunity to explore the fate of individual viruses toward understanding the mechanisms underlying virus infection, which in turn could lead to the development of therapeutics against viral diseases. However, the research focusing on the virus assembly and egress by SPT remains a challenge because established labeling strategies could neither specifically label progeny viruses nor make them distinguishable from the parental viruses. Herein, we have established a temporally controllable capsid-specific HaloTag labeling strategy based on reverse genetic technology. VP26, the smallest pseudorabies virus (PrV) capsid protein, was fused with HaloTag protein and labeled with the HaloTag ligand during virus replication. The labeled replication-competent recombinant PrV harvested from medium can be applied directly in SPT experiments without further modification. Thus, virus infectivity, which is critical for the visualization and analysis of viral motion, is retained to the largest extent. Moreover, progeny viruses can be distinguished from parental viruses using diverse HaloTag ligands. Consequently, the entire course of virus infection and replication can be visualized continuously, including virus attachment and capsid entry, transportation of capsids to the nucleus along microtubules, docking of capsids on the nucleus, endonuclear assembly of progeny capsids, and the egress of progeny viruses. In combination with SPT, the established strategy represents a versatile means to reveal the mechanisms and dynamic global picture of the life cycle of a virus. PMID:26720596

  12. Halos of unified dark matter scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.

  13. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda Valle, David; Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2013-09-01

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose-Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM 'bullets' observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two 'lump' type solitons.

  14. Universal properties of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Boyarsky, A; Neronov, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Tkachev, I

    2010-05-14

    We discuss the universal relation between density and size of observed dark matter halos that was recently shown to hold on a wide range of scales, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Predictions of cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations are consistent with this relation. We demonstrate that this property of ΛCDM can be understood analytically in the secondary infall model. Qualitative understanding given by this model provides a new way to predict which deviations from ΛCDM or large-scale modifications of gravity can affect universal behavior and, therefore, to constrain them observationally. PMID:20866958

  15. Invariant mass spectroscopy of halo nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-11-11

    We have applied the invariant mass spectroscopy to explore the low-lying exited states of halo nuclei at intermediate energies around 70 MeV/nucleon at RIKEN. As examples, we show here the results of Coulomb breakup study for {sup 11}Li using the Pb target, as well as breakup reactions of {sup 14}Be with p and C targets. The former study revealed a strong Coulomb breakup cross section reflecting the large enhancement of E1 strength at low excitation energies (soft E1 excitation). The latter revealed the observation of the first 2{sup +} state in {sup 14}Be.

  16. HOW WELL DO COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS REPRODUCE INDIVIDUAL HALO PROPERTIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Trenti, Michele; Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2010-03-10

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation often rely on prescriptions for star formation and feedback that depend on halo properties such as halo mass, central overdensity, and virial temperature. In this paper, we address the convergence of individual halo properties, based on their number of particles N, focusing, in particular, on the mass of halos near the resolution limit of a simulation. While it has been established that the halo mass function is sampled on average down to N {approx} 20-30 particles, we show that individual halo properties exhibit significant scatter, and some systematic biases, as one approaches the resolution limit. We carry out a series of cosmological simulations using the Gadget2 and Enzo codes with N{sub p} = 64{sup 3} to N{sub p} = 1024{sup 3} total particles, keeping the same large-scale structure in the simulation box. We consider boxes of small (l{sub box} = 8 Mpc h {sup -1}), medium (l{sub box} = 64 Mpc h {sup -1}), and large (l{sub box} = 512 Mpc h {sup -1}) size to probe different halo masses and formation redshifts. We cross-identify dark matter halos in boxes at different resolutions and measure the scatter in their properties. The uncertainty in the mass of single halos depends on the number of particles (scaling approximately as N {sup -1/3}), but the rarer the density peak, the more robust its identification. The virial radius of halos is very stable and can be measured without bias for halos with N {approx}> 30. In contrast, the average density within a sphere containing 25% of the total halo mass is severely underestimated (by more than a factor 2) and the halo spin is moderately overestimated for N {approx}< 100. If sub-grid physics is implemented upon a cosmological simulation, we recommend that rare halos ({approx}3sigma peaks) be resolved with N {approx}> 100 particles and common halos ({approx}1sigma peaks) with N {approx}> 400 particles to avoid excessive numerical noise and possible systematic biases in the

  17. MASS-DEPENDENT BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SIGNAL AND HALO BIAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiao; Zhan Hu

    2013-05-10

    We characterize the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) feature in halo two-point statistics using N-body simulations. We find that nonlinear damping of the BAO signal is less severe for halos in the mass range we investigate than for dark matter. The amount of damping depends weakly on the halo mass. The correlation functions show a mass-dependent drop of the halo clustering bias below roughly 90 h {sup -1} Mpc, which coincides with the scale of the BAO trough. The drop of bias is 4% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} and reduces to roughly 2% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. In contrast, halo biases in simulations without BAO change more smoothly around 90 h {sup -1} Mpc. In Fourier space, the bias of M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases smoothly by 11% from wavenumber k = 0.012 h Mpc{sup -1} to 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}, whereas that of M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases by less than 4% over the same range. By comparing the halo biases in pairs of otherwise identical simulations, one with and the other without BAO, we also observe a modulation of the halo bias. These results suggest that precise calibrations of the mass-dependent BAO signal and scale-dependent bias on large scales would be needed for interpreting precise measurements of the two-point statistics of clusters or massive galaxies in the future.

  18. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  19. A weak gravitational lensing recalibration of the scaling relations linking the gas properties of dark haloes to their mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenting; White, Simon D. M.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Henriques, Bruno; Anderson, Michael E.; Han, Jiaxin

    2016-03-01

    We use weak gravitational lensing to measure mean mass profiles around locally brightest galaxies (LBGs). These are selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic and photometric catalogues to be brighter than any neighbour projected within 1.0 Mpc and differing in redshift by <1000 km s-1. Most (>83 per cent) are expected to be the central galaxies of their dark matter haloes. Previous stacking analyses have used this LBG sample to measure mean Sunyaev-Zeldovich flux and mean X-ray luminosity as a function of LBG stellar mass. In both cases, a simulation of the formation of the galaxy population was used to estimate effective halo mass for LBGs of given stellar mass, allowing the derivation of scaling relations between the gas properties of haloes and their mass. By comparing results from a variety of simulations to our lensing data, we show that this procedure has significant model dependence reflecting: (i) the failure of any given simulation to reproduce observed galaxy abundances exactly; (ii) a dependence on the cosmology underlying the simulation; and (iii) a dependence on the details of how galaxies populate haloes. We use our lensing results to recalibrate the scaling relations, eliminating most of this model dependence and explicitly accounting both for residual modelling uncertainties and for observational uncertainties in the lensing results. The resulting scaling relations link the mean gas properties of dark haloes to their mass over an unprecedentedly wide range, 1012.5 < M500/M⊙ < 1014.5, and should fairly and robustly represent the full halo population.

  20. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Bromley, Benjamin C. E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu

    2014-10-01

    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  1. The nature and origin of diffuse ionized gas in the halos of nearby edge-on galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott Timothy

    In an effort to constrain the source of ionization and the nature of the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) in nearby edge-on disk galaxies, a number of innovative observational techniques are used to acquire deep narrow- band images and long-slit spectra of these objects down to unprecedented flux levels (few 10-18 erg s-1 cm 2 arcsec-2). 17 edge-on galaxies were imaged in narrowband Hα and Hα + [N II] in an effort to statistically analyze the morphology and general characteristics of the eDIG. Although the galaxies in the imaging sample cover a broad range in total Hα luminosity, the eDIG Hα emission represents a rather constant 10 15% of the total luminosity. A cross-correlation analysis of the intensity of the extraplanar emission with that of the disk emission confirms the existence of a connection between the disk and halo emission in several objects. The second portion of the thesis focuses on the analysis of deep long-slit spectra of 9 previously imaged edge-on galaxies with known eDIG line emission. Hα, [N II]λ6583, and [S II]λ6716 are observed in all 9 galaxies up to |z| = few kpc, and many other lines (such as [O III]λ5007, [O I]λ6300, and He I λ5876) are observed to lower heights in a majority of them. We find that in 7 out of the 9 objects, a general increase in the [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα line ratios is observed with height, as has been detected previously in other galaxies. Comparing the measured line ratios with a number of ionization models suggests that photoionization by massive OB stars alone is generally inadequate to ionize the halo gas. The best fit to the data is obtained using a combined photoionization/turbulent mixing layer (TML) model. Strong correlations between halo emission and disk H II regions support the theory that OB star associations are the primary source of ionization of the extraplanar gas. TML and shock models suggest that supernovae events play a supporting role as well, in both the ionizing of the gas in

  2. Milky Way mass and potential recovery using tidal streams in a realistic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaca, Ana; Geha, Marla; Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Diemand, Jürg; Hogg, David W.

    2014-11-01

    We present a new method for determining the Galactic gravitational potential based on forward modeling of tidal stellar streams. We use this method to test the performance of smooth and static analytic potentials in representing realistic dark matter halos, which have substructure and are continually evolving by accretion. Our FAST-FORWARD method uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to compare, in six-dimensional phase space, an 'observed' stream to models created in trial analytic potentials. We analyze a large sample of streams that evolved in the Via Lactea II (VL2) simulation, which represents a realistic Galactic halo potential. The recovered potential parameters are in agreement with the best fit to the global, present-day VL2 potential. However, merely assuming an analytic potential limits the dark matter halo mass measurement to an accuracy of 5%-20%, depending on the choice of analytic parameterization. Collectively, the mass estimates using streams from our sample reach this fundamental limit, but individually they can be highly biased. Individual streams can both under- and overestimate the mass, and the bias is progressively worse for those with smaller perigalacticons, motivating the search for tidal streams at galactocentric distances larger than 70 kpc. We estimate that the assumption of a static and smooth dark matter potential in modeling of the GD-1- and Pal5-like streams introduces an error of up to 50% in the Milky Way mass estimates.

  3. A Ly{alpha} HALO AROUND A QUASAR AT REDSHIFT z = 6.4

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Chet, Savironi; Hutchings, John B.; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    We present long-slit spectroscopic data that reveal extended Ly{alpha} emission around the z = 6.417 radio-quiet quasar CFHQS J2329-0301. The Ly{alpha} emission is extended over 15 kpc and has a luminosity of >8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} W, comparable to the most luminous Ly{alpha} halos known. The emission has complex kinematics, in part due to foreground absorption, which only partly covers the extended nebula. The velocity ranges from -500 km s{sup -1} to +500 km s{sup -1}, with a peak remarkably close to the systemic velocity identified by broad Mg II emission of the quasar. There is no evidence for infall or outflow of the halo gas. We speculate that the Ly{alpha} emission mechanism is recombination after quasar photoionization of gas sitting within a high-mass dark matter halo. The immense Ly{alpha} luminosity indicates a higher covering factor of cold gas compared with typical radio-quiet quasars at lower redshift.

  4. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    2014-11-01

    The low [α/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetesimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low α-element ratios of dSph stars. The proper motion pair's heavy-to-light n-capture element ratio, which is >=0.3-0.5 dex lower than in the Galactic halo field and dSph stars, is discussed in the context of the truncated r-process, phenomenological n-capture production models, and α-rich freezeout in a high neutron excess environment; the latter simultaneously provides an attractive explanation of the difference in [Ca, Ti/O, Mg, Si] ratio in HD 134439/134440 compared to in situ dSph stars.

  5. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  6. Detecting Halo Effects in Performance-Based Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter; Hsiao, Ya Ping

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how halo effects may be detected and quantified using two independent ratings of the same person. A practical illustration is given to show how halo effects can be avoided. (Contains 2 tables, 7 figures, and 2 notes.)

  7. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  8. Halo abundance matching: accuracy and conditions for numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Heß, Steffen; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Accurate predictions of the abundance and clustering of dark matter haloes play a key role in testing the standard cosmological model. Here, we investigate the accuracy of one of the leading methods of connecting the simulated dark matter haloes with observed galaxies- the halo abundance matching (HAM) technique. We show how to choose the optimal values of the mass and force resolution in large volume N-body simulations so that they provide accurate estimates for correlation functions and circular velocities for haloes and their subhaloes - crucial ingredients of the HAM method. At the 10 per cent accuracy, results converge for ˜50 particles for haloes and ˜150 particles for progenitors of subhaloes. In order to achieve this level of accuracy a number of conditions should be satisfied. The force resolution for the smallest resolved (sub)haloes should be in the range (0.1-0.3)rs, where rs is the scale radius of (sub)haloes. The number of particles for progenitors of subhaloes should be ˜150. We also demonstrate that the two-body scattering plays a minor role for the accuracy of N-body simulations thanks to the relatively small number of crossing-times of dark matter in haloes, and the limited force resolution of cosmological simulations.

  9. On Detecting Halo Assembly Bias with Galaxy Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Huang, Yun-Hsin; Huang, Hung-Jin; Dalal, Neal; Diemer, Benedikt; Jian, Hung-Yu; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2016-03-01

    The fact that the clustering of dark matter halos depends not only on their mass, but also the formation epoch is a prominent, albeit subtle, feature of the cold dark matter structure formation theory and is known as assembly bias. At low-mass scales (˜ {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ ), early-forming halos are predicted to be more strongly clustered than the late-forming ones. In this study, we aim to robustly detect the signature of assembly bias observationally, making use of formation time indicators of central galaxies in low-mass halos as a proxy for the halo formation history. Weak gravitational lensing is employed to ensure our early- and late-forming halo samples have similar masses, and are free of contamination of satellites from more massive halos. For the two formation time indicators used (resolved star formation history and current specific star formation rate), we do not find convincing evidence of assembly bias. For a pair of early- and late-forming galaxy samples with mean mass {M}200c≈ 9× {10}11 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , the relative bias is 1.00 ± 0.12. We attribute the lack of detection to the possibilities that either the current measurements of these indicators are too noisy, or they do not correlate well with the halo formation history. Alternative proxies for the halo formation history that should perform better are suggested for future studies.

  10. The Cosmogrid Simulation: Statistical Properties of Small Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Rieder, Steven; Makino, Junichiro; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Groen, Derek; Nitadori, Keigo; de Laat, Cees; McMillan, Stephen; Hiraki, Kei; Harfst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 20483 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 × 105 M ⊙, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth & Tormen fitting function down to ~107 M ⊙. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~108 M ⊙. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than ~1011 M ⊙ halos have.

  11. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M⊙ Pop III stars in 105-107 M⊙ haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  12. Halo-Independent Comparison of Direct Dark Matter Detection Data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Del Nobile, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    We review the halo-independent formalism that allows comparing data from different direct dark matter detection experiments without making assumptions on the properties of the dark matter halo. We apply this method to spin-independent WIMP-nuclei interactions, for both isospin-conserving and isospin-violating couplings, and to WIMPs interacting through an anomalous magnetic moment.

  13. The Prolate Dark Matter Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi & Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  14. Separate universe consistency relation and calibration of halo bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin; Hu, Wayne; Takada, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The linear halo bias is the response of the dark matter halo number density to a long-wavelength fluctuation in the dark matter density. Using abundance matching between separate universe simulations which absorb the latter into a change in the background, we test the consistency relation between the change in a one-point function, the halo mass function, and a two-point function, the halo-matter cross-correlation in the long-wavelength limit. We find excellent agreement between the two at the 1%-2% level for average halo biases between 1 ≲b¯ 1≲4 and no statistically significant deviations at the 4%-5% level out to b¯1≈8 . The halo bias inferred assuming instead a universal mass function is significantly different and inaccurate at the 10% level or more. The separate universe technique provides a way of calibrating the linear halo bias efficiently for even highly biased rare halos in the Λ cold dark matter model. Observational violation of the consistency relation would indicate new physics, e.g. in the dark matter, dark energy, or primordial non-Gaussianity sectors.

  15. Beam halo definitions based upon moments of the particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. K.; Wangler, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are discussed. Both are based on moments of the particle distribution and represent a convenient and model-independent method for quantifying the magnitude of beam halo observed in either spatial or phase-space projections. One parameter is a measure of spatial profile of the beam and has been defined by Wangler and Crandall previously. The current authors defined a new parameter using kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in 2D phase space. Here we expand the development and present detailed numerical results. Although the spatial-profile parameter and the phase-space halo parameter both reduce to the same value when the distribution has the elliptical symmetry, in general these parameters are not equal. Halo in the 1D spatial profiles is relatively easily measured, but is variable as the beam distribution evolves and can hide as it rotates in phase space. The 2D phase-space halo is more difficult to measure, but it varies more smoothly as the halo evolves. It provides a more reliable characterization of the halo as an intrinsic property of the beam.

  16. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  17. Secular Damping of Stellar Bars in Spinning Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ >~ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ >~ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  18. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  19. Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) optical filter characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1989-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) is a solar occultation experiment that will fly on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to measure mixing ratio profiles of O3, H2O, NO2, NO, CH4, HCl, and HF. The inversion of the HALOE data will be critically dependent on a detailed knowledge of eight optical filters. A filter characterization program was undertaken to measure in-band transmissions, out-of-band transmissions, in-band transmission shifts with temperature, reflectivities, and age stability. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers were used to perform measurements over the spectral interval 400/cm to 6300/cm (25 micrometers to 1.6 micrometers). Very high precision (0.1 percent T) in-band measurements and very high resolution (0.0001 percent T) out-of-band measurements have been made. The measurements revealed several conventional leaks at 0.01 percent transmission and greatly enhanced (1,000) leaks to the 2-element filters when placed in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Filter throughput changes by 5 percent for a 25 C change in filter temperature.

  20. MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The primary aim of the MACHO Project is to test the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way is made up of objects like brown dwarfs or planets: these objects have come to be known as MACHOs, for MAssive Compact Halo Objects. The signature of these objects is the occasional amplification of the light from extragalactic stars by the gravitational lens effect. The amplification can be large, but events are extremely rare: it is necessary to monitor photometrically several million stars for a period of years in order to obtain a useful detection rate. For this purpose MACHO has a two channel system that employs eight CCDs, mounted on the 50 inch telescope at Mt. Stromlo. The high data rate (several GBytes per night) is accommodated by custom electronics and on-line data reduction. The Project has taken more than 27,000 images with this system since June 1992. Analysis of a subset of these data has yielded databases containing light curves in two colors for 8 million stars in the LMC and 10 million in the bulge of the Milky Way. A search for microlensing has turned up four candidates toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and 45 toward the Galactic Bulge. The web page for data provides links to MACHO Project data portals and various specialized interfaces for viewing or searching the data. (Specialized Interface)

  1. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III; Hervig, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Soundings." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first-year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multi-channel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  2. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert Earl; McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) Science Investigator Program entitled 'HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding.' The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  3. Frost halos from supercooled water droplets

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Stefan; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-01-01

    Water freezing on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature. Even though icing/frosting impairs the performance and safety in many processes, its mechanism remains inadequately understood. Changing atmospheric conditions, surface properties, the complexity of icing physics, and the unorthodox behavior of water are the primary factors that make icing and frost formation intriguing and difficult to predict. In addition to its unquestioned scientific and practical importance, unraveling the frosting mechanism under different conditions is a prerequisite to develop “icephobic” surfaces, which may avoid ice formation and contamination. In this work we demonstrate that evaporation from a freezing supercooled sessile droplet, which starts explosively due to the sudden latent heat released upon recalescent freezing, generates a condensation halo around the droplet, which crystallizes and drastically affects the surface behavior. The process involves simultaneous multiple phase transitions and may also spread icing by initiating sequential freezing of neighboring droplets in the form of a domino effect and frost propagation. Experiments under controlled humidity conditions using substrates differing up to three orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity establish that a delicate balance between heat diffusion and vapor transport determines the final expanse of the frozen condensate halo, which, in turn, controls frost formation and propagation. PMID:23012410

  4. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  5. SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE STELLAR HALOS OF THE AQUARIUS SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Navarro, J. F.

    2011-05-20

    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities and very narrow faint streams akin to those observed around the Milky Way. The substructures are distributed anisotropically on the sky, a characteristic that should become apparent in the next generation of photometric surveys. The normalized RMS of the density of stars on the sky appears to be systematically larger for our halos compared with the value estimated for the Milky Way from main-sequence turnoff stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We show that this is likely to be due in part to contamination by faint QSOs and redder main-sequence stars, and might suggest that {approx}10% of the Milky Way halo stars have formed in situ.

  6. The Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2016-05-01

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean (λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large (λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  7. The X-ray halo of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, M. F.; Norwell, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Evans, A.

    1985-01-01

    Four Einstein HRI images of Cygnus X-1 were examined for the presence of a halo due to scattering of X-rays by interstellar grains. The analysis technique exploits the intrinsic aperiodic variability of the source to map the point response function of the optics. A residual, nonvariable component to the surface brightness distribution (comprising approximately more than 12 percent of the source flux) is interpreted as a scattered halo. The halo flux does not reflect the short term time variability of the central source as it is smoothed by differential time delays of order days. The Cygnus X-1 halo is consistent with those of other sources derived in previous studies using different techniques. Comparison is made with a scattering model, and the sensitivity of the halo flux to maximal grain size is demonstrated.

  8. The starformation driven interstellar disk-halo connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen

    2005-08-01

    The evidence for starformation in the disks of spiral galaxies driving the disk-halo interaction is briefly reviewed. It is argued that diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the halos of edge-on disk galaxies traces the presence of extraplanar gas well since it correlates with the star formation rate in the underlying disk as well as with other gaseous phases and components of the ISM such as X-ray hot gas, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields. The dependence on the starformation rate is demonstrated using a survey of H+ halos with more than 70 objects. This survey allows us to establish a minimum energy release per unit area that is required to start the disk-halo mass exchange. Observations of extraplanar HII regions let us conclude that also molecular hydrogen must be present. In addition, well ordered magnetic field in the gaseous halos can be deduced from the polarization of synchrotron radiocontinuum maps.

  9. STATISTICS OF DARK MATTER HALOS FROM THE EXCURSION SET APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Salucci, P.; Danese, L.

    2013-08-01

    We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for cold dark matter (DM) power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive, and confront with simulations, other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and warm instead of cold DM power spectra.

  10. Abundances of D, O, and other species towards the Halo Star HD 93521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Savage, B. D.

    2006-06-01

    FUSE spectra of the halo star HD 93521 have been analyzed to determine column densities of D I, O I, N I, Ar I, Fe II, and H2 in the intermediate velocity cloud (IVC) along the line of sight. Combining these results with those from GHRS and ground-based spectra provides a comprehensive inventory of abundances in the IVC. We find a relatively high value for D/H (17.4 ppm), near solar abundances and low depletions for refractory elements, and a very low molecular fraction.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Halo red giants from the SEGUE survey (Martell+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smolinski, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2011-09-01

    Table 1 lists SDSS identifiers, astrometry and photometry, stellar parameters and survey name for 2519 stars observed as part of the SDSS-II/SEGUE-1 and SDSS-III/SEGUE-2 surveys. The stars in this table were selected as red giants with halo-like metallicities (-1.8<[Fe/H]<-1.0) and reasonably clean spectra (mean S/N per pixel between 4000 and 4100A greater than 15). Table 3 lists SDSS identifiers, CN and CH bandstrength indices, CN bandstrength class, absolute r magnitudes, heliocentric and Galactocentric distances, and survey name, for the same stars as in Table 1. (2 data files).

  12. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  13. Gas phase abundances and conditions along the sight line to the low-halo, inner galaxy star HD 167756

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    We present high-resolution (3.5 km/s) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) measurements of the Mg II, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, and Zn II lines toward HD 167756, a low-latitude halo star at a distance of 4 kpc in the direction l = 351.5 deg, b = -12.3 and at a Galactic altitude of z = -0.85 kpc. Supplemental Na I, Ca II, and H I data are also presented for comparison with the UV lines. Our analysis centers on converting the observed absoprtion-line data into measures of the apparent column density per unit velocity. N(sub a)(v), over the velocity range -25 less than or = v(sub lsr) less than 30 km/s for each species observed. We use these N(sub a)(v) profiles to construct logarithmic abundance ratios of Mg II, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, and Ca II relative to Zn II, normalized to solar abundances, as a function of velocity. Compared to Zn, these species show an underabundance relative to their solar values, with the largest underabundances occurring in the v(sub lsr) approximately equals 5 km/s component(s), for which we find logarithmic abundances A(sub Si/Zn) greater than -0.38, A(Mg/Zn) = -0.82, A(sub Cr/Zn) = -1.18, and A(sub Fe/Zn) greater than 1.40 dex. We show that ionization effects, abundance gradients, or intrinsic abundance variability cannot be significant sources for the underabundances observed. The most likely explanation is gas phase depletion of elements onto dust grains. Comparisons with the gas phase abundances along other diffuse, warm gas sight lines, like the halo sight line to HD 93521, support this interpretation as do the derived physical properties of the sight line.

  14. ON THE ORIGINS OF THE DIFFUSE H{alpha} EMISSION: IONIZED GAS OR DUST-SCATTERED H{alpha} HALOS?

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Witt, Adolf N.

    2012-10-20

    It is known that the diffuse H{alpha} emission outside of bright H II regions not only are very extended, but also can occur in distinct patches or filaments far from H II regions, and the line ratios of [S II] {lambda}6716/H{alpha} and [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} observed far from bright H II regions are generally higher than those in the H II regions. These observations have been regarded as evidence against the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H{alpha} emission (including other optical lines), and the effect of dust scattering has been neglected in studies on the diffuse H{alpha} emission. In this paper, we reexamine the arguments against dust scattering and find that the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H{alpha} emission cannot be ruled out. As opposed to the previous contention, the expected dust-scattered H{alpha} halos surrounding H II regions are, in fact, in good agreement with the observed H{alpha} morphology. We calculate an extensive set of photoionization models by varying elemental abundances, ionizing stellar types, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium (ISM) and find that the observed line ratios of [S II]/H{alpha}, [N II]/H{alpha}, and He I {lambda}5876/H{alpha} in the diffuse ISM accord well with the dust-scattered halos around H II regions, which are photoionized by late O- and/or early B-type stars. We also demonstrate that the H{alpha} absorption feature in the underlying continuum from the dust-scattered starlight ({sup d}iffuse galactic light{sup )} and unresolved stars is able to substantially increase the [S II]/H{alpha} and [N II]/H{alpha} line ratios in the diffuse ISM.

  15. Binuclear trans-bis(β-iminoaryloxy)palladium(II) complexes doubly linked with pentamethylene spacers: structure-dependent flapping motion and heterochiral association behavior of the clothespin-shaped molecules.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masaya; Souda, Hiroyuki; Koori, Hiroshi; Komiya, Naruyoshi; Naota, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis, structure, and solution-state behavior of clothespin-shaped binuclear trans-bis(β-iminoaryloxy)palladium(II) complexes doubly linked with pentamethylene spacers are described. Achiral syn and racemic anti isomers of complexes 1-3 were prepared by treating Pd(OAc)2 with the corresponding N,N'-bis(β-hydroxyarylmethylene)-1,5-pentanediamine and then subjecting the mixture to chromatographic separation. Optically pure (100 % ee) complexes, (+)-anti-1, (+)-anti-2, and (+)-anti-3, were obtained from the racemic mixture by employing a preparative HPLC system with a chiral column. The trans coordination and clothespin-shaped structures with syn and anti conformations of these complexes have been unequivocally established by X-ray diffraction studies. (1)H NMR analysis showed that (±)-anti-1, (±)-anti-2, syn-2, and (±)-anti-3 display a flapping motion by consecutive stacking association/dissociation between cofacial coordination planes in [D8]toluene, whereas syn-1 and syn-3 are static under the same conditions. The activation parameters for the flapping motion (ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠)) were determined from variable-temperature NMR analyses as 50.4 kJ mol(-1) and 60.1 J mol(-1)  K(-1) for (±)-anti-1, 31.0 kJ mol(-1) and -22.7 J mol(-1)  K(-1) for (±)-anti-2, 29.6 kJ mol(-1) and -57.7 J mol(-1)  K(-1) for syn-2, and 35.0 kJ mol(-1) and 0.5 J mol(-1)  K(-1) for (±)-anti-3, respectively. The molecular structure and kinetic parameters demonstrate that all of the anti complexes flap with a twisting motion in [D8]toluene, although (±)-anti-1 bearing dilated Z-shaped blades moves more dynamically than I-shaped (±)-anti-2 or the smaller (±)-anti-3. Highly symmetrical syn-2 displays a much more static flapping motion, that is, in a see-saw-like manner. In CDCl3, (±)-anti-1 exhibits an extraordinary upfield shift of the (1)H NMR signals with increasing concentration, whereas solutions of (+)-anti-1 and the other

  16. Zooming in on accretion - I. The structure of halo gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-08-01

    We study the properties of gas in and around 1012 M⊙ haloes at z = 2 using a suite of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic `zoom' simulations. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of these gaseous reservoirs in terms of their mean radial distributions and angular variability along different sightlines. With each halo simulated at three levels of increasing resolution, the highest reaching a baryon mass resolution of ˜10 000 solar masses, we study the interface between filamentary inflow and the quasi-static hot halo atmosphere. We highlight the discrepancy between the spatial resolution available in the halo gas as opposed to within the galaxy itself, and find that stream morphologies become increasingly complex at higher resolution, with large coherent flows revealing density and temperature str