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Sample records for ii ionization equilibrium

  1. NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY OF DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING PRESTELLAR CORES. II. IONIZATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J.

    2012-07-20

    We study the effect that non-equilibrium chemistry in dynamical models of collapsing molecular cloud cores has on measurements of the magnetic field in these cores, the degree of ionization, and the mean molecular weight of ions. We find that OH and CN, usually used in Zeeman observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, have an abundance that decreases toward the center of the core much faster than the density increases. As a result, Zeeman observations tend to sample the outer layers of the core and consistently underestimate the core magnetic field. The degree of ionization follows a complicated dependence on the number density at central densities up to 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} for magnetic models and 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in non-magnetic models. At higher central densities, the scaling approaches a power law with a slope of -0.6 and a normalization which depends on the cosmic-ray ionization rate {zeta} and the temperature T as ({zeta}T){sup 1/2}. The mean molecular weight of ions is systematically lower than the usually assumed value of 20-30, and, at high densities, approaches a value of 3 due to the asymptotic dominance of the H{sup +}{sub 3} ion. This significantly lower value implies that ambipolar diffusion operates faster.

  2. IEHI: Ionization Equilibrium for Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2015-07-01

    IEHI, written in Fortran, outputs a simple "coronal" ionization equilibrium (i.e., collisional ionization and auto-ionization balanced by radiative and dielectronic recombination) for a plasma at a given electron temperature.

  3. IONIZATION EQUILIBRIUM TIMESCALES IN COLLISIONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Hughes, John P. E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-07-20

    Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostics that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai and Hughes and Helfand. In general, the ionization evolution of an element Z in a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z + 1 first-order differential equations. However, they can be recast as Z uncoupled first-order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system. The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the rate matrix. The smallest of these eigenvalues gives the scale of the slowest return to equilibrium independent of the initial conditions, while conversely the largest eigenvalue is the scale of the fastest change in the ion population. These results hold for an ionizing plasma, a recombining plasma, or even a plasma with random initial conditions, and will allow users of these diagnostics to determine directly if their best-fit result significantly limits the timescale since a disturbance or is so close to equilibrium as to include an arbitrarily long time.

  4. Iron ionization and recombination rates and ionization equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, M.; Raymond, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years important progress has been made on the knowledge of ionization and recombination rates of iron, an astrophysically abundant heavy element and a major impurity in laboratory fusion devices. We make a critical review of the existing data on ionization and dielectronic recombination and present new computations of radiative recombination rate coefficients of Fe(+14) through Fe(+25) using the photoionization cross sections of Clark et al. (1986). We provide analytical fits to the recommended data (direct ionization and excitation-autoionization cross sections; radiative and dielectronic recombination rate coefficients). Finally we determine the iron ionic fractions at ionization equilibrium and compare them with previous computations as well as with observational data.

  5. Collisional Ionization Equilibrium for Optically Thin Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryans, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have utilized state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn. We have also utilized state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Mazzotta et al. (1998), we have calculated improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations. We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni, and with the fractional abundances derived from the modern DR and RR calculations of Gu (2003a,b, 2004) for Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni.

  6. Non-LTE effects on the ionization equilibrium of Fe I/Fe II: Application to the red giants of Carina dSph Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Fabrizio, M.; Thévenin, F.; Nonino, M.; Bono, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the context of the Carina Project, we re-analyze the iron abundances of 44 red giants of the Carina dSph galaxy to derive its metallicity distribution function. The abundance analyses were performed with the LTE spectrum synthesis fitting method using ESO/VLT high resolution spectra. Using {Fe I} lines, we obtained stellar metallicities of ˜0.1 dex lower than using {Fe II} lines. This discrepancy is classically interpreted as an error on the surface gravity (based on photometry and evolutionary tracks) which is removed by changing gravity until {Fe I} abundances match {Fe II} ones. However, the NLTE mechanism of over-ionization regarding LTE can also explain this discrepancy in giant stars. To support this idea, we performed NLTE computations with a {Fe I}/II model atom and show that this discrepancy is well reproduced. NLTE computations also highlight large discrepancies in individual lines of {Fe I} and {Fe II}.

  7. Non-equilibrium ionized blast wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a cylindrical blast wave with ionization at non-LTE conditions was calculated using equations previously developed by Wu and Fu (1970). The degree of ionization was predicted by a modified Saha equation. Temperature profiles show that the temperature at non-LTE conditions is lower than at LTE near the shock front. This corresponds to a higher degree of ionization for the non-LTE limit, which indicates that the neutral gas absorption is much more efficient at non-LTE than at the LTE limit. The decaying velocity under non-LTE is approximately 15% less than under LTE.

  8. NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION IN THE BIFROST STELLAR ATMOSPHERE CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.

    2013-03-15

    The chromosphere and transition region have for the last 20 years been known to be quite dynamic layers of the solar atmosphere, characterized by timescales shorter than the ionization equilibrium timescales of many of the ions dominating emission in these regions. Due to the fast changes in the properties of the atmosphere, long ionization and recombination times can lead these ions to being found far from their equilibrium temperatures. A number of the spectral lines that we observe can therefore not be expected a priori to reflect information about local quantities such as the density or temperature, and interpreting observations requires numerical modeling. Modeling the ionization balance is computationally expensive and has earlier only been done in one dimension. However, one-dimensional models can primarily be used to investigate the possible importance of a physical effect, but cannot verify or disprove the importance of that effect in the fully three-dimensional solar atmosphere. Here, using the atomic database package DIPER, we extend one-dimensional methods and implement a solver for the rate equations of the full three-dimensional problem, using the numerical code Bifrost. We present our implementation and report on a few test cases. We also report on studies of the important C IV and Fe XII ions in a semi-realistic two-dimensional solar atmosphere model, focusing on differences between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium ionization results.

  9. Equilibrium structures in partially ionized rotating plasmas within Hall magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, V.; Yoshida, Z.

    2006-09-01

    The formation of equilibrium structures in partially ionized rotating plasmas, consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules, including the Hall effect, is studied in order to diagnose the possible velocity and the magnetic field configurations in a self-consistent manner. A few simple examples show that the linear and the nonlinear force-free magnetic configurations along with essentially nonlinear Beltrami flow field seem to be the general features of plasmas in the special case of the Keplerian rotation relevant for astrophysical plasmas. Thus rotation along with axial bipolar flows emerges as a natural pattern in gravitationally controlled magnetohydrodynamic systems. However, the equilibrium conditions permit more general flow and the magnetic field profiles that can perhaps be fully explored numerically. A special class of equilibria with unit magnetic Prandtl number and equal values of the fractional ion mass density α =ρi/ρn and the Hall parameter ɛ =λi/L exists where ρ's are the uniform mass densities, λi is the ion inertial scale, and L is the scale of the equilibrium structure. An approximate scaling law between the ionization fraction and the scale of the structure is found. Further by expressing the not so well known ionization fraction in terms of the temperature of the system, assuming thermal equilibrium, relationships among the extensive parameters such as the scale, the neutral particle density, the flow velocity, the temperature, and the magnetic field of the equilibrium structure can be determined. There seems to be a good overlap between the Hall and the thermal equilibria. The validity of the neglect of the ion dynamics is discussed.

  10. Non-equilibrium Helium Ionization in an MHD Simulation of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyα and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wavefronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behavior with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. Comparison of DEM curves computed from our models shows that non-equilibrium ionization leads to more radiating material in the temperature range 11-18 kK, compared to models with LTE helium ionization. We conclude that non-equilibrium helium ionization is important for the dynamics and thermal structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region. It might also help resolve the problem that intensities of chromospheric lines computed from current models are smaller than those observed.

  11. NEBULAR: Spectrum synthesis for mixed hydrogen-helium gas in ionization equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mischa

    2016-08-01

    NEBULAR synthesizes the spectrum of a mixed hydrogen helium gas in collisional ionization equilibrium. It is not a spectral fitting code, but it can be used to resample a model spectrum onto the wavelength grid of a real observation. It supports a wide range of temperatures and densities. NEBULAR includes free-free, free-bound, two-photon and line emission from HI, HeI and HeII. The code will either return the composite model spectrum, or, if desired, the unrescaled atomic emission coefficients. It is written in C++ and depends on the GNU Scientific Library (GSL).

  12. On local ionization equilibrium and disk winds in QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ({sup e}dge on{sup )}. In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M {sub bh} = 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and L {sub disk} = 10{sup 47} erg s{sup –1}.

  13. On Local Ionization Equilibrium and Disk Winds in QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ("edge on"). In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M bh = 109 M ⊙ and L disk = 1047 erg s-1.

  14. Non-equilibrium Ionization Modeling of Simulated Pseudostreamers in a Solar Corona Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon; Reeves, Katharine K.; Murphy, Nicholas A.

    2015-04-01

    Time-dependent ionization is important for diagnostics of coronal streamers, where the thermodynamic time scale could be shorter than the ionization or recombination time scales, and ions are therefor in non-equilibrium ionization states. In this work, we perform post-processing time-dependent ionization calculations for a three dimensional solar corona and inner heliosphere model from Predictive Sciences Inc. (Mikić & Linker 1999) to analyze the influence of non-equilibrium ionization on emission from coronal streamers. Using the plasma temperature, density, velocity and magnetic field distributions provided by the 3D MHD simulation covering the Whole Sun Month (Carrington rotation CR1913, 1996 August 22 to September 18), we calculate non-equilibrium ionization states in the region around a pseudostreamer. We then obtain the synthetic emissivities with the non-equilibrium ion populations. Under the assumption that the corona is optically thin, we also obtain intensity profiles of several emission lines. We compare our calculations with intensities of Lyman-alpha lines and OVI lines from SOHO/Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) observations at 14 different heights. The results show that intensity profiles of both Lyman-alpha and OVI lines match well UVCS observations at low heights. At large heights, OVI intensites are higher for non-equilibrium ionization than equilibrium ionization inside this pseudostreamer. The assumption of ionization equilibrium would lead to a underestimate of the OVI intensity by about ten percent at a height of 2 solar radii, and the difference between these two ionization cases increases with height. The intensity ratio of OVI 1032 line to OVI 1037 lines is also obtained for non-equilibrium ionization modeling.

  15. Ionization equilibrium in a cluster plasma with strong interparticle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Likal'ter, A.A.

    1987-07-01

    An expansion, accurate up to the Madelung term, is derived for the drop in the ionization potential (and pressure) due to the strong Coulomb interaction. The ionization limit, separating the free and bound electron states, is determined with the help of the percolation theory. The principle of no explicit dependence of the total thermodynamic functions of the plasma on the ionization limit is employed. This has the consequence that the region of thermodynamic stability is greatly expanded compared with other models.

  16. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  17. The ionization structure of helium in H II region complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Miriam

    1986-10-01

    Ionization structure models of H II regions are constructed to analyze the behavior of the helium ionization correction factor, icf, for combinations of different stellar radiation fields as well as for mixtures of individual H II regions of different degrees of ionization. It is found that the amount of neutral He is less than 3 percent and that icf is between 0.98 and 1.00, for H II region coomplexes ionized by OB associations where the hottest stars are earlier than O6, if the ionizing stars are distributed according to a normal IMF. This result applies for a single H II region or for a mixture of unconnected H II regions. This result implies that the He(+)/H(+) ratio observed in extragalactic H II regions of high degree of ionization corresponds to the true He/H abundance ratios.

  18. The equation of state and ionization equilibrium of dense aluminum plasma with conductivity verification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun; Shi, Zongqian; Shi, Yuanjie; Bai, Jun; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2015-06-15

    The equation of state, ionization equilibrium, and conductivity are the most important parameters for investigation of dense plasma. The equation of state is calculated with the non-ideal effects taken into consideration. The electron chemical potential and pressure, which are commonly used thermodynamic quantities, are calculated by the non-ideal free energy and compared with results of a semi-empirical equation of state based on Thomas-Fermi-Kirzhnits model. The lowering of ionization potential, which is a crucial factor in the calculation of non-ideal Saha equation, is settled according to the non-ideal free energy. The full coupled non-ideal Saha equation is applied to describe the ionization equilibrium of dense plasma. The conductivity calculated by the Lee-More-Desjarlais model combined with non-ideal Saha equation is compared with experimental data. It provides a possible approach to verify the accuracy of the equation of state and ionization equilibrium.

  19. Characterizing the non-equilibrium ionization state of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvia, Devin W.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D.; Shull, J. Michael; Turk, Matthew; Reynolds, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common ions used to track metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is OVI. Ion species in the IGM are typically assumed to be in ionization equilibrium, but owing to the low density of the plasma they may be significantly out of equilibrium. Divergences from equilibrium would make estimates of the amount and evolution of metals in the IGM incorrect. Using a new software package for building and solving complex chemical networks coupled to cosmological hydrodynamic + N-body simulations, we investigate the non-equilibrium properties of the IGM. In particular, we explore how significantly the ionization structure of the IGM diverges from the equilibrium state as a function of time and physical environment. Motivated by the abundant observational data that probes the intergalactic medium via OVI absorption lines in quasar spectra, we track all ionization states of atomic oxygen alongside those of hydrogen and helium. We use the results of these non-equilibrium simulations to characterize the mass content and ionization properties of the IGM and help interpret current observations made by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  20. AQUEOUS AMMONIA EQUILIBRIUM - TABULATION OF PERCENT UN-IONIZED AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The percent of un-ionized ammonia as a function of pH and temperature in aqueous ammonia solutions of zero salinity is presented in tabular form over the following ranges: temperature 0.0 to 40.0 C in increments of 0.2 degree, and pH 5.00 to 12.00 in increments of 0.01 pH unit.

  1. Approximate analytic solutions for the ionization structure of a pressure equilibrium Strömgren sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco Arenas, A.; González Bolívar, M.; Medina Covarrubias, R.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present analytic models for a photoionized region in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding, neutral material. The models are based on the assumption of a linear relation between the H ionization fraction and the square of the sound speed of the gas. We show that under these assumptions the "grey" radiative transfer equation has analytic solutions that provide the ionization structure and the density of the nebula as a function of radius.

  2. H to Zn Ionization Equilibrium for the Non-Maxwellian Electron κ-distributions: Updated Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.

    2013-05-01

    New data for the calculation of ionization and recombination rates have been published in the past few years, most of which are included in the CHIANTI database. We used these data to calculate collisional ionization and recombination rates for the non-Maxwellian κ-distributions with an enhanced number of particles in the high-energy tail, which have been detected in the solar transition region and the solar wind. Ionization equilibria for elements H to Zn are derived. The κ-distributions significantly influence both the ionization and recombination rates and widen the ion abundance peaks. In comparison with the Maxwellian distribution, the ion abundance peaks can also be shifted to lower or higher temperatures. The updated ionization equilibrium calculations result in large changes for several ions, notably Fe VIII-Fe XIV. The results are supplied in electronic form compatible with the CHIANTI database.

  3. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds III: Local Ionization Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic models of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems and calculate wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition with radiative heating and cooling processes, and includes local ionization equilibrium introducing time dependence and spatial dependence on the line radiation force parameters. The radiation field is assumed to originate in an optically thick accretion disk. Wind ion populations are calculated under the assumption that local ionization equilibrium is determined by photoionization and radiative recombination, similar to a photoionized nebula. We find a steady wind flowing from the accretion disk. Radiative heating tends to maintain the temperature in the higher density wind regions near the disk surface, rather than cooling adiabatically. For a disk luminosity L (sub disk) = solar luminosity, white dwarf mass M(sub wd) = 0.6 solar mass, and white dwarf radii R(sub wd) = 0.01 solar radius, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of M(sub wind) = 4 x 10(exp -12) solar mass yr(exp -1) and a terminal velocity of approximately 3000 km per second. These results confirm the general velocity and density structures found in our earlier constant ionization equilibrium adiabatic CV wind models. Further we establish here 2.5D numerical models that can be extended to QSO/AGN winds where the local ionization equilibrium will play a crucial role in the overall dynamics.

  4. Ionization balance of impurities in turbulent scrape-off layer plasmas I: local ionization-recombination equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, F.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, Ph; Guirlet, R.; Rosato, J.; Valentinuzzi, M.

    2015-12-01

    In magnetized fusion devices, cross field impurity transport is often dominated by turbulence, in particular in the scrape-off layer. In these outer regions of the plasma, fluctuations of plasma parameters can be comparable to mean values, and the way ionization and recombination sources are treated in transport codes becomes questionnable. In fact, sources are calculated using the mean density and temperature values, with no account of fluctuations. In this work we investigate the modeling uncertainties introduced by this approximation, both qualitatively and quantitatively for the local ionization equilibrium. As a first step transport effects are neglected, and their role will be discussed in a companion paper. We show that temperature fluctuations shift the ionization balance towards lower temperatures, essentially because of the very steep temperature dependence of the ionization rate coefficients near the threshold. To reach this conclusion, a thorough analysis of the time scales involved is carried out, in order to devise a proper way of averaging over fluctuations. The effects are found to be substantial only for fairly large relative fluctuation levels for temperature, that is of the order of a few tens of percents.

  5. NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS ON THE DENSITY LINE RATIO DIAGNOSTICS OF O IV

    SciTech Connect

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.

    2013-04-10

    The dynamic timescales in the solar atmosphere are shorter than the ionization and recombination times of many ions used for line ratio diagnostics of the transition region and corona. The long ionization and recombination times for these ions imply that they can be found far from their equilibrium temperatures, and spectroscopic investigations require more care before being trusted in giving correct information on local quantities, such as density and temperature. By solving the full time-dependent rate equations for an oxygen model atom in the three-dimensional numerical model of the solar atmosphere generated by the Bifrost code, we are able to construct synthetic intensity maps and study the emergent emission. We investigate the method of electron density diagnostics through line ratio analysis of the O IV 140.1 nm to the 140.4 nm ratio, the assumptions made in carrying out the diagnostics, and the different interpretations of the electron density. The results show big discrepancies between emission in statistical equilibrium and emission where non-equilibrium (NEQ) ionization is treated. Deduced electron densities are up to an order of magnitude higher when NEQ effects are accounted for. The inferred electron density is found to be a weighted mean average electron density along the line of sight and has no relation to the temperature of emission. This study shows that numerical modeling is essential for electron density diagnostics and is a valuable tool when the ions used for such studies are expected to be out of ionization equilibrium. Though this study has been performed on the O IV ion, similar results are also expected for other transition region ions.

  6. Ionization equilibrium of hydrogen in strong magnetic field with allowance for pressure effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, P.; Pavlov, G. ); Potekhin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ionization equilibrium in highly magnetized (B = 10[sup 10] to 10[sup 12]G) hydrogen is investigated at temperatures from 5 eV to 50 keV and densities in the range 10[sup [minus]3] to 10[sup 3] g/cm[sup 3]. We have used the occupation probability formalism in order to take into account the pressure and density effects. The occupation probabilities used are slightly modified as compared to those derived by Hummer and Mihalas. We find that pressure ionization degree varies with the form of microfield distribution function. The non-ionized fraction is increased by the magnetic field in most of the parameter space. It is large enough so that the bound-free absorption must be taken into account in realistic models of neutron star atmospheres.

  7. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  8. Influence of Electron-Impact Multiple Ionization on Equilibrium and Dynamic Charge State Distributions: A Case Study Using Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-02-01

    We describe the influence of electron-impact multiple ionization (EIMI) on the ionization balance of collisionally ionized plasmas. Previous ionization balance calculations have largely neglected EIMI. Here, EIMI cross-section data are incorporated into calculations of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions (CSDs). For equilibrium CSDs, we find that EIMI has only a small effect and can usually be ignored. However, for non-equilibrium plasmas the influence of EIMI can be important. In particular, we find that for plasmas in which the temperature oscillates there are significant differences in the CSD when including versus neglecting EIMI. These results have implications for modeling and spectroscopy of impulsively heated plasmas, such as nanoflare heating of the solar corona.

  9. INFLUENCE OF ELECTRON-IMPACT MULTIPLE IONIZATION ON EQUILIBRIUM AND DYNAMIC CHARGE STATE DISTRIBUTIONS: A CASE STUDY USING IRON

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-02-10

    We describe the influence of electron-impact multiple ionization (EIMI) on the ionization balance of collisionally ionized plasmas. Previous ionization balance calculations have largely neglected EIMI. Here, EIMI cross-section data are incorporated into calculations of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions (CSDs). For equilibrium CSDs, we find that EIMI has only a small effect and can usually be ignored. However, for non-equilibrium plasmas the influence of EIMI can be important. In particular, we find that for plasmas in which the temperature oscillates there are significant differences in the CSD when including versus neglecting EIMI. These results have implications for modeling and spectroscopy of impulsively heated plasmas, such as nanoflare heating of the solar corona.

  10. Analyses on the Ionization Instability of Non-Equilibrium Seeded Plasma in an MHD Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Chi Kien

    2016-06-01

    Recently, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic power generation system research has been focused on improving the isentropic efficiency and the enthalpy extraction ratio. By reducing the cross-section area ratio of the disk magnetohydrodynamic generator, it is believed that a high isentropic efficiency can be achieved with the same enthalpy extraction. In this study, the result relating to a plasma state which takes into account the ionization instability of non-equilibrium seeded plasma is added to the theoretical prediction of the relationship between enthalpy extraction and isentropic efficiency. As a result, the electron temperature which reaches the seed complete ionization state without the growth of ionization instability can be realized at a relatively high seed fraction condition. However, the upper limit of the power generation performance is suggested to remain lower than the value expected in the low seed fraction condition. It is also suggested that a higher power generation performance may be obtained by implementing the electron temperature range which reaches the seed complete ionization state at a low seed fraction.

  11. The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Non-Equilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Ellison, D.; Slane, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new model simulations which show clear evidence for changes in the non-equilibrium ionization behind a supernova remnant forward shock undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The efficient acceleration of particles (i.e., cosmic rays) lowers the shock temperature and raises the density of the shocked gas, thus altering the ionization state of the plasma in comparison to the test-particle approximation where cosmic rays gain an insignificant fraction of the shock energy. The differences between the test-particle and efficient acceleration cases are substantial: in cases of higher efficiency, particular ion states are more populated at lower electron temperatures. We also present results which show that in the efficient shock acceleration case, higher ionization fractions are reached immediately behind the shock front, relative to those in the test particle case. We attribute this to the higher postshock densities which lead to higher ionization rates. We show that these spatial differences are resolvable with current and future X-ray missions, and can be used as diagnostics in estimating the acceleration efficiency in cosmic--ray modified shocks in Galactic supernova remnants such as Tycho and Cassiopeia A.

  12. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, G. M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  13. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-12-23

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Ultimately, though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  14. Equilibrium composition in II?VI telluride MOCVD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, L.; Greenberg, J. H.

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic calculations, or computer simulation of the equilibrium composition, offer an excellent possibility to reduce drastically the elaborate trial-and-error experimental efforts of finding the optimal preparation conditions for MOCVD processes (temperature T, pressure P, initial composition of the vapors X), to limit them only to the P- T- X field of existence of the solid to be prepared and an acceptable yield of the product. In this communication equilibrium composition was investigated for MOCVD processes of CdTe, ZnTe, HgTe and solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe. A number of volatile organometallic compounds have been used as precursors for MOCVD growth. These are dimethylcadmium (CH 3) 2Cd, DMCd; diethylzinc (C 2H 5) 2Zn, DEZn; diisopropylzinc [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Zn, DiPZn; diethyltellurium (C 2H 5) 2Te, DETe; diisopropyltellurium [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Te, DiPTe; methylallyltellurium CH 3TeCH 2CHCH 2, MATe. A choice of the particular combination of the precursors largely depends on the desired composition of the film to be prepared, especially in cases of solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe where the vapor pressure of the precursors is instrumental for the composition of the vapor in the reaction zone and, ultimately, for the composition x of the solid solution. Equilibrium composition for II-VI telluride MOCVD systems was investigated at temperatures up to 873 K in hydrogen and inert gas atmospheres at pressures up to 1 atm. P- T- X regions of existence were outlined for each of the five materials.

  15. Relaxation from Steady States Far from Equilibrium and the Persistence of Anomalous Shock Behavior in Weakly Ionized Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Auslender, Aaron H.

    1999-01-01

    The decay of anomalous effects on shock waves in weakly ionized gases following plasma generator extinction has been measured in the anticipation that the decay time must correlate well with the relaxation time of the mechanism responsible for the anomalous effects. When the relaxation times cannot be measured directly, they are inferred theoretically, usually assuming that the initial state is nearly in thermal equilibrium. In this paper, it is demonstrated that relaxation from any steady state far from equilibrium, including the state of a weakly ionized gas, can proceed much more slowly than arguments based on relaxation from near equilibrium states might suggest. This result justifies a more careful analysis of the relaxation times in weakly ionized gases and suggests that although the experimental measurements of relaxation times did not lead to an unambiguous conclusion, this approach to understanding the anomalous effects may warrant further investigation.

  16. Benchmark Measurements of the Ionization Balance of Non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium Gold Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Fournier, K. B.; Foord, M. E.; Froula, D. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; May, M. J.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2007-11-09

    We present a series of benchmark measurements of the ionization balance of well-characterized gold plasmas with and without external radiation fields at electron densities near 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and electron temperatures spanning the range 0.8 to 2.4 keV. We have analyzed time- and space-resolved M-shell gold emission spectra using a sophisticated collisional-radiative model with hybrid level structure, finding average ion charges ranging from 42 to 50. At the lower temperatures, the spectra exhibit significant sensitivity to external radiation fields and include emission features from complex N-shell ions. The measured spectra and inferred provide a stringent test for non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium models of complex high-Z ions.

  17. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Theoretical basal Ca II and Mg II fluxes for late-type stars: results from acoustic wave spectra with time-dependent ionization and multilevel radiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzy, Diaa E.

    2015-08-01

    Computations of chromospheric models and the resulting spectral line emission fluxes are presented for late-type stars exhibiting very low level of chromospheric activity, referred to as a basal flux stars or low activity stars. The computations are self-consistent, and consider the entire acoustic wave energy spectra generated in the stellar convection zones. We consider multilevel atomic models, take into account departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium and also consider the time-dependent ionization processes of hydrogen. We employ the new finding of the mixing-length parameter α = 1.8. The Ca II H+K and Mg II h+k line fluxes are computed assuming pseudo-partial redistribution. The results show the importance of time-dependent ionization in modelling the middle and high chromospheres. Models without considering time-dependent ionization overestimate the emitted Ca II fluxes by factors between 1.1 and 5.6 for F8V and M0V stars, respectively, while factors between 1.8 for G0V and 17.4 for M0V stars have been obtained for the Mg II fluxes. The theoretically computed basal fluxes in Ca II and Mg II, respectively, follow simple linear formulae depending on the effective temperature log Teff. The obtained results for Ca II fluxes show reasonable agreement with observations.

  20. Equilibrium K-, L-, and M-shell ionizations and charge-state distribution of sulfur projectiles passing through solid targets

    SciTech Connect

    Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Banas, D.; Polasik, M.; Slabkowska, K.; Koziol, K.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Choinski, J.

    2010-08-15

    In the present work, an alternative approach for the evaluation of the equilibrium K-, L-, and M-shell ionizations and the mean charge state q for projectiles passing through various targets has been proposed. The approach is based on measured K x-ray energy shifts and line intensity ratios and utilizes the theoretical analysis of projectile spectra using multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. It was applied for the satellite and hypersatellite K lines in the x-ray spectra emitted by sulfur projectiles passing with energies of 9.6-122 MeV through carbon, aluminium, titanium, and iron targets, recorded by a Si(Li) detector. It was found that only in the high projectile energy region there was significant dependence of mean equilibrium K-shell ionization on the target atomic number. The equilibrium L-shell ionization rises with the increase of sulfur energy until 32 MeV, but for higher energies the changes are very weak. The equilibrium M-shell ionization changes very weakly for low projectile energy while for higher energies this ionization is practically constant. For each target, the estimated value of q rises with the increase of the sulfur energy value. The dependence of the sulfur charge state on the target atomic number was discussed by taking into account the cross sections for ionization, decay, and electron capture processes. The data were compared with the experimental data measured by other authors and with the predictions of Shima's and Schiwietz and Grande's semiempirical formulas. The presented good agreement points out that this alternative approach delivers quantitative results.

  1. Equilibrium K-, L-, and M-shell ionizations and charge-state distribution of sulfur projectiles passing through solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braziewicz, J.; Polasik, M.; Słabkowska, K.; Majewska, U.; Banaś, D.; Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A.; Kozioł, K.; Kretschmer, W.; Choinski, J.

    2010-08-01

    In the present work, an alternative approach for the evaluation of the equilibrium K-, L-, and M-shell ionizations and the mean charge state q¯ for projectiles passing through various targets has been proposed. The approach is based on measured K x-ray energy shifts and line intensity ratios and utilizes the theoretical analysis of projectile spectra using multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. It was applied for the satellite and hypersatellite K lines in the x-ray spectra emitted by sulfur projectiles passing with energies of 9.6-122 MeV through carbon, aluminium, titanium, and iron targets, recorded by a Si(Li) detector. It was found that only in the high projectile energy region there was significant dependence of mean equilibrium K-shell ionization on the target atomic number. The equilibrium L-shell ionization rises with the increase of sulfur energy until 32 MeV, but for higher energies the changes are very weak. The equilibrium M-shell ionization changes very weakly for low projectile energy while for higher energies this ionization is practically constant. For each target, the estimated value of q¯ rises with the increase of the sulfur energy value. The dependence of the sulfur charge state on the target atomic number was discussed by taking into account the cross sections for ionization, decay, and electron capture processes. The data were compared with the experimental data measured by other authors and with the predictions of Shima’s and Schiwietz and Grande’s semiempirical formulas. The presented good agreement points out that this alternative approach delivers quantitative results.

  2. Soft x-ray spectra and collisional ionization equilibrium of iron ions with data upgrade of electron–ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G. Y.; Wei, H. G.; Zhao, G.; Zhong, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Line emissivities and ionic fraction in (non-)equilibrium are crucial for understanding the x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra. These emission originate from electron-impact excitations for a level population of highly charged ions in coronal-like plasma. Recently, a large amount of excitation data was generated within the R-matrix framework by the computational atomic physics community, especially the UK APAP network. These data take resonances in electron–ion collisions into account appropriately, which enhances the effective excitation rates and also the line emissivities in x-ray and EUV regions. For ionization equilibrium data, the earlier compilation by Mazzotta et al (1998 Astron. Astrophys. Supp. Ser. 133 403) was used extensively by the astronomical community until the update by Bryans et al (2006 Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 167 343), as well as the compilation of Dere (2007 Astron. Astrophys. 466 771) for electron-impact ionization rates. In past years, many experimental measurements have been performed of highly charged iron ions in heavy-ion storage ring facilities. In this work, we will investigate the line emissivities and ionization equilibrium of highly charged iron ions by using recent theoretical or experimental data of electron-impact excitations and ionizations.

  3. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  4. INSTABILITY OF MAGNETIZED IONIZATION FRONTS SURROUNDING H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-12-20

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes the transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number M{sub M2}≤1. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor α by a factor of 1 + 1/(2β{sub 1}) compared to the unmagnetized case, with β{sub 1} denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations owing to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber, as well as the upstream flow speed, and approximately to α{sup 1/2}. The IF instability is stabilized by gas compressibility and becomes completely quenched when the front is D-critical. The instability is also stabilized by magnetic pressure when the perturbations propagate in the direction perpendicular to the fields. When the perturbations propagate in the direction parallel to the fields, on the other hand, it is magnetic tension that reduces the growth rate, completely suppressing the instability when M{sub M2}{sup 2}<2/(2β{sub 1}−1). When the front experiences an acceleration, the IF instability cooperates with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to make the front more unstable.

  5. Collisionless Shocks in a Partially Ionized Medium. II. Balmer Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Blasi, P.; Amato, E.

    2012-12-01

    Strong shocks propagating into a partially ionized medium are often associated with optical Balmer lines. This emission is due to impact excitation of neutral hydrogen by hot protons and electrons in the shocked gas. The structure of such Balmer-dominated shocks has been computed in a previous paper, where the distribution function of neutral particles was derived from the appropriate Boltzmann equation including coupling with ions and electrons through charge exchange and ionization. This calculation showed how the presence of neutrals can significantly modify the shock structure through the formation of a neutral-induced precursor ahead of the shock. Here we follow up on our previous work and investigate the properties of the resulting Balmer emission, with the aim of using the observed radiation as a diagnostic tool for shock parameters. Our main focus is on supernova remnant shocks, and we find that, for typical parameters, the Hα emission typically has a three-component spectral profile, where (1) a narrow component originates from upstream cold hydrogen atoms, (2) a broad component comes from hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with shocked protons downstream of the shock, and (3) an intermediate component is due to hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with warm protons in the neutral-induced precursor. The relative importance of these three components depends on the shock velocity, on the original degree of ionization, and on the electron-ion temperature equilibration level. The intermediate component, which is the main signature of the presence of a neutral-induced precursor, becomes negligible for shock velocities <~ 1500 km s-1. The width of the intermediate line reflects the temperature in the precursor, while the width of the narrow one is left unaltered by the precursor. In addition, we show that the profiles of both the intermediate and broad components generally depart from a thermal distribution, as a consequence of the

  6. Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.

    2007-11-01

    We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.

  7. CALIBRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM TIDE THEORY FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEMS. II

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2012-09-20

    We present a new empirical calibration of equilibrium tidal theory for extrasolar planet systems, extending a prior study by incorporating detailed physical models for the internal structure of planets and host stars. The resulting strength of the stellar tide produces a coupling that is strong enough to reorient the spins of some host stars without causing catastrophic orbital evolution, thereby potentially explaining the observed trend in alignment between stellar spin and planetary orbital angular momentum. By isolating the sample whose spins should not have been altered in this model, we also show evidence for two different processes that contribute to the population of planets with short orbital periods. We apply our results to estimate the remaining lifetimes for short-period planets, examine the survival of planets around evolving stars, and determine the limits for circularization of planets with highly eccentric orbits. Our analysis suggests that the survival of circularized planets is strongly affected by the amount of heat dissipated, which is often large enough to lead to runaway orbital inflation and Roche lobe overflow.

  8. Dielectronic recombination rates, ionization equilibrium, and radiative emission rates for Mn ions in low-density high-temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.; Davis, J.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of optically-thin far-ultraviolet and X-ray emission lines of multiply-charged ions is one of the basic methods for determining the temperatures and densities of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In addition, the energy balance in these plasmas can be significantly influenced by the emission of radiation from relatively low concentrations of multiple-charged atomic ions. Because the populations of the excited levels are expected to depart substantially from their local thermodynamic equilibrium values a detailed treatment of the elementary collisional and radiative processes must be employed in order to predict the emission line intensities. In this investigation the authors present the results of calculations based on a corona equilibrium model in which a detailed evaluation is made of the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients. The ionization and autoionization following inner-shell electron excitation from each ground state are balanced by direct radiative and dielectronic recombination. The spectral line intensities emitted by the low-lying excited states, which are assumed to undergo spontaneous radiative decay in times that are short compared with the collision time, are evaluated in terms of the corona ionization equilibrium distributions of the ground states and their electron-impact excitation states.

  9. Evidence for equilibrium iron isotope fractionation by nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kappler, A; Johnson, C M; Crosby, H A; Beard, B L; Newman, D K

    2010-05-10

    Iron isotope fractionations produced during chemical and biological Fe(II) oxidation are sensitive to the proportions and nature of dissolved and solid-phase Fe species present, as well as the extent of isotopic exchange between precipitates and aqueous Fe. Iron isotopes therefore potentially constrain the mechanisms and pathways of Fe redox transformations in modern and ancient environments. In the present study, we followed in batch experiments Fe isotope fractionations between Fe(II)(aq) and Fe(III) oxide/hydroxide precipitates produced by the Fe(III) mineral encrusting, nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1. Isotopic fractionation in (56)Fe/(54)Fe approached that expected for equilibrium conditions, assuming an equilibrium Δ(56)Fe(Fe(OH)3 - Fe(II)aq) fractionation factor of +3.0 ‰. Previous studies have shown that Fe(II) oxidation by this Acidovorax strain occurs in the periplasm, and we propose that Fe isotope equilibrium is maintained through redox cycling via coupled electron and atom exchange between Fe(II)(aq) and Fe(III) precipitates in the contained environment of the periplasm. In addition to the apparent equilibrium isotopic fractionation, these experiments also record the kinetic effects of initial rapid oxidation, and possible phase transformations of the Fe(III) precipitates. Attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium between Fe(III) oxide/hydroxide precipitates and Fe(II)(aq) by neutrophilic, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria or through abiologic Fe(II)(aq) oxidation is generally not expected or observed, because the poor solubility of their metabolic product, i.e. Fe(III), usually leads to rapid precipitation of Fe(III) minerals, and hence expression of a kinetic fractionation upon precipitation; in the absence of redox cycling between Fe(II)(aq) and precipitate, kinetic isotope fractionations are likely to be retained. These results highlight the distinct Fe isotope fractionations that are produced by different pathways of

  10. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase ( PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  11. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27225419

  12. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  13. THE DIAGNOSTIC O VI ABSORPTION LINE IN DIFFUSE PLASMAS: COMPARISON OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS TO FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2012-12-20

    The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} cm{sup -3}. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (10{sup 3.9} K < T {<=} 10{sup 4.2} K; 20%) and unstable (10{sup 4.2} K < T < 10{sup 5} K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

  14. Ionization and thermal equilibrium models for O star winds based on time-independent radiation-driven wind theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio ionization and thermal equilibrium models are calculated for the winds of O stars using the results of steady state radiation-driven wind theory to determine the input parameters. Self-consistent methods are used for the roles of H, He, and the most abundant heavy elements in both the statistical and the thermal equilibrium. The model grid was chosen to encompass all O spectral subtypes and the full range of luminosity classes. Results of earlier modeling of O star winds by Klein and Castor (1978) are reproduced and used to motivate improvements in the treatment of the hydrogen equilibrium. The wind temperature profile is revealed to be sensitive to gross changes in the heavy element abundances, but insensitive to other factors considered such as the mass-loss rate and velocity law. The reduced wind temperatures obtained in observing the luminosity dependence of the Si IV lambda 1397 wind absorption profile are shown to eliminate any prospect of explaining the observed O VI lambda 1036 line profiles in terms of time-independent radiation-driven wind theory.

  15. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. II. DUST-INDUCED COLLISIONAL IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Mokler, F.

    2011-08-10

    Observations have shown that continuous radio emission and also sporadic H{alpha} and X-ray emission are prominent in singular, low-mass objects later than spectral class M. These activity signatures are interpreted as being caused by coupling of an ionized atmosphere to the stellar magnetic field. What remains a puzzle, however, is the mechanism by which such a cool atmosphere can produce the necessary level of ionization. At these low temperatures, thermal gas processes are insufficient, but the formation of clouds sets in. Cloud particles can act as seeds for electron avalanches in streamers that ionize the ambient gas, and can lead to lightning and indirectly to magnetic field coupling, a combination of processes also expected for protoplanetary disks. However, the precondition is that the cloud particles are charged. We use results from DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmospheres to investigate collisional processes that can lead to the ionization of dust grains inside clouds. We show that ionization by turbulence-induced dust-dust collisions is the most efficient kinetic process. The efficiency is highest in the inner cloud where particles grow quickly and, hence, the dust-to-gas ratio is high. Dust-dust collisions alone are not sufficient to improve the magnetic coupling of the atmosphere inside the cloud layers, but the charges supplied either on grains or within the gas phase as separated electrons can trigger secondary nonlinear processes. Cosmic rays are likely to increase the global level of ionization, but their influence decreases if a strong, large-scale magnetic field is present as on brown dwarfs. We suggest that although thermal gas ionization declines in objects across the fully convective boundary, dust charging by collisional processes can play an important role in the lowest mass objects. The onset of atmospheric dust may therefore correlate with the anomalous X-ray and radio emission in atmospheres that are cool, but charged more than expected by pure

  16. Investigating the Chemical Evolution of the Universe via Numerical Simulations: Supernova Dust Destruction and Non-Equilibrium Ionization Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvia, Devin W.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe is a complicated process with countless facets that define its properties over the course of time. In the early Universe, the metal-free first stars were responsible for originally introducing metals into the pristine gas left over from the Big Bang. Once these metals became prevalent, they forever altered the thermodynamics of the Universe. Understanding precisely where these metals originated, where they end up, and the conditions they experience along the way is of great interest in the astrophysical community. In this work, I have used numerical simulations as a means of understanding two separate phenomena related to the chemical evolution the Universe. The first topic focuses on the question as to whether or not core-collapse supernovae in the high-redshift universe are capable of being "dust factories" for the production of galactic dust. To achieve this, I carried out idealized simulations of supernova ejecta clouds being impacted by reverse-shock blast waves. By post-processing the results of these simulations, I was able to estimate the amount of dust destruction that would occur due to thermal sputtering. In the most extreme scenarios, simulated with high relative velocities between the shock and the ejecta cloud and high gas metallicities, I find complete destruction for some grains species and only 44% dust mass survival for even the most robust species. This raises the question as to whether or not high-redshift supernova can produce dust masses in sufficient excess of the ˜1 Msun per event required to match observations of high-z galaxies. The second investigation was driven by the desire to find an answer to the missing baryon problem and a curiosity as to the impact that including a full non-equilibrium treatment of ionization chemistry has on simulations of the intergalactic medium. To address these questions, I have helped to develop Dengo, a new software package for solving complex chemical networks. Once

  17. Age, size, and position of H ii regions in the Galaxy. Expansion of ionized gas in turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Didelon, P.; Raga, A. C.; Minier, V.; Ntormousi, E.; Pettitt, A.; Pinto, C.; Samal, M. R.; Schneider, N.; Zavagno, A.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: This work aims to improve the current understanding of the interaction between H ii regions and turbulent molecular clouds. We propose a new method to determine the age of a large sample of OB associations by investigating the development of their associated H ii regions in the surrounding turbulent medium. Methods: Using analytical solutions, one-dimensional (1D), and three-dimensional (3D) simulations, we constrained the expansion of the ionized bubble depending on the turbulence level of the parent molecular cloud. A grid of 1D simulations was then computed in order to build isochrone curves for H ii regions in a pressure-size diagram. This grid of models allowed us to date a large sample of OB associations that we obtained from the H ii Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). Results: Analytical solutions and numerical simulations showed that the expansion of H ii regions is slowed down by the turbulence up to the point where the pressure of the ionized gas is in a quasi-equilibrium with the turbulent ram pressure. Based on this result, we built a grid of 1D models of the expansion of H ii regions in a profile based on Larson's laws. We take the 3D turbulence into account with an effective 1D temperature profile. The ages estimated by the isochrones of this grid agree well with literature values of well known regions such as Rosette, RCW 36, RCW 79, and M 16. We thus propose that this method can be used to find ages of young OB associations through the Galaxy and also in nearby extra-galactic sources.

  18. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-05-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  19. Single-photon double ionization of H2 away from equilibrium: A showcase of two-center electron interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Vladislav V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate the effect of two-center interference on single-photon double ionization [double photoionization (DPI)] of the aligned H2 molecule when it shrinks or expands from the equilibrium internuclear distance. This interference affects the first stage of the DPI process in which the primary photoelectron is ejected predominantly along the polarization axis of light and its geometrical interference factor is most sensitive to the internuclear distance in the parallel (Σ) orientation of the internuclear and polarization axes. This effect is responsible for strong modification of the DPI amplitude in the parallel orientation while the corresponding amplitude for the perpendicular (Π) orientation is rather insensitive to the internuclear distance. The combination of these two factors explains the profound kinetic energy release effect on the fully differential cross sections of DPI of H2.

  20. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  1. Equilibrium studies on the binding of cadmium(II) to human serum transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.R.; Madsen, L.J.

    1988-01-12

    The binding of cadmium(II) to human serum transferrin in 0.01 M N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid with 5 mM bicarbonate at 25/sup 0/C has been evaluated by difference ultraviolet spectroscopy. Equilibrium constants were determined by competition versus three different low molecular weight chelating agents: nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid, and triethylenetetramine. Conditional equilibrium constants for the sequential binding of two cadmium ions to transferrin under the stated experimental conditions are log K/sub 1/ = 5.95 +/- 0.10 and log K/sub 2/ = 4.86 +/- 0.13. A linear free energy relationship for the complexation of cadmium and zinc has been prepared by using equilibrium data on 243 complexes of these metal ions with low molecular weight ligands. The transferrin binding constants for cadmium and zinc are in good agreement with this linear free energy relationship. This indicates that the larger size of the cadmium(II) ion does not significantly hinder its binding to the protein.

  2. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto biomass from Trifolium resupinatum: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Makshoof; Farooq, Umar; Aslam, Muhammad; Salman, M.

    2013-09-01

    The present study provides information about the binding of Pb(II) ions on an eco-friendly and easily available biodegradable biomass Trifolium resupinatum. The powdered biomass was characterized by FTIR, potentiometric titration and surface area analyses. The FTIR spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino functional groups and Pb(II) ions bound with the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing sites (hydroxyl and amino groups). The acidic groups were also confirmed by titrations. Effects of various environmental parameters (time, pH and concentration) have been studied. The biosorption process achieved equilibrium in a very short period of time (25 min). Non-linear approach for Langmuir and Freundlich models was used to study equilibrium process and root mean-square error was used as an indicator to decide the fitness of the mathematical model. The biosorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics and was very fast. Thus, the biomass can be cost-effectively used for the binding of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  3. Pb(II) binding to humic substances: an equilibrium and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Orsetti, Silvia; Marco-Brown, Jose L; Andrade, Estela M; Molina, Fernando V

    2013-08-01

    The binding of Pb(II) to humic acids is studied through an approach combining equilibrium and spectroscopic measurements. The methods employed are potentiometric and fluorometric titrations, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) and IR spectroscopy. Potentiometric titration curves are analyzed using the NICA equations and an electrostatic model treating the humic particles as an elastic polyelectrolyte network. EEMs are analyzed using parallel factor analysis, decomposing the signal in its independent components and finding their dependence on Pb(II) activity. Potentiometric results are consistent with bimodal affinity distributions for Pb(II) binding, whereas fluorometric titrations are explained by monomodal distributions. EEM analysis is consistent with three independent components in the humic fluorescence response, which are assigned to moieties with different degree of aromaticity. All three components show a similar quenching behavior upon Pb(II) binding, saturating at relatively low Pb(II) concentrations. This is attributed to metal ion induced aggregation of humic molecules, resulting in the interaction between the aromatic groups responsible for fluorescence; this is also consistent with IR spectroscopy results. The observed behavior is interpreted considering that initial metal binding (observed as strongly binding sites), correspond to bi- or multidentate complexation to carboxylate groups, including binding between groups of different humic molecules, promoting aggregation; further metal ions (observed as weakly binding sites) bind to single ligand groups. PMID:23805795

  4. Accurate energy levels for singly ionized platinum (Pt II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, Joseph; Acquista, Nicolo; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Engleman, Rolf, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    New observations of the spectrum of Pt II have been made with hollow-cathode lamps. The region from 1032 to 4101 A was observed photographically with a 10.7-m normal-incidence spectrograph. The region from 2245 to 5223 A was observed with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Wavelength measurements were made for 558 lines. The uncertainties vary from 0.0005 to 0.004 A. From these measurements and three parity-forbidden transitions in the infrared, accurate values were determined for 28 even and 72 odd energy levels of Pt II.

  5. Flux line non-equilibrium relaxation kinetics following current quenches in disordered type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Harshwardhan; Assi, Hiba; Dobramysl, Ulrich; Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of magnetic vortex lines in disordered type-II superconductors following rapid changes in the external driving current by means of Langevin molecular dynamics simulations for an elastic line model. A system of driven interacting flux lines in a sample with randomly distributed point pinning centers is initially relaxed to a moving non-equilibrium steady state. The current is then instantaneously decreased, such that the final stationary state resides either still in the moving regime, or in the pinned Bragg glass phase. The ensuing non-equilibrium relaxation kinetics of the vortices is studied in detail by measuring the mean flux line gyration radius and the two-time transverse height autocorrelation function. The latter allows us to investigate the physical aging properties for quenches from the moving into the glassy phase, and to compare with non-equilibrium relaxation features obtained with different initial configurations. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.

  6. Dielectronic recombination rates, ionization equilibrium, and radiative energy-loss rates for neon, magnesium, and sulfur ions in low-density plasmas. [in solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.; Davis, J.; Rogerson, J. E.; Blaha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Results of detailed and systematic calculations are presented for the total dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for the ions of Ne, Mg, and S in a low-density predominantly hydrogen plasma. The new recombination rates are used to calculate solar corona ionization-equilibrium distributions of the ions. The most important effect of dielectronic recombination for ions in corona equilibrium is found to be a shift in the maximum-abundance temperatures toward higher temperatures, which are in some cases reduced from those predicted on the basis of the simple Burgess formula.

  7. Biosorption of Cu(II) by immobilized microalgae using silica: kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongkyun; Shim, Eunjung; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kim, Dohyeong; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Chi-Kyung; Shin, Won-Sik; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized microalgae using silica (IMS) from Micractinium reisseri KGE33 was synthesized through a sol-gel reaction. Green algal waste biomass, the residue of M. reisseri KGE33 after oil extraction, was used as the biomaterial. The adsorption of Cu(II) on IMS was tested in batch experiments with varying algal doses, pH, contact times, initial Cu(II) concentrations, and temperatures. Three types of IMSs (IMS 14, 70, and 100) were synthesized according to different algal doses. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) in the aqueous phase was in the following order: IMS 14 (77.0%) < IMS 70 (83.3%) < IMS 100 (87.1%) at pH 5. The point of zero charge (PZC) value of IMS100 was 4.5, and the optimum pH for Cu(II) adsorption was 5. Equilibrium data were described using a Langmuir isotherm model. The Langmuir model maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity (q m) increased with the algal dose in the following order: IMS 100 (1.710 mg g(-1)) > IMS 70 (1.548 mg g(-1)) > IMS 14 (1.282 mg g(-1)). The pseudo-second-order equation fitted the kinetics data well, and the value of the second-order rate constant increased with increasing algal dose. Gibbs free energies (ΔG°) were negative within the temperature range studied, which indicates that the adsorption process was spontaneous. The negative value of enthalpy (ΔH°) again indicates the exothermic nature of the adsorption process. In addition, SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of the IMS surface reveal that the algal biomass on IMS is the main site for Cu(II) binding. This study shows that immobilized microalgae using silica, a synthesized biosorbent, can be used as a cost-effective sorbent for Cu(II) removal from the aqueous phase. PMID:25953610

  8. Equilibrium between radiation and matter for classical relativistic multiperiodic systems. II. Study of radiative equilibrium with Rayleigh-Jeans radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Pesquera, L.; Santos, E.

    1984-05-01

    We continue the study of the problem of equilibrium between radiation and classical relativistic systems begun previously

    [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1254 (1983)]
    . We consider the emission and absorption of energy by a relativistic pointlike particle immersed in a Rayleigh-Jeans radiation field. The particle is acted upon by a force which, if alone, would produce a multiply periodic motion. It is shown that radiative balance at each frequency holds. A discussion is given of the results reported in both papers.

  9. [Ne III]/[O II] as an ionization parameter diagnostic in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Richardson, Mark L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present our parameterizations of the log([Ne III]λ3869/[O II]λ3727) (Ne3O2) and log([O III]λ5007/[O II]λ3727) (O3O2) ratios as diagnostics of ionization parameter in star-forming galaxies. Our calibrations are based on the Starburst99/Mappings III photoionization models, which extend up to the extremely high values of ionization parameter found in high-redshift galaxies. While similar calibrations have been presented previously for O3O2, this is the first such calibration of Ne3O2. We illustrate the tight correlation between these two ratios for star-forming galaxies and discuss the underlying physics that dictates their very similar evolution. Based on this work, we propose the Ne3O2 ratio as a new and useful diagnostic of ionization parameter for star-forming galaxies. Given the Ne3O2 ratio's relative insensitivity to reddening, this ratio is particularly valuable for use with galaxies that have uncertain amounts of extinction. The short wavelengths of the Ne3O2 ratio can also be applied out to very high redshifts, extending studies of galaxies' ionization parameters out to z ∼ 1.6 with optical spectroscopy and z ∼ 5.2 with ground-based near-infrared spectra.

  10. EXTENDED ANALYSIS OF THE SPECTRUM OF SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian

    2014-08-01

    We have made new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 2850-37900 Å with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2 m Fourier transform spectrometer. These data extend our previously reported observations in the near-ultra-violet region. We present a comprehensive list of more than 5300 Cr II lines classified as transitions among 456 even and 457 odd levels, 179 of which are newly located in this work. Using highly excited levels of the 3d {sup 4}({sup 5} D)5g, 3d {sup 4}({sup 5} D)6g, and 3d {sup 4}({sup 5}D)6h configurations, we derive an improved ionization energy of 132971.02 ± 0.12 cm{sup –1} (16.486305 ± 0.000015 eV)

  11. Extended Analysis of the Spectrum of Singly Ionized Chromium (Cr II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian

    2014-08-01

    We have made new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 2850-37900 Å with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2 m Fourier transform spectrometer. These data extend our previously reported observations in the near-ultra-violet region. We present a comprehensive list of more than 5300 Cr II lines classified as transitions among 456 even and 457 odd levels, 179 of which are newly located in this work. Using highly excited levels of the 3d 4(5 D)5g, 3d 4(5 D)6g, and 3d 4(5D)6h configurations, we derive an improved ionization energy of 132971.02 ± 0.12 cm-1 (16.486305 ± 0.000015 eV).

  12. Prediction of equilibrium parameters of adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Taylan; Ardalı, Yüksel; Gamze Turan, N.

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are one of the most important environmental issues to be solved today. Due to their toxicity and nonbiodegradable nature, heavy metals cause environmental and public health problems. Various techniques have been developed to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. These include chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion Exchange and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is considered to be a particularly competitive and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. There is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. Diatomite is a siliceous sedimentary rock having an amorphous form of silica (SiO2. nH2O) containing a small amount of microcrystalline material. It has unique combination of physical and chemical properties such as high porosity, high permeability, small particle size, large surface area, and low thermal conductivity. In addition, it is available in Turkey and in various locations around the world. Therefore, diatomite has been successfully used as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption properties of diatomite. The equilibrium adsorption data were applied to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) isotherm models. Adsorption experiments were performed under batch process, using Pb (II) initial concentration, pH of solution and contact time as variables. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb (II) was strongly dependent on pH of solution. The effect of pH on adsorption of Pb(II) on diatomite was conducted by varying pH from 2 to 12 at 20 oC. In the pH range of 2.0-4.0, the adsorption percentage increases slightly as the pH increasing. At pH>4, the adsorption percentage decreases with increasing pH because hydrolysis product and the precipitation begin to play an important role in the sorption of Pb (II). At pH4, the maximum adsorption

  13. ENERGY LEVELS AND SPECTRAL LINES OF SINGLY IONIZED MANGANESE (Mn II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramida, Alexander; Sansonetti, Jean E.

    2013-04-01

    This compilation revises the previously recommended list of energy levels of singly ionized manganese (Mn II) and provides a comprehensive list of observed spectral lines and transition probabilities in this spectrum. The new level optimization takes into account critically assessed uncertainties of measured wavelengths and includes about a hundred high-precision wavelengths determined by laser spectroscopy and Fourier transform techniques. Uncertainties of 63% of energy levels and 74% of Ritz wavelengths are reduced by a factor of three on average.

  14. Biosorption of lead (II) from water using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu: equilibrium and kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H. P.; Chakravarty, P.

    2013-09-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the removal of Pb(II) from water by using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu (HCAC). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties at different contact times (5-30 min), concentrations (0.1-10 mg/L), amounts of adsorbents (0.1-0.6 g), and in a range of pH 2-7. Most favorable biosorption condition was found at pH 5.0, 0.5 g biomass dosage and at 25 min equilibrium time. The experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Freundlich isotherm was found to well represent the measured sorption data implying HCAC has heterogeneous surface. Lagergren first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model were used to analyze the biosorption data; it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model best represented the relationship. Scanning electron microscopy image and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were also incorporated in support of the study. The result shows that HCAC has the potentiality to remove Pb(II) from water.

  15. Anomalously slow cyanide binding to Glycera dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin component II: Implication for the equilibrium constant

    SciTech Connect

    Mintorovitch, J.; Satterlee, J.D. )

    1988-10-18

    In comparison to sperm whale metmyoglobin, metleghemoglobin {alpha}, methemoglobins, and heme peroxidases, the purified Glycera dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin component II exhibits anomalously slow cyanide ligation kinetics. For the component II monomer methemoglobin this reaction has been studied under pseudo-first-order conditions at pH 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, employing 100-250-fold mole excesses of potassium cyanide at each pH. The analysis shows that the concentration-independent bimolecular rate constant is small in comparison to those of the other heme proteins. Furthermore, the results show that the dissociation rate is extremely slow. Separation of the bimolecular rate constant into contributions from k{sub CN{sup {minus}}} (the rate constant for CN{sup {minus}} binding) and from k{sub HCN} (the rate constant for HCN binding) shows that the former is approximately 90 times greater. These results indicate that cyanide ligation reactions are not instantaneous for this protein, which is important for those attempting to study the ligand-binding equilibria. From the results presented here the authors estimate that the actual equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub D}) for cyanide binding to this G. dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin has a numerical upper limit that is at least 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the value reported before the kinetic results were known.

  16. Numerical Analysis on Non-Equilibrium Mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave Using Multiply-Charged Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-02

    Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), one type of Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP), is considered as the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for laser absorption. In this study, I have numerically simulated the 1-D LSD waves propagating through a helium gas, in which Multiply-charged ionization model is considered for describing an accurate ionization process.

  17. The N (II) 205 micron line in M82: The warm ionized medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petuchowski, S. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Haas, Michael R.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Lord, Steven D.; Rubin, Robert H.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Detection of the 205 micrometer fine structure line of N II in the nearby starburst galaxy M82 is reported. The intensity wihin a 54 sec Full width at Half Maximum (FWHM) beam is (7.1 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2). The ratio of the intensity of the recently detected 122 micrometer line to that of the 2.5 micrometer lines is = (4.2) (sup =1.6) (sub -1.2), significantly larger than the corresponding Galactic value of 1.6 +/- 0.3, reflecting higher electron densities within the central 850 pc of M82 in comparison to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Galactic average. The 2.5 micrometer line profile is consistent with other far-infrared fine-structure line profiles observed in M82. The observations are interpreted in the context of a two-component model of the ionized medium in M82. We find that a component of density as low as approximately 50 cm(exp -3) can comprise up to 70% of the total mass of warm ionized gas within the beam. The balance of the ionized mass is comprised of a component of density approximately greater than 100 cm(exp -3). A model is explored in which the dneser ionized medium constitute the boundaries of neutral surfaces which border the expanding hot plasma from the nuclear region.

  18. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of Singly Ionized Indium (In II)

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive list of the best measured wavelengths in the In II spectrum has been compiled. Uncertainties of the wavelength measurements have been analyzed, and existing inconsistencies have been resolved. An optimized set of fine-structure energy levels that fits all observed wavelengths has been derived. Uncertainties of the energy level values have been reduced by an order of magnitude. An improved value of the ionization limit of In II has been determined by fitting quantum-defect and polarization formulas for several series of levels. Intensities of lines observed by different authors have been analyzed and converted to a uniform scale. A set of recommended values of radiative transition rates has been critically compiled, and uncertainties of these rates have been estimated. The hyperfine structure interval in the 5s 2S ground state of In III has been determined from the measurements of the 5sng and 5snh series in In II. PMID:26401424

  19. Spatial ionization effects of a shock layer in the RAM-C-II flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional computer model of the nonequilibrium ionization aerophysics of descent moduli entering dense atmospheric layers with orbital velocity in the height range of 60-90 km is developed. A three-dimensional numerical analysis of the experimental data on the ionization of the shock layer near the surface of a hypersonic flying module having the form of a blunt-sphere cone with the flight velocity higher than 7.5 km/s at heights of 61-81 km is fulfilled. The data of the flight experiment are obtained in the framework of the RAM-C-II investigatory program. The use of a three-dimensional computer model made it possible to find the calculated data in good agreement with the flight experiment data, as well as to explain some spatial effects not considered before.

  20. Charge exchange contamination of CRIT-II barium CIV experiment. [critical ionization velocity in ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Meyerott, R. E.; Rairden, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have been recently performed which attempted to confirm critical ionization velocity (CIV) ionization by deploying chemicals at high velocity in the ionosphere. Specifically, the CRIT-II rocket performed a barium release in the ionosphere, where observations of Ba(+) resonant emissions following the release are believed to have resulted from the CIV process. Calculations are presented which suggest a significant fraction (if not all) of the Ba(+) observed likely resulted from charge exchange with the thermosphere ions and not through CIV processes. The results presented here are pertinent to other CIV experiments performed in the ionosphere. It is recommended that laboratory measurements should be made of the charge exchange cross section between O(+) and Ba as well as other metal vapors used in CIV experiments.

  1. Can the Lyman Continuum Leaked Out of H II Regions Explain Diffuse Ionized Gas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il

    2009-09-01

    We present an attempt to explain the diffuse Hα emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the "standard" photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse Hα emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the "on-the-spot" approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse Hα emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of ~1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of κ0 ≈ 0.4-0.8 kpc-1 at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross section as low as σeff ~ 10-5 of the photoionization cross section at 912 Å is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons to travel through the H I disk. Such a low absorption coefficient is out of accord with the properties of the ISM. Furthermore, we found that even the model that has the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) phase only and no H I gas phase shows highly concentrated Hα emissions around H II regions, and can account for only lsim26% of the Hα luminosity of the DIG. This result places a strong constraint on the ionizing source of the DIG. We also report that the Hα intensity distribution functions not only of the DIG, but also of H II regions in M 51, appear to be lognormal.

  2. COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-15

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 A. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

  3. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  4. Temperature lapse rates at restricted thermodynamic equilibrium. Part II: Saturated air and further discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnbom, Pehr

    2016-03-01

    In the first part of this work equilibrium temperature profiles in fluid columns with ideal gas or ideal liquid were obtained by numerically minimizing the column energy at constant entropy, equivalent to maximizing column entropy at constant energy. A minimum in internal plus potential energy for an isothermal temperature profile was obtained in line with Gibbs' classical equilibrium criterion. However, a minimum in internal energy alone for adiabatic temperature profiles was also obtained. This led to a hypothesis that the adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state, a type of state in fact discussed already by Gibbs. In this paper similar numerical results for a fluid column with saturated air suggest that also the saturated adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state. The proposed hypothesis is further discussed and amended based on the previous and the present numerical results and a theoretical analysis based on Gibbs' equilibrium theory.

  5. Adsorption/desorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2012-02-01

    Waste materials from industries such as food processing may act as cost effective and efficient biosorbents to remove toxic contaminants from wastewater. This study aimed to establish an optimized condition and closed loop application of processed orange peel for metals removal. A comparative study of the adsorption capacity of the chemically modified orange peel was performed against environmentally problematic metal ions, namely, Cd 2+, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+, from aqueous solutions. Chemically modified orange peel (MOP) showed a significantly higher metal uptake capacity compared to original orange peel (OP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectra of peel showed that the carboxylic group peak shifted from 1637 to 1644 cm -1 after Pb (II) ions binding, indicated the involvement of carboxyl groups in Pb(II) ions binding. The metals uptake by MOP was rapid and the equilibrium time was 30 min at constant temperature and pH. Sorption kinetics followed a second-order model. The mechanism of metal sorption by MOP gave good fits for Freundlich and Langmuir models. Desorption of metals and regeneration of the biosorbent was attained simultaneously by acid elution. Even after four cycles of adsorption-elution, the adsorption capacity was regained completely and adsorption efficiency of metal was maintained at around 90%.

  6. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics investigation on the adsorption of lead(II) by coal-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhengji; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Mijia; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using activated coal-based activated carbon (CBAC) to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions through batch tests. Effects of contact time, pH, temperature and initial Pb(II) concentration on the Pb(II) adsorption were examined. The Pb(II) adsorption is strongly dependent on pH, but insensitive to temperature. The best pH for Pb(II) removal is in the range of 5.0-5.5 with more than 90 % of Pb(II) removed. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min and the adsorption data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 162.33 mg/g. The adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that CBAC possessed a porous structure and was rich in carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on its surface, which might play a major role in Pb(II) adsorption. These findings indicated that CBAC has great potential as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. PMID:27504258

  7. A non-local thermodynamical equilibrium line formation for neutral and singly ionized titanium in model atmospheres of reference A-K stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnova, T. M.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Ryabchikova, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    We construct a model atom for Ti I-II using more than 3600 measured and predicted energy levels of Ti I and 1800 energy levels of Ti II, and quantum mechanical photoionization cross-sections. Non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for Ti I and Ti II is treated through a wide range of spectral types from A to K, including metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] down to -2.6 dex. NLTE leads to weakened Ti I lines and positive abundance corrections. The magnitude of NLTE corrections is smaller compared to the literature data for FGK atmospheres. NLTE leads to strengthened Ti II lines and negative NLTE abundance corrections. For the first time, we have performed NLTE calculations for Ti I-II in the 6500 ≤ Teff ≤ 13 000 K range. For four A-type stars, we derived in LTE an abundance discrepancy of up to 0.22 dex between Ti I and Ti II, which vanishes in NLTE. For four other A-B stars, with only Ti II lines observed, NLTE leads to a decrease of line-to-line scatter. An efficiency of inelastic Ti I + H I collisions was estimated from an analysis of Ti I and Ti II lines in 17 cool stars with -2.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.0. Consistent NLTE abundances from Ti I and Ti II were obtained by applying classical Drawinian rates for the stars with log g ≥ 4.1, and neglecting inelastic collisions with H I for the very metal-poor (VMP) giant HD 122563. For the VMP turn-off stars ([Fe/H] ≤ -2 and log g ≤ 4.1), we obtained the positive abundance difference Ti I-II already in LTE, which increases in NLTE. Accurate collisional data for Ti I and Ti II are necessary to help solve this problem.

  8. Statistical equilibrium in cometary C2. II - Swan/Phillips band ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical equilibrium calculations have been made for both the triplet and ground state singlets for C2 in comets, using the exchange rate as a free parameter. The predictions of the results are consistent with optical observations and may be tested definitively by accurate observations of the Phillips and Swan band ratios. Comparison with the one reported observation indicates compatibility with a low exchange rate and resonance fluorescence statistical equilibrium.

  9. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  10. Dense clumps of ionized gas near Pi Scorpii, as revealed by the fine-structure excitation of N II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertoldi, Frank; Jenkins, Edward B.

    1992-01-01

    The column density and the emission of the ionized gas along the line of sight toward the B1 V + B2 V binary star Pi Sco are measured on the basis of the fine-structure absorption lines of the ground state N II. It is found that the bulk of this ionized gas must be clumped on a length scale of 0.025 pc, which is far smaller than the observed size of the diffuse H II region surrounding Pi Sco of about 6 pc. The observed column density of S III toward Pi Sco yields an upper limit on the distance of the absorbing, clumped gas from the star of less than about 0.02 pc, assuming that both the N II and S III absorption arise from the same gas. The possibility that the ionized gas originates from a photoevaporating circumstellar disk directly surrounding Pi Sco is excluded, since such a disk would have an unusual size of order 0.025 pc and would have had to survive for the estimated age of Pi Sco of 5-8 Myr. The derived mean density of the clumped gas is of order 40/cu cm, so that the gas is at a pressure that far exceeds the mean pressure in the H II region. It is concluded that the ionized gas could originate from evaporation flows off a cluster of compact neutral objects that evaporate due to the ionizing radiation of Pi Sco.

  11. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb(II) by common edible macrofungi: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Hao, Ruixia; Yang, Shiqin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we studied the natural bioaccumulation and biosorption of Pb(II) in several common edible macrofungi. The macrofungi include the following species: Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Agrocybe cylindracea. The present analysis of Pb(II) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. Moreover, the natural concentrations of lead did not reach a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. In the biosorption experiment by edible macrofungi, we found that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp (P. eryngii and H. marmoreus) and the homogenate of L. edodes and F. velutipes fit the Freundlich model well. Other data samples exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir model. The edible macrofungi showed a higher lead removal capacity than did other biosorbents. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model exhibited the best fit to the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macrofungi as biosorbents for Pb(II) was confirmed. PMID:26928439

  12. [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm emission from IC 342. Disentangling the emission from ionized and photo-dissociated regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Güsten, R.; Stutzki, J.; Israel, F. P.; Jacobs, K.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Atomic fine-structure line emission is a major cooling process in the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular the [C II] 158 μm line is one of the dominant cooling lines in photon-dominated regions (PDRs). However, it is not confined to PDRs but can also originate from the ionized gas closely surrounding young massive stars. The proportion of the [C II] emission from H II regions relative to that from PDRs can vary significantly. Aims: We investigate the question of how much of the [C II] emission in the nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342 is contributed by PDRs and by the ionized gas. We examine the spatial variations of starburst/PDR activity and study the correlation of the [C II] line with the [N II] 205 μm emission line coming exclusively from the H II regions. Methods: We present small maps of [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines recently observed with the GREAT receiver on board SOFIA. We present different methods to utilize the superior spatial and spectral resolution of our new data to infer information on how the gas kinematics in the nuclear region influence the observed line profiles. In particular we present a super-resolution method to derive how unresolved, kinematically correlated structures in the beam contribute to the observed line shapes. Results: We find that the emission coming from the ionized gas shows a kinematic component in addition to the general Doppler signature of the molecular gas. We interpret this as the signature of two bi-polar lobes of ionized gas expanding out of the galactic plane. We then show how this requires an adaptation of our understanding of the geometrical structure of the nucleus of IC 342. Examining the starburst activity we find ratios I( [C II] ) /I(12CO(1-0)) between 400 and 1800 in energy units. Applying predictions from numerical models of H II and PDR regions to derive the contribution from the ionized phase to the total [C II] emission we find that 35-90% of the observed [C II] intensity

  13. A numerical model of non-equilibrium thermal plasmas. II. Governing equations

    SciTech Connect

    Li HePing; Zhang XiaoNing; Xia Weidong

    2013-03-15

    Governing equations and the corresponding physical properties of the plasmas are both prerequisites for studying the fundamental processes in a non-equilibrium thermal plasma system numerically. In this paper, a kinetic derivation of the governing equations used for describing the complicated thermo-electro-magneto-hydrodynamic-chemical coupling effects in non-equilibrium thermal plasmas is presented. This derivation, which is achieved using the Chapman-Enskog method, is completely consistent with the theory of the transport properties reported in the previous paper by the same authors. It is shown, based on this self-consistent theory, that the definitions of the specific heat at constant pressure and the reactive thermal conductivity of two-temperature plasmas are not necessary. The governing equations can be reduced to their counterparts under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and local chemical equilibrium (LCE) conditions. The general method for the determination of the boundary conditions of the solved variables is also discussed briefly. The two papers establish a self-consistent physical-mathematical model that describes the complicated physical and chemical processes in a thermal plasma system for the cases both in LTE or LCE conditions and under non-equilibrium conditions.

  14. Radiation fields of intermediate-age stellar populations with binaries as ionizing sources of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Cheng, L.; Wang, L.; Kang, X.; Zhuang, Y.; Han, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Radiation fields emitted by O- and B-type stars or young stellar populations (SPs) are generally considered as significant central ionizing sources (CISs) of classic H II regions. In our previous studies, we showed that the inclusion of binary interactions in stellar population synthesis models can significantly increase the ultraviolet spectrum hardness and the number of ionizing photons of intermediate-age (IA) SPs (7 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 8). In this work, we present photoionization models of H II regions ionized by radiation fields emitted by IA SPs, including binary systems, and show that these fields are in theory possible candidates for significant CISs of classic H II regions. When radiation fields of IA SPs comprising binary systems are used as the CISs of classic H II regions, the theoretical strengths of a number of lines (such as [O III] λ4959', [S II] λ6716', etc.), which are weaker than observations, are increased; the border or selection-criterion lines between star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the diagnostic diagrams (for example, [N II] λ6583/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ), move into the region occupied originally by AGNs; and the He II λ1640 line, observed in Lyman break and high-redshift gravitationally lensed galaxies, also can be produced.

  15. Excitation in the ionized diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, J.-P.; Stasińska, G.; Lequeux, J.

    1986-04-01

    Large-scale spectra have been obtained in the diffuse, ionized background of the Sagittarius-Carina arm and in the large complex of loops and filaments located in Orion and Eridanus. The intensity ratios of the emission lines of O III forbidden line, H-beta, H-alpha, N II forbidden line and S II forbidden line have been derived from these spectra, and are analyzed using models of H II regions in ionization equilibrium at very low densities, down to 0.01/cu cm. The confrontation of the observed ratios with the predictions of the models, which have been calibrated against observations of classical H II regions, shows that the S II forbidden line (6717 + 6731)/H-alpha ratio is too large to arise in a gas submitted only to a stellar flux with which it comes into ionization equilibrium, whatever the dilution of the matter. Contribution of shock excitation seems a natural explanation, as shocks are likely to occur considering the chaotic morphology of the studied regions. Some alternative explanations are also suggested. However, this medium is principally ionized by radiation, and it is shown that the forbidden line O III/H-beta ratios are well accounted for by the known population of O stars within the expected uncertainties, while ionization by white dwarfs or by B stars suggested by previous authors are excluded. The mean effective temperature for ionizing stars (less than 35,000 K) is lower than that of stars exciting classical H II regions.

  16. H II Region Ionization of the Interstellar Medium: A Case Study of NGC 7538

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisi, Matteo; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2016-06-01

    Using data from the Green Bank Telescope, we analyze the radio continuum (free–free) and radio recombination line (RRL) emission of the compact H ii region NGC 7538 (Sharpless 158). We detect extended radio continuum and hydrogen RRL emission beyond the photodissociation region (PDR) toward the north and east, but a sharp decrease in emission toward the south and west. This indicates that a non-uniform PDR morphology is affecting the amount of radiation “leaking” through the PDR. The strongest carbon RRL emission is found in the western PDR that appears to be dense. We compute a leaking fraction f R = 15 ± 5% of the radio continuum emission measured in the plane of the sky which represents a lower limit when accounting for the three-dimensional geometry of the region. We detect an average {}4{{{He}}}+/{{{H}}}+ abundance ratio by number of 0.088 ± 0.003 inside the H ii region and a decrease in this ratio with increasing distance from the region beyond the PDR. Using Herschel Space Observatory data, we show that small dust temperature enhancements to the north and east of NGC 7538 coincide with extended radio emission, but that the dust temperature enhancements are mostly contained within a second PDR to the east. Unlike the giant H ii region W43, the radiation leaking from NGC 7538 seems to only affect the local ambient medium. This suggests that giant H ii regions may have a large effect in maintaining the ionization of the interstellar medium.

  17. Equilibrium gas flow computations. II - An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, Marcel; Liu, Yen

    1988-01-01

    Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for three-dimensional, time-varying grids. The approximations inherent in previous generalizations are discussed.

  18. Equilibrium analysis of aggregation behavior in the solvent extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Case, G.N.; Lumetta, G.J.; Wilson, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    By use of the principles of equilibrium analysis, the liquid-liquid cation exchange of Cu(II) from aqueous sulfuric acid at 25{degrees}C by didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) in toluene may be understood in terms of small hydrated aggregated species in the organic phase. Extraction data were measured as a function of organic-phase HDDNS molarity (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}), aqueous copper(II) sulfate molarity (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}), and aqueous sulfuric acid molarity (0.03 to 6.0). Graphical analysis of linear regions of the data support a model in which organic-phase aggregates of HDDNS function by cation exchange to incorporate Cu(II) ions with no apparent change in aggregation number at low loading. Supporting FTIR spectra and water-content measurements of HDDNS solutions in toluene show that the HDDNS aggregates are highly hydrated. By use of the computer program SXLSQA, a comprehensive equilibrium model was developed with inclusion of activity effects. Aqueous-phase activity coefficients and degree of aqueous bisulfate formation were estimated by use of the Pitzer treatment. Organic-phase nonideality was estimated by the Hildebrand-Scott treatment and was shown to be a negligible effect under the conditions tested. Excluding aqueous sulfuric acid molarities greater than 1, it was possible to model the data to within experimental error by assuming only the equilibrium extraction of Cu{sup 2+} ion by the aggregate (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} and the equilibrium dissociation of (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} to the monomer. The dependence of Cu(II) distribution on aqueous sulfuric acid molarity was shown to be quantitatively consistent with a cation-exchange process. In comparison with the graphical approach, the computer analysis allows comprehensive model testing over large, nonlinear data sets and eliminates the need to make limiting assumptions.

  19. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s‑1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ∼190 R near the center to ∼10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ∼0.5 to ∼1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s‑1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from

  20. Comparative equilibrium studies of sorption of Pb(II) ions by sodium and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    Khotimchenko, Maxim; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by different alginate compounds was studied in a batch sorption system. Water soluble sodium alginate and insoluble calcium alginate beads were investigated. The lead-binding capacity of both alginate compounds was highest within the pH range 6-8. The binding capacities and rates of Pb(II) ions by alginate compounds were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Bruneaur, Emmet and Teller (BET) sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Sorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The results obtained through the study suggest that alginate compounds are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Pb(II) ions were bound by sodium alginate although the difference between two compounds was slight. Therefore, alginate substances may be considered as an alternative for sorption and removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:18814578

  1. A fitting formula for radiative cooling based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium population from weakly-ionized air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Yousuke; Nagano, Atsushi; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2013-08-01

    A fitting formula for radiative cooling with collisional-radiative population for air plasma flowfield has been developed. Population number densities are calculated from rate equations in order to evaluate the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes. Many elementary processes are integrated to be applied to optically-thin plasmas in the number density range of 1012/cm3 <= N <= 1019/cm3 and the temperature range of 300 K <= T <= 40,000 K. Our results of the total radiative emissivity calculated from the collisional-radiative population are fitted in terms of temperature and total number density. To validate the analytic fitting formula, numerical simulation of a laser-induced blast wave propagation with the nonequilibrium radiative cooling is conducted and successfully reproduces the shock and plasma wave front time history observed by experiments. In addition, from the comparison between numerical simulations with the radiation cooling effect based on the fitting formula and those with a gray gas radiation model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium, we find that the displacement of the plasma front is slightly different due to the deviation of population probabilities. By using the fitting formula, we can easily and more accurately evaluate the radiative cooling effect without solving detailed collisional-radiative rate equations.

  2. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R.; Fedun, V.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  3. Batch sorption dynamics, kinetics and equilibrium studies of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous phase using agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Joginder; Khare, Rajshree; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Ali, Amjad

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the agricultural residues viz., Syzygium cumini and Populus deltoides leaves powder have been used for the biosorption of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM analysis of the biosorbents were performed to explore the type of functional groups available for metal binding and to study the surface morphology. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration, and equilibrium contact time were studied. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the results demonstrated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the biosorption process. The equilibrium data were tested using four isotherm models—Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the maximum biosorption capacities were evaluated. The Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to study the reaction kinetics with pseudo-second order model giving the best fit ( R 2 = 0.99) to the experimental data.

  4. The Ionized Gas in Nearby Galaxies as Traced by the [N II] 122 and 205 μm Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A.; Smith, J. D.; Draine, B.; Pellegrini, E.; Wolfire, M.; Croxall, K.; de Looze, I.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R.; Crocker, A.; Armus, L.; van der Werf, P.; Sandstrom, K.; Galametz, M.; Brandl, B.; Groves, B.; Rigopoulou, D.; Walter, F.; Leroy, A.; Boquien, M.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Beirao, P.

    2016-08-01

    The [N ii] 122 and 205 μm transitions are powerful tracers of the ionized gas in the interstellar medium. By combining data from 21 galaxies selected from the Herschel KINGFISH and Beyond the Peak surveys, we have compiled 141 spatially resolved regions with a typical size of ˜1 kpc, with observations of both [N ii] far-infrared lines. We measure [N ii] 122/205 line ratios in the ˜0.6–6 range, which corresponds to electron gas densities of n e ˜ 1–300 cm‑3, with a median value of n e = 30 cm‑3. Variations in the electron density within individual galaxies can be as high as a factor of ˜50, frequently with strong radial gradients. We find that n e increases as a function of infrared color, dust-weighted mean starlight intensity, and star-formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR). As the intensity of the [N ii] transitions is related to the ionizing photon flux, we investigate their reliability as tracers of the SFR. We derive relations between the [N ii] emission and SFR in the low-density limit and in the case of a log-normal distribution of densities. The scatter in the correlation between [N ii] surface brightness and ΣSFR can be understood as a property of the n e distribution. For regions with n e close to or higher than the [N ii] line critical densities, the low-density limit [N ii]-based SFR calibration systematically underestimates the SFR because the [N ii] emission is collisionally quenched. Finally, we investigate the relation between [N ii] emission, SFR, and n e by comparing our observations to predictions from the MAPPINGS-III code.

  5. Physics of Partially Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; 1. Partially ionized plasmas here and everywhere; 2. Multifluid description of partially ionized plasmas; 3. Equilibrium of partially ionized plasmas; 4. Waves in partially ionized plasmas; 5. Advanced topics in partially ionized plasmas; 6. Research problems in partially ionized plasmas; Supplementary matter; Index.

  6. A 2D multiwavelength study of the ionized gas and stellar population in the giant H II region NGC 588

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Relaño, M.; Kehrig, C.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.; Streicher, O.

    2011-05-01

    Giant H II regions (GHIIRs) in nearby galaxies are a local sample in which we can study in detail processes in the interaction of gas, dust and newly formed stars which are analogous to those which occurred in episodes of higher intensity in which much of the current stellar population was born. Here, we present an analysis of NGC 588, a GHIIR in M33, based on optical Integral Field Spectroscopy data obtained with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer at the 3.5-m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory, CAHA, together with Spitzer infrared images at 8 and 24 μm. The extinction distribution measured in the optical shows complex structure, with three maxima which correlate in position with those of the emission at 24 and 8 μm. Furthermore, the Hα luminosity absorbed by the dust within the H II region reproduces the structure observed in the 24-μm image, supporting the use of the 24-μm band as a valid tracer of recent star formation. A velocity difference of ˜50 km s-1 was measured between the areas of high and low surface brightness, which would be expected if NGC 588 were an evolved GHIIR. We have carefully identified the areas which contribute most to the line ratios measured in the integrated spectrum. Those line ratios which are used in diagnostic diagrams proposed by Baldwin, Phillips & Terlevich (i.e. the BPT diagrams) show a larger range of variation in the low surface brightness areas. The ranges are ˜0.5-1.2 dex for [N II]λ6584/Hα, 0.7-1.7 dex for [S II]λλ6717,6731/Hα and 0.3-0.5 dex for [O III]λ5007/Hβ, with higher values of [N II]λ6584/Hα and [S II]λλ6717,6731/Hα, and lower values of [O III]λ5007/Hβ in the areas of lower surface brightness. Ratios corresponding to large ionization parameter (U) are found between the peak of the emission in Hβ and the main ionizing source decreasing radially outwards within the region. Differences between the integrated and local values of the U tracers can be as high as ˜0.8 dex, notably when

  7. [Equilibrium surface charge distribution in phospholipid vesicles. II. Results of calculations].

    PubMed

    Tenchov, B G; Raĭchev, B D

    1977-01-01

    The results of the calculations of the equilibrium potential and surface charge distribution in a vesicle with radii r1=55 A and r2=100 A are presented. The calculations were carried out for the electrolyte concentrations 100 mM, 10mM, 1mM and 0.1 mM. The digitally obtained solutions of the Poisson-Boltzman equation for the case of spherical symmetry were utilized in the exact solution of the problem. The predictions of the exact solution differ significantly from these of the linear approximation in the range of low electrolyte concentrations. The influence of the membrane dielectric permeability on the charge distribution is negligible. PMID:588605

  8. Ionization equilibrium at the transition from valence-band to acceptor-band migration of holes in boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklonski, N. A.; Vyrko, S. A.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Kovalev, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    A quasi-classical model of ionization equilibrium in the p-type diamond between hydrogen-like acceptors (boron atoms which substitute carbon atoms in the crystal lattice) and holes in the valence band (v-band) is proposed. The model is applicable on the insulator side of the insulator-metal concentration phase transition (Mott transition) in p-Dia:B crystals. The densities of the spatial distributions of impurity atoms (acceptors and donors) and of holes in the crystal are considered to be Poissonian, and the fluctuations of their electrostatic potential energy are considered to be Gaussian. The model accounts for the decrease in thermal ionization energy of boron atoms with increasing concentration, as well as for electrostatic fluctuations due to the Coulomb interaction limited to two nearest point charges (impurity ions and holes). The mobility edge of holes in the v-band is assumed to be equal to the sum of the threshold energy for diffusion percolation and the exchange energy of the holes. On the basis of the virial theorem, the temperature Tj is determined, in the vicinity of which the dc band-like conductivity of holes in the v-band is approximately equal to the hopping conductivity of holes via the boron atoms. For compensation ratio (hydrogen-like donor to acceptor concentration ratio) K ≈ 0.15 and temperature Tj, the concentration of "free" holes in the v-band and their jumping (turbulent) drift mobility are calculated. Dependence of the differential energy of thermal ionization of boron atoms (at the temperature 3Tj/2) as a function of their concentration N is calculated. The estimates of the extrapolated into the temperature region close to Tj hopping drift mobility of holes hopping from the boron atoms in the charge states (0) to the boron atoms in the charge states (-1) are given. Calculations based on the model show good agreement with electrical conductivity and Hall effect measurements for p-type diamond with boron atom concentrations in the

  9. Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of Cd (II) biosorption by chemically modified orange peel.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arbind; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes have great potential of removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solutions onto chemically modified orange peel was studied at different pH, contact time, initial metal concentrations, adsorbent doses and temperature. Batch experiments were carried out under optimized conditions to evaluate the adsorption capacity of orange peel chemically modified with NaOH. The results showed that maximum adsorption capacity of modified orange peel, approximately 97.0%, was observed 3 mg 1⁻¹ of initial Cd(II) concentration pH 6 for 4 g 1⁻¹ adsorbent dosage, 200 min contact time and 298 K temperature. Adsorption efficiency of modified orange peel decreased with increase in temperature indicated exothermic nature of adsorption. A negative value of ΔG⁰(-8.59 kJ mol⁻¹) confirmed the feasibility of adsorption process and spontaneous nature of adsorption. A negative value of ΔH⁰ (-28.08 kJ mol⁻¹) indicated exothermic nature while a negative ΔS⁰ (-66.86 J K⁻¹ mol⁻¹) value suggested decrease in degree of freedom of the adsorbed species. The results showed that biosorption process of Cd(II) ions by chemically modified orange peel is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. Chemically by modified orange peel investigated in the present study showed good potential for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:27097438

  10. Microscopic Conductivity of Lattice Fermions at Equilibrium. Part II: Interacting Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, Jean-Bernard; de Siqueira Pedra, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We apply Lieb-Robinson bounds for multi-commutators we recently derived (Bru and de Siqueira Pedra, Lieb-Robinson bounds for multi-commutators and applications to response theory, 2015) to study the (possibly non-linear) response of interacting fermions at thermal equilibrium to perturbations of the external electromagnetic field. This analysis leads to an extension of the results for quasi-free fermions of (Bru et al. Commun Pure Appl Math 68(6):964-1013, 2015; Bru et al. J Math Phys 56:051901-1-051901-51, 2015) to fermion systems on the lattice with short-range interactions. More precisely, we investigate entropy production and charge transport properties of non-autonomous C*-dynamical systems associated with interacting lattice fermions within bounded static potentials and in presence of an electric field that is time and space dependent. We verify the 1st law of thermodynamics for the heat production of the system under consideration. In linear response theory, the latter is related with Ohm and Joule's laws. These laws are proven here to hold at the microscopic scale, uniformly with respect to the size of the (microscopic) region where the electric field is applied. An important outcome is the extension of the notion of conductivity measures to interacting fermions.

  11. Metastable and equilibrium defect structure of II VI/GaAs interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, A. F.; Sinclair, R.

    1991-07-01

    Defect characterization by high-resolution electron microscopy is presented for (001) epitaxy of the CdTe/GaAs and ZnTe/GaAs heterojunctions, before and after a long vacuum anneal. The annealed interface structure consists of a periodic array of perfect edge Lomer misfit dislocations, with spacing corresponding to a strain-free thin film. Since this is the most efficient manner to obtain complete relaxation, it represents the equilibrium microstructure. The as-deposited films are very thick, three to four orders of magnitude greater than the critical thicknesses, which are both less than a monolayer for these large lattice mismatch systems. Their microstructure corresponds to a metastable distribution of defects in that the thin film residual strain is nearly zero and neighboring defects can react to form Lomer misfits. A variety of defects exist both in the form of perfect misfit dislocations at the interface and extended defects into the thin film. The extended defects result from formation of stacking faults bounded by either Shockley or Frank partials, and more complicated defect structures due to interacting perfect and partial dislocations on intersecting slip planes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the means by which complete stress relaxation can occur through dislocation reactions during annealing of very thick as-deposited films.

  12. Fluids with competing interactions. II. Validating a free energy model for equilibrium cluster size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, Jonathan A.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Using computer simulations, we validate a simple free energy model that can be analytically solved to predict the equilibrium size of self-limiting clusters of particles in the fluid state governed by a combination of short-range attractive and long-range repulsive pair potentials. The model is a semi-empirical adaptation and extension of the canonical free energy-based result due to Groenewold and Kegel [J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 11702-11709 (2001)], where we use new computer simulation data to systematically improve the cluster-size scalings with respect to the strengths of the competing interactions driving aggregation. We find that one can adapt a classical nucleation like theory for small energetically frustrated aggregates provided one appropriately accounts for a size-dependent, microscopic energy penalty of interface formation, which requires new scaling arguments. This framework is verified in part by considering the extensive scaling of intracluster bonding, where we uncover a superlinear scaling regime distinct from (and located between) the known regimes for small and large aggregates. We validate our model based on comparisons against approximately 100 different simulated systems comprising compact spherical aggregates with characteristic (terminal) sizes between six and sixty monomers, which correspond to wide ranges in experimentally controllable parameters.

  13. Constraining the escape fraction of ionizing photons from H ii regions within NGC 300: A concept paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhofer, F.; Hilker, M.; Bastian, N.; Ercolano, B.

    2016-07-01

    Using broadband photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope in combination with Very Large Telescope narrowband Hα observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300, we explore a method for estimating the escape fractions of hydrogen-ionizing photons from H ii regions within this galaxy. Our goal in this concept study is to evaluate the spectral types of the most massive stars using the broadband data and estimating their ionizing photon output with the help of stellar atmosphere models. A comparison with the Hα flux that gives the amount of ionized gas in the H ii region provides a measure of the escape fraction of ionizing photons from that region. We performed some tests with a number of synthetic young clusters with varying parameters to assess the reliability of the method. However, we found that the derived stellar spectral types and consequently the expected ionizing photon luminosity of a region is highly uncertain. The tests also show that on one hand we tended to overestimate the integrated photon output of a region for young ages and low numbers of stars, and on the other hand we mostly underestimated the combined ionizing luminosity for a large stellar number and older cluster ages. We conclude that the proposed method of using stellar broadband photometry to infer the leakage of ionizing photons from H ii regions is highly uncertain and dominated by the errors of the resulting stellar spectral types. Therefore this method is not suitable. Stellar spectra are needed to reliably determine the stellar types and escape fractions. Studies to this end have been carried out for the Magellanic Clouds. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA).Based on observations made with ESO telescopes

  14. Age and hormonal status as determinants of cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation. II. Sparsely ionizing (low-LET) radiation.

    PubMed

    Dynlacht, Joseph R; Valluri, Shailaja; Garrett, Joy; Nees, Jessica; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; DesRosiers, Colleen; Bigsby, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Age at the time of exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation has been established as a key determinant of radiation cataractogenesis. However, while some reports suggest that the lenses of the young are hypersensitive, data from older studies are often conflicting and somewhat difficult to interpret when the radioresponse of young lenses is compared to that of adult lenses. Moreover, the mechanism of the age-response function for radiation cataractogenesis has yet to be identified. Since steroid sex hormones, notably estradiol, appear to play a role in age-related cataractogenesis, we hypothesized that the age response for radiation cataractogenesis could be dictated by estradiol status. We recently showed that exposure to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation resulted in a reduced latent period for, and enhanced progression of cataracts in rats that were 1 year old at the time of exposure compared to those that were 56 days old. However, the enhanced sensitivity of older lenses compared to younger lenses was independent of estradiol status. In the current study, we found that for 1-year-old rats exposed to 10 Gy of low-LET (60)Co γ rays, the rate of increase in the development of posterior and anterior subcapsular cataracts was higher in older ovary-intact rats compared to young rats. However, cataracts were detected much earlier in ovary-intact 56-day-old rats compared to 1-year-old rats, regardless of their treatment groups (ovary-intact, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing estradiol). Thus, despite a consistent estradiol response (potentiating effect of estrogen) within a given age group, the differences between the radiation response of old and young lenses cannot be accounted for solely by estradiol status. PMID:22880623

  15. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND X-RAY IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2012-03-10

    We investigate the impact of photochemistry and X-ray ionization on the molecular composition of, and ionization fraction in, a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. We use a sophisticated physical model, which includes a robust treatment of the radiative transfer of UV and X-ray radiation, and calculate the time-dependent chemical structure using a comprehensive chemical network. In previous work, we approximated the photochemistry and X-ray ionization; here, we recalculate the photoreaction rates using the explicit UV wavelength spectrum and wavelength-dependent reaction cross sections. We recalculate the X-ray ionization rate using our explicit elemental composition and X-ray energy spectrum. We find that photochemistry has a larger influence on the molecular composition than X-ray ionization. Observable molecules sensitive to the photorates include OH, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH. The only molecule significantly affected by the X-ray ionization is N{sub 2}H{sup +}, indicating that it is safe to adopt existing approximations of the X-ray ionization rate in typical T Tauri star-disk systems. The recalculation of the photorates increases the abundances of neutral molecules in the outer disk, highlighting the importance of taking into account the shape of the UV spectrum in protoplanetary disks. A recalculation of the photoreaction rates also affects the gas-phase chemistry due to the adjustment of the H/H{sub 2} and C{sup +}/C ratios. The disk ionization fraction is not significantly affected by the methods adopted to calculate the photochemistry and X-ray ionization. We determine that there is a probable 'dead zone' where accretion is suppressed, present in a layer, Z/R {approx}< 0.1-0.2, in the disk midplane, within R Almost-Equal-To 200 AU.

  16. BAT AGN spectroscopic survey-II. X-ray emission and high-ionization optical emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berney, Simon; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Baloković, Mislav; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby (z ≃ 0.04) AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (L_[O III]^{int} ∝ L_{14-195}) with a large scatter (RPear = 0.64, σ = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear = 0.63, σ = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low-ionization lines (H α, [S II]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (σ = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical differences in the scattering of the ionized gas or long-term AGN variability are important.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium study and biological activity of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of polydentate Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A; Shehata, Mohamed R; Shoukry, Mohamed M; Barakat, Mohammad H

    2012-10-01

    Schiff base ligand, 1,4-bis[(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)propyl]piperazine (BHPP), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR and UV-vis) studies. The ground state of BHPP ligand was investigated using the BUILDER module of MOE. Metal complexes are formed in the 1:1 (M:L) ratio as found from the elemental analysis and found to have the general formula [ML]·nH(2)O, where M=Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L=BHPP. In all the studied complexes, the (BHPP) ligand behaves as a hexadentate divalent anion with coordination involving the two azomethine nitrogen's, the two nitrogen atoms of piperazine ring and the two deprotonated phenolic OH-groups. The magnetic and spectral data indicates octahedral geometry of metal(II) complexes. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria and fungi. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Protonation constants of (BHPP) ligand and stability constants of its Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M sodium nitrate. It has been observed that the protonated Schiff base ligand (BHPP) have four protonation constants. The divalent metal ions Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) form 1:1 complexes. PMID:22935596

  18. Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium study and biological activity of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of polydentate Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Shehata, Mohamed R.; Shoukry, Mohamed M.; Barakat, Mohammad H.

    2012-10-01

    Schiff base ligand, 1,4-bis[(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)propyl]piperazine (BHPP), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR and UV-vis) studies. The ground state of BHPP ligand was investigated using the BUILDER module of MOE. Metal complexes are formed in the 1:1 (M:L) ratio as found from the elemental analysis and found to have the general formula [ML]·nH2O, where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L = BHPP. In all the studied complexes, the (BHPP) ligand behaves as a hexadentate divalent anion with coordination involving the two azomethine nitrogen's, the two nitrogen atoms of piperazine ring and the two deprotonated phenolic OH-groups. The magnetic and spectral data indicates octahedral geometry of metal(II) complexes. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria and fungi. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Protonation constants of (BHPP) ligand and stability constants of its Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M sodium nitrate. It has been observed that the protonated Schiff base ligand (BHPP) have four protonation constants. The divalent metal ions Cu2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ form 1:1 complexes.

  19. How do type II topoisomerases use ATP hydrolysis to simplify DNA topology beyond equilibrium? Investigating the relaxation reaction of nonsupercoiling type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Stuchinskaya, Tanya; Mitchenall, Lesley A; Schoeffler, Allyn J; Corbett, Kevin D; Berger, James M; Bates, Andrew D; Maxwell, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    DNA topoisomerases control the topology of DNA (e.g., the level of supercoiling) in all cells. Type IIA topoisomerases are ATP-dependent enzymes that have been shown to simplify the topology of their DNA substrates to a level beyond that expected at equilibrium (i.e., more relaxed than the product of relaxation by ATP-independent enzymes, such as type I topoisomerases, or a lower-than-equilibrium level of catenation). The mechanism of this effect is currently unknown, although several models have been suggested. We have analyzed the DNA relaxation reactions of type II topoisomerases to further explore this phenomenon. We find that all type IIA topoisomerases tested exhibit the effect to a similar degree and that it is not dependent on the supercoil-sensing C-terminal domains of the enzymes. As recently reported, the type IIB topoisomerase, topoisomerase VI (which is only distantly related to type IIA enzymes), does not exhibit topology simplification. We find that topology simplification is not significantly dependent on circle size in the range approximately 2-9 kbp and is not altered by reducing the free energy available from ATP hydrolysis by varying the ADP:ATP ratio. A direct test of one model (DNA tracking; i.e., sliding of a protein clamp along DNA to trap supercoils) suggests that this is unlikely to be the explanation for the effect. We conclude that geometric selection of DNA segments by the enzymes is likely to be a primary source of the effect, but that it is possible that other kinetic factors contribute. We also speculate whether topology simplification might simply be an evolutionary relic, with no adaptive significance. PMID:19094994

  20. The merging/AGN connection. II. Ionization of the circumnuclear regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Becker, T.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Benn, C. R.; Christensen, L.; Kelz, A.; Jahnke, K.; Roth, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first results of a study of a sample of 20 galaxy mergers/interacting systems, using the VIMOS and PMAS integral field spectrographs. For each object, we extracted the integrated spectrum of the central regions and analyzed the ionization state using classical diagnostic diagrams \\citep{veil87}. There is evidence of AGN ionization in 4 of the objects, i.e. 20% of the sample, a considerably higher fraction than found in previous studies (˜4%). An increase of the nuclear activity with the far infrared temperature may account for the difference.

  1. Iron isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite revisited: New insights based on a multi-direction approach to equilibrium and isotopic exchange rate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Beard, Brian L.; Reddy, Thiruchelvi R.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2014-08-01

    The Fe isotope compositions of naturally occurring Fe oxide minerals provide insights into biogeochemical processes that occur in modern and ancient environments. Key to understanding isotopic variations in such minerals is knowledge of the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation factors between common minerals and aqueous Fe species. Because experimental measurements of isotopic fractionation may reflect a combination of kinetic and equilibrium fractionations during rapid dissolution and precipitation, even in experiments that employ the three-isotope method, assessment of the attainment of equilibrium is often difficult. Here, we re-examine Fe isotope exchange, via a 57Fe tracer, and natural mass-dependent fractionation, through changes in initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, between aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) and goethite. This approach uses the three-isotope method, but is distinct in its evaluation of kinetic isotope fractionation and the attainment of equilibrium by: (i) employing a multi-direction approach to equilibrium at 22 °C via reaction of three Fe(II)aq solutions that had different initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, (ii) conducting isotopic exchange experiments at elevated temperature (50 °C), and (iii) modifying the rate of isotopic exchange through a combination of trace-element substitutions and particle coarsening to evaluate corresponding temporal changes in fractionation trajectories that may reflect changing instantaneous fractionation factors. We find that rapid isotopic exchange produces kinetic isotope effects between Fe(II)aq and goethite, which shifts the 56Fe/54Fe ratios of Fe(II)aq early in reactions toward that of goethite, indicating that the instantaneous Fe(II)aq-goethite fractionation factor under kinetic conditions is small. Importantly, however, this kinetic fractionation is “erased” with continued reaction, and this is evident by the congruence for multiple-exchange trajectories of distinct initial Fe(II)aq solutions toward the same final value

  2. THE ROLE OF DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION ON NONEQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCKS. II. EMITTED SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2010-12-20

    We present a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for the X-ray spectra from supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The calculation follows the hydrodynamics of the blast wave as well as the time-dependent ionization of the plasma behind the shock. The ionization state is passed to a plasma emissivity code to compute the thermal X-ray emission, which is combined with the emission from nonthermal synchrotron emission to produce a self-consistent model for the thermal and nonthermal emission from cosmic-ray dominated shocks. We show how plasma diagnostics such as the G'-ratio of He-like ions, defined as the ratio of the sum of the intercombination, forbidden, and satellite lines to the resonance line, can vary with acceleration efficiency, and discuss how the thermal X-ray emission, when the time-dependent ionization is not calculated self-consistently with the hydrodynamics, can differ from the thermal X-ray emission from models which do account for the hydrodynamics. Finally, we compare the thermal X-ray emission from models which show moderate acceleration ({approx}35%) to the thermal X-ray emission from test-particle models.

  3. Dynamics of Coronal Rain and Descending Plasma Blobs in Solar Prominences. II. Partially Ionized Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30-150 km s-1 and of the order of 10-30 km s-1, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s-1 at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  4. Optical observations on the CRIT-II Critical Ionization Velocity Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Haerendel, G.; Valenzuela, A.

    1990-01-01

    A rocket borne Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV0 experiment was carried out from Wallops Island at dusk on May 4, 1989. Two barium shaped charges were released below the solar terminator (to prevent photoionization) at altitudes near 400 km. The ambient ionospheric electron density was 50,000/cu cm. The neutral barium jet was directed upward and at an angle of nominally 45 degrees to B which gives approximately 3 x 10 to the 23rd neutrals with super critical velocity. Ions created by a CIV process in the region of the neutral jet would travel up along B into sunlight where they can be detected optically. Well defined ion clouds (max. brightness 750 R) were observed in both releases. An ionization rate of 0.8 percent/sec (125 sec ionization time constant) can account for the observed ion cloud near the release field line, but the ionization rate falls off with increasing distance from the release. It is concluded that a CIV process was present in the neutral jet out to about 50 km from the release, which is significantly further than allowed by current theories.

  5. Ionization Parameter as a Diagnostic of Radiation and Wind Pressures in H II Regions and Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2012-10-01

    The ionization parameter {\\cal U} is potentially useful as a tool to measure radiation pressure feedback from massive star clusters, as it directly reflects the ratio of radiation to gas pressure and is readily derived from mid-infrared line ratios. We consider a number of physical effects which combine to determine the apparent value of {\\cal U} in observations encompassing one or many H II regions. An upper limit is set by the compression of gas by radiation pressure, when this is important. The pressure of shocked stellar winds and the presence of neutral clumps both tend to reduce {\\cal U} for a given intensity of irradiation. The most intensely irradiated regions are selectively dimmed by internal dust absorption of ionizing photons, leading to a bias for observations on galactic scales. We explore these effects in analytical and numerical models for dusty H II regions and use them to interpret previous observational results. We find that radiation pressure confinement sets the upper limit log _{10} {\\cal U}\\simeq -1 seen in individual regions. Unresolved starbursts are known to display a maximum value of ~= - 2.3. While lower, this is also consistent with a large portion of their H II regions being radiation pressure dominated, given the different technique used to interpret unresolved regions, and given the bias caused by dust absorption. We infer that many individual, strongly illuminated regions cannot be significantly overpressured by stellar winds, and that even when averaged on galactic scales, the shocked wind pressure cannot be large compared to radiation pressure. Therefore, most H II regions cannot be adiabatic wind bubbles. Our models imply a metallicity dependence in the physical structure and dust attenuation of radiation-dominated regions, both of which should vary strongly across a critical metallicity of about one-twentieth solar.

  6. IONIZATION PARAMETER AS A DIAGNOSTIC OF RADIATION AND WIND PRESSURES IN H II REGIONS AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2012-10-01

    The ionization parameter U is potentially useful as a tool to measure radiation pressure feedback from massive star clusters, as it directly reflects the ratio of radiation to gas pressure and is readily derived from mid-infrared line ratios. We consider a number of physical effects which combine to determine the apparent value of U in observations encompassing one or many H II regions. An upper limit is set by the compression of gas by radiation pressure, when this is important. The pressure of shocked stellar winds and the presence of neutral clumps both tend to reduce U for a given intensity of irradiation. The most intensely irradiated regions are selectively dimmed by internal dust absorption of ionizing photons, leading to a bias for observations on galactic scales. We explore these effects in analytical and numerical models for dusty H II regions and use them to interpret previous observational results. We find that radiation pressure confinement sets the upper limit log{sub 10}U{approx_equal}-1 seen in individual regions. Unresolved starbursts are known to display a maximum value of {approx_equal} - 2.3. While lower, this is also consistent with a large portion of their H II regions being radiation pressure dominated, given the different technique used to interpret unresolved regions, and given the bias caused by dust absorption. We infer that many individual, strongly illuminated regions cannot be significantly overpressured by stellar winds, and that even when averaged on galactic scales, the shocked wind pressure cannot be large compared to radiation pressure. Therefore, most H II regions cannot be adiabatic wind bubbles. Our models imply a metallicity dependence in the physical structure and dust attenuation of radiation-dominated regions, both of which should vary strongly across a critical metallicity of about one-twentieth solar.

  7. High-Resolution Emission-Line Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies. II. Evidence for Anisotropic Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Ward, Martin J.; Haniff, Christopher A.

    1988-11-01

    In the preceding paper, we describe a direct imaging survey of Seyfert galaxies with "linear" radio structures and find that the major axes and spatial scales of the circumnuclear emission-line gas are very similar to those of the radio continuum sources. In the present paper, the nature of this close connection between thermal and relativistic gases is assessed in detail. Models in which the kinetic energy of the radio jets or plasmoids powers shock waves, which ionize the gas, seem energetically feasible but disagree with the off-nuclear line intensity ratios. Ionization by relativistic electrons is negligible, but they may contribute to the heating of the gas. We favor a scenario in which the radio jets and plasmoids shock, accelerate, and compress ambient and entrained gas, but the dominant source of ionization is the nonstellar nuclear ultraviolet continuum. This ultraviolet source appears to be partially beamed along the axis of the radio jet. Photoionization by ultraviolet synchrotron radiation generated via shocks in the ejecta may also contribute, especially in Seyfert 2 galaxies. A comparison between the number of ionizing photons, N_i_, inferred by extrapolation of the directly observed continuum, and the number of ionizing photons, N_Hβ_, required to generate the Hβ emission has been made for six galaxies in our sample. In at least two galaxies, we find N_i_ << N_Hβ_, suggesting that the gas is exposed to a higher ionizing flux than inferred from direct observations of the nucleus, and supporting the idea of partial beaming. Similarly, the energy in the continuum between 100 A and 1 micron, if emitted isotropically, is inadequate to fuel the thermal nuclear infrared sources, implying that the radiating dust is heated by a more luminous optical-ultraviolet source. We speculate that the nuclear infrared emission of Seyfert 2 galaxies arises from dust in molecular clouds exposed to the partially beamed radiation, and we predict that the 10 micron

  8. Internal structure of spiral arms traced with [C II]: Unraveling the warm ionized medium, H I, and molecular emission lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The spiral arm tangencies are ideal lines of sight in which to determine the distribution of interstellar gas components in the spiral arms and study the influence of spiral density waves on the interarm gas in the Milky Way. [C II] emission in the tangencies delineates the warm ionized component and the photon-dominated regions and is thus an important probe of spiral arm structure and dynamics. Aims: We aim to use [C II], H I, and 12CO spectral line maps of the Crux, Norma, and Perseus tangencies to analyze the internal structure of the spiral arms in different gas layers. Methods: We used [C II] l-V maps along with those for H I and 12CO to derive the average spectral line intensity profiles over the longitudinal range of each tangency. Using the VLSR of the emission features, we located the [C II], H I, and 12CO emissions along a cross cut of the spiral arm. We used the [C II] velocity profile to identify the compressed warm ionized medium (WIM) in the spiral arm. Results: We present a large-scale (~15°) position-velocity map of the Galactic plane in [C II] from l = 326.6° to 341.4° observed with Herschel HIFI. In the spectral line profiles at the tangencies, [C II] has two emission peaks, one associated with the compressed WIM and the other the molecular gas photon-dominated regions. When represented as a cut across the inner to outer edge of the spiral arm, the [C II]-WIM peak appears closest to the inner edge while 12CO and [C II] associated with molecular gas are at the outermost edge. H I has broader emission with an intermediate peak located nearer to that of 12CO. Conclusions: The velocity-resolved spectral line data of the spiral arm tangencies unravel the internal structure in the arms locating the emission lanes within them. We interpret the excess [C II] near the tangent velocities as shock compression of the WIM induced by the spiral density waves and as the innermost edge of spiral arms. For the Norma and Perseus arms, we estimate

  9. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10‧ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  10. Evidence for Fluorescent Fe II Emission from Extended Low Ionization Outflows in Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tinggui; Ferland, Gary J.; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that outflows in at least some broad absorption line (BAL) quasars are extended well beyond the putative dusty torus. Such outflows should be detectable in obscured quasars. We present four WISE selected infrared red quasars with very strong and peculiar ultraviolet Fe ii emission lines: strong UV Fe ii UV arising from transitions to ground/low excitation levels, and very weak Fe ii at wavelengths longer than 2800 Å. The spectra of these quasars display strong resonant emission lines, such as C iv, Al iii and Mg ii but sometimes, a lack of non-resonant lines such as C iii], S iii and He ii. We interpret the Fe ii lines as resonantly scattered light from the extended outflows that are viewed nearly edge-on, so that the accretion disk and broad line region are obscured by the dusty torus, while the extended outflows are not. We show that dust free gas exposed to strong radiation longward of 912 Å produces Fe ii emission very similar to that observed. The gas is too cool to collisionally excite Fe ii lines, accounting for the lack of optical emission. The spectral energy distribution from the UV to the mid-infrared can be modeled as emission from a clumpy dusty torus, with UV emission being reflected/scattered light either by the dusty torus or the outflow. Within this scenario, we estimate a minimum covering factor of the outflows from a few to 20% for the Fe ii scattering region, suggesting that Fe ii BAL quasars are at a special stage of quasar evolution.

  11. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines from the Ionized Circumstellar Material around <10-day-old Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Arcavi, I.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Cao, Y.; Perley, D.; Sollerman, J.; Horesh, A.; Sullivan, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Ebeling, H.; Taddia, F.; Johansson, J.; Laher, R. R.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Wozniak, P. R.; Matheson, T.

    2016-02-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (≤10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (“flash spectroscopy”), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as “blue/featureless” (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude MR = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above MR = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  12. CRIT II electric, magnetic, and density measurements within an ionizing neutral stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, C. M.; Kelley, M. C.; Primdahl, F.; Baker, K. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements from rocket-borne sensors inside a high-velocity neutral barium beam show a-factor-of-six increase in plasma density in a moving ionizing front. This region was colocated with intense fluctuating electric fields at frequencies well under the lower hybrid frequency for a barium plasma. Large quasi-dc electric and magnetic field fluctuations were also detected with a large component of the current and the electric field parallel to B(0). An Alfven wave with a finite electric field component parallel to the geomagnetic field was observed to propagate along B(0), where it was detected by an instrumented subpayload.

  13. Ionization and excitation in cool giant stars. I - Hydrogen and helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttermoser, Donald G.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence that non-LTE radiative transfer has on the electron density, ionization equilibrium, and excitation equilibrium in model atmospheres representative of both oxygen-rich and carbon-rich red giant stars is demonstrated. The radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations are solved self-consistently for H, H(-), H2, He I, C I, C II, Na I, Mg I, Mg II, Ca I, and Ca II in a plane-parallel static medium. Calculations are made for both radiative-equilibrium model photospheres alone and model photospheres with attached chromospheric models as determined semiempirically with IUE spectra of g Her (M6 III) and TX Psc (C6, 2). The excitation and ionization results for hydrogen and helium are reported.

  14. Screening derivatized peptide libraries for tight binding inhibitors to carbonic anhydrase II by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Cheng, X; Chen, R; Sigal, G B; Bruce, J E; Schwartz, B L; Hofstadler, S A; Anderson, G A; Smith, R D; Whitesides, G M

    1996-05-10

    This paper describes the use of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to screen two libraries of soluble compounds to search for tight binding inhibitors for carbonic anhydrase II (EC 4.2.1.1). The two libraries, H2NO2SC6H4C(O)NH-AA1-AA2-C(O)NHCH2CH2CO2H where AA1 and AA2 are L-amino acids (library size: 289 compounds) or D-amino acids (256 compounds), were constructed by attaching tripeptides to the carboxyl group of 4-carboxybenzenesulfonamide. Screening of both libraries yielded, as the tightest binding inhibitor, compound 1 (AA1 = AA2 = L-Leu; binding constant Kb = 1.4 x 10(8) M-1). The ability of ESI-MS to estimate simultaneously the relative binding affinities of a protein to soluble ligands in a library, if general, should be useful in drug development. PMID:8642553

  15. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-09-14

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.

  16. Kinetic theory of low-frequency cross-field instability in a weakly ionized plasma. II

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y.S.; Sudan, R.N.

    1995-04-01

    The consistent kinetic approach developed in Paper I [Ya. S. Dimant and R. N. Sudan, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 1157 (1995)] is applied to obtain the general dispersion relation of the two-stream {bold E}{times}{bold B} instability in collisionally dominated weakly ionized plasmas for wave frequencies small compared to the ion--neutral collision frequency. This dispersion relation covers the whole low-frequency band from the asymptotic short-wave limit studied in Paper I to the long-wave limit. Previous theories employing simplified kinetic theory or fluid equations for electron behavior are only correct in the long-wave limit. The principal new results are that the threshold conditions for this instability and the growth rates are altered from those predicted by earlier simplified theories. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. Ionizing shocks in argon. Part II: Transient and multi-dimensional effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kapper, M. G.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2011-06-01

    We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to the unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative model and a single-fluid, two-temperature formulation of the conservation equations. It is shown that the fluctuations of the shock structure observed in shock-tube experiments can be reproduced by the numerical simulations and explained on the basis of the coupling of the nonlinear kinetics of the collisional-radiative model with wave propagation within the induction zone. The mechanism is analogous to instabilities of detonation waves and also produces a cellular structure commonly observed in gaseous detonations. We suggest that detailed simulations of such unsteady phenomena can yield further information for the validation of nonequilibrium kinetics.

  18. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - II. Kinematics of ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around 11 luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5 out to ˜15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III] λ5007 Å emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80 per cent of the emission as high as 103 km s-1) combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km s-1) point towards wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km s-1, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly towards outer parts of the nebulae (by 3 per cent kpc-1 on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, signifying gas outflows. For the median outflow velocity, we find dot{E}_kin between 4 × 1044 and 3 × 1045 erg s-1 and dot{M} between 2 × 103 and 2 × 104 M⊙ yr-1. These values are large enough for the observed quasar winds to have a significant impact on their host galaxies. The median rate of converting bolometric luminosity to kinetic energy of ionized gas clouds is ˜2 per cent. We report four new candidates for `superbubbles' - outflows that may have broken out of the denser regions of the host galaxy.

  19. The Ionizing Star Clusters of Giant H II Regions in NGC 2403

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, Laurent; Roy, Jean-René; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.

    1999-03-01

    We present the results of a study on the massive star population down to about M_V~-3.1, or 12-15 M_solar, of the most luminous giant H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2403, based on Hubble Space Telescope images and ground-based spectrograms. Particular emphasis is placed on the distribution of the Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars and the information they provide about the recent star-forming history of these large complexes. We find direct evidence for the presence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in five of the six giant H II regions investigated; 25-40 WR stars are inferred for the sole NGC 2403-I giant H II region. Red supergiant (RSG) stars are mainly distributed over a more extended halo, while the young blue stars and most WR stars are in or close to a compact core. One appears to be seeing young cores of O and WR stars surrounded by older halos containing red supergiants. We propose a scenario in which RSG stars belonging to an early phase of star formation were followed by a more recent burst corresponding to a very blue mean sequence. Delayed trigger with preheating over several 100 pc by the first generation of massive stars allowed the build-up of the required confinement for the production of parsec-scale cluster cores with luminosity up to a few times 10^6 L_solar. Finally, we present some interesting objects found in the field of NGC 2403 outside the giant H II regions, such as field WR stars, globular clusters and background galaxies.

  20. Search for lightly ionizing particles using CDMS-II data and fabrication of CDMS detectors with improved homogeneity in properties

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Kunj Bihari

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental particles are always observed to carry charges which are integral multiples of one-third charge of electron, e/3. While this is a well established experimental fact, the theoretical understanding for the charge quantization phenomenon is lacking. On the other hand, there exist numerous theoretical models that naturally allow for existence of particles with fractional electromagnetic charge. These particles, if existing, hint towards existence of physics beyond the standard model. Multiple high energy, optical, cosmological and astrophysical considerations restrict the allowable mass-charge parameter space for these fractional charges. Still, a huge unexplored region remains. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II), located at Soudan mines in northern Minnesota, employs germanium and silicon crystals to perform direct searches for a leading candidate to dark matter called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Alternately, the low detection threshold allows search for fractional electromagnetic-charged particles, or Lightly Ionizing Particles (LIPs), moving at relativistic speed. Background rejection is obtained by requiring that the magnitude and location of energy deposited in each detector be consistent with corresponding \\signatures" resulting from the passage of a fractionally charged particle. In this dissertation, the CDMS-II data is analyzed to search for LIPs, with an expected background of 0.078 0.078 events. No candidate events are observed, allowing exclusion of new parameter space for charges between e/6 and e/200.

  1. Low frequency azimuthal stability of the ionization region of the Hall thruster discharge. II. Global analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar, D.; Ahedo, E.

    2015-10-15

    The linear stability of the Hall thruster discharge is analysed against axial-azimuthal perturbations in the low frequency range using a time-dependent 2D code of the discharge. This azimuthal stability analysis is spatially global, as opposed to the more common local stability analyses, already afforded previously (D. Escobar and E. Ahedo, Phys. Plasmas 21(4), 043505 (2014)). The study covers both axial and axial-azimuthal oscillations, known as breathing mode and spoke, respectively. The influence on the spoke instability of different operation parameters such as discharge voltage, mass flow, and thruster size is assessed by means of different parametric variations and compared against experimental results. Additionally, simplified models are used to unveil and characterize the mechanisms driving the spoke. The results indicate that the spoke is linked to azimuthal oscillations of the ionization process and to the Bohm condition in the transition to the anode sheath. Finally, results obtained from local and global stability analyses are compared in order to explain the discrepancies between both methods.

  2. Low frequency azimuthal stability of the ionization region of the Hall thruster discharge. II. Global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Ahedo, E.

    2015-10-01

    The linear stability of the Hall thruster discharge is analysed against axial-azimuthal perturbations in the low frequency range using a time-dependent 2D code of the discharge. This azimuthal stability analysis is spatially global, as opposed to the more common local stability analyses, already afforded previously (D. Escobar and E. Ahedo, Phys. Plasmas 21(4), 043505 (2014)). The study covers both axial and axial-azimuthal oscillations, known as breathing mode and spoke, respectively. The influence on the spoke instability of different operation parameters such as discharge voltage, mass flow, and thruster size is assessed by means of different parametric variations and compared against experimental results. Additionally, simplified models are used to unveil and characterize the mechanisms driving the spoke. The results indicate that the spoke is linked to azimuthal oscillations of the ionization process and to the Bohm condition in the transition to the anode sheath. Finally, results obtained from local and global stability analyses are compared in order to explain the discrepancies between both methods.

  3. A model of comet comae. II - Effects of solar photodissociative ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, W. F.; Giguere, P. T.

    1980-06-01

    Improvements to a computer model of coma photochemistry are described. These include an expansion of the chemical reactions network and new rate constants that have been measured only recently. Photolytic reactions of additional molecules are incorporated, and photolytic branching ratios are treated in far greater detail than previously. A total of 25 photodissociative ionization (PDI) reactions are now considered (as compared to only 3 PDI reactions previously). Solar PDI of the mother molecule CO2 is shown to compete effectively with photoionization of CO in the production of observed CO(+). The CO(+) density peak predicted by the improved model, for CO2 or CO mother molecules, is deep in the inner coma, in better agreement with observation than the old CO2 model. However, neither CO2 nor CO mother molecule calculations reproduce the CO(+)/H2O(+) ratio observed in comet Kohoutek. PDI products of CO2, CO, CH4, and NH3 mother molecules fuel a complex chemistry scheme, producing inner coma abundances of CN, C2, and C3 much greater than previously calculated.

  4. Hyperfine structure constants for singly ionized manganese (Mn II) using Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townley-Smith, Keeley; Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    We expand on the comprehensive study of hyperfine structure (HFS) in Mn II conducted by Holt et al. (1999) by verifying hyperfine magnetic dipole constants (A) for 20 levels previously measured by Holt et al. (1999) and deriving A constants for 47 previously unstudied levels. The HFS patterns were measured in archival spectra from Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at Imperial College London and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Analysis of the FT spectra was carried out in XGREMLIN. Our A constant for the ground level has a lower uncertainty by a factor of 6 than that of Blackwell-Whitehead et al.

  5. The effect of recombination radiation on the temperature and ionization state of partially ionized gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raičević, Milan; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Schaye, Joop; Rahmati, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    A substantial fraction of all ionizing photons originate from radiative recombinations. However, in radiative transfer calculations this recombination radiation is often assumed to be absorbed `on-the-spot' because for most methods the computational cost associated with the inclusion of gas elements as sources is prohibitive. We present a new, CPU and memory efficient implementation for the transport of ionizing recombination radiation in the TRAPHIC radiative transfer scheme. TRAPHIC solves the radiative transfer equation by tracing photon packets at the speed of light and in a photon-conserving manner in spatially adaptive smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Our new implementation uses existing features of the TRAPHIC scheme to add recombination radiation at no additional cost in the limit in which the fraction of the simulation box filled with radiation approaches 1. We test the implementation by simulating an H II region in photoionization equilibrium and comparing to reference solutions presented in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We apply our implementation to discuss the evolution of the H II region to equilibrium. We show that the widely used case A and B approximations yield accurate ionization profiles only near the source and near the ionization front, respectively. We also discuss the impact of recombination radiation on the geometry of shadows behind optically thick absorbers. We demonstrate that the shadow region may be completely ionized by the diffuse recombination radiation field and discuss the important role of heating by recombination radiation in the shadow region.

  6. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by a waste mud from copper mine industry: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Kemer, Baris; Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the adsorption potential of a waste mud (WM) for the removal of lead (Pb(II)) ions from aqueous solutions. The WM was activated with NaOH in order to increase its adsorption capacity. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, activated-waste mud (a-WM) concentration, temperature, etc. Optimum pH was specified as 4.0. The adsorption kinetic studies indicated that the overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of a-WM was obtained by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and both models fitted well. Adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was found to be 24.4 mg g(-1) for 10 g L(-1) of a-WM concentration. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (DeltaS degrees) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions on the a-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic, at temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Desorption studies were carried out successfully with diluted HCl solutions. The results indicate that a-WM can be used as an effective and no-cost adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters contaminated with Pb(II) ions. PMID:19167162

  7. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. II. Experimental detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The basic 30-nm chromatin fiber in the mammalian cell consists of an unknown (possibly helical) arrangement of nucleosomes, with about 1.2 kb of DNA per 10-nm length of fiber. Track-structure considerations suggest that interactions of single delta rays or high-LET particles with the chromatin fiber might result in the formation of multiple lesions spread over a few kilobases of DNA (see the accompanying paper: W.R. Holley and A. Chatterjee, Radiat. Res. 145, 188-199, 1996). In particular, multiple DNA double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks may form. To test this experimentally, primary human fibroblasts were labeled with [3H]thymidine and exposed at 0 degrees C to X rays or accelerated nitrogen or iron ions in the LET range of 97-440 keV/microns. DNA was isolated inside agarose plugs and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions that allowed good separation of 0.1-2 kb size DNA. The bulk of DNA remained in the well or migrated only a small distance into the gel. It was found that DNA fragments in the expected size range were formed linearly with dose with an efficiency that increased with LET. A comparison of the yield of such fragments with the yield of total DNA double-strand breaks suggests that for the high-LET ions a substantial proportion (20-90%) of DNA double-strand breaks are accompanied within 0.1-2 kb by at least one additional DNA double-strand break. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on treating the 30-nm chromatin fiber as the target for ionizing particles. Theoretical considerations also predict that the clusters will contain numerous single-strand breaks and base damages. It is proposed that such clusters be designated "regionally multiply damaged sites." Postirradiation incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in a decline in the number of short DNA fragments, suggesting a repair activity. The biological significance of regionally multiply damaged sites is presently unknown.

  8. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  9. Theory of fluorescence induction in photosystem II: derivation of analytical expressions in a model including exciton-radical-pair equilibrium and restricted energy transfer between photosynthetic units.

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, J; Trissl, H W

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical relationships between the fluorescence and photochemical yields of PS II and the fraction of open reaction centers are examined in a general model endowed with the following features: i) a homogeneous, infinite PS II domain; ii) exciton-radical-pair equilibrium; and iii) different rates of exciton transfer between core and peripheral antenna beds. Simple analytical relations are derived for the yields and their time courses in induction experiments. The introduction of the exciton-radical-pair equilibrium, for both the open and closed states of the trap, is shown to be equivalent to an irreversible trapping scheme with modified parameters. Variation of the interunit transfer rate allows continuous modulation from the case of separated units to the pure lake model. Broadly used relations for estimating the relative amount of reaction centers from the complementary area of the fluorescence kinetics or the photochemical yield from fluorescence levels are examined in this framework. Their dependence on parameters controlling exciton decay is discussed, allowing assessment of their range of applicability. An experimental induction curve is analyzed, with a discussion of its decomposition into alpha and beta contributions. The sigmoidicity of the induction kinetics is characterized by a single parameter J related to Joliot's p, which is shown to depend on both the connectivity of the photosynthetic units and reaction center parameters. On the other hand, the relation between J and the extreme fluorescence levels (or the deviation from the linear Stern-Volmer dependence of 1/phi f on the fraction of open traps) is controlled only by antenna connectivity. Experimental data are consistent with a model of connected units for PS II alpha, intermediate between the pure lake model of unrestricted exciton transfer and the isolated units model. PMID:7647250

  10. A simple simulation of adsorption equilibrium of Pb(II) on Andosols in the presence of dissolved humic substances for monitoring soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyu; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yukari; Kameya, Takashi; Urano, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption equilibrium of Pb(II) on Andosols was investigated and described quantitatively in order to develop a simple method for the rapid monitoring of heavy metals in soils. The effect of solution pH on adsorption isotherms was investigated experimentally and in simulations. At pH 7, the considerable desorption of Pb(II) due to the extensive dissolution of humic substances (HS) from soils into aqueous phases is known to be an obstacle to carrying out simulations. In batch experiments, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the aqueous phases was shown to be enhanced by the addition of pre-extracted HS to soil suspensions. By combining the ion-exchange and Freundlich models, the adsorption equilibriums of free Pb(2+) ions and Pb(2+)-HS were simulated and were shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. By estimating the concentrations and adsorption amounts of Pb(2+) and Pb(2+)-HS from measured CPb and TOC, it is possible to accurately simulate the soil contamination status even in in the presence of dissolved HS in the water in the solid-liquid extraction samples. PMID:23947708

  11. Ionizing stellar population in the disc of NGC 3310 - II. The Wolf-Rayet population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles-Caballero, D.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    We use integral field spectroscopy to study in detail the Wolf-Rayet (WR) population in NGC 3310, spatially resolving 18 star-forming knots with typical sizes of 200-300 pc in the disc of the galaxy hosting a substantial population of WRs. The detected emission in the so-called blue bump is attributed mainly to late-type nitrogen WRs (WNL), ranging from a few dozens to several hundreds of stars per region. Our estimated WNL/(WNL+O) ratio is comparable to reported empirical relations once the extinction-corrected emission is further corrected by the presence of dust grains inside the nebula that absorb a non-negligible fraction of UV photons. Comparisons of observables with stellar population models show disagreement by factors larger than 2-3. However, if the effects of interacting binaries and/or photon leakage are taken into account, observations and predictions tend to converge. We estimate the binary fraction of the H II regions hosting WRs to be significant in order to recover the observed X-ray flux, hence proving that the binary channel can be critical when predicting observables. We also explore the connection of the environment with the current hypothesis that WRs can be progenitors to long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Galaxy interactions, which can trigger strong episodes of star formation in the central regions, may be a plausible environment where WRs may act as progenitors of GRBs. Finally, even though the chemical abundance is generally homogeneous, we also find weak evidence for rapid N pollution by WR stellar winds at scales of ˜200 pc.

  12. Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionations in organic molecules. II: Linear alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A., III

    2009-12-01

    Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionation factors (α eq) for various H positions in alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, and ethers were calculated between 0 and 100 °C using vibrational frequencies from ab initio QM calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Results were then corrected using a temperature-dependent linear calibration curve based on experimental data for H α in ketones ( Wang et al., 2009). The total uncertainty in reported α eq values is estimated at 10-20‰. The effects of functional groups were found to increase the value of α eq for H next to electron-donating groups, e.g. sbnd OR, sbnd OH or sbnd O(C dbnd O)R, and to decrease the value of α eq for H next to electron-withdrawing groups, e.g. sbnd (C dbnd O)R or sbnd (C dbnd O)OR. Smaller but significant functional group effects are also observed for H β and sometimes H γ. By summing over individual H positions, we estimate the equilibrium fractionation relative to water to be -90‰ to -70‰ for n-alkanes and around -100‰ for pristane and phytane. The temperature dependence of these fractionations is very weak between 0 and 100 °C. Our estimates of α eq agree well with field data for thermally mature hydrocarbons (δ 2H values between -80‰ and -110‰ relative to water). Therefore the observed δ 2H increase of individual hydrocarbons and the disappearance of the biosynthetic δ 2H offset between n-alkyl and linear isoprenoid lipids during maturation of organic matter can be confidently attributed to H exchange towards an equilibrium state. Our results also indicate that many n-alkyl lipids are biosynthesized with δ 2H values that are close to equilibrium with water. In these cases, constant down-core δ 2H values for n-alkyl lipids cannot be reliably used to infer a lack of isotopic exchange.

  13. A nonlinear analysis of an equilibrium craze. I - Problem formulation and solution. II - Simulations of craze and crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungsuwarungsri, T.; Knauss, W. G.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the determinations of the equilibrium shape of a craze in an infinite elastic plane whose fibrils exhibit very general nonlinear force-displacement behavior. The problem formulation is based on the superposition of the relevant elasticity Green's function; the solution of the resulting nonlinear problem is obtained by using Picard's successive approximation scheme. The model is used to investigate the effect of nonlinear fibril behavior on the mechanics of craze and crack growth, and the results are compared with the Dugdale model.

  14. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  15. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe.

    PubMed

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H; Mancinelli, B

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core. PMID:24387432

  16. Equilibrium properties of the fluxoid lattice in single-crystal niobium. II. Small-angle neutron-diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sekula, S.T.; Thorel, P.

    1980-01-01

    A small-angle neutron-diffraction technique has been used to measure several properties of the flux-line lattice (FLL) in a single-crystal sphere of pure niobium. For applied fields parallel to several crystallographic directions in the (100) and (110) planes, the low-field mixed state and intermediate mixed state were investigated. From these results, the orientation dependence of the low-field critical parameters H/sub c/1 and B/sub 0/ are deduced. The consistency of these results is verified by comparison with direct measurements of the equilibrium misalignment angle between the applied-field direction and the fluxoid axes. In addition, results are reported which extend the available information concerning correlations between the FLL and crystal lattice (CL) symmetry properties.

  17. Characterization of picroside II metabolites in rats by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Sheng, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Han, Han

    2016-09-01

    Picroside II, a bioactive compound isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell, has been reported to have hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. However, the detailed in vivo biotransformation of this compound has been rarely reported. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profiles of picroside II in rats by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Metabolite structures were elucidated based on accurate mass measurements of deprotonated molecules and their fragmentation patterns. Thirteen metabolites were structurally identified, and the detailed metabolic pathways were proposed. The findings revealed that after oral administration, picroside II mainly undergoes four metabolic pathways. In the first pathway, picroside II is deglycosylated to generate aglycone, which is isomerized to a dialdehyde-type intermediate. A series of metabolic reactions, including glucuronidation, subsequently occurs. In the second pathway, picroside II is subjected to ester bond hydrolysis to form vanillic acid, which is further subjected to sulfate conjugation, glycine conjugation, glucuronidation, and demethylation. In the third pathway, picroside II is directly conjugated with glucuronic acid to yield a predominant metabolite (M01) in plasma. In the fourth pathway, picroside II is directly conjugated with sulfate. These findings provide insights into the in vivo disposition of picroside II and are useful to understand the mechanism of effectiveness and toxicity of this compound as well as P. scrophulariiflora-related preparations. PMID:27328362

  18. Structure and evolution of irradiated accretion disks. I - Static thermal equilibrium structure. II - Dynamical evolution of a thermally unstable torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuchman, Y.; Mineshige, S.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal equilibrum structure and dynamical behavior of externally irradiated accretion disks are investigated. For radiative disks only the surface layer is heated, while for convective disks the heat penetrates deeply into the disk. For sufficiently strong radiation and given irradiation flux F(irr), the disk is completely stabilized against thermal instabilities of the sort invoked to explain dwarf novae. For moderately strong irradiation there is still an unstable branch in the thermal equilibrium curve. In typical soft X-ray transients, the disk is unstable against the dwarf-nova type instability. Fixed F(irr) on accretion disk annuli reduces the amplitude and the quiescent times and increases the outburst duration of the resultant light curves. Varying F(irr) in proportion to the mass accretion rate at the disks's inner edge results in light curves with a plateau in the decay from outbursts. In the case when irradiation is suddenly switched on, a temperature inversion results which leads to the formation of an accretion corona.

  19. Comprehensive equilibrium analysis of the complexation of Cu(II) by tetrathia-14-crown-4 in a synergistic extraction system employing didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Delmau, L.H.; Case, G.N.

    1995-04-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction experiments, UV/vis spectra, and equilibrium modeling by use of the program SXLSQA have been employed to reveal the origin of synergism in the extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by the tetradentate macrocycle tetrathia-14-crown-4 (TT14C4) combined with the cation exchanger didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDDNS) in toluene. The key feature of the system is the 1:1 complexation of Cu(II) by TT14C4. HDDNS functions both as a source of exchangeable protons and as a solvating agent that promotes the formation of small, hydrated aggregates. In the absence of the cation-exchange vehicle provided by HDDNS, the macrocycle does not extract Cu(II) detectably. Combined with HDDNS, however, TT14C4 significantly enhances the extraction of the metal by HDDNS. Comparative UV/vis spectrophotometry indicates the formation of the deep-blue chromophore attributed to the complex ion Cu(TT14C4){sup 2+}, wherein the planar set of four endo sulfur donor atoms of TT14C4 circumscribes the metal cation. Modeling of the extraction and spectral absorbance data by use of the program SXLSQA supports the conclusion that this 1:1 complex accounts for essentially all of the extracted Cu(II) in excess of that extracted by HDDNS alone. The best model includes HDDNS aggregates incorporating Cu(TT14C4){sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} ions. In the analysis, activity effects in both aqueous and organic phases have been taken into account by the Pitzer and Hildebrand-Scott treatments, respectively, with explicit inclusion of the formation of aqueous hydrogen sulfate ion. The model accounts for the effect of variation of the solute components CuSO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HDDNS, and TT14C4.

  20. Improved log(gf) Values Of Selected Lines In Mn I And Mn II For Studies Of Non-equilibrium Effects In Stellar Photospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Lawler, J. E.; Sobeck, J.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.; Asplund, M.

    2010-01-01

    The work presents transition probabilities with very low uncertainties for a selected set of multiplets of Mn I and Mn II. Multiplets are chosen which are accessible to ground-based observation, are relatively unblended and unsaturated in stellar spectra and which are amenable to accurate branching fraction determination. These lab measurements provide a foundation for studies of non-LTE and 3-dimensional effects in stellar photospheres. We report on new radiative lifetime measurements for 22 levels of Mn I from the e8D, z6P, z6D, z4F, e8S and e6S multiplets and 3 levels of Mn II from the z5P multiplet using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam. New branching fractions for transitions from these levels, measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer, are also reported. When combined, these measurements yield transition probabilities for 47 transitions of Mn I and 12 transitions of Mn II. Comparisons are made to data from the literature and to simple Russell-Saunders or LS theory. Final recommended values, which are weighted averages of all available modern measurements and in some cases LS theory, are given for the transition probabilities. These recommended log(gf) values are accurate to +/- 0.02 dex with high ( 2 sigma) confidence. The companion paper applies these new lab results to studies of departures from both LTE in Mn I and Saha equilibrium between Mn I and Mn II on a variety of stellar photospheres. This research is supported in part by NASA Grant NNX08AQ09G and NSF Grant AST-0907732.

  1. Interaction of Triapine and related thiosemicarbazones with iron(III)/(II) and gallium(III): a comparative solution equilibrium study†

    PubMed Central

    Enyedy, Éva A.; Primik, Michael F.; Kowol, Christian R.; Arion, Vladimir B.; Kiss, Tamás; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    Stoichiometry and stability of GaIII, FeIII, FeII complexes of Triapine and five related α-N heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones with potential antitumor activity have been determined by pH-potentiometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and spectrofluorimetry in aqueous solution (with 30% DMSO), together with the characterization of the proton dissociation processes. Additionally, the redox properties of the iron complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry at various pH values. Formation of high stability bis-ligand complexes was found in all cases, which are predominant at physiological pH with FeIII/FeII, whilst only at the acidic pH range with GaIII. The results show that among the thiosemicarbazones with various substituents the N-terminal dimethylation does not exert a measurable effect on the redox potential, but has the highest impact on the stability of the complexes as well as the cytotoxicity, especially in the absence of a pyridine-NH2 group in the molecule. In addition the fluorescence properties of the ligands in aqueous solution and their changes caused by GaIII were studied. PMID:21523301

  2. Detailed and simplified nonequilibrium helium ionization in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2014-03-20

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  3. Detailed and Simplified Nonequilibrium Helium Ionization in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit

    2014-03-01

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and equilibrium studies of some potential antimicrobial and antitumor complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions involving 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljahdali, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ternary complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) with 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole (AMBI) and glycine as a representative example of amino acids have been isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, UV-vis, magnetic moment, molar conductance and 1H NMR spectra. AMBI behaves as neutral bidentate ligands with coordination through imidazole and amino group nitrogens while the glycine amino acid behaves as a monodenate anion with coordination involving the amino group and carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The magnetic and spectral data indicates a square planar geometry for both Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes and a tetrahedral geometry for both Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes. The isolated chelates have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disc diffusion method. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. The stability constants of ternary M-AMBI-Gly complexes were determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution at I = 0.1 mol dm-3 NaCl.

  5. Removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution using Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals: equilibrium, thermodynamic, and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    OuldM'hamed, Mohamed; Khezami, L; Alshammari, Abdulrahman G; Ould-Mame, S M; Ghiloufi, I; Lemine, O M

    2015-01-01

    The present publication investigates the performance of nanocrystalline Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 as an effective nanomaterial for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The nanocrystalline Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying, and characterized by X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Batch-mode experiments were realized to determine the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic parameters of toxic heavy metal ions by Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3. The adsorption isotherms data were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion reached a maximum value of about 90.91 mg g(-1) at 328 K and pH 7. The adsorption process kinetics was found to comply with pseudo-second-order rate law. Thermodynamic parameters related to the adsorption reaction, free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change, were evaluated. The found values of free energy and enthalpy revealed a spontaneous endothermic adsorption-process. Moreover, the positive entropy suggests an increase of randomness during the process of heavy metal removal at the adsorbent-solution interface. PMID:26247760

  6. Strong-field approximation for ionization of a diatomic molecule by a strong laser field. II. The role of electron rescattering off the molecular centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuladžić, M.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Milošević, D. B.; Becker, W.

    2008-09-01

    The strong-field approximation for ionization of diatomic molecules by a strong laser field [D. B. Milošević, Phys. Rev. A 74, 063404 (2006)] is generalized to include rescattering of the ionized electron wave packet off the molecular centers (the electron’s parent ion or the second atom). There are four rescattering contributions to the ionization rate, which are responsible for the high-energy plateau in the electron spectra and which interfere in a complicated manner. The spectra are even more complicated due to the different symmetry properties of the atomic orbitals of which a particular molecular orbital consists. Nevertheless, a comparatively simple condition emerges for the destructive interference of all these contributions, which yields a curve in the (Epf,θ) plane. Here θ is the electron emission angle and Epf is the electron kinetic energy. The resulting suppression of the rescattering plateau can be strong and affect a large area of the (Epf,θ) plane, depending on the orientation of the molecule. We illustrate this using the examples of the 3σg molecular orbital of N2 and the 1πg molecular orbital of O2 for various orientations of these molecules with respect to the laser polarization axis. For N2 , for perpendicular orientation and the equilibrium internuclear distance R0 , we find that the minima of the ionization rate form the curve Epfcos2θ=π2/(2R02) in the (Epf,θ) plane. For O2 the rescattering plateau is absent for perpendicular orientation.

  7. A Spitzer Survey of Mid-infrared Molecular Emission from Protoplanetary Disks. II. Correlations and Local Thermal Equilibrium Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, and CO2 emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 μm spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and Hα equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H2O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L sstarf. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H2O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H2O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near ~1018 cm-2 and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H2O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from ~500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of ~10-3 for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H2O) ~ 1. However, LTE fitting caveats and differences in the way thermo-chemical modeling results are reported make comparisons with

  8. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. CORRELATIONS AND LOCAL THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-20

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 {mu}m spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and H{alpha} equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H{sub 2}O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L{sub *}. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H{sub 2}O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H{sub 2}O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H{sub 2}O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from {approx}500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of {approx}10{sup -3} for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H{sub 2}O) {approx} 1. However, LTE

  9. Chemical Equilibrium Models for the S3 State of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Shoji, Mitsuo; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2016-01-19

    We have performed hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate how chemical equilibria can be described in the S3 state of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II. For a chosen 340-atom model, 1 stable and 11 metastable intermediates have been identified within the range of 13 kcal mol(-1) that differ in protonation, charge, spin, and conformational states. The results imply that reversible interconversion of these intermediates gives rise to dynamic equilibria that involve processes with relocations of protons and electrons residing in the Mn4CaO5 cluster, as well as bound water ligands, with concomitant large changes in the cluster geometry. Such proton tautomerism and redox isomerism are responsible for reversible activation/deactivation processes of substrate oxygen species, through which Mn-O and O-O bonds are transiently ruptured and formed. These results may allow for a tentative interpretation of kinetic data on substrate water exchange on the order of seconds at room temperature, as measured by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The reliability of the hybrid DFT method for the multielectron redox reaction in such an intricate system is also addressed. PMID:26717045

  10. On the modeling of equilibrium twin interfaces in a single-crystalline magnetic shape memory alloy sample. II: numerical algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiong; Steinmann, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This is part II of this series of papers. The aim of the current paper was to solve the governing PDE system derived in part I numerically, such that the procedure of variant reorientation in a magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) sample can be simulated. The sample to be considered in this paper has a 3D cuboid shape and is subject to typical magnetic and mechanical loading conditions. To investigate the demagnetization effect on the sample's response, the surrounding space of the sample is taken into account. By considering the different properties of the independent variables, an iterative numerical algorithm is proposed to solve the governing system. The related mathematical formulas and some techniques facilitating the numerical calculations are introduced. Based on the results of numerical simulations, the distributions of some important physical quantities (e.g., magnetization, demagnetization field, and mechanical stress) in the sample can be determined. Furthermore, the properties of configurational force on the twin interfaces are investigated. By virtue of the twin interface movement criteria derived in part I, the whole procedure of magnetic field- or stress-induced variant reorientations in the MSMA sample can be properly simulated.

  11. Theory of the Protein Equilibrium Population Snapshot by H/D Exchange Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PEPS-HDX-ESI-MS) Method used to obtain Protein Folding Energies/Rates and Selected Supporting Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Rohana; Devarapalli, Nagarjuna; Pyland, Derek B.; Puckett, Latisha M.; Phan, N. H.; Starch, Joel A.; Okimoto, Mark R.; Gidden, Jennifer; Stites, Wesley E.; Lay, Jackson O.

    2012-01-01

    Protein equilibrium snapshot by hydrogen/deuterium exchange electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PEPS-HDX-ESI-MS or PEPS) is a method recently introduced for estimating protein folding energies and rates. Herein we describe the basis for this method using both theory and new experiments. Benchmark experiments were conducted using ubiquitin because of the availability of reference data for folding and unfolding rates from NMR studies. A second set of experiments was also conducted to illustrate the surprising resilience of the PEPS to changes in HDX time, using staphylococcal nuclease and time frames ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. Theory suggests that PEPS experiments should be conducted at relatively high denaturant concentrations, where the protein folding/unfolding rates are slow with respect to HDX and the life times of both the closed and open states are long enough to be sampled experimentally. Upon deliberate denaturation, changes in folding/unfolding are correlated with associated changes in the ESI-MS signal upon fast HDX. When experiments are done quickly, typically within a few seconds, ESI-MS signals, corresponding to the equilibrium population of the native (closed) and denatured (open) states can both be detected. The interior of folded proteins remains largely un-exchanged. Amongst MS methods, the simultaneous detection of both states in the spectrum is unique to PEPS and provides a “snapshot” of these populations. The associated ion intensities are used to estimate the protein folding equilibrium constant (or the free energy change, ΔG). Linear extrapolation method (LEM) plots of derived ΔG values for each denaturant concentration can then be used to calculate ΔG in the absence of denaturant, ΔGH2O. In accordance with the requirement for detection of signals for both the folded and unfolded states, this theoretical framework predicts that PEPS experiments work best at the middle of the denaturation curve where natured

  12. Partition Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michal; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    We introduce partition equilibrium and study its existence in resource selection games (RSG). In partition equilibrium the agents are partitioned into coalitions, and only deviations by the prescribed coalitions are considered. This is in difference to the classical concept of strong equilibrium according to which any subset of the agents may deviate. In resource selection games, each agent selects a resource from a set of resources, and its payoff is an increasing (or non-decreasing) function of the number of agents selecting its resource. While it has been shown that strong equilibrium exists in resource selection games, these games do not possess super-strong equilibrium, in which a fruitful deviation benefits at least one deviator without hurting any other deviator, even in the case of two identical resources with increasing cost functions. Similarly, strong equilibrium does not exist for that restricted two identical resources setting when the game is played repeatedly. We prove that for any given partition there exists a super-strong equilibrium for resource selection games of identical resources with increasing cost functions; we also show similar existence results for a variety of other classes of resource selection games. For the case of repeated games we identify partitions that guarantee the existence of strong equilibrium. Together, our work introduces a natural concept, which turns out to lead to positive and applicable results in one of the basic domains studied in the literature.

  13. Roles of ROS and PKC-βII in ionizing radiation-induced eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kimimasa; Kondo, Takashi; Mizuno, Natsumi; Shoji, Miki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Inanami, Osamu; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Naoki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial cells can absorb higher radiation doses than any other tissue in the body, and post-radiation impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function may be developed as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular injury. In this study, we investigated early alterations of eNOS signaling in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to X-ray radiation. We found that ionizing radiation increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and dephosphorylation at Thr-495 in HUVECs in a dose-dependent (≤ 20 Gy) and time-dependent (6-72 h) manner. The total expression levels of eNOS were unchanged by radiation. Although a transient but significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and a biphasic decline in Akt phosphorylation were observed after irradiation, these inhibitors were without effect on the radiation-induced changes in eNOS phosphorylation. There was an increase in protein kinase C-βII (PKC-βII) expression and the ablation of PKC-βII by small interfering RNA (siRNA) negated the radiation effect on the two eNOS phosphorylation events. Furthermore, when the radiation-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was prevented by the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, eNOS Ser-1177 phosphorylation and Thr-495 dephosphorylation in irradiated HUVECs were significantly reduced. However, transfection of PKC-β siRNA did not alter ROS production after irradiation, and NAC failed to block the radiation-induced increase in PKC-βII expression. Taken together, our results suggest that ionizing radiation-induced eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells is attributed to both the up-regulation of PKC-βII and the increase in ROS generation which were independent of each other. PMID:25869503

  14. Uncovering multiple Wolf-Rayet star clusters and the ionized ISM in Mrk 178: the closest metal-poor Wolf-Rayet H II galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrig, C.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Brinchmann, J.; Kunth, D.; García-Benito, R.; Crowther, P. A.; Hernández-Fernández, J.; Durret, F.; Contini, T.; Fernández-Martín, A.; James, B. L.

    2013-07-01

    New integral field spectroscopy (IFS) has been obtained for the nearby metal-poor Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxy Mrk 178 to examine the spatial correlation between its WR stars and the neighbouring ionized interstellar medium (ISM). The strength of the broad WR features and its low metallicity make Mrk 178 an intriguing object. We have detected the blue and red WR bumps in different locations across the field of view (˜300 pc × 230 pc) in Mrk 178. The study of the WR content has been extended, for the first time, beyond its brightest star-forming knot uncovering new WR star clusters. Using Large/Small Magellanic Cloud-template WR stars, we empirically estimate a minimum of ˜20 WR stars within the region sampled. Maps of the spatial distribution of the emission lines and of the physical-chemical properties of the ionized ISM have been created and analysed. Here, we refine the statistical methodology by Pérez-Montero et al. (2011) to probe the presence of variations in the ISM properties. An error-weighted mean of 12+log(O/H) = 7.72 ± 0.01 is taken as the representative oxygen abundance for Mrk 178. A localized N and He enrichment, spatially correlated with WR stars, is suggested by this analysis. Nebular He II λ4686 emission is shown to be spatially extended reaching well beyond the location of the WR stars. This spatial offset between WRs and He II emission can be explained based on the mechanical energy input into the ISM by the WR star winds, and does not rule out WR stars as the He II ionization source. We study systematic aperture effects on the detection and measurement of the WR features, using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra combined with the power of IFS. In this regard, the importance of targeting low metallicity nearby systems is discussed.

  15. The primordial abundance of deuterium: ionization correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relative ionization of deuterium and hydrogen in low metallicity damped Lyman α (DLA) and sub-DLA systems using a detailed suite of photoionization simulations. We model metal-poor DLAs as clouds of gas in pressure equilibrium with a host dark matter halo, exposed to the Haardt & Madau background radiation of galaxies and quasars at redshift z ≃ 3. Our results indicate that the deuterium ionization correction correlates with the H I column density and the ratio of successive ion stages of the most commonly observed metals. The N(N II)/N(N I) column density ratio provides the most reliable correction factor, being essentially independent of the gas geometry, H I column density, and the radiation field. We provide a series of convenient fitting formulae to calculate the deuterium ionization correction based on observable quantities. The ionization correction typically does not exceed 0.1 per cent for metal-poor DLAs, which is comfortably below the current measurement precision (2 per cent). However, the deuterium ionization correction may need to be applied when a larger sample of D/H measurements becomes available.

  16. The energy of waves in the photosphere and lower chromosphere. III. Inversion setup for Ca II H spectra in local thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Rezaei, R.; Puschmann, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Ca II H line is one of the strongest lines in the solar spectrum, and it provides continuous information on the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the lower chromosphere. Aims: We describe an inversion approach that reproduces observed Ca II H spectra by assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Methods: We developed an inversion strategy based on the SIR code that reproduces Ca II H spectra in the LTE approximation. The approach uses a two-step procedure with an archive of pre-calculated spectra to fit the line core and a subsequent iterative modification to improve the fit mainly in the line wing. Simultaneous spectra in the 630 nm range can optionally be used to fix the continuum temperature. The method retrieves one-dimensional (1D) temperature stratifications while neglecting lateral radiative transport. Line-of-sight velocities are included post facto with an empirical approach. Results: An archive of about 300 000 pre-calculated spectra is more than sufficient to reproduce the line core of observed Ca II H spectra both in the quiet Sun and in active regions. The subsequent iterative adjustment of the thermodynamical stratification matches observed and best-fit spectra to a level of about 0.5% of Ic in the line wing and about 1% of Ic in the line core. Conclusions: The successful application of the LTE inversion strategy suggests that inversion schemes based on pre-calculated spectra allow a reliable and relatively fast retrieval of solar properties from observed chromospheric spectra. The approach can be easily extended to a 1D non-LTE (NLTE) case by a simple exchange of the pre-calculated archive spectra. Using synthetic NLTE spectra from numerical three-dimensional (3D) simulations instead will finally allow one to extend the approach from the static 1D-case to dynamical atmosphere models, including the complete 3D radiative transport. The animation is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Rapid assessment of human amylin aggregation and its inhibition by copper(II) ions by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Ha, Emmeline; Donaldson, Robert P; Jeremic, Aleksandar M; Vertes, Akos

    2015-10-01

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin-copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the -HSSNN- residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin-copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors of amylin

  18. Rapid Assessment of Human Amylin Aggregation and Its Inhibition by Copper(II) Ions by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Ion Mobility Separation

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Robert P.; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.; Vertes, Akos

    2015-01-01

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin–copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the –HSSNN– residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin–copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors of

  19. Helical equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1981-08-01

    A straight, helical plasma equilibrium equation is solved numerically for a plasma with a helical magnetic axis. As is expected, by a suitable choice of the plasma boundary, the vacuum configuration is made line ..integral.. dl/B stable. As the plasma pressure increases, the line ..integral.. dl/B criterion will improve (again as expected). There is apparently no limit on the plasma ..beta.. from the equilibrium consideration. Thus helical-axis stellarator ..beta.. will presumably be limited by MHD stability ..beta.., and not by equilibrium ..beta...

  20. Picosecond spectroscopic studies of equilibrium structural fluctuations of native and partially unfolded states of Zinc II-substituted and metal-free cytochromes C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Jagnyaseni

    Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to characterize the equilibrium and non-equilibrium protein structural fluctuations in Zn II-substituted (ZnCytc) and metal-free (fbCytc) cytochromes c using dynamic fluorescence Stokes shift (FSS) and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) measurements. The intrinsic porphyrin chromophore is used as the probe for the structural fluctuations of the surrounding protein and solvent. The FSS experiments examine how the time scales detected from the dynamic solvation of a chromoprotein report changes in the character of motion. ZnCytc and fbCytc serve as limited, single-chromophore models for photosynthetic reaction center and light-harvesting proteins. The dynamic solvation of redox and light-harvesting chromophores in photosynthesis plays an important role in the quantum efficiency of electron transfer and energy transfer performed by these systems, respectively. The FSS response function of fbCytc in water is biexponential over the 100-ps--50-ns regime and the two time constants are 1.4 ns and 9.1 ns. ZnCytc under similar solution conditions shows a biexponential FSS response but with time constants of 0.2 ns and 1.5 ns. The two correlation times from the FSS response function correspond to motions of the hydrophobic core and the solvent-contact layer, respectively. Both FSS correlation times were lengthened and the solvation reorganization energy was reduced from 43 cm-1 to 33 cm-1 in the presence of 50% (v/v) glycerol. A Brownian diffusion model with thermally activated barrier crossings on the protein-folding energy landscape is used to interpret these results. The conclusion is that the mean-squared deviations of the fluctuations exhibited by fbCytc are perhaps a factor of ten larger than those in ZnCytc, which is consistent with the suggestion that fbCytc assumes a dynamic, partially unfolded structure with some of the characteristics of a molten globule. The nature of the motion associated with the

  1. Ionization in nearby interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Fowler, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to dielectric recombination, neutral magnesium represents an important tracer for the warm low-density gas around the solar system. New Mg I 2852 absorption-line data from IUE are presented, including detections in a few stars within 40 pc of the sun. The absence of detectable Mg I in Alpha CMa and other stars sets limits on the combined size and electron density of the interstellar cloud which gives rise to the local interstellar wind. For a cloud radius greater than 1 pc and density of 0.1/cu cm, the local cloud has a low fractional ionization, n(e)/n(tot) less than 0.05, if magnesium is undepleted, equilibrium conditions prevail, the cloud temperature is 11,750 K, and 80 percent of the magnesium in the sightline is Mg II.

  2. Excitation properties of galaxies with the highest [O iii]/[O ii] ratios. No evidence for massive escape of ionizing photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Izotov, Yu.; Morisset, C.; Guseva, N.

    2015-04-01

    The possibility that star-forming galaxies may leak ionizing photons is at the heart of many present-day studies that investigate the reionization of the Universe. We test this hypothesis on local blue compact dwarf galaxies of very high excitation. We assembled a sample of such galaxies by examining the spectra from data releases 7 and 10 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We argue that reliable conclusions cannot be based on strong lines alone, and adopt a strategy that includes important weak lines such as [O i] and the high-excitation He ii and [Ar iv] lines. Our analysis is based on purely observational diagrams and on a comparison of photoionization models with well-chosen emission-line ratio diagrams. We show that spectral energy distributions from current stellar population synthesis models cannot account for all the observational constraints, which led us to mimick several scenarios that could explain the data. These include the additional presence of hard X-rays or of shocks. We find that only ionization-bounded models (or models with an escape fraction of ionizing photons lower than 10%) are able to simultaneously explain all the observational constraints. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Nonequilibrium ionization phenomena behind shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Panesi, Marco; Magin, Thierry; Huo, Winifred

    2011-05-20

    An accurate investigation of the behavior of electronically excited states of atoms and molecules in the post shock relaxation zone of a trajectory point of the FIRE II flight experiment is carried out by means of a one-dimensional flow solver coupled to a collisional-radiative model. In the rapidly ionizing regime behind a strong shock wave, the high lying bound electronic states of atoms are depleted. This leads the electronic energy level populations of atoms to depart from Boltzmann distributions which strongly affects the non-equilibrium ionization process as well as the radiative signature. The importance of correct modeling of the interaction of radiation and matter is discussed showing a strong influence on the physico-chemical properties of the gas. The paper clearly puts forward the shortcomings of the simplified approach often used in literature which strongly relies on the escape factors to characterize the optical thickness of the gas.

  4. Ionization of gases by a pulsed electron beam as studied by self-focusing. II. Polyatomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, H.; Hotta, H.

    1981-09-15

    In order to analyze data on the self-focusing of a pulsed electron beam in polyatomic gases, the net current I/sub net/ in H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ was computed self-consistently as functions of time in the pressure range between 5 and 300 Torr of these gases by using swarm parameters. The computational result indicates that the larger dose D/sub obs/, observed by a piled dosimeter on the beam axis, is attributed to the larger I/sub net/, which is mainly determined by a mean ionization time t/sub 1/ for secondary ionization by the electric field induced by the pulsed beam. When values of D/sub obs/ for different gases are compared at the same pressure, the larger D/sub obs/ is given by the larger t/sub i/. This relationship is demonstrated for several polyatomic gases by estimating t/sub i/ from various parameters in a function of secondary electron energy or E/p such as the electron drift velocity, the first Townsend ionization coefficient, the ionization cross section, and so on. For the short pulse duration of a Febetron 706, electron--ion recombination processes scarcely affect I/sub net/ except at high pressures of some polyatomic gases, while the effect of electron-attachment processes is appreciable in SF/sub 6/, CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/O.

  5. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  6. Indirect dark matter signatures in the cosmic dark ages. II. Ionization, heating, and photon production from arbitrary energy injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Any injection of electromagnetically interacting particles during the cosmic dark ages will lead to increased ionization, heating, production of Lyman-α photons and distortions to the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, with potentially observable consequences. In this paper we describe numerical results for the low-energy electrons and photons produced by the cooling of particles injected at energies from keV to multi-TeV scales, at arbitrary injection redshifts (but focusing on the post-recombination epoch). We use these data, combined with existing calculations modeling the cooling of these low-energy particles, to estimate the resulting contributions to ionization, excitation and heating of the gas, and production of low-energy photons below the threshold for excitation and ionization. We compute corrected deposition-efficiency curves for annihilating dark matter, and demonstrate how to compute equivalent curves for arbitrary energy-injection histories. These calculations provide the necessary inputs for the limits on dark matter annihilation presented in the accompanying paper I, but also have potential applications in the context of dark matter decay or deexcitation, decay of other metastable species, or similar energy injections from new physics. We make our full results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon, to facilitate further independent studies. In particular, we provide the full low-energy electron and photon spectra, to allow matching onto more detailed codes that describe the cooling of such particles at low energies.

  7. Theoretical fluorescence induction curves derived from coupled differential equations describing the primary photochemistry of photosystem II by an exciton-radical pair equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Trissl, H.-W.; Gao, Y.; Wulf, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fluorescence induction curves were calculated from a molecular model for the primary photophysical and photochemical processes of photosystem II that includes reversible exciton trapping by open (PHQA) and closed (PHQ-A) reaction centers (RCs), charge stabilization as well as quenching by oxidized (P+HQ(-)A) RCs. For the limiting case of perfectly connected photosynthetic units (“lake model”) and thermal equilibrium between the primary radical pair (P+H-) and the excited singlet state, the primary reactions can be mathematically formulated by a set of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE). These were numerically solved for weak flashes in a recursive way to simulate experiments with continuous illumination. Using recently published values for the molecular rate constants, this procedure yielded the time dependence of closed RCs as well as of the fluorescence yield (= fluorescence induction curves). The theoretical curves displayed the same sigmoidal shapes as experimental fluorescence induction curves. From the time development of closed RCs and the fluorescence yield, it was possible to check currently assumed proportionalities between the fraction of closed RCs and either (a) the variable fluorescence, (b) the complementary area above the fluorescence induction curve, or (c) the complementary area normalized to the variable fluorescence. By changing selected molecular rate constants, it is shown that, in contrast to current beliefs, none of these correlations obeys simple laws. The time dependence of these quantities is strongly nonexponential. In the presence of substances that quench the excited state, the model predicts straight lines in Stern-Volmer plots. We further conclude that it is impossible to estimate the degree of physical interunit energy transfer from the sigmoidicity of the fluorescence induction curve or from the curvature of the variable fluorescence plotted versus the fraction of closed RCs. PMID:19431889

  8. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: II. Field application to Haiwee reservoir sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Single photon simultaneous K-shell ionization and K-shell excitation. II. Specificities of hollow nitrogen molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniato, S. Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Nakano, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Ito, K.

    2015-01-07

    The formalism developed in the companion Paper I is used here for the interpretation of spectra obtained recently on the nitrogen molecule. Double core-hole ionization K{sup −2} and core ionization-core excitation K{sup −2}V processes have been observed by coincidence electron spectroscopy after ionization by synchrotron radiation at different photon energies. Theoretical and experimental cross sections reported on an absolute scale are in satisfactory agreement. The evolution with photon energy of the relative contribution of shake-up and conjugate shake-up processes is discussed. The first main resonance in the K{sup −2}V spectrum is assigned to a K{sup −2}π{sup ∗} state mainly populated by the 1s→ lowest unoccupied molecular orbital dipolar excitation, as it is in the K{sup −1}V NEXAFS (Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) signals. Closer to the K{sup −2} threshold Rydberg resonances have been also identified, and among them a K{sup −2}σ{sup ∗} resonance characterized by a large amount of 2s/2p hybridization, and double K{sup −2}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} shake-up states. These resonances correspond in NEXAFS spectra to, respectively, the well-known σ{sup ∗} shape resonance and double excitation K{sup −1}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} resonances, all being positioned above the threshold.

  10. 3D radiative transfer simulations of Eta Carinae's inner colliding winds - II. Ionization structure of helium at periastron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    Spectral observations of the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae show phase-dependent variations, in intensity and velocity, of numerous helium emission and absorption lines throughout the entire 5.54-yr orbit. Approaching periastron, the 3D structure of the wind-wind interaction region (WWIR) gets highly distorted due to the eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary orbit. The secondary star (ηB) at these phases is located deep within the primary's dense wind photosphere. The combination of these effects is thought to be the cause of the particularly interesting features observed in the helium lines at periastron. We perform 3D radiative transfer simulations of η Car's interacting winds at periastron. Using the SIMPLEX radiative transfer algorithm, we post-process output from 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the inner 150 au of the η Car system for two different primary star mass-loss rates (dot{M}_{η A}). Using previous results from simulations at apastron as a guide for the initial conditions, we compute 3D helium ionization maps. We find that, for higher dot{M}_{η A}, ηB He0+-ionizing photons are not able to penetrate into the pre-shock primary wind. He+ due to ηB is only present in a thin layer along the leading arm of the WWIR and in a small region close to the stars. Lowering dot{M}_{η A} allows ηB's ionizing photons to reach the expanding unshocked secondary wind on the apastron side of the system, and create a low fraction of He+ in the pre-shock primary wind. With apastron on our side of the system, our results are qualitatively consistent with the observed variations in strength and radial velocity of η Car's helium emission and absorption lines, which helps better constrain the regions where these lines arise.

  11. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag+ ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm−1, equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given. PMID:26401429

  12. Accurate Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Acceptor Molecules II: Non-Empirically Tuned Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Functionals.

    PubMed

    Gallandi, Lukas; Marom, Noa; Rinke, Patrick; Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The performance of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the prediction of vertical ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) is assessed for a set of 24 organic acceptor molecules. Basis set-extrapolated coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] calculations serve as a reference for this study. Compared to standard exchange-correlation functionals, tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals produce highly reliable results for vertical IPs and EAs, yielding mean absolute errors on par with computationally more demanding GW calculations. In particular, it is demonstrated that long-range corrected hybrid functionals serve as ideal starting points for non-self-consistent GW calculations. PMID:26731340

  13. Dynamical Expansion of Ionization and Dissociation Front around a Massive Star. II. On the Generality of Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical expansion of the H II region, photodissociation region, and the swept-up shell, solving the UV and far-UV radiative transfer and the thermal and chemical processes in the time-dependent hydrodynamics code. Following our previous paper, we investigate the time evolutions with various ambient number densities and central stars. Our calculations show that basic evolution is qualitatively similar among our models with different parameters. The molecular gas is finally accumulated in the shell, and the gravitational fragmentation of the shell is generally expected. The quantitative differences among models are well understood with analytic scaling relations. The detailed physical and chemical structure of the shell is mainly determined by the incident far-UV flux and the column density of the shell, which also follow the scaling relations. The time of shell fragmentation and the mass of the gathered molecular gas are sensitive to the ambient number density. In the case of a low density, the shell fragmentation occurs over a longer timescale, and the accumulated molecular gas is more massive than in the case of a high density. The variations with different central stars are more moderate. The time of the shell fragmentation differs by a factor of several with the various stars of M*=12-101 Msolar. According to our numerical results, we conclude that the expanding H II region should be an efficient trigger for star formation in molecular clouds if the mass of the ambient molecular material is large enough.

  14. Proteomics of light-harvesting proteins in different plant species. Analysis and comparison by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zolla, Lello; Timperio, Anna-Maria; Walcher, Wolfgang; Huber, Christian G

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the intact molecular masses and the hydrophobic properties of the photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting proteins in 14 different plant species is presented. The protein separation and identification was achieved by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The good correspondence of the molecular masses measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with those deduced from the DNA sequence (0.008%-0.016% relative deviation in Arabidopsis) enabled the identification of the different protein types. Utilizing this correlation, it was possible in several cases to spot a gene product for the previously cloned genes. In PSII, all antenna proteins show hydrophobic properties considerably different within the same as well as among various species, in contrast to observations made previously with PSI. These differences might reflect a tuning of protein-protein interactions that play a role in inducing different supramolecular organizations of PSII: within the same species as a consequence of short-term adaptations, and among species for seasonal species adaptation. The relative antenna stoichiometry was readily established on the basis of relative peak areas of the separated proteins in the ultraviolet chromatograms. The correspondence found between the high copy number of genes with the gene products reveals that the genes are not silent in their protein expression. Moreover, the high copy number of gene products as well as protein heterogeneity observed in PSII suggest a possible plant strategy to realize the high degree of organization and interconnection of the light-harvesting systems under any environmental conditions. PMID:12529528

  15. Equilibrium Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario; Petazzi, Lorenzo

    2006-08-01

    We present a satellite path planning technique able to make identical spacecraft aquire a given configuration. The technique exploits a behaviour-based approach to achieve an autonomous and distributed control over the relative geometry making use of limited sensorial information. A desired velocity is defined for each satellite as a sum of different contributions coming from generic high level behaviours: forcing the final desired configuration the behaviours are further defined by an inverse dynamic calculation dubbed Equilibrium Shaping. We show how considering only three different kind of behaviours it is possible to acquire a number of interesting formations and we set down the theoretical framework to find the entire set. We find that allowing a limited amount of communication the technique may be used also to form complex lattice structures. Several control feedbacks able to track the desired velocities are introduced and discussed. Our results suggest that sliding mode control is particularly appropriate in connection with the developed technique.

  16. The Suzaku view of highly ionized outflows in AGN - II. Location, energetics and scalings with bolometric luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; McLaughlin, D. E.; Braito, V.; Turner, T. J.; Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.

    2015-08-01

    Ongoing studies with XMM-Newton have shown that powerful accretion disc winds, as revealed through highly ionized Fe K-shell absorption at E ≥ 6.7 keV, are present in a significant fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe (Tombesi et al. 2010a). In Gofford et al., we analysed a sample of 51 Suzaku-observed AGNs and independently detected Fe K absorption in ˜40 per cent of the sample, and we measured the properties of the absorbing gas. In this work, we build upon these results to consider the properties of the associated wind. On average, the fast winds (vw > 0.01c) are located ˜ 1015-18 cm (typically ˜102-4 rs) from their black hole, their mass outflow rates are of the order of < dot{M}_w > ˜ 0.01-1 M⊙ yr-1 or {˜ }(0.01-1)dot{M}_Edd and kinetic power is constrained to ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1, equivalent to ˜(0.1-10 per cent)LEdd. We find a fundamental correlation between the source bolometric luminosity and the wind velocity, with v_w ∝ L_bol^{α } and α =0.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2} (90 per cent confidence), which indicates that more luminous AGN tend to harbour faster Fe K winds. The mass outflow rate dot{M}_w, kinetic power Lw and momentum flux dot{p}_w of the winds are also consequently correlated with Lbol, such that more massive and more energetic winds are present in more luminous AGN. We investigate these properties in the framework of a continuum-driven wind, showing that the observed relationships are broadly consistent with a wind being accelerated by continuum-scattering. We find that, globally, a significant fraction (˜85 per cent) of the sample can plausibly exceed the Lw/Lbol ˜ 0.5 per cent threshold thought necessary for feedback, while 45 per cent may also exceed the less conservative ˜5 per cent of Lbol threshold as well. This suggests that the winds may be energetically significant for AGN-host-galaxy feedback processes.

  17. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  18. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... at both ionized calcium and calcium attached to proteins. You may need to have a separate ionized calcium test if you have factors that increase or decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels ...

  19. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  20. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications II. Users Manual and Program Description. 2; Users Manual and Program Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1996-01-01

    This users manual is the second part of a two-part report describing the NASA Lewis CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications) program. The program obtains chemical equilibrium compositions of complex mixtures with applications to several types of problems. The topics presented in this manual are: (1) details for preparing input data sets; (2) a description of output tables for various types of problems; (3) the overall modular organization of the program with information on how to make modifications; (4) a description of the function of each subroutine; (5) error messages and their significance; and (6) a number of examples that illustrate various types of problems handled by CEA and that cover many of the options available in both input and output. Seven appendixes give information on the thermodynamic and thermal transport data used in CEA; some information on common variables used in or generated by the equilibrium module; and output tables for 14 example problems. The CEA program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77. CEA should work on any system with sufficient storage. There are about 6300 lines in the source code, which uses about 225 kilobytes of memory. The compiled program takes about 975 kilobytes.

  1. On Radiation Pressure in Static, Dusty H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.

    2011-05-01

    Radiation pressure acting on gas and dust causes H II regions to have central densities that are lower than the density near the ionized boundary. H II regions in static equilibrium comprise a family of similarity solutions with three parameters: β, γ, and the product Q 0 n rms; β characterizes the stellar spectrum, γ characterizes the dust/gas ratio, Q 0 is the stellar ionizing output (photons/s), and n rms is the rms density within the ionized region. Adopting standard values for β and γ, varying Q 0 n rms generates a one-parameter family of density profiles, ranging from nearly uniform density (small Q 0 n rms) to shell-like (large Q 0 n rms). When Q 0 n rms >~ 1052 cm-3 s-1, dusty H II regions have conspicuous central cavities, even if no stellar wind is present. For given β, γ, and Q 0 n rms, a fourth quantity, which can be Q 0, determines the overall size and density of the H II region. Examples of density and emissivity profiles are given. We show how quantities of interest—such as the peak-to-central emission measure ratio, the rms-to-mean density ratio, the edge-to-rms density ratio, and the fraction of the ionizing photons absorbed by the gas—depend on β, γ, and Q 0 n rms. For dusty H II regions, compression of the gas and dust into an ionized shell results in a substantial increase in the fraction of the stellar photons that actually ionize H (relative to a uniform-density H II region with the same dust/gas ratio and density n = n rms). We discuss the extent to which radial drift of dust grains in H II regions can alter the dust-to-gas ratio. The applicability of these solutions to real H II regions is discussed.

  2. Forebody and base region real gas flow in severe planetary entry by a factored implicit numerical method. II - Equilibrium reactive gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davy, W. C.; Green, M. J.; Lombard, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    The factored-implicit, gas-dynamic algorithm has been adapted to the numerical simulation of equilibrium reactive flows. Changes required in the perfect gas version of the algorithm are developed, and the method of coupling gas-dynamic and chemistry variables is discussed. A flow-field solution that approximates a Jovian entry case was obtained by this method and compared with the same solution obtained by HYVIS, a computer program much used for the study of planetary entry. Comparison of surface pressure distribution and stagnation line shock-layer profiles indicates that the two solutions agree well.

  3. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the biosorption system of copper(II) ion from aqueous solution using Tectona grandis L.f. leaves powder.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, Y; King, P; Prasad, V S R K

    2006-09-21

    The biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution by Tectona grandis L.f. was studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, metal ion concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The biosorption capacities and rates of copper(II) ions onto T. grandis L.f. were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Temkin adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Biosorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 15.43 mg/g of copper(II) ion on T. grandis L.f. leaves powder. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as deltaG(o), deltaH(o), and deltaS(o) were calculated indicating that this system was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:16704905

  4. Evidence for an essential role of intradimer interaction in catalytic function of carnosine dipeptidase II using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tamura, Jun; Takao, Toshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Carnosine dipeptidase II (CN2/CNDP2) is an M20 family metallopeptidase that hydrolyses various dipeptides including β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine). Crystallographic analysis showed that CN2 monomer is composed of one catalytic and one dimerization domains, and likely to form homodimer. In this crystal, H228 residue of the dimerization domain interacts with the substrate analogue bestatin on the active site of the dimer counterpart, indicating that H228 is involved in enzymatic reaction. In the present study, the role of intradimer interaction of CN2 in its catalytic activity was investigated using electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). First, a dimer interface mutant I319K was prepared and shown to be present as a folded monomer in solution as examined by using ESI-TOF MS. Since the mutant was inactive, it was suggested that dimer formation is essential to its enzymatic activity. Next, we prepared H228A and D132A mutant proteins with different N-terminal extended sequences, which enabled us to monitor dimer exchange reaction by ESI-TOF MS. The D132A mutant is a metal ligand mutant and also inactive. But the activity was partially recovered time-dependently when H228A and D132A mutant proteins were incubated together. In parallel, H228A/D132A heterodimer was formed as detected by ESI-TOF MS, indicating that interaction of a catalytic center with H228 residue of the other subunit is essential to the enzymatic reaction. These results provide evidence showing that intradimer interaction of H228 with the reaction center of the dimer counterpart is essential to the enzymatic activity of CN2. PMID:26549037

  5. Optimization, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and desorption studies on the sorption of Cu(II) from an aqueous solution using marine green algae: Halimeda gracilis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Rajasimman, M; Karthikeyan, C

    2015-11-01

    The aptitude of marine green algae Helimeda gracilis for sorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments. The effect of relevant parameters such as function of pH, sorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time was evaluated by using Response surface methodology (RSM). A maximum percentage removal of Cu (II) by Halimeda gracilis occurs at pH-4.49, sorbent dosage-1.98g/L, agitation speed-119.43rpm and contact time-60.21min. Further, the sorbent was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, power function and elovich kinetic models. The results showed that the sorption process of Cu(II) ions followed well pseudo-second order kinetics. The sorption data of Cu(II) ions at 308.15K are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, Sips and Toth isotherms. Sorption of Cu(II) onto marine green algae Helimeda gracilis followed the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models (R(2)=0.998 and R(2)=0.999) with the maximum sorption capacity of 38.46 and 38.07mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the sorption of Cu(II) ions onto Helimeda gracilis biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Desorption study shows that the sorbent could be regenerated using 0.2M HCl solution, with up to 89% recovery. PMID:25866206

  6. Neutral zinc(II) O,O-di-alkyldithiopho- sphates-variable temperature 31P NMR and quantum chemical study of the ZDDP monomer-dimer equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J J; Chan, C Y; Onopchenko, A; Pradhan, A R; Petersen, M

    2008-02-01

    A full line-shape analysis of the VT 31P NMR spectra was carried out for the monomer-dimer equilibrium of neutral ZDDP. The energy surface and the energetics of the monomer-dimer equilibrium (DeltaH degrees , DeltaG degrees , Ea, DeltaH(not equal), and DeltaG(not equal)) are reported for three variants wherein the alkyl groups in the ZDDP are 2-ethylhexyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl. We explored a reaction pathway between the monomer and dimer form by means of density functional theory (DFT). The linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) code DMol3 was used together with a synchronous transient method to effectively locate transition states. Vibrational eigenmodes of all intermediates were computed to capture finite temperature effects. Methyl and ethyl were considered as alkyl groups. Two novel intermediates were located-a four-membered ring and a six-membered ring intermediate along the reaction coordinate. Comparison of the experimentally derived and computed energy surfaces was carried out. PMID:18098153

  7. Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Massot, Marc; Graille, Benjamin; Magin, Thierry E.

    2011-05-20

    We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

  8. Ionizing radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a comprehensive review on ionizing irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Topics include principles of ionizing radiation, its effects on pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, shelf-life, sensory quality, nutritional and phytochemical composition, as well as physiologic and...

  9. Grid-based methods for diatomic quantum scattering problems II: Time-dependent treatment of single- and two-photon ionization of H2+

    SciTech Connect

    Rescigno, Thomas N.; Tao, L.; McCurdy, C.W.

    2009-04-20

    The time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for H2+ in a time-varying electromagnetic field is solved in the fixed-nuclei approximation using a previously developed finite-element/ discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. Amplitudes for single- and two-photon ionization are obtained using the method of exterior complex scaling to effectively propagate the field-free solutions from the end of the radiation pulse to infinite times. Cross sections are presented for one-and two-photon ionization for both parallel and perpendicular polarization of the photon field, as well as photoelectron angular distributions for two-photon ionization.

  10. The effects of metallicity, UV radiation and non-equilibrium chemistry in high-resolution simulations of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, A. J.; Schaye, Joop

    2016-05-01

    We present a series of hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies with stellar mass of 109 M⊙. The models use a resolution of 750 M⊙ per particle and include a treatment for the full non-equilibrium chemical evolution of ions and molecules (157 species in total), along with gas cooling rates computed self-consistently using the non-equilibrium abundances. We compare these to simulations evolved using cooling rates calculated assuming chemical (including ionization) equilibrium, and we consider a wide range of metallicities and UV radiation fields, including a local prescription for self-shielding by gas and dust. We find higher star formation rates and stronger outflows at higher metallicity and for weaker radiation fields, as gas can more easily cool to a cold (few hundred Kelvin) star-forming phase under such conditions. Contrary to variations in the metallicity and the radiation field, non-equilibrium chemistry generally has no strong effect on the total star formation rates or outflow properties. However, it is important for modelling molecular outflows. For example, the mass of H2 outflowing with velocities {>}50 {km} {s}^{-1} is enhanced by a factor ˜20 in non-equilibrium. We also compute the observable line emission from C II and CO. Both are stronger at higher metallicity, while C II and CO emission are higher for stronger and weaker radiation fields, respectively. We find that C II is generally unaffected by non-equilibrium chemistry. However, emission from CO varies by a factor of ˜2-4. This has implications for the mean XCO conversion factor between CO emission and H2 column density, which we find is lowered by up to a factor ˜2.3 in non-equilibrium, and for the fraction of CO-dark molecular gas.

  11. Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashurin, A.; Keidar, M.

    2015-12-01

    This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.

  12. Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Shashurin, A.; Keidar, M.

    2015-12-15

    This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.

  13. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-07-15

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  14. Calculation of equilibrium constants from multiwavelength spectroscopic data--II: SPECFIT: two user-friendly programs in basic and standard FORTRAN 77.

    PubMed

    Gampp, H; Maeder, M; Meyer, C J; Zuberbühler, A D

    1985-04-01

    A new program (SPECFIT), written in HP BASIC or FORTRAN 77, for the calculation of stability constants from spectroscopic data, is presented. Stability constants have been successfully calculated from multiwavelength spectrophotometric and EPR data, but the program can be equally well applied to the numerical treatment of other spectroscopic measurements. The special features included in SPECFIT to improve convergence, increase numerical reliability, and minimize memory as well as computing time requirements, include (i) elimination of the linear parameters (i.e., molar absorptivities), (ii) the use of analytical instead of numerical derivatives and (iii) factor analysis. Calculation of stability constants from spectroscopic data is then as straightforward as from potentiometric titration curves and gives results of analogous reproducibility. The spectroscopic method has proved, however, to be superior in discrimination between chemical models. PMID:18963840

  15. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Bo; Kim, Young-Min; Han, Heung Nam

    2015-07-01

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al2O3) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  16. Removal of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution using the peel biomass of Pachira aquatica Aubl: kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Santana, Andrea J; Dos Santos, Walter N L; Silva, Laiana O B; das Virgens, Cesário F

    2016-05-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic substance that is a health hazard to humans. This study aims to investigate powders obtained from the peel of the fruit of Pachira aquatica Aubl, in its in natura and/or acidified form, as an adsorbent for the removal of mercury ions in aqueous solution. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The infrared spectra showed bands corresponding to the axial deformation of carbonyls from carboxylic acids, the most important functional group responsible for fixing the metal species to the adsorbent material. The thermograms displayed mass losses related to the decomposition of three major components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The adsorption process was evaluated using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS) and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Three isotherm models were employed. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir-Freundlich, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 0.71 and 0.58 mg g(-1) at 25 °C in nature and acidified, respectively. Adsorption efficiencies were further tested on real aqueous wastewater samples, and removal of Hg(II) was recorded as 69.6 % for biomass acidified and 76.3 % for biomass in nature. Results obtained from sorption experiments on real aqueous wastewater samples revealed that recovery of the target metal ions was very satisfactory. The pseudo-second-order model showed the best correlation to the experimental data. The current findings showed that the investigated materials are potential adsorbents for mercury(II) ion removal in aqueous solution, with acidified P. aquatica Aubl being the most efficient adsorbent. PMID:27084802

  17. VLT-VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. II. Evidence for shock ionization caused by tidal forces in the extra-nuclear regions of interacting and merging LIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Rodríguez-Zaurín, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; García-Marín, M.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are an important class of objects in the low-z universe bridging the gap between normal spirals and the strongly interacting and starbursting ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Since a large fraction of the stars in the Universe have been formed in these objects, LIRGs are also relevant in a high-z context. Studies of the two-dimensional physical properties of LIRGs are still lacking. Aims: We aim to understand the nature and origin of the ionization mechanisms operating in the extra-nuclear regions of LIRGs as a function of the interaction phase and infrared luminosity. Methods: This study uses optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data obtained with VIMOS. Our analysis is based on over 25 300 spectra of 32 LIRGs covering all types of morphologies (isolated galaxies, interacting pairs, and advanced mergers), and the entire 1011-1012 L⊙ infrared luminosity range. Results: We found strong evidence for shock ionization, with a clear trend with the dynamical status of the system. Specifically, we quantified the variation with interaction phase of several line ratios indicative of the excitation degree. While the [N ii]λ6584/Hα ratio does not show any significant change, the [S ii]λλ6717,6731/Hα and [O i]λ6300/Hα ratios are higher for more advanced interaction stages. Velocity dispersions are higher than in normal spirals and increase with the interaction class (medians of 37, 46, and 51 km s-1 for class 0-2, respectively). We constrained the main mechanisms causing the ionization in the extra-nuclear regions (typically for distances ranging from ~0.2-2.1 kpc to ~0.9-13.2 kpc) using diagnostic diagrams. Isolated systems are mainly consistent with ionization caused by young stars. Large fractions of the extra-nuclear regions in interacting pairs and more advanced mergers are consistent with ionization caused by shocks of vs ⪉ 200 km s-1. This is supported by the relation between the excitation degree and

  18. Reinvestigation of the copper(II)-carcinine equilibrium system: "two-dimensional" EPR simulation and NMR relaxation studies for determining the formation constants and coordination modes.

    PubMed

    Arkosi, Zsuzsanna; Paksi, Zoltán; Korecz, László; Gajda, Tamás; Henry, Bernard; Rockenbauer, Antal

    2004-12-01

    The equilibria and solution structure of complexes formed between copper(II) and carcinine (beta-alanyl-histamine) at 2< or = pH< or =11.2 have been studied by EPR and NMR relaxation methods. Beside the species that have already been described in the literature from pH-potentiometric measurements, several new complexes have been identified and/or structurally characterized. The singlet on the EPR spectrum detected in equimolar solutions at pH 7, indicates the formation of an oligomerized (CuL)n(2n+) complex, with [NH2,Nim] coordination. The oligomerization is probably associated with the low stability of the ten-membered macrochelate ring, which would form in the mononuclear complex CuL2+. In presence of moderate excess of ligand the formation of four new bis-complexes (CuL2Hn(2+n), n=2,1 and 0/-1) was detected with [Nim][Nim], [NH2,Nim][Nim] and [NH2,N-,Nim][Nim] type co-ordination modes, respectively. At higher excess of ligand ([L]/[Cu2+]>10) and at pH approximately 7, the predominant species is CuL4H2(4+). The 1H and 13C relaxation measurements of carcinine solutions (0.6 M) in presence of 0 mM< or = [Cu2+](tot)< or = 5 mM at pH=6.8, allowed us to extract the carbon-to-metal distances, the electronic relaxation and tumbling correlation times, as well as the ligand exchange rate for the species CuL4H2(4+). According to these results, the metal ion is [4Nim] co-ordinated in the equatorial plane, while the neutral amino groups are unbounded. Since naturally occurring carcinine shows in vivo antioxidant property, the SOD-like activity of the copper(II)-carcinine system has also been investigated and the complex CuLH(-1) was found to be highly active. PMID:15541487

  19. Fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in molecular photoionization. II. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and hyperfine-selective generation of molecular cations.

    PubMed

    Germann, Matthias; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-07-28

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is a widely used technique for studying molecular photoionization and producing molecular cations for spectroscopy and dynamics studies. Here, we present a model for describing hyperfine-structure effects in the REMPI process and for predicting hyperfine populations in molecular ions produced by this method. This model is a generalization of our model for fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in one-photon ionization of molecules presented in Paper I [M. Germann and S. Willitsch, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 044314 (2016)]. This generalization is achieved by covering two main aspects: (1) treatment of the neutral bound-bound transition including the hyperfine structure that makes up the first step of the REMPI process and (2) modification of our ionization model to account for anisotropic populations resulting from this first excitation step. Our findings may be used for analyzing results from experiments with molecular ions produced by REMPI and may serve as a theoretical background for hyperfine-selective ionization experiments. PMID:27475369

  20. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  1. Fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in molecular photoionization. II. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and hyperfine-selective generation of molecular cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Matthias; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is a widely used technique for studying molecular photoionization and producing molecular cations for spectroscopy and dynamics studies. Here, we present a model for describing hyperfine-structure effects in the REMPI process and for predicting hyperfine populations in molecular ions produced by this method. This model is a generalization of our model for fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in one-photon ionization of molecules presented in Paper I [M. Germann and S. Willitsch, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 044314 (2016)]. This generalization is achieved by covering two main aspects: (1) treatment of the neutral bound-bound transition including the hyperfine structure that makes up the first step of the REMPI process and (2) modification of our ionization model to account for anisotropic populations resulting from this first excitation step. Our findings may be used for analyzing results from experiments with molecular ions produced by REMPI and may serve as a theoretical background for hyperfine-selective ionization experiments.

  2. Ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Walenta, Albert H.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

  3. Ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Walenta, A.H.

    An ionization chamber is described which has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionizes the gas.

  4. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  5. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    The Helmholtz-free-energy model for nonideal mixtures of hydrogen atoms and molecules by Saumon and Chabrier (1991) is extended to describe dissociation and ionization in similar mixtures in chemical equilibrium. A free-energy model is given that describes partial ionization in the pressure and temperature ionization region. The plasma-phase transition predicted by the model is described for hydrogen mixtures including such components as H2, H, H(+), and e(-). The plasma-phase transition has a critical point at Tc = 15,300 K and Pc = 0.614 Mbar, and thermodynamic instability is noted in the pressure-ionization regime. The pressure dissociation and ionization of fluid hydrogen are described well with the model yielding information on the nature of the plasma-phase transition. The model is shown to be valuable for studying dissociation and ionization in astrophysical objects and in high-pressure studies where pressure and temperature effects are significant.

  6. NON-LOCAL THERMODYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM EFFECTS ON THE IRON ABUNDANCE OF ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS IN 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Massari, D.

    2014-12-20

    We present the iron abundance of 24 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, members of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with high-resolution spectra collected with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m Telescope. We find that the iron abundances derived from neutral lines (with a mean value [Fe I/H] =–0.94 ± 0.01, σ = 0.08 dex) are systematically lower than those derived from single ionized lines ([Fe II/H] =–0.83 ± 0.01, σ = 0.05 dex). Only the latter are in agreement with those obtained for a sample of red giant branch (RGB) cluster stars, for which the Fe I and Fe II lines provide the same iron abundance. This finding suggests that non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) effects driven by overionization mechanisms are present in the atmosphere of AGB stars and significantly affect the Fe I lines while leaving Fe II features unaltered. On the other hand, the very good ionization equilibrium found for RGB stars indicates that these NLTE effects may depend on the evolutionary stage. We discuss the impact of this finding on both the chemical analysis of AGB stars and on the search for evolved blue stragglers.

  7. Line emission from H II blister models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical techniques to calculate the thermal and geometric properties of line emission from H II 'blister' regions are presented. It is assumed that the density distributions of the H II regions are a function of two dimensions, with rotational symmetry specifying the shape in three-dimensions. The thermal and ionization equilibrium equations of the problem are solved by spherical modeling, and a spherical sector approximation is used to simplify the three-dimensional treatment of diffuse ionizing radiation. The global properties of H II 'blister' regions near the edges of a molecular cloud are simulated by means of the geometry/density distribution, and the results are compared with observational data. It is shown that there is a monotonic increase of peak surface brightness from the i = 0 deg (pole-on) observational position to the i = 90 deg (edge-on) position. The enhancement of the line peak intensity from the edge-on to the pole-on positions is found to depend on the density, stratification, ionization, and electron temperature weighting. It is found that as i increases, the position of peak line brightness of the lower excitation species is displaced to the high-density side of the high excitation species.

  8. On the Dynamical Evolution of H II Regions: An Investigation of the Ionized Component of W4, a Galactic Chimney Candidate. I. Kinematics and Dynamics in the Latitude Range 0° <= b <= 3°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrois, Dominic; Joncas, Gilles

    2009-02-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometry was used to obtain an Hα survey of the most emissive part of W4, a giant superbubble/H II region located in the Perseus arm. Presented by Normandeau and colleagues as an H I cavity aiming away from the Galactic plane, the void has been morphologically interpreted as a Galactic chimney candidate in interaction with the Galactic corona. We present the kinematical results of nearly five million Hα spectra obtained in the southern portion of the nebula (0° <= b <= 3°). Many small-scale radial velocity gradients are detected in the embedded ionized component and are attributed to the photoionization of dense, mostly molecular, fragments found either in or at the periphery of the expanding supershell. The mean local standard of rest radial velocity associated with our Hα survey is found at -42.565 ± 5.204 (1σ) km s-1, redshifted by roughly 5 km s-1 from the molecular material found in the vicinity of the large superbubble. Investigation of the Hα line-width measurements has shown W4-south to fall in a transient regime between low velocity dispersions characteristic of small-size Galactic H II regions and supersonic line widths associated with supergiant extragalactic structures. The overall kinematics of W4-south is best explained with the Champagne model for the dynamical evolution of H II regions where at least 10 independent gas flows crisscross the nebula. For the first time, a Champagne flow is seen coming to an end within a nebula, mingling with the surrounding ionized gas. The nature (molecular versus atomic) of the neutral material, prone to erosion, is critical as it leads to much different kinematical interpretations. W4-south appears as a text book example of the last stage in the life of a giant molecular cloud complex.

  9. The He II Proximity Effect and The Lifetime of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrykin, I. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; McQuinn, M.; Worseck, G.

    2016-06-01

    The lifetime of quasars is fundamental for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes, and is an important ingredient in models of the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, despite various attempts to determine quasar lifetimes, current estimates from a variety of methods are uncertain by orders of magnitude. This work combines cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and 1D radiative transfer to investigate the structure and evolution of the He ii Lyα proximity zones around quasars at z ≃ 3–4. We show that the time evolution in the proximity zone can be described by a simple analytical model for the approach of the He ii fraction {x}{He{{II}}}(t) to ionization equilibrium, and use this picture to illustrate how the transmission profile depends on the quasar lifetime, quasar UV luminosity, and the ionization state of Helium in the ambient IGM (i.e., the average He ii fraction, or equivalently the metagalactic He ii ionizing background). A significant degeneracy exists between the lifetime and the average He ii fraction, however the latter can be determined from measurements of the He ii Lyα optical depth far from quasars, allowing the lifetime to be measured. We advocate stacking existing He ii quasar spectra at z ∼ 3, and show that the shape of this average proximity zone profile is sensitive to lifetimes as long as ∼30 Myr. At higher redshift z ∼ 4 where the He ii fraction is poorly constrained, degeneracies will make it challenging to determine these parameters independently. Our analytical model for He ii proximity zones should also provide a useful description of the properties of H i proximity zones around quasars at z ≃ 6–7.

  10. Princeton spectral equilibrium code: PSEC

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-03-01

    A fast computer code has been developed to calculate free-boundary solutions to the plasma equilibrium equation that are consistent with the currents in external coils and conductors. The free-boundary formulation is based on the minimization of a mean-square error epsilon while the fixed-boundary solution is based on a variational principle and spectral representation of the coordinates x(psi,theta) and z(psi,theta). Specific calculations using the Columbia University Torus II, the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) geometries are performed.

  11. Atmospheric and ionospheric response to trace gas perturbations through the ice age to the next century in the middle atmosphere. Part II-ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, G.; Mitra, A. P.

    1997-07-01

    A global two-dimensional meridional ion composition model of the middle atmosphere is used to examine the effect of changing concentrations of several greenhouse gases on the overall distribution of ionization for this region, along with a steady state calculation for the upper heights. Changes in the neutral parameters for this study are taken from the companion article (Beig and Mitra, 1997). It has been predicted that there are several sensitive signals of man-made perturbations in the middle atmospheric ionization. In the mesospheric region, for a doubled CO2 scenario, we find that the total ionization density does not change appreciably and the maximum variation is found to be around 15% at about 70 km. However, the distribution of individual ions shows a considerable variation (up to about 100%) throughout the middle atmosphere. The fall-off height of the fractional abundance of water cluster ions is higher for 2050 A.D., suggesting domination of these ions up to greater heights. The concentration of water cluster ions increases below about 85 km; above this height it starts to decrease sharply with height. When a scenario with doubled CO2, with CH4 and business-as-usual (BAU) (for CFCs and N2O) is considered in the stratospheric region, it is found that only one family of negative ions, called NO3-core ions, is dominant instead of two in the normal case. Simulations are also made through the ages since the last ice age. Results indicate a reverse trend as compared to the above.

  12. Getting Freshman in Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of chemical equilibrium were discussed in six papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). These include student problems in understanding hydrolysis, helping students discover/uncover topics, equilibrium demonstrations, instructional strategies, and flaws to kinetic…

  13. Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars II: A Sample of 19 Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, X; Strauss, M A; Becker, R H; White, R L; Gunn, J E; Knapp, G R; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Brinkmann, J; Fukugita, M

    2006-01-05

    We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate resolution spectra of a sample of nineteen quasars at 5.74 < z{sub em} < 6.42 discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Three methods are used to trace IGM properties: (a) the evolution of the Gunn-Peterson (GP) optical depth in the Ly{alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} transitions; (b) the distribution of lengths of dark absorption gaps, and (c) the size of HII regions around luminous quasars. Using this large sample, we find that the evolution of the ionization state of the IGM accelerated at z > 5.7: the GP optical depth evolution changes from {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} {approx} (1 + z){sup 4.3} to (1 + z){sup {approx}> 11}, and the average length of dark gaps with {tau} > 3.5 increases from < 10 to > 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties along different lines of sight also increases rapidly, implying fluctuations by a factor of {approx}> 4 in the UV background at z > 6, when the mean free path of UV photons is comparable to the correlation length of the star forming galaxies that are thought to have caused reionization. The mean length of dark gaps shows the most dramatic increase at z {approx} 6, as well as the largest line-of-sight variations. We suggest using dark gap statistics as a powerful probe of the ionization state of the IGM at yet higher redshift. The sizes of HII regions around luminous quasars decrease rapidly towards higher redshift, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the IGM has increased by a factor of {approx}> 10 from z = 5.7 to 6.4, consistent with the value derived from the GP optical depth. The mass-averaged neutral fraction is 1-4% at z {approx} 6.2 based on the GP optical depth and HII region size measurements. The observations suggest that z {approx} 6 is the end of the overlapping stage of reionization, and are inconsistent with a mostly neutral IGM at z {approx} 6, as indicated by the finite

  14. The Diffuse Ionized Gas in the large telescopes era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this workshop we summarize the ``state of the art'' of the Diffuse Ionized Gas. We present all the possible situations which can produce ionization outside an H II region, as well as some of the observations that can be performed with the GTC instrumentation and how relevant they can be in the undestanding of the ionization mechanisms of the DIG.

  15. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  16. Ionization transition in low-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Triger, S. A.; Khomkin, A. L.; Shumikhin, A. S.

    2011-09-15

    Ionization equilibrium in low-density low-temperature plasma is considered. It is demonstrated using hydrogen and cesium as examples that the Saha equation predicts an almost jump-like change in the electron density on isochors in a narrow temperature range. Thus, in contrast to a smooth rise in the degree of ionization with increasing temperature at high plasma densities, an increase in the temperature in low-density plasma should result in a sharp transition from a neutral state to a fully ionized plasma. This transition is accompanied by a jump-like increase in the electric conductivity. The relation of these effects to the recombination transition in the model of the early Universe is discussed. The possibility of observing such a transition experimentally and the problems concerning the time of plasma relaxation into an equilibrium state at long free path lengths of plasma particles are considered.

  17. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  18. Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, T.-M.; Baum, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma is studied. The plasma is infinite and without external fields. The chemical reactions are assumed to result from the ionization and recombination processes. When the gas is near equilibrium, the dominant role describing the evolution of a reacting plasma is played by the global conservation equations. These equations are first derived and then used to study the small amplitude wave motion for a near-equilibrium situation. Nontrivial damping effects have been obtained by including the conduction current terms.

  19. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  20. An analytical theory of a scattering of radio-waves on meteoric ionization. II. Solution of the integro-differential equation in case of backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecina, P.

    2016-08-01

    The integro-differential equation for the polarization vector P inside the meteor trail, representing the analytical solution of the set of Maxwell equations, is solved for the case of backscattering of radio waves on meteoric ionization. The transversal and longitudinal dimensions of a typical meteor trail are small in comparison to the distances to both transmitter and receiver and so the phase factor appearing in the kernel of the integral equation is large and rapidly changing. This allows us to use the method of stationary phase to obtain an approximate solution of the integral equation for the scattered field and for the corresponding generalized radar equation. The final solution is obtained by expanding it into the complete set of Bessel functions, which results in solving a system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients of the expansion. The time behaviour of the meteor echoes is then obtained using the generalized radar equation. Examples are given for values of the electron density spanning a range from underdense meteor echoes to overdense meteor echoes. We show that the time behaviour of overdense meteor echoes using this method is very different from the one obtained using purely numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations. Our results are in much better agreement with the observations performed e. g. by the Ondřejov radar.

  1. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  2. Universality in equilibrium and away from it: A personal perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Miguel A.

    2011-03-24

    In this talk/paper I discuss the concept of universality in phase transitions and the question of whether universality classes are more robust in equilibrium than away from it. In both of these situations, the main ingredients determining universality are symmetries, conservation laws, the dimension of the space and of the order-parameter and the presence of long-range interactions or quenched disorder. The existence of detailed-balance and fluctuation-dissipation theorems imposes severe constraints on equilibrium systems, allowing to define universality classes in a very robust way; instead, non-equilibrium allows for more variability. Still, quite robust non-equilibrium universality classes have been identified in the last decades. Here, I discuss some examples in which (i) non-equilibrium phase transitions are simply controlled by equilibrium critical points, i.e. non-equilibrium ingredients turn out to be irrelevant in the renormalization group sense and (ii) non-equilibrium situations in which equilibrium seems to come out of the blue, generating an adequate effective description of intrinsically non-equilibrium problems. Afterwards, I shall describe different genuinely non-equilibrium phase transitions in which introducing small, apparently innocuous changes (namely: presence or absence of an underlying lattice, parity conservation in the overall number of particles, existence of an un-accessible vacuum state, deterministic versus stochastic microscopic rules, presence or absence of a Fermionic constraint), the critical behavior is altered, making the case for lack of robustness. However, it will be argued that in all these examples, there is an underlying good reason (in terms of general principles) for universality to be altered. The final conclusions are that: (i) robust universality classes exist both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium; (ii) symmetry and conservation principles are crucial in both, (iii) non-equilibrium allows for more variability (i

  3. Poly [1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] solutions used as low dose ionizing radiation dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Graeff, C. F. O.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Fernandes, D. M.; Fratoddi, I.; Russo, M. V.

    2013-06-17

    In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of polymetallayne poly[1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] (Pt-DEBP) in chloroform solution is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses from 0.01 Gy to 1 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. A new band at 420 nm is observed in the emission spectra, in superposition to the emission maximum at 398 nm, linearly dependent on dose. We propose to use the ratio of the emission amplitude bands as the dosimetric parameter. This method proved to be robust, accurate, and can be used as a dosimeter in medical applications.

  4. Equilibrium games in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan

    2014-12-01

    It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.

  5. Weakly ionized cosmic gas: Ionization and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.; Chow, V. W.

    1994-01-01

    Since collective plasma behavior may determine important transport processes (e.g., plasma diffusion across a magnetic field) in certain cosmic environments, it is important to delineate the parameter space in which weakly ionized cosmic gases may be characterized as plasmas. In this short note, we do so. First, we use values for the ionization fraction given in the literature, wherein the ionization is generally assumed to be due primarily to ionization by cosmic rays. We also discuss an additional mechanism for ionization in such environments, namely, the photoelectric emission of electrons from cosmic dust grains in an interstellar Far Ultra Violet (FUV) radiation field. Simple estimates suggest that under certain conditions this mechanism may dominate cosmic ray ionization, and possibly also the photoionization of metal atoms by the interstellar FUV field, and thereby lead to an enhanced ionization level.

  6. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  7. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  8. Thermal low spin-high spin equilibrium of Fe(II) in thiospinels CuFe{sub 0.5}(Sn{sub (1-x)}Ti{sub x}){sub 1.5}S{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1)

    SciTech Connect

    Womes, M.; Reibel, C.; Mari, A.; Zitoun, D.

    2011-04-15

    A series of spinel compounds with composition CuFe{sub 0.5}(Sn{sub (1-x)}Ti{sub x}){sub 1.5}S{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) is analysed by X-ray diffraction, measurements of magnetic susceptibilities and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. All samples show a temperature-dependent equilibrium between an electronic low spin 3d(t{sub 2g}){sup 6}(e{sub g}){sup 0} and a high spin 3d(t{sub 2g}){sup 4}(e{sub g}){sup 2} state of the Fe(II) ions. The spin crossover is of the continuous type and extends over several hundred degrees in all samples. The Sn/Ti ratio influences the thermal equilibrium between the two spin states. Substitution of Sn(IV) by the smaller Ti(IV) ions leads to a more compact crystal lattice, which, in contrast to many metal-organic Fe(II) complexes, does not stabilise the low spin state, but increases the residual high spin fraction for T{yields}0 K. The role played by antiferromagnetic spin coupling in the stabilisation of the high spin state is discussed. The results are compared with model calculations treating the effect of magnetic interactions on spin state equilibria. -- Graphical Abstract: Comparison of fractions of high spin Fe(II) from Moessbauer spectra (circles) with plots of {chi}{sub m}T (dots) versus T. Discrepancies between both methods indicate anti-ferromagnetic spin coupling. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Many Fe(II) complexes show thermally induced high spin-low spin crossover. {yields} Spin crossover in spinel compounds is extremely scarce. {yields} Usually, lattice contraction favours the low spin state in Fe(II) complexes. {yields} In these spinels, lattice contraction favours the high spin state. {yields} The stabilisation of the high spin state is explained by spin-spin interactions.

  9. Tuning of the copper-thioether bond in tetradentate N₃S(thioether) ligands; O-O bond reductive cleavage via a [Cu(II)₂(μ-1,2-peroxo)]²⁺/[Cu(III)₂(μ-oxo)₂]²⁺ equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Ginsbach, Jake W; Billah, A Imtiaz; Siegler, Maxime A; Moore, Cathy D; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    Current interest in copper/dioxygen reactivity includes the influence of thioether sulfur ligation, as it concerns the formation, structures, and properties of derived copper-dioxygen complexes. Here, we report on the chemistry of {L-Cu(I)}2-(O2) species L = (DMM)ESE, (DMM)ESP, and (DMM)ESDP, which are N3S(thioether)-based ligands varied in the nature of a substituent on the S atom, along with a related N3O(ether) (EOE) ligand. Cu(I) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. Copper(I) complexes are dimeric in the solid state, [{L-Cu(I)}2](B(C6F5)4)2, however are shown by diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy to be mononuclear in solution. Copper(II) complexes with a general formulation [L-Cu(II)(X)](n+) {X = ClO4(-), n = 1, or X = H2O, n = 2} exhibit distorted square pyramidal coordination geometries and progressively weaker axial thioether ligation across the series. Oxygenation (-130 °C) of {((DMM)ESE)Cu(I)}(+) results in the formation of a trans-μ-1,2-peroxodicopper(II) species [{((DMM)ESE)Cu(II)}2(μ-1,2-O2(2-))](2+) (1(P)). Weakening the Cu-S bond via a change to the thioether donor found in (DMM)ESP leads to the initial formation of [{((DMM)ESP)Cu(II)}2(μ-1,2-O2(2-))](2+) (2(P)) that subsequently isomerizes to a bis-μ-oxodicopper(III) complex, [{((DMM)ESP)Cu(III)}2(μ-O(2-))2](2+) (2(O)), with 2(P) and 2(O) in equilibrium (K(eq) = [2(O)]/[2(P)] = 2.6 at -130 °C). Formulations for these Cu/O2 adducts were confirmed by resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy. This solution mixture is sensitive to the addition of methylsulfonate, which shifts the equilibrium toward the bis-μ-oxo isomer. Further weakening of the Cu-S bond in (DMM)ESDP or substitution with an ether donor in (DMM)EOE leads to only a bis-μ-oxo species (3(O) and 4(O), respectively). Reactivity studies indicate that the bis-μ-oxodicopper(III) species (2(O), 3(O)) and not the trans-peroxo isomers (1(P) and 2(P)) are responsible for the observed ligand

  10. Local interstellar cloud electron density from magnesium and sodium ionization: a comparison.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Ferlet, R.

    1997-08-01

    The ambient interstellar plasma density (i.e. the plasma density of the interstellar medium surrounding the Sun) directly governs the structure and the size of our heliosphere. Information on this density can be derived from the ionization states of the interstellar species which can be detected in absorption along the paths to the nearby stars, and which can be shown to belong to the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC). Echelle spectra around the resonance lines of neutral and singly ionized magnesium have been obtained for the nearby star δ Cas with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. While apparently a unique velocity component (a unique cloudlet) is detected in both lines of the MgII λλ2800 resonance doublet, at the expected Doppler shift for the LIC, an extremely small λλ2853 Mg line is also detected at a Doppler shift compatible with the LIC motion, allowing a measurement of the LIC MgII/MgI ratio, here found to be 400 (-130,+190). This ratio implies a mean electron density of about 0.28 (-0.14, +0.34)cm^-3^ along this line-of-sight, if equilibrium conditions prevail, and if T=7000K, when using the most recent recombination and charge-exchange rates. This MgII/MgI ratio is larger than for Sirius (R=~220), which lies at 110^o^ from δ Cas, providing some evidence for an ionization gradient in the local cloud. Such an electron density implies a surprisingly large ionization degree, and the upper range of the interval is incompatible with the minimum size of our heliosphere. A second and independent way to derive the electron density along the path to δ Cas uses the simplicity of the LIC geometry in the sky region surrounding the star, which allows an estimate of the H column-density to the star, as well as previous ground-based CaII data, and the measured NaI/CaII ratio and calcium depletion in the LIC. The resulting most probable electron density at 7000K, 0.05cm^-3^, provides a new evidence for a significant

  11. WHAM observations of ionized gas in the inner Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alex S.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin; Barger, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We present Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) observations of ionized gas in the southern Milky Way. We include spectroscopic maps of H-Alpha, [S II], and [N II]. The data includes the Scutum-Centaurus Arm, for which we measure an exponential scale height about 20% less than that in the Perseus Arm in the outer Galaxy. The H-alpha scale height suggests a lower electron scale height in both arms than is measured locally from pulsar dispersion. The [N II] and [S II] data provide information about the temperature and ionization state of the gas: gas in the warm ionized medium is generally warmer (≈8000 K) and in lower ionization states than gas in classical H II regions. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  12. IONIZED NITROGEN AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Kneib, J. P.; Lestrade, J. F.; Maiolino, R.; Omont, A.; Richard, J.; Riechers, D.; Thanjavur, K.; Weiss, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present secure [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} detections in two millimeter-bright, strongly lensed objects at high redshift, APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.911) and MM 18423+5938 (z = 3.930), using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Due to its ionization energy [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} is a good tracer of the ionized gas phase in the interstellar medium. The measured fluxes are S([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (4.8 {+-} 0.8) Jy km s{sup -1} and (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Jy km s{sup -1}, respectively, yielding line luminosities of L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for APM 08279+5255 and L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for MM 18423+5938. Our high-resolution map of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} and 1 mm continuum emission in MM 18423+5938 clearly resolves an Einstein ring in this source and reveals a velocity gradient in the dynamics of the ionized gas. A comparison of these maps with high-resolution EVLA CO observations enables us to perform the first spatially resolved study of the dust continuum-to-molecular gas surface brightness ({Sigma}{sub FIR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup N}{sub CO}, which can be interpreted as the star formation law) in a high-redshift object. We find a steep relation (N = 1.4 {+-} 0.2), consistent with a starbursting environment. We measure a [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR luminosity ratio in APM 08279+5255 and MM 18423+5938 of 9.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, respectively. This is in agreement with the decrease of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR ratio at high FIR luminosities observed in local galaxies.

  13. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-08-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are applied. Equilibrium can be approached from different distributions of balls in the container under different conditions. The Le Châtelier principle can be demonstrated. Kinetic concepts can be demonstrated by changing the nature of the barrier, either changing the height or by having various sized holes in the barrier. Thermodynamic concepts can be demonstrated by taping over some or all of the openings and restricting air flow into container on either side of the barrier.

  14. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  15. The equilibrium dayside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavriyev, Anton; Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented of computing the dayside global earth magnetic field which is in equilibrium with the plasma pressure, based on satellite observations at a local region of the magnetosphere. The method, which utilizes a perturbation around a dipole magnetic field, involves computation of the global plasma pressure profile based on the equatorial (anisotropic) pressure data, derivation of the current profile which satisfies the equilibrium condition, and computation of the magnetic field using the current profile and the boundary current produced by the solar wind. The method is applied for the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers data, and the result of the computation is found to compare reasonably well with the observed magnetic field profile near the geomagnetic equator.

  16. Solids Far from Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, C.

    2011-03-01

    Preface; 1. Shape and growth of crystals P. Nozières; 2. Instabilities of planar solidification fronts B. Caroli, C. Caroli and B. Roulet; 3. An introduction to the kinetics of first-order phase transition J. S. Langer; 4. Dendritic growth and related topics Y. Pomeau and M. Ben Amar; 5. Growth and aggregation far from equilibrium L. M. Sander; 6. Kinetic roughening of growing surfaces J. Krug and H. Spohn; Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  17. Exoplanet Equilibrium Chemistry Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, J.; Bowman, M.; Blecic, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently, Agundez et al. (2012, A&A 548, A73) used a chemical kinetics code to study a model HD 209458b (equilibrium temperature of 1450 K, assuming full redistribution and 0 albedo). They found that thermochemistry dominates most of the dayside, but that significant compositional gradients may exist across the dayside. We calculate equilibrium-chemistry molecular abundances for several model exoplanets, using NASA's open-source Chemical Equilibrium Abundances code (McBride and Gordon 1996). We vary the degree of radiation redistribution to the dark side, ranging from total redistribution to instantaneous reradiation. Atomically, both the solar abundance multiple and the carbon fraction vary. Planet substellar temperatures range from just above 1200 K, where photochemistry should no longer be important, to those of hot planets (3000 K). We present synthetic abundance images for the key spectroscopic molecules CO, CH4, and H2O for several hot-Jupiter model planets. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  18. Equilibrium Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, I.; Zaltzman, B.

    2015-03-01

    Since its prediction 15 years ago, hydrodynamic instability in concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface has been attributed to nonequilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current. This attribution had a double basis. On the one hand, it has been recognized that neither equilibrium electro-osmosis nor bulk electroconvection can yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. On the other hand, it has been shown that nonequilibrium electro-osmosis can. The first theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this Letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential of counterions in the solid) allows for the equilibrium electroconvective instability. In addition, we suggest a simple experimental test for determining the true, either equilibrium or nonequilibrium, origin of instability in concentration polarization.

  19. Observation of nonsequential ionization of helium and its impact on intensity monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D.N. |; Bolton, P.R.; Chang, B.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-03-19

    The authors have measured the ion yields for helium and neon ionized by 120 femtosecond, 614 nanometer laser pulses with intensities up to 10{sup 16} watts per square centimeter. They have found that the He II and Ne II data exhibit features incompatible with standard nonresonant sequential ionization. These features reduce the usefulness of optical field ionization for monitoring laser intensity. For the experiment, they expect dynamic resonances to have little effect on the ionization, and they attribute the features to nonsequential ionization based on the simultaneous saturation of the features and the singly ionized charge states.

  20. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry studies of nonequilibrium surface ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, Nikolai M.; Lavrent'ev, Gennadii Ya

    2007-01-01

    The ionization of polyatomic molecules on tungsten and tungsten oxide surfaces is considered for quasiequilibrium or essentially nonequilibrium conditions (in the latter case, the term nonequilibrium surface ionization is used for adsorbate ionization). Heterogeneous reactions are supposed to proceed through monomolecular decay of polyatomic molecules or fragments of multimolecular complexes. The nonequilibrium nature of these reactions is established. The dependences of the current density of disordered ions on the surface temperature, electric field strength, and ionized particle energy distribution are obtained in analytical form. Heterogeneous dissociation energies, the ionization potentials of radicals, and the magnitude of reaction departure from equilibrium are determined from experimental data, as are energy exchange times between reaction products and surfaces, the number of molecules in molecular complexes, and the number of effective degrees of freedom in molecules and complexes. In collecting the data a new technique relying on surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry was applied.

  1. Radioactive equilibrium in ancient marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.

    1955-01-01

    Radioactive equilibrium in eight marine sedimentary formations has been studied by means of direct determinations of uranium, radium and thorium. Alpha-particle counting has also been carried out in order to cross-calibrate thick-source counting techniques. The maximum deviation from radioactive equilibrium that has been noted is 11 per cent-indicating that there is probably equilibrium in all the formations analyzed. Thick-source alpha-particle counting by means of a proportional counter or an ionization chamber leads to high results when the samples contain less than about 10 p.p.m. of uranium. For samples having a higher content of uranium the results are in excellent agreement with each other and with those obtained by direct analytical techniques. The thorium contents that have been obtained correspond well to the average values reported in the literature. The uranium content of marine sediments may be appreciably higher than the average values that have been reported for sedimentary rocks. Data show that there is up to fourteen times the percentage of uranium as of thorium in the formations studied and that the percentage of thorium never exceeds that of uranium. While the proximity of a depositional environment to a land mass may influence the concentration of uranium in a marine sediment, this is not true with thorium. ?? 1955.

  2. The ionization sources of the diffuse ionized gas in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, Erica Susan

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) has been shown to be an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM), with its large filling factor (>= 20%) and a mass that makes it the most massive component of the Galactic ionized ISM. Given that it has been found to be ubiquitous in both the Galaxy and external disk galaxies, the energy source to create and maintain the DIG must necessarily be large. Massive OB stars are the only known sources with enough energy to power the DIG, and DIG is also linked morphologically to OB stars as it is brightest near bright star forming regions. However, the details of the location and spectral types of the ionizing stars, as well as the relevance of other ionizing mechanisms, are still not clear. I present the results of three different studies aimed at exploring the ionization sources of the DIG. Optical spectroscopy of DIG in M33 and NGC 891 using the Gemini-North telescope has been obtained to compare diagnostic emission line ratios with photoionization models. The first detection of (O I] l6300 was made in the DIG of M33. In M33, models in which ionizing photons leaking from H II regions are responsible for the ionization of the DIG best fit our observed line ratios. In NGC 891, we found evidence that shock ionization may need to be included along with photoionization in order to explain our observed emission line ratios. The diffuse Ha fraction in eight nearby galaxies was studied as a function of radius and star formation rate per unit area. We found no correlation with radius, but we did find that regions with higher star formation rates have lower diffuse fractions. Neither of these results had any dependence on galaxy type. These results have implications regarding the circumstances under which H II regions may be leaking ionizing photons and thus ionizing DIG. We also compared observed and predicted ionizing photon emission rates for 39 H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our results indicate that five of the H II

  3. Modeling equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A.; Jarzecki, A.; Spiro, T.

    2003-04-01

    Research into the stable isotope biogeochemistry of Fe and other transition metals has been driven primarily by analytical innovations which have revealed significant isotope effects in nature and the laboratory. Further development of these new isotope systems requires complementary theoretical research to guide analytical efforts. The results of the first such studies show some discrepancies with experiments. For example, Johnson et al. (2002) report an experimentally-determined 56Fe/54Fe equilibrium fractionation factor between Fe(II) and Fe(III) aquo complexes of ˜1.0025. This effect is ˜50% smaller than predicted theoretically by Schauble et al. (2001). It is important to resolve such discrepancies. Equilibrium isotope fractionation factors can be predicted from vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopically-substituted complexes, or from theoretical predictions of some or all of these frequencies obtained using force field models. The pioneering work of Schauble et al. (2001) utilized a modified Urey-Bradley force field (MUBFF) model. This approach is limiting in at least three ways: First, it is not ab initio, requiring as input some measured vibrational frequencies. Such data are not always available, or may have significant uncertainties. Second, the MUBFF does not include potentially important effects of solvent interaction. Third, because it makes certain assumptions about molecular symmetry, the MUBFF-based approach is not able to model the spectra of mixed-ligand complexes. To address these limitations, we are evaluating the use of density functional theory (DFT) as an ab initio method to predict vibrational frequencies of isotopically-substituted complexes and, hence, equilibrium fractionation factors. In a preliminary examination of the frequency shift upon isotope substitution of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes of the tetrahedral FeCl_42- complex, we find substantial differences between MUBFF and DFT predictions. Results for other Fe

  4. The H[subscript 3]PO[subscript 4] Acid Ionization Reactions: A Capstone Multiconcept Thermodynamics General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Barlag, Rebecca; Wise, Lindy; McMills, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of weak acid ionization reactions are determined. The thermodynamic properties are corresponding values of the absolute temperature (T), the weak acid equilibrium constant (K[subscript a]), the enthalpy of ionization (delta[subscript i]H[degrees]), and the entropy of ionization (delta[subscript i]S[degrees]). The…

  5. Statistical equilibrium calculations for silicon in early-type model stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Line profiles of 36 multiplets of silicon (Si) II, III, and IV were computed for a grid of model atmospheres covering the range from 15,000 to 35,000 K in effective temperature and 2.5 to 4.5 in log (gravity). The computations involved simultaneous solution of the steady-state statistical equilibrium equations for the populations and of the equation of radiative transfer in the lines. The variables were linearized, and successive corrections were computed until a minimal accuracy of 1/1000 in the line intensities was reached. The common assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was dropped. The model atmospheres used also were computed by non-LTE methods. Some effects that were incorporated into the calculations were the depression of the continuum by free electrons, hydrogen and ionized helium line blocking, and auto-ionization and dielectronic recombination, which later were found to be insignificant. Use of radiation damping and detailed electron (quadratic Stark) damping constants had small but significant effects on the strong resonance lines of Si III and IV. For weak and intermediate-strength lines, large differences with respect to LTE computations, the results of which are also presented, were found in line shapes and strengths. For the strong lines the differences are generally small, except for the models at the hot, low-gravity extreme of our range. These computations should be useful in the interpretation of the spectra of stars in the spectral range B0-B5, luminosity classes III, IV, and V.

  6. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-10-21

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds.

  7. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogen plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. The statistical mechanical calculation of the plasma equation of state is intended for stellar interiors. The general approach is extended to the calculation of the equation of state of the outer layers of large planets.

  8. Structural design using equilibrium programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple nonlinear programming methods are combined in the method of equilibrium programming. Equilibrium programming theory has been appied to problems in operations research, and in the present study it is investigated as a framework to solve structural design problems. Several existing formal methods for structural optimization are shown to actually be equilibrium programming methods. Additionally, the equilibrium programming framework is utilized to develop a new structural design method. Selected computational results are presented to demonstrate the methods.

  9. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  10. Ionization Correction Factors based on CALIFA photoionization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Inglada, G.; Morisset, C.; Sánchez, S.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We use a grid of photoionization models (especially constructed to reproduce the observations of ~5200 H II regions from the CALIFA survey) to explore the ionization correction factors usually adopted to calculate total element abundances.

  11. Non-equilibrium DMFT - Polaritonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatsch, Andreas; Frank, Regine

    Non-equilibrium physics recently really becomes important with the progress of ultrafast laser sciences. However in our understanding there is still a gap between equilibrium physics and the non-equilibrium, even though numerical methods have been advanced in recent years. We compare in this talk novel results at hand with equilibrium physics. The comparison will show that especially theoretical efforts are needed to explain many - so far - unresolved problems and to predict novel research on the basis of ab initio computing. We specifically discuss several non-equilibrium extensions of DMFT, numerical methods as well as semi-analytical solvers.

  12. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  13. Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.; Albright, N.W.; Yang, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures.

  14. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Yuan, Cheng-Hui; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2010-07-01

    Mass spectrometric ionization methods that operate under ambient conditions and require minimal or no sample pretreatment have attracted much attention in such fields as biomedicine, food safety, antiterrorism, pharmaceuticals, and environmental pollution. These technologies usually involve separate ionization and sample-introduction events, allowing independent control over each set of conditions. Ionization is typically performed under ambient conditions through use of existing electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) techniques. Rapid analyses of gas, liquid, and solid samples are possible with the adoption of various sample-introduction methods. This review sorts different ambient ionization techniques into two main subcategories, primarily on the basis of the ionization processes, that are further differentiated in terms of the approach used for sampling.

  15. Axisymmetric model of the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, R. H.; Simpson, J. P.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1991-01-01

    New ionization and thermal equilibrium models for the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula with an axisymmetric two-dimensional 'blister' geometry/density distribution are presented. The HII region is represented more realistically than in previous models, while the physical detail of the microphysics and radiative transfer of the earlier spherical modeling is maintained. The predicted surface brightnesses are compared with observations for a large set of lines at different positions to determine the best-fitting physical parameters. The model explains the strong singly ionized line emission along the lines of sight near the Trapezium.

  16. Equilibrium Macroscopic Structure Revisited from Spatial Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuge, Koretaka

    2016-02-01

    In classical systems, we reexamine how macroscopic structures in equilibrium state connect with spatial constraint on the systems. For example, volume and density as the constraint for liquids in rigid box, and crystal lattice as the constraint for crystalline solids. We find that in disordered states, equilibrium macroscopic structure, depending on temperature and on multibody interactions in the system, can be well characterized by a single special microscopic structure independent of temperature and of interactions. The special microscopic structure depends only on the spatial constraint. We demonstrate the present findings providing (i) significantly efficient and systematic prediction of macroscopic structures for possible combination of constituents in multicomponent systems using first-principles calculations, and (ii) unique and accurate prediction of multibody interactions in given system from measured macroscopic structure, without performing trial-and-error simulation.

  17. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  18. Equilibrium properties of chemically reacting gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The equilibrium energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure, and the equation of state of the gas are all derived for chemically reacting gas mixtures in terms of the compressibility, the mol fractions, the thermodynamic properties of the pure gas components, and the change in zero point energy due to reaction. Results are illustrated for a simple diatomic dissociation reaction and nitrogen is used as an example. Next, a gas mixture resulting from combined diatomic dissociation and atomic ionization reactions is treated and, again, nitrogen is used as an example. A short discussion is given of the additional complexities involved when precise solutions for high-temperature air are desired, including effects caused by NO produced in shuffle reactions and by other trace species formed from CO2, H2O and Ar found in normal air.

  19. Non-equilibirum ionization and cooling of metal-enriched gas in the presence of a photoionization background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaye, Joop

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of the formation of galaxies, as well as ionization models used to interpret observations of quasar absorption lines, generally either assume ionization equilibrium or ignore the presence of the extragalactic background (EGB) radiation. We introduce a method to compute the non-equilibrium ionization and cooling of diffuse gas exposed to the EGB. Our method iterates the ionization states of the 11 elements that dominate the cooling (H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, Mg, S, Ca and Fe) and uses tabulated ion-by-ion cooling and photo-heating efficiencies to update the temperature of the gas. Our reaction network includes radiative and di-electric recombination, collisional ionization, photoionization, Auger ionization and charge transfer. We verify that our method reproduces published results for collisional equilibrium, collisional non-equilibrium and photoionized equilibrium. Non-equilibrium effects can become very important in cooling gas, particularly below 106 K. Photoionization and non-equilibrium effects both tend to boost the degree of ionization and to reduce cooling efficiencies. The effect of the EGB is larger for lower densities (i.e. higher ionization parameters). Hence, photoionization affects (equilibrium and non-equilibrium) cooling more under isochoric than under isobaric conditions. Non-equilibrium effects are smaller in the presence of the EGB and are thus overestimated when using collisional-only processes. The inclusion of the EGB alters the observational diagnostics of diffuse, metal-enriched gas (e.g. metal absorption lines probed in quasar sight lines) even more significantly than the cooling efficiencies. We argue that the cooling efficiency should be considered if ionization models are used to infer physical conditions from observed line ratios, as the a priori probability of observing gas is lower if its cooling time is shorter. We provide online tables of ionization fractions and cooling efficiencies, as well as other data, for equilibrium

  20. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  1. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  2. The Nash equilibrium: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Holt, Charles A; Roth, Alvin E

    2004-03-23

    In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of equilibrium for n- person games. This notion, now called the "Nash equilibrium," has been widely applied and adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. PMID:15024100

  3. Grinding kinetics and equilibrium states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opoczky, L.; Farnady, F.

    1984-01-01

    The temporary and permanent equilibrium occurring during the initial stage of cement grinding does not indicate the end of comminution, but rather an increased energy consumption during grinding. The constant dynamic equilibrium occurs after a long grinding period indicating the end of comminution for a given particle size. Grinding equilibrium curves can be constructed to show the stages of comminution and agglomeration for certain particle sizes.

  4. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  5. Search for a non-equilibrium plasma in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shota; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Shutaro; Nagino, Ryo; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji

    2016-06-01

    Abell 754 is a galaxy cluster in which an ongoing merger is evident on the plane of the sky, from the southeast to the northwest. We study the spatial variation of the X-ray spectra observed with Suzaku along the merging direction, centering on the Fe Ly α/Fe He α line ratio to search for possible deviation from ionization equilibrium. Fitting with a single-temperature collisional non-equilibrium plasma model shows that the electron temperature increases from the southeast to the northwest. The ionization parameter is consistent with that in equilibrium (net > 1013 s cm-3) except for the specific region with the highest temperature (kT=13.3_{-1.1}^{+1.4}keV) where n_et=10^{11.6_{-1.7}^{+0.6}}s cm-3. The elapsed time from the plasma heating estimated from the ionization parameter is 0.36-76 Myr at the 90% confidence level. This timescale is quite short but consistent with the traveling time of a shock to pass through that region. We thus interpret that the non-equilibrium ionization plasma in Abell 754 observed is a remnant of the shock heating in the merger process. However, we note that the X-ray spectrum of the specific region where the non-equilibrium is found can also be fitted with a collisional ionization plasma model with two temperatures, low kT=4.2^{+4.2}_{-1.5}keV and very high kT >19.3 keV. The very high temperature component is alternatively fitted with a power-law model. Either of these spectral models is interpreted as a consequence of the ongoing merger process as in the case of the non-equilibrium ionization plasma.

  6. Search for a non-equilibrium plasma in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shota; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Shutaro; Nagino, Ryo; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji

    2016-04-01

    Abell 754 is a galaxy cluster in which an ongoing merger is evident on the plane of the sky, from the southeast to the northwest. We study the spatial variation of the X-ray spectra observed with Suzaku along the merging direction, centering on the Fe Ly α/Fe He α line ratio to search for possible deviation from ionization equilibrium. Fitting with a single-temperature collisional non-equilibrium plasma model shows that the electron temperature increases from the southeast to the northwest. The ionization parameter is consistent with that in equilibrium (net > 1013 s cm-3) except for the specific region with the highest temperature (kT=13.3_{-1.1}^{+1.4}keV) where n_et=10^{11.6_{-1.7}^{+0.6}}s cm-3. The elapsed time from the plasma heating estimated from the ionization parameter is 0.36-76 Myr at the 90% confidence level. This timescale is quite short but consistent with the traveling time of a shock to pass through that region. We thus interpret that the non-equilibrium ionization plasma in Abell 754 observed is a remnant of the shock heating in the merger process. However, we note that the X-ray spectrum of the specific region where the non-equilibrium is found can also be fitted with a collisional ionization plasma model with two temperatures, low kT=4.2^{+4.2}_{-1.5}keV and very high kT >19.3 keV. The very high temperature component is alternatively fitted with a power-law model. Either of these spectral models is interpreted as a consequence of the ongoing merger process as in the case of the non-equilibrium ionization plasma.

  7. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Rob

    2016-01-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest. PMID:27429713

  8. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-03-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  9. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects on isentropic coefficient in argon and helium thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip

    2014-03-15

    In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Zγ, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter θ(= T{sub e}/T{sub h}) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1 atm, 10 atm, and 100 atm in the temperature range from 6000 K to 60 000 K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Zγ with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter.

  10. Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-equilibrium rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are especially useful because if experimental data can be fit by these simpler rate equations, the Michaelis constants can be interpreted as equilibrium constants. However, for some reactions it is necessary to use the more complicated steady-state rate equations. Thermodynamics is…

  11. Observation of a Cu(II)2(μ-1,2-peroxo)/Cu(III)2(μ-oxo)2 Equilibrium and its Implications for Copper-Dioxygen Reactivity**

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Ginsbach, Jake W.; Wick, Patrick K.; Lucas, Heather R.; Helton, Matthew E.; Lucchese, Baldo; Suzuki, Masatatsu; Zuberbühler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of small molecule Cu2O2 adducts has provided insight into the related biological systems and their reactivity patterns including the interconversion of the CuII2(μ-η2:η2-peroxo) and CuIII2(μ-oxo)2 isomers. In this study, absorption spectroscopy, kinetics, and resonance Raman data show that the oxygenated product of [(BQPA)CuI]+ initially yields an “end-on peroxo” species, that subsequently converts to the thermodynamically more stable “bis-μ-oxo” isomer (Keq = 3.2 at −90 °C). Calibration of density functional theory calculations to these experimental data suggest that the electrophilic reactivity previously ascribed to end-on peroxo species is in fact a result of an accessible bis-μ-oxo isomer, an electrophilic Cu2O2 isomer in contrast to the nucleophilic reactivity of binuclear CuII end-on peroxo species. This study is the first report of the interconversion of an end-on peroxo to bis-μ-oxo species in transition metal-dioxygen chemistry. PMID:24700427

  12. Electron-Impact Ionization Measurements Important for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, M. E.

    2004-05-01

    Electron impact ionization (EII) is the dominant ionization mechanism in the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona. Analyzing spectra from this region of the sun requires accurate ionization balance calculations for plasmas in collisional ionization equilibrium as well as plasmas under conditions of non-equilibrium ionization. Here we report on a series of laboratory measurements of EII that are now underway at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility for selected ions in the heliumlike, berylliumlike, and oxygenlike isoelectronic sequences. We have found significant errors and uncertainties in the EII data for these isoelectronic sequences, primarily due to uncertainty in the fraction of metastable ions encountered in prior measurements. By determining the metastable ion fractions independent of the ionization experiments, our measurements will provide new EII data for both ground-state and metastable ions with uncertainties of 15% or less. This material is based upon work supported by NASA under Award No. NNH04AA151 issued through the Sun-Earth Connection Division's Solar & Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  13. Quantitative spectroscopy of photospheric-phase type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-07-01

    We present first results on the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the photospheric-phase of type II supernovae (SN). The analyses are based on the model atmosphere code, CMFGEN, of Hillier & Miller (1998) which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in expanding outflows under the constraint of radiative equilibrium. A key asset of CMFGEN is its thorough treatment of line-blanketing due to metal species. From its applicability to hot star environments, the main modifications to the source code were to allow a linear velocity law, a power-law density distribution, an adaptive grid to handle the steep H recombination/ionization front occurring in some SN models, and a routine to compute the gray temperature structure in the presence of large velocities. In this first paper we demonstrate the ability of CMFGEN to reproduce, with a high level of accuracy, the UV and optical observations of a sample of well observed type II SN, i.e. SN1987A and SN1999em, at representative stages of their photospheric evolution. Two principal stages of SN are modeled that where hydrogen is fully ionized, and that in which H is only partially ionized. For models with an effective temperature below ~8000 K, hydrogen recombines and gives rise to a steep ionization front. The effect of varying the location of the outer grid radius on the spectral energy distribution (SED) is investigated. We find that going to 5-6 times the optically-thick base radius is optimal, since above that, the model becomes prohibitively large, while below this, significant differences appear because of the reduced line-blanketing (which persists even far above the photosphere) and the truncation of line-formation regions. To constrain the metallicity and the reddening of SN, the UV spectral region of early-time spectra is essential. We find that the density of the photosphere and effect of line blanketing decline as the spatial scale of the SN increases. The density distribution is

  14. Is Soret equilibrium a non-equilibrium effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würger, Alois

    2013-04-01

    Recent thermophoretic experiments on colloidal suspensions revived an old debate, namely whether the Soret effect is properly described by thermostatics, or necessarily requires non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on colloidal transport theory and the entropy production of the related viscous flow, our analysis leads to the conclusion that the equilibrium approach may work for small ions, yet fails for colloidal particles and polymers. Regarding binary molecular mixtures, our results shed some doubt on the validity of thermostatic approaches that derive the Soret coefficient from equilibrium potentials.

  15. Ionization degree for strong evaporation of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gusarov, Andrey V.; Aoki, Kazuo

    2005-08-15

    Kinetic equations for ions and neutrals are numerically solved in the plasma sheath formed at a condensed phase when strong evaporation is taking place. The Boltzmann distribution is assumed for electrons. A weakly ionized vapor with the Debye length much shorter than the mean free path is considered. This is typical for laser evaporation of metals. Under these conditions, the sheath consists of a Knudsen layer and a thin charge separation layer between the Knudsen layer and the condensed phase. The self-consistent electrostatic field in the Knudsen layer is obtained from the quasineutrality condition. The potential barrier in the charge separation layer is determined by the charge balance. Kinetic boundary conditions for neutrals and charges are estimated by the detailed balance principle from the parameters of the saturated vapor. The transport of charges in the sheath is controlled by ions and depends on ion-neutral collisions and the self-consistent electrostatic field. Ionization degree in the vapor formed by strong evaporation increases with the Mach number and can attain values about 30% higher than the ionization degree in the saturated vapor. Two factors contribute to this increase. The first is the drop of the potential barrier in the charge separation layer and the second is the strengthening of the field in the Knudsen layer. The ionization equilibrium may be disturbed by a considerable excess of charges.

  16. A Unified Kinetics and Equilibrium Experiment: Rate Law, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium Constant for the Dissociation of Ferroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) is the basis of a suite of four experiments spanning 5 weeks. Students determine the rate law, activation energy, and equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the complex ion in acid solution and base dissociation constant for phenanthroline. The focus on one chemical system simplifies a daunting set of…

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  18. Computer Assisted Instruction for Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gifford L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two computer assisted tutorials, one on acid ionization constants (Ka), and the other on solubility product constants (Ksp). Discusses framework to be used in writing computer assisted instruction programs. Lists topics covered in the programs. (MVL)

  19. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift.

  20. Understanding thermal equilibrium through activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-03-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education pp 169-72) we found that students in India have a rather unsatisfactory understanding of thermal equilibrium. We have designed and developed a module of five activities, which are presented in succession to the students. These activities address the students’ alternative conceptions that underlie their lack of understanding of thermal equilibrium and aim at enhancing their understanding of the concept.

  1. Quick Time-dependent Ionization Calculations Depending on MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2014-06-01

    Time-dependent ionization is important in astrophysical environments where the thermodynamic time scale is shorter than ionization time scale. In this work, we report a FORTRAN program that performs fast non-equilibrium ionization calculations based on parallel computing. Using MHD simulation results, we trace the movements of plasma in a Lagrangian framework, and obtain evolutionary history of temperature and electron density. Then the time-dependent ionization equations are solved using the eigenvalue method. For any complex temperature and density histories, we introduce a advanced time-step strategy to improve the computational efficiency. Our tests show that this program has advantages of high numerical stability and high accuracy. In addition, it is also easy to integrate this solver with the other MHD routines.

  2. A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF INORGANIC AEROSOL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODULES: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES, AND THEIR LIKELY CAUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive comparison of five inorganic aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium modules, MARS-A, SEQUILIB, SCAPE2, EQUISOLV II, and AIM2, was conducted for a variety of atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter (PM) constituents, relative humidities (RHs), and temperatures....

  3. Equilibrium and Orientation in Cephalopods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budelmann, Bernd-Ulrich

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure of the equilibrium receptor system in cephalopods, comparing it to the vertebrate counterpart--the vestibular system. Relates the evolution of this complex system to the competition of cephalopods with fishes. (CS)

  4. Equilibrium Constants You Can Smell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michael; Buckley, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple experiment involving the sense of smell that students can accomplish during a lecture. Illustrates the important concepts of equilibrium along with the acid/base properties of various ions. (JRH)

  5. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  6. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  7. A search for equilibrium states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    An efficient search algorithm is described for the location of equilibrium states in a search set of states which differ from one another only by the choice of pure phases. The algorithm has three important characteristics: (1) it ignores states which have little prospect for being an improved approximation to the true equilibrium state; (2) it avoids states which lead to singular iteration equations; (3) it furnishes a search history which can provide clues to alternative search paths.

  8. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  9. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The “magic” that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers. PMID:26486514

  10. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  11. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2013-07-01

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  12. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  13. Departure of High-temperature Iron Lines from the Equilibrium State in Flaring Solar Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawate, T.; Keenan, F. P.; Jess, D. B.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify if the assumption of ionization equilibrium and a Maxwellian electron energy distribution is valid in flaring solar plasmas. We analyze the 2014 December 20 X1.8 flare, in which the Fe xxi 187 Å, Fe xxii 253 Å, Fe xxiii 263 Å, and Fe xxiv 255 Å emission lines were simultaneously observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode satellite. Intensity ratios among these high-temperature Fe lines are compared and departures from isothermal conditions and ionization equilibrium examined. Temperatures derived from intensity ratios involving these four lines show significant discrepancies at the flare footpoints in the impulsive phase, and at the looptop in the gradual phase. Among these, the temperature derived from the Fe xxii/Fe xxiv intensity ratio is the lowest, which cannot be explained if we assume a Maxwellian electron distribution and ionization equilibrium, even in the case of a multithermal structure. This result suggests that the assumption of ionization equilibrium and/or a Maxwellian electron energy distribution can be violated in evaporating solar plasma around 10 MK.

  14. Field-free molecular alignment for measuring ionization probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loriot, V.; Hertz, E.; Lavorel, B.; Faucher, O.

    2008-01-01

    We have shown in a recent letter (Loriot et al 2006 Opt. Lett. 31 2897) the possibility of determining the ionization probability of linear molecules by using an all-optical technique that takes advantage of post-pulse molecular alignment. To that end, we have implemented a 'cross-defocusing' technique producing a signal sensitive to both alignment and ionization. The analysis of the signal provides a quantitative measurement of the ionization probability calibrated with molecular alignment. In the present work, the method is discussed in more detail and applied to the measurement of the ionization probability of N2 as well as to the determination of the ionization ratio between (i) N2 and Ar and (ii) O2 and Xe. We demonstrate in addition a progress in the scheme in order to improve the accuracy at low intensity.

  15. Bow shock models of ultracompact H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Van Buren, Dave; Wood, Douglas O. S.; Churchwell, ED

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents models of ultracompact H II regions as the bow shocks formed by massive stars, with strong stellar winds, moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The morphologies, sizes and brightnesses of observed objects match the models well. Plausible models are provided for the ultracompact H II regions G12.21 - 0.1, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78. To do this, the equilibrium shape of the wind-blown shell is calculated, assuming momentum conservation. Then the shell is illuminated with ionizing radiation from the central star, radiative transfer for free-free emission through the shell is performed, and the resulting object is visualized at various angles for comparison with radio continuum maps. The model unifies most of the observed morphologies of ultracompact H II regions, excluding only those objects with spherical shells. Ram pressure confinement greatly lengthens the life of ultracompact H II regions, explaining the large number that exist in the Galaxy despite their low apparent kinematic ages.

  16. Equilibrium slab models of Lyman-alpha clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Salpeter, Edwin E.; Hogan, Craig J.

    1993-01-01

    Solutions for the equilibrium configuration of a slab with ionizing radiation incident equally from both sides are explored. Radiation effects (photoionization, Ly-alpha photon trapping, and mock gravity) as well as external pressure and self gravity (with and without dark matter) are included. The general formalism is applied to structure growth on small scales at very high z due to mock gravity on dust. Emphasis is placed on the application of slab models at z of less than 5, particularly those that may correspond to Ly-alpha forest, Lyman limit, and damped Ly-alpha systems. The regime with a dominant outward force contributed by trapping of Ly-alpha photons is discussed. General expressions are given for the equilibrium, including dark matter, assuming various relationships between the density of the dark matter halo and the total gas column density.

  17. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  18. Transport Properties of Equilibrium Argon Plasma in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Laricchiuta, A.; Chikhaoui, A.; Kustova, E. V.; Giordano, D.

    2005-05-16

    Electron electrical conductivity coefficients of equilibrium Argon plasma in a magnetic field are calculated up to the 12th Chapman-Enskog approximation at pressure of 1 atm and 0.1 atm for temperatures 500K-20000K; the magnetic Hall parameter spans from 0.01 to 100. The collision integrals used in the calculations are discussed. The convergence properties of the different approximations are assessed. The degree of anisotropy introduced by the presence of the magnetic field is evaluated. Differences with the isotropic case can be very substantial. The biggest effects are visible at high ionization degrees, i.e. high temperatures, and at strong magnetic fields.

  19. Model of opacity and emissivity of non-equilibrium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politov, V. Y.

    2008-05-01

    In this work the model describing absorption and emission properties of the non-equilibrium plasma is presented. It is based on the kinetics equations for populations of the ground, singly and doubly excited states of multi-charged ions. After solving these equations, the states populations together with the spectroscopic data, supplied in the special database for a lot ionization stages, are used for building the spectral distributions of plasma opacity and emissivity in STA approximation. Results of kinetics simulation are performed for such important X-ray converter as gold, which is investigated intensively in ICF-experiments.

  20. Heater-induced ionization inferred from spectrometric airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Miceli, R. J.; Varney, R. H.; Schlatter, N.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Spectrographic airglow measurements were made during an ionospheric modification experiment at HAARP on March 12, 2013. Artificial airglow enhancements at 427.8, 557.7, 630.0, 777.4, and 844.6 nm were observed. On the basis of these emissions and using a methodology based on the method of Backus and Gilbert [1968, 1970], we estimate the suprathermal electron population and the subsequent equilibrium electron density profile, including contributions from electron impact ionization. We find that the airglow is consistent with significant induced ionization in view of the spatial intermittency of the airglow.

  1. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu

    2013-06-10

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  2. Ionization nebulae surrounding supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Chiang, E.; Kallman, T.; Malina, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we carry out a theoretical investigation of a new type of astrophysical gaseous nebula, viz., ionized regions surrounding supersoft X-ray sources. Supersoft X-ray sources, many of which have characteristic luminosities of approximately 10(exp 37)-(10(exp 38) ergs/s and effective temperatures of approximately 4 x 10(exp 5) K, were first discovered with the Einstein Observatory. These sources have now been shown to constitute a distinct class of X-ray source and are being found in substantial numbers with ROSAT. We predict that these sources should be surrounded by regions of ionized hydrogen and helium with properties that are distinct from other astrophysical gaseous nebulae. We present caluations of the ionization and temperature structure of these ionization nebulae, as well as the expected optical line fluxes. The ionization profiles for both hydrogen and helium exhibit substantially more gradual transitions from the ionized to the unionized state than is the case for conventional H II regions. The calculated optical line intensitites are presented as absolute fluxes from sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud and as fractions of the central source luminosity. We find, in particular, that (O III) lambda 5008 and He II lambda 4686 are especially prominent in these ionization nebulae as compared to other astrophysical nebulae. We propose that searches for supersoft X-rays via their characteristic optical lines may reveal sources in regions where the soft X-rays are nearly completely absorbed by the interstellar medium.

  3. Surface ionization of terpene hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zandberg, E.Y.; Nezdyurov, A.L.; Paleev, V.I.; Ponomarev, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    By means of a surface ionization indicator for traces of materials in the atmosphere it has been established that many natural materials containing terpenes and their derivatives are ionized on the surface of heated molybdenum oxide at atmospheric air pressure. A mass-spectrometer method has been used to explain the mechanism of ionization of individual terpene hydrocarbons and to establish its principles. The ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene, alloocimene, camphene, and also adamantane on oxidized tungsten under vacuum conditions has been investigated. The ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are ionized by surface ionization but camphene and adamantane are not ionized under vacuum conditions. The surface ionization mass spectra of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are of low line brightness in comparison with electron ionization mass spectra and differ between themselves. The temperature relations for currents of the same compositions of ions during ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are also different, which leads to the possibility of surface ionization analysis of mixtures of terpenes being ionized. The ionization coefficients of alloocimene and ..cap alpha..-pinene on oxidized tungsten under temperatures optimum for ionization and the ionization potentials of alloocimene molecules and of radicals (M-H) of both compounds have been evaluated.

  4. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  5. Tuning universality far from equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Markus; Nowak, Boris; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Possible universal dynamics of a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium are explored. A focus is set on meta-stable non-thermal states exhibiting critical properties such as self-similarity and independence of the details of how the respective state has been reached. It is proposed that universal dynamics far from equilibrium can be tuned to exhibit a dynamical transition where these critical properties change qualitatively. This is demonstrated for the case of a superfluid two-component Bose gas exhibiting different types of long-lived but non-thermal critical order. Scaling exponents controlled by the ratio of experimentally tuneable coupling parameters offer themselves as natural smoking guns. The results shed light on the wealth of universal phenomena expected to exist in the far-from-equilibrium realm. PMID:23928853

  6. Measurements of Electron-Impact Ionization Relevant for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, M. E.

    2005-05-01

    For many cosmic plasmas, such as are formed in supernova remnants, stellar coronae, the interstellar medium (ISM), the intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies, and elliptical galaxies, electron impact ionization (EII) is the dominant ionization mechanism. Spectroscopic data produced by an array of past, present, and future satellite spectroscopic observatories are being used to address many fundamental questions in astrophysics. Analyzing the collected spectra from electron-ionized plasmas, however, requires accurate ionization balance calculations for plasmas in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) as well as plasmas under conditions of non-equilibrium ionization (NEI). Therefore accurate EII data are needed for ions found in these astrophysical environments. Here we report on recent laboratory measurements of EII at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility for selected ions in the berylliumlike isoelectronic sequence. These results are compared with state-of-the-art non-perturbative calculations for these ions. This systematic investigation of EII will continue with measurements on heliumlike and oxygenlike ions. For these isoelectronic sequences there appear to be significant errors and uncertainties in the EII data, primarily due to uncertainty in the fraction of metastable ions encountered in prior measurements. By determining the metastable ion fractions independent of the ionization experiments, our measurements will provide new EII data with uncertainties of 15% or less. This material is based upon work supported by NASA under Award Nos. NNH04AA151 and NNH04AA72I and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  7. Electron-impact ionization measurements for use in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    Spectroscopic data produced by an array of past, present, and future satellite and space observatories are being used to address many fundamental questions in astrophysics. Analyzing the collected spectra from electron-ionized plasmas, however, requires accurate ionization balance calculations for plasmas in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) as well as plasmas under conditions of non-equilibrium ionization (NEI). Therefore accurate electron-impact ionization (EII) data are needed for ions found in many cosmic plasmas where EII is the dominant ionization mechanism, such as supernova remnants, stellar coronae, the interstellar medium (ISM), the intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies, and elliptical galaxies. Here we report on a program of laboratory measurements of EII for ions in the berylliumlike isoelectronic sequence at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility. These results are compared with state-of-the-art non-perturbative calculations. Our studies also focus on measurements of EII for heliumlike and oxygenlike ions. For these three isoelectronic sequences there appear to be significant errors and uncertainties in the EII data used in astrophysics, primarily due to uncertainty in the fraction of metastable ions encountered in prior measurements. By determining the metastable ion fractions independently of the ionization experiments, our measurements will provide new EII data with total uncertainties of 15% or less. This material is based upon work supported by NASA under Award Nos. NNH04AA151 and NNH04AA72I and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  8. General equilibrium of an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, J

    2000-03-01

    Ecosystems and economies are inextricably linked: ecosystem models and economic models are not linked. Consequently, using either type of model to design policies for preserving ecosystems or improving economic performance omits important information. Improved policies would follow from a model that links the systems and accounts for the mutual feedbacks by recognizing how key ecosystem variables influence key economic variables, and vice versa. Because general equilibrium economic models already are widely used for policy making, the approach used here is to develop a general equilibrium ecosystem model which captures salient biological functions and which can be integrated with extant economic models. In the ecosystem model, each organism is assumed to be a net energy maximizer that must exert energy to capture biomass from other organisms. The exerted energies are the "prices" that are paid to biomass, and each organism takes the prices as signals over which it has no control. The maximization problem yields the organism's demand for and supply of biomass to other organisms as functions of the prices. The demands and supplies for each biomass are aggregated over all organisms in each species which establishes biomass markets wherein biomass prices are determined. A short-run equilibrium is established when all organisms are maximizing and demand equals supply in every biomass market. If a species exhibits positive (negative) net energy in equilibrium, its population increases (decreases) and a new equilibrium follows. The demand and supply forces in the biomass markets drive each species toward zero stored energy and a long-run equilibrium. Population adjustments are not based on typical Lotka-Volterra differential equations in which one entire population adjusts to another entire population thereby masking organism behavior; instead, individual organism behavior is central to population adjustments. Numerical simulations use a marine food web in Alaska to

  9. Addition by subtraction in coupled cluster theory. II. Equation-of-motion coupled cluster method for excited, ionized, and electron-attached states based on the nCC ground state wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiał, Monika; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2007-07-01

    New iterative double and triple excitation corrections to the equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) based upon the recently developed nCC methods [Bartlett and Musiał, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 204105-1 (2006)] are applied to excitation energies (EEs), ionization potentials (IPs), and electron affinities (EAs). The methods have been tested by the evaluation of the vertical EEs, IPs, and EAs for Ne, BH, CH2, H2O, N2, C2, CH+, CO, and C2H4 compared to full configuration interaction, EOM-CCSD, EOM-CCSDT, and experimental data.

  10. Adiabatic evolution of plasma equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Grad, H.; Hu, P. N.; Stevens, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    A new theory of plasma equilibrium is introduced in which adiabatic constraints are specified. This leads to a mathematically nonstandard structure, as compared to the usual equilibrium theory, in which prescription of pressure and current profiles leads to an elliptic partial differential equation. Topologically complex configurations require further generalization of the concept of adiabaticity to allow irreversible mixing of plasma and magnetic flux among islands. Matching conditions across a boundary layer at the separatrix are obtained from appropriate conservation laws. Applications are made to configurations with planned islands (as in Doublet) and accidental islands (as in Tokamaks). Two-dimensional, axially symmetric, helically symmetric, and closed line equilibria are included. PMID:16578729

  11. Phase coexistence far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of simple far-from-equilibrium systems exhibiting phase separation leads to the conclusion that phase coexistence is not well defined in this context. This is because the properties of the coexisting nonequilibrium systems depend on how they are placed in contact, as verified in the driven lattice gas with attractive interactions, and in the two-temperature lattice gas, under (a) weak global exchange between uniform systems, and (b) phase-separated (nonuniform) systems. Thus, far from equilibrium, the notions of universality of phase coexistence (i.e., independence of how systems exchange particles and/or energy), and of phases with intrinsic properties (independent of their environment) are lost.

  12. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  13. HIGHLY IONIZED PLASMA IN THE HALO OF A LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXY NEAR z = 0.225

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Anand; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart P. E-mail: savage@astro.wisc.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present analyses of the physical conditions in the z(O{sub VI})=0.22496 and z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 multiphase absorption systems detected in the ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/STIS and FUSE spectra of the quasar H 1821+643 (m{sub V} = 14.2, z{sub em} = 0.297). Both absorbers are likely associated with the extended halo of a {approx}2L*{sub B} Sbc-Sc galaxy situated at a projected distance of {approx}116 h {sup -1}{sub 71} kpc from the sight line. The z = 0.22496 absorber is detected in C II, C III, C IV, O III, O VI, Si II, Si III, and H I (Ly alpha-Lytheta) at >3sigma significance. The components of Si III and Si II are narrow with implied temperatures of T {approx}< 3 x 10{sup 4} K. The low and intermediate ions in this absorber are consistent with an origin in a T {approx} 10{sup 4} K photoionized gas with [Si/H] and [C/H] of {approx}-0.6 dex. In contrast, the broader O VI absorption is likely produced in collisionally ionized plasma under nonequilibrium conditions. The z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 system has broad Ly alpha (BLA) and C III absorption offset by v = -53 km s{sup -1} from O VI. The H I and C III line widths for the BLA imply T = 1.1 x 10{sup 5} K. For non-equilibrium cooling we obtain [C/H] {approx}-1.5 dex and N(H) = 3.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} in the BLA. The O VI, offset from the BLA with no detected H I or C III, is likely collisionally ionized at T {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} K. From the observed multiphase properties and the proximity to a luminous galaxy, we propose that the z = 0.22496 absorber is an extragalactic analog of a highly ionized Galactic HVC, in which the O VI is produced in transition temperature plasma (T {approx} 10{sup 5} K) at the interface layers between the warm (T < 5 x 10{sup 4} K) HVC gas phase and the hot (T {approx}> 10{sup 6} K) coronal halo of the galaxy. The z = 0.22638 O VI-BLA absorber could be tracing a cooling condensing fragment in the nearby galaxy's hot gaseous halo.

  14. Electron-impact ionization of Li2 and Li2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.; Ballance, C. P.; Colgan, J.

    2008-10-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li2 and Li2+ are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single-configuration self-consistent-field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice (r,θ) , which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single-particle Schrödinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted waves with S -matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li2 at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R=5.0a.u. and for Li2+ at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R=5.9a.u. are presented.

  15. Electron-impact Ionization Of Li2 And Li+2

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} and Li{sup +}{sub 2} are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single configuration self-consistent field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice ({tau}, {theta}), which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single particle Schrodinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted-waves with S-matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.0 and for Li{sup +}{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.9 are presented.

  16. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogenic plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. In this theory, the effective interaction between any two charges is the dynamic screened potential obtained from the plasma dielectric function. We make the static approximation; and we carry out detailed numerical calculations with the bound and scattering states of the Debye potential, using the Beth-Uhlenbeck form of the quantum second virial coefficient. We compare our results with calculations from the Saha equation.

  17. Chemical Principles Revisited: Using the Equilibrium Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the concept of equilibrium in chemical systems, particularly in relation to predicting the position of equilibrium, predicting spontaneity of a reaction, quantitative applications of the equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, determination of the solubility product constant, common-ion effect, and dissolution of precipitates.…

  18. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  19. DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IN THERAPEUTIC SITUATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARROLL, EDWARD J.

    THE CONCEPT OF DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IS USED TO EXAMINE THE OCCURRENCE OF CHANGE IN A THERAPEUTIC INTERVIEW AND TO PROPOSE A THEORY OF THERAPY. BY ANALYZING THE WORKINGS OF THE PSYCHOSOCIAL SYSTEM THROUGH THE GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY, IT IS POSSIBLE TO SEE HOW CHANGE OCCURS IN AN INDIVIDUAL FAMILY OR COMMUNITY. APPLIED TO A FAMILY INTERVIEW, THE MODEL…

  20. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  2. An investigation of equilibrium concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prozan, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A different approach to modeling of the thermochemistry of rocket engine combustion phenomena is presented. The methodology described is based on the hypothesis of a new variational principle applicable to compressible fluid mechanics. This hypothesis is extended to treat the thermochemical behavior of a reacting (equilibrium) gas in an open system.

  3. Highly ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, W.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Di Teodoro, E.; Fraternali, F.; Gavazzi, R.; Mercurio, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rodney, S.; Treu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply imaged, highly magnified, and spatially resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly magnified spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We exploit the time delay between multiple images to determine the properties of the SN and its environment before, during, and after the SN exploded. We use the integral-field spectrograph MUSE on the VLT to simultaneously target all observed and model-predicted positions of SN Refsdal. We find Mg II emission at all positions of SN Refsdal, accompanied by weak Fe II* emission at two positions. The measured ratios of [O II] to Mg II emission of 10-20 indicate a high degree of ionization with low metallicity. Because the same high degree of ionization is found in all images, and our spatial resolution is too coarse to resolve the region of influence of SN Refsdal, we conclude that this high degree of ionization has been produced by previous SNe or a young and hot stellar population. We find no variability of the [O II] line over a period of 57 days. This suggests that there is no variation in the [O II] luminosity of the SN over this period, or that the SN has a small contribution to the integrated [O II] emission over the scale resolved by our observations.

  4. Diffuse Ionized Gas inside the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Peimbert, A.

    2007-05-01

    We have studied the differences between the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and the H II regions along a slit position in the local dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The slit position passes through the two most prominent H II regions: Hubble V and Hubble X. Important differences have been found in the excitation, ionization, and [N II] λ6584/Hα and [S II] λ6717/Hα line ratios between the DIG and the H II locations. Moreover, the values of all the line ratios are not similar to those in the DIG locations of spiral galaxies but are very similar to the values in other irregular galaxies, such as IC 10. We also determined the rate of recombination using the He I λ5875 line. Finally, we obtained a picture of the ionization sources of the DIG. We consider that the leakage of photons from the H II regions might explain most of the line ratios, except [N II]/Hα, which might be explained by turbulence. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal 69.C-0203(A).

  5. Electron impact multiple ionization cross sections of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jiaolong; Liu, Pengfei; Dai, Jiayu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Cross sections of electron impact ionization are important in modeling both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. For heavy ions, accurate determination of this microscopic physical quantity is difficult due to the complex atomic structure. At high incident electron energy, inner-shell excitation and ionization processes can occur, which will result in complicated decay including Auger and radiative decay processes. For deep inner-shell excitation and ionization, cascaded Auger processes are very likely. Under conditions of collisional ionization equilibrium, the balance of electron-ion recombination and electron impact single ionization determines the charge state distribution (CSD). Accurate CSD, which in turn determined by accurate cross sections, is very important in a wide regime of spectroscopic diagnostics to infer the physical conditions of plasmas such as the electron temperature, electron density, and elemental abundance. As an illustrative example, the cross sections from the ground configuration of Sn13+ in forming Sn13+, -Sn16+ are reported in detail. The contributions from the electron impact excitation, electron impact ionization and resonant excitation processes are included.

  6. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  7. New constraints on the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies using ionization-parameter mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-10

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (≳3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (≲5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  8. New Constraints on the Escape of Ionizing Photons from Starburst Galaxies Using Ionization-parameter Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (gsim3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (lsim5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  9. Effect of a finite ionization rate on the radiative heating of outer planet atmospheric entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of finite rate ionization in the inviscid gas just behind the stagnation shock wave on the radiation heating of probes entering the hydrogen helium atmospere of the major planets was investigated. At the present time, there is disagreement as to whether the radiative flux increases or decreases relative to its equilibrium value when finite rate ionization is considered. Leibowitz and Kuo content that the finite rate ionization in the hydrogen gas just behind the shock wave reduces the radiative flux to the probe, whereas Tiwari and Szema predict that it increases the radiative flux. The radiation modeling used in the calculations of both pairs of these investigators was reviewed. It is concluded that finite rate ionization in the inviscid region of the shock layer should reduce the cold wall radiative heating below the values predicted by equilibrium chemistry assumptions.

  10. Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E.

    2011-01-15

    A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

  11. Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

  12. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  13. Ice ages and the thermal equilibrium of the earth, II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy required to sustain midlatitude continental glaciations comes from solar radiation absorbed by the oceans. It is made available through changes in relative amounts of energy lost from the sea surface as net outgoing infrared radiation, sensible heat loss, and latent heat loss. Ice sheets form in response to the initial occurrence of a large perennial snowfield in the subarctic. When such a snowfield forms, it undergoes a drastic reduction in absorbed solar energy because of its high albedo. When the absorbed solar energy cannot supply local infrared radiation losses, the snowfield cools, thus increasing the energy gradient between itself and external, warmer areas that can act as energy sources. Cooling of the snowfield progresses until the energy gradients between the snowfield and external heat sources are sufficient to bring in enough (latent plus sensible) energy to balance the energy budget over the snowfield. Much of the energy is imported as latent heat. The snow that falls and nourishes the ice sheet is a by-product of the process used to satisfy the energy balance requirements of the snowfield. The oceans are the primary energy source for the ice sheet because only the ocean can supply large amounts of latent heat. At first, some of the energy extracted by the ice sheet from the ocean is stored heat, so the ocean cools. As it cools, less energy is lost as net outgoing infrared radiation, and the energy thus saved is then available to augment evaporation. The ratio between sensible and latent heat lost by the ocean is the Bowen ratio; it depends in part on the sea surface temperature. As the sea surface temperature falls during a glaciation, the Bowen ratio increases, until most of the available energy leaves the oceans as sensible, rather than latent heat. The ice sheet starves, and an interglacial period begins. The oscillations between stadial and interstadial intervals within a glaciation are caused by the effects of varying amounts of glacial meltwater entering the oceans as a surface layer that acts to reduce the amount of energy available for glacial nourishment. This causes the ice sheet to melt back, which continues the supply of meltwater until the ice sheet diminishes to a size consistent with the reduced rate of nourishment. The meltwater supply then decreases, the rate of nourishment increases, and a new stadial begins. ?? 1975.

  14. A numerical scheme for ionizing shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, Necdet . E-mail: naslan@yeditepe.edu.tr; Mond, Michael

    2005-12-10

    A two-dimensional (2D) visual computer code to solve the steady state (SS) or transient shock problems including partially ionizing plasma is presented. Since the flows considered are hypersonic and the resulting temperatures are high, the plasma is partially ionized. Hence the plasma constituents are electrons, ions and neutral atoms. It is assumed that all the above species are in thermal equilibrium, namely, that they all have the same temperature. The ionization degree is calculated from Saha equation as a function of electron density and pressure by means of a nonlinear Newton type root finding algorithms. The code utilizes a wave model and numerical fluctuation distribution (FD) scheme that runs on structured or unstructured triangular meshes. This scheme is based on evaluating the mesh averaged fluctuations arising from a number of waves and distributing them to the nodes of these meshes in an upwind manner. The physical properties (directions, strengths, etc.) of these wave patterns are obtained by a new wave model: ION-A developed from the eigen-system of the flux Jacobian matrices. Since the equation of state (EOS) which is used to close up the conservation laws includes electronic effects, it is a nonlinear function and it must be inverted by iterations to determine the ionization degree as a function of density and temperature. For the time advancement, the scheme utilizes a multi-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm with time steps carefully evaluated from the maximum possible propagation speed in the solution domain. The code runs interactively with the user and allows to create different meshes to use different initial and boundary conditions and to see changes of desired physical quantities in the form of color and vector graphics. The details of the visual properties of the code has been published before (see [N. Aslan, A visual fluctuation splitting scheme for magneto-hydrodynamics with a new sonic fix and Euler limit, J. Comput. Phys. 197 (2004) 1

  15. Invariant criteria for bound states, degree of ionization, and plasma phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girardeau, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Basis invariant characterizations of bound states and bound fraction of a partially ionized hydrogen plasma are given in terms of properties of the spectrum of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the equilibrium quantum statistical one-proton-one-electron reduced density matrix. It is suggested that these can be used to place theories of a proposed plasma-ionization phase transition on a firm foundation. This general approach may be relevant to cosmological questions such as the quark deconfinement-confinement transition.

  16. Measurement of L-shell electron-impact ionization cross sections for highly charged uranium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoehlker, T.; Kraemer, A. |; Elliott, S.R.; Marrs, R.E.; Scofield, J.H.

    1997-10-01

    L-shell electron-impact ionization cross sections for highly charged uranium ions from fluorinelike U{sup 83+} through lithiumlike U{sup 89+} have been measured at 45-, 60-, and 75-keV electron energy. The cross sections were obtained from x-ray measurements of the equilibrium ionization balance in an electron beam ion trap. The measured cross sections agree with recent relativistic distorted wave calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Measurement of electron-impact ionization cross sections for hydrogenlike high-Z ions

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Elliott, S.R.; Scofield, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections have been measured for the hydrogenlike ions of molybdenum, dysprosium, gold, and bismuth at selected electron energies between 1.3 and 3.9 times threshold. The cross sections were obtained from x-ray measurements of the equilibrium ionization balance in an electron beam ion trap. The measured cross sections agree with recent relativistic distorted-wave calculations that include both the Moeller interaction and exchange. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Effect of transition metal binding on the tautomeric equilibrium of the carnosine imidazolic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torreggiani, A.; Fini, G.; Bottura, G.

    2001-05-01

    A Raman study of carnosine (Carn) and its complexes with Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) at different pH values was carried out. At pH 7 and 9, Carn exists in equilibrium between two tautomeric forms. Raman spectroscopy appears to be a useful tool for analysing the tautomeric equilibrium of the imidazole ring of Carn since the sites involved in metal chelation can be identified by some bands (e.g. νC4C5) that change in wavenumber depending on whether the imidazole ring takes the tautomeric form I or II. Form I (N π-H) is predominant in the free ligand, but the metal coordination can affect the tautomeric equilibrium. Although weak compared to those of aromatic residues, the Raman marker bands may be useful in analysing metal-histidine interaction in proteins.

  19. Ultrahigh vacuum measuring ionization gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, F. J. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    The ionization gage described consists of separate ionization and collector regions connected at an exit area with a modulator electrode. In addition to the standard modulation function, the modulator in this location yields a suprising increase in collector current, apparently due to improved focussing and extraction of ions from the ionization region.

  20. Phonon Mapping in Flowing Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, J. P. C.

    2015-03-01

    When a material conducts heat, a modification of the phonon population occurs. The equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution is perturbed towards flowing-equilibrium, for which the distribution function is not analytically known. Here I argue that the altered phonon population can be efficiently mapped over broad regions of reciprocal space, via diffuse x-ray scattering or time-of-flight neutron scattering, while a thermal gradient is applied across a single crystal sample. When compared to traditional transport measurements, this technique offers a superior, information-rich new perspective on lattice thermal conductivity, wherein the band and momentum dependences of the phonon thermal current are directly resolved. The proposed method is benchmarked using x-ray thermal diffuse scattering measurements of single crystal diamond under transport conditions. CHESS is supported by the NSF & NIH/NIGMS via NSF Award DMR-1332208.

  1. Connective stability of competitive equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the connective stability of nonlinear matrix systems described by the equation x-dot = A(t, x) x, where the matrix A(t, x) has time-varying nonlinear elements. The results obtained can be used to study the stability of competitive equilibrium in fields as diverse as economics and engineering, model ecosystems, and the arms race.-

  2. Punctuated equilibrium comes of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Stephan Jay; Eldredge, Niles

    1993-11-01

    The intense controversies that surrounded the youth of punctuated equilibrium have helped it mature to a useful extension of evolutionary theory. As a complement to phyletic gradualism, its most important implications remain the recognition of stasis as a meaningful and predominant pattern within the history of species, and in the recasting of macroevolution as the differential success of certain species (and their descendants) within clades.

  3. Resonant three-photon ionization spectroscopy of atomic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Gottwald, T.; Havener, C. C.; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.

    2013-12-01

    Laser spectroscopic investigations on high-lying states around the ionization potential (IP) in the atomic spectrum of Fe have been carried out for the development of a practical three-step resonance ionization scheme accessible by Ti: sapphire lasers. A hot cavity laser ion source, typically used at on-line radioactive ion beam production facilities, was employed in this work. Ionization schemes employing high-lying Rydberg and autoionizing states populated by three-photon excitations were established. Five new Rydberg and autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the ground and to the first four excited states of Fe II are reported. Analyses of the Rydberg series yield the value 63 737.686 ± 0.068 cm-1 for the ionization potential of iron.

  4. Resonant three-Photon Ionization Spectroscopy of Atomic Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Gottwald, T.; Havener, Charles C; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C Randy; Wendt, K.

    2013-01-01

    Laser spectroscopic investigations on high-lying states around the ionization potential in the atomic spectrum of Fe have been carried out for development of a practical three-step resonance ionization scheme accessible by Ti:Sapphire lasers. A hot cavity laser ion source typically used at on-line radioactive ion beam production facilities was employed in this work. Ionization schemes employing high-lying Rydberg and autoionizing states populated by three-photon excitations were established. Five new Rydberg and autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the ground and to the first four excited states of Fe II are reported. Analyses of the Rydberg series yield the value 63737.686 0.068 cm-1 for the ionization potential of iron.

  5. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  6. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  7. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  8. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  9. Hook-method measurements of gf-values for ultraviolet Fe I and Fe II lines on a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, M. C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Transition probabilities for 14 lines of Fe II and 12 lines of Fe I in the wavelength region 2560-2737 A were measured by use of a shock tube and the hook method. Absolute oscillator strengths for resonance lines of Fe I reported by Banfield and Huber were used to determine the number density of neutral iron in the shock-heated gas. With the assumption of thermal equilibrium, the density of singly ionized iron atoms in this gas was then computed from the measured temperature and pressure with the aid of the Saha equation. Our results on the 12 strongest of the 13 lines belonging to the first ultraviolet multiplet of Fe II indicate that the multiplet f-value is larger by a factor of 2 than that derived from lifetime measurements by Assousa and Smith.

  10. Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final

  11. Ar II Emission Processes and Emission Rate Coefficients in ASTRAL Helicon Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Gardner, A.; Kamar, O.; Kesterson, A.; Loch, S.; Munoz, J.; Ballance, C.

    2008-11-01

    Emission processes for Ar II line emission are described for low temperature plasmas (Te < 10 eV). It is found that Ar II emission results primarily from Ar ion ground state excitation rather than from any Ar neutral state. This suggests that Ar II emission results from stepping processes which includes ionization and then excitation of the neutral Ar atom filling the vacuum chamber. The Ar II emission rate coefficients are measured in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source using a 0.33 m monochromator and a CCD camera. ASTRAL produces Ar plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 1E11 -- 1E13 cm-3 and Te = 2 - 10 eV, B-field <= 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. RF compensated Langmuir probes are used to measure Te and ne. In this experiment, Ar II transitions are monitored as a function of Te while ne is kept constant. Experimental emission rates are obtained as a function of Te and compared to theoretical predictions. Theoretical predictions make use of the ADAS suite of codes as well as recent R-matrix electron-impact excitation calculations that includes pseudo-states contributions. Our collisional-radiative formalism assumes that the excited levels are in quasi-static equilibrium with the ground and metastable populations.

  12. Torque equilibrium attitude control for Skylab reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    All the available torque equilibrium attitudes (most were useless from the standpoint of lack of electrical power) and the equilibrium seeking method are presented, as well as the actual successful application during the 3 weeks prior to Skylab reentry.

  13. CHEMI-IONIZATION IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE: INFLUENCE ON THE HYDROGEN ATOM EXCITED STATES POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mihajlov, Anatolij A.; Ignjatovic, Ljubinko M.; Sreckovic, Vladimir A.; Dimitrijevic, Milan S. E-mail: mihajlov@ipb.ac.rs

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, the influence of chemi-ionization processes in H*(n {>=} 2) + H(1s) collisions, as well as the influence of inverse chemi-recombination processes on hydrogen atom excited-state populations in solar photosphere, are compared with the influence of concurrent electron-atom and electron-ion ionization and recombination processes. It has been found that the considered chemi-ionization/recombination processes dominate over the relevant concurrent processes in almost the whole solar photosphere. Thus, it is shown that these processes and their importance for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of the solar atmosphere should be investigated further.

  14. High-frequency spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    We establish that the difference of the spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy in matter from the Planck formula in the high-frequency range is determined by the imaginary part of the transverse dielectric permittivity of the matter. Based on this, we show that in a rarified high-temperature fully ionized nonrelativistic plasma, the high-frequency spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy differs essentially from the Planck formula because of the power-law character of the decrease in the frequency, which is due to the presence of matter.

  15. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  16. Ionization Parameter: A Diagnostic of Radiation Pressure Dominated HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry; Matzner, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    When irradiation is sufficiently intense, the structure of an HII region will be dominated by radiation pressure and stellar winds, rather than ionized gas pressure. This state is of considerable interest because of its role in the formation of massive stars, the disruption of giant molecular clouds, and the evolution of starburst galaxies. We discuss the usefulness of the ionization parameter U, as often derived from observed line ratios between species which exist only in ionized gas, as a diagnostic for the radiation pressure-dominated state. In ionization-bounded directions, U cannot exceed a maximum value Umax determined by equilibrium between radiation and gas pressure forces. Lower values of U will occur, however, when the pressure of shocked stellar winds is significant, or when neutral gas is broken into clumps with sufficiently small radii of curvature. Applying these considerations to a prominent ionized shell around 30 Doradus and to the inner starburst region of M82, along with Cloudy simulations, we conclude that both are dominated by a combination of radiation pressure and shocked winds.

  17. Investigation of electric field distribution on FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2016-07-01

    One of the important parameters for establishing charge particle equilibrium (CPE) conditions of free-air ionization chamber is an electric field distribution. In this paper, electric field distribution inside the ionization chamber was investigated by finite element method. For this purpose, the effects of adding guard plate and guard strips on the electric field distribution in the ionization chamber were studied. it is necessary to apply a lead box around the ionization chamber body to avoid of scattered radiation effects on the ionization chamber operation, but the lead box changes the electric field distribution. In the following, the effect of lead box on the electric field distribution was studied. Finally, electric field distribution factor (kfield) was calculated by the simulation. The results of the simulation showed that presence of the guard plate and guard strips, and applying a suitable potential to lead box, a convergence of kfield to 1 was achieved.

  18. Thermal equilibrium in Einstein's elevator.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Cubero, David

    2013-05-01

    We report fully relativistic molecular-dynamics simulations that verify the appearance of thermal equilibrium of a classical gas inside a uniformly accelerated container. The numerical experiments confirm that the local momentum distribution in this system is very well approximated by the Jüttner function-originally derived for a flat spacetime-via the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. Moreover, it is shown that when the acceleration or the container size is large enough, the global momentum distribution can be described by the so-called modified Jüttner function, which was initially proposed as an alternative to the Jüttner function. PMID:23767501

  19. Conformations of Proteins in Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Cristian; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2001-08-01

    We introduce a simple theoretical approach for an equilibrium study of proteins with known native-state structures. We test our approach with results on well-studied globular proteins, chymotrypsin inhibitor (2ci2), barnase, and the alpha spectrin SH3 domain, and present evidence for a hierarchical onset of order on lowering the temperature with significant organization at the local level even at high temperatures. A further application to the folding process of HIV-1 protease shows that the model can be reliably used to identify key folding sites that are responsible for the development of drug resistance.

  20. Thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas under thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weizong; Rong Mingzhe; Yan, J. D.; Spencer, Joseph W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2011-11-15

    Calculated thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas in and out of thermal equilibrium are presented. The cut-off of the partition functions due to the lowering of the ionization potential has been taken into account, together with the contributions from different core excited electronic states. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are determined numerically using the Newton-Raphson iterative method, taking into account the corrections due to Coulomb interactions. The transport properties including diffusion coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity are calculated using the most recent collision interaction potentials by adopting Devoto's electron and heavy particle decoupling approach, expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the framework of Chapman-Enskog method. Results are presented in the pressure range of 0.1 atm-10 atm and in electron temperature range from 300 to 40 000 K, with the ratio of electron temperature to heavy-particle temperature varied from 1 to 20. Results are compared with those from previous works, and the influences of different definitions of the Debye length are discussed.

  1. Collisional energy transfer probabilities of highly excited molecules from kinetically controlled selective ionization (KCSI). II. The collisional relaxation of toluene: P(E',E) and moments of energy transfer for energies up to 50 000 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzer, Thomas; Luther, Klaus; Reihs, Karsten; Symonds, Andrew C.

    2000-03-01

    Complete and detailed experimental transition probability density functions P(E',E) have been determined for the first time for collisions between a large, highly vibrationally excited molecule, toluene, and several bath gases. This was achieved by applying the method of kinetically controlled selective ionization (KCSI) (Paper I [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4076 (2000), preceding article]). An optimum P(E',E) representation is recommended (monoexponential with a parametric exponent in the argument) which uses only three parameters and features a smooth behavior of all parameters for the entire set of bath gases. In helium, argon, and CO2 the P(E',E) show relatively increased amplitudes in the wings—large energy gaps |E'-E|—which can also be represented by a biexponential form. The fractional contribution of the second exponent in these biexponentials, which is directly related to the fraction of the so-called "supercollisions," is found to be very small (<0.1%). For larger colliders the second term disappears completely and the wings of P(E',E) have an even smaller amplitude than that provided by a monoexponential form. At such low levels, the second exponent is therefore of practically no relevance for the overall energy relaxation rate. All optimized P(E',E) representations show a marked linear energetic dependence of the (weak) collision parameter α1(E), which also results in an (approximately) linear dependence of <ΔE> and of the square root of <ΔE2>. The energy transfer parameters presented in this study form a new benchmark class in certainty and accuracy, e.g., with only 2%-7% uncertainty for our <ΔE> data below 25 000 cm-1. They should also form a reliable testground for future trajectory calculations and theories describing collisional energy transfer of polyatomic molecules.

  2. Hanging an Airplane: A Case Study in Static Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2009-11-01

    Our classrooms are filled with engineering majors who take a semester-long course in static equilibrium. Many students find this class too challenging and drop their engineering major. In our introductory physics class, we often breeze through static equilibrium; to physicists equilibrium is just a special case of Newton's second law. While it is difficult to find more time in the syllabus for any one topic, a hands-on case study may help students to develop their physical intuition about static equilibrium and may help them to succeed in their subsequent classes. This article describes a hands-on case study that you may wish to use in your classroom. (You may also wish to check a case study involving a boat published in this journal in the 1990s. ) The hands-on case study presented here can be easily modified to work at the high school or introductory college level. There are three major components: I) planning, II) doing, and III) calculating.

  3. Thermophysics Characterization of Multiply Ionized Air Plasma Absorption of Laser Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Rhodes, Robert; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The impact of multiple ionization of air plasma on the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation is investigated for air breathing laser propulsion. Thermochemical properties of multiply ionized air plasma species are computed for temperatures up to 200,000 deg K, using hydrogenic approximation of the electronic partition function; And those for neutral air molecules are also updated for temperatures up to 50,000 deg K, using available literature data. Three formulas for absorption are calculated and a general formula is recommended for multiple ionization absorption calculation. The plasma composition required for absorption calculation is obtained by increasing the degree of ionization sequentially, up to quadruple ionization, with a series of thermal equilibrium computations. The calculated second ionization absorption coefficient agrees reasonably well with that of available data. The importance of multiple ionization modeling is demonstrated with the finding that area under the quadruple ionization curve of absorption is found to be twice that of single ionization. The effort of this work is beneficial to the computational plasma aerodynamics modeling of laser lightcraft performance.

  4. Hydraulic effects in a radiative atmosphere with ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P.; Brandenburg, A.

    2016-03-01

    Context. In his 1978 paper, Eugene Parker postulated the need for hydraulic downward motion to explain magnetic flux concentrations at the solar surface. A similar process has also recently been seen in simplified (e.g., isothermal) models of flux concentrations from the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). Aims: We study the effects of partial ionization near the radiative surface on the formation of these magnetic flux concentrations. Methods: We first obtain one-dimensional (1D) equilibrium solutions using either a Kramers-like opacity or the H- opacity. The resulting atmospheres are then used as initial conditions in two-dimensional (2D) models where flows are driven by an imposed gradient force that resembles a localized negative pressure in the form of a blob. To isolate the effects of partial ionization and radiation, we ignore turbulence and convection. Results: Because of partial ionization, an unstable stratification always forms near the surface. We show that the extrema in the specific entropy profiles correspond to the extrema in the degree of ionization. In the 2D models without partial ionization, strong flux concentrations form just above the height where the blob is placed. Interestingly, in models with partial ionization, such flux concentrations always form at the surface well above the blob. This is due to the corresponding negative gradient in specific entropy. Owing to the absence of turbulence, the downflows reach transonic speeds. Conclusions: We demonstrate that, together with density stratification, the imposed source of negative pressure drives the formation of flux concentrations. We find that the inclusion of partial ionization affects the entropy profile dramatically, causing strong flux concentrations to form closer to the surface. We speculate that turbulence effects are needed to limit the strength of flux concentrations and homogenize the specific entropy to a stratification that is close to marginal.

  5. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

  6. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z. )

    1992-02-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibria with anisotropic pressure are obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distributions or particle distributions measured along a satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibria including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator owing to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has a significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling the dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the taillike flux surface.

  7. Equilibrium Studies of Designed Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Gibney, B R

    2016-01-01

    Complete thermodynamic descriptions of the interactions of cofactors with proteins via equilibrium studies are challenging, but are essential to the evaluation of designed metalloproteins. While decades of studies on protein-protein interaction thermodynamics provide a strong underpinning to the successful computational design of novel protein folds and de novo proteins with enzymatic activity, the corresponding paucity of data on metal-protein interaction thermodynamics limits the success of computational metalloprotein design efforts. By evaluating the thermodynamics of metal-protein interactions via equilibrium binding studies, protein unfolding free energy determinations, proton competition equilibria, and electrochemistry, a more robust basis for the computational design of metalloproteins may be provided. Our laboratory has shown that such studies provide detailed insight into the assembly and stability of designed metalloproteins, allow for parsing apart the free energy contributions of metal-ligand interactions from those of porphyrin-protein interactions in hemeproteins, and even reveal their mechanisms of proton-coupled electron transfer. Here, we highlight studies that reveal the complex interplay between the various equilibria that underlie metalloprotein assembly and stability and the utility of making these detailed measurements. PMID:27586343

  8. Are the Concepts of Dynamic Equilibrium and the Thermodynamic Criteria for Spontaneity, Nonspontaneity, and Equilibrium Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…

  9. Ionization of polarized hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are discussed for the production of polarized H/sup -/ ions from polarized atoms produced in ground state atomic beam sources. Present day sources use ionizers of two basic types - electron ionizers for H/sup +/ Vector production followed by double charge exchange in a vapor, or direct H/sup -/ Vector production by charge exchange of H/sup 0/ with Cs/sup 0/. Both methods have ionization efficiencies of less than 0.5%. Ionization efficiencies in excess of 10% may be obtained in the future by the use of a plasma ionizer plus charge exchange in Cs or Sr vapor, or ionization by resonant charge exchange with a self-extracted D/sup -/ beam from a ring magnetron or HCD source. 36 references, 4 figures.

  10. Plasma Production via Field Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, C.L.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Zhou, M.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-01-02

    Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam's bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  11. Multiphoton ionization studies of clusters of immiscible liquids. II. C6H6- (H2O)n, n=3-8 and (C6H6)2- (H2O)1,2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Aaron W.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1992-03-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy is used to record S0-S1 spectra of the neutral complexes C6H6-(H2O)n with n=3-8 and (C6H6)2-(H2O)1,2. Due to limitations imposed by the size of these clusters, a number of vibronic level arguments are used to constrain the gross features of the geometries of these clusters. Among the spectral clues provided by the data are the frequency shifts of the transitions, their van der Waals structure, the fragmentation of the photoionized clusters, and the complexation-induced origin intensity and 610 splitting. In the 1:3 cluster, simple arguments are made based on the known structures of the 1:1 and 1:2 clusters which lead to the conclusion that all three water molecules reside on the same side of the benzene ring. Three structures for the 1:3 cluster are proposed which are consistent with the available data. Of these, only one is also consistent with the remarkable similarity of the 1:4 and 1:5 spectra to those of the 1:3 cluster. This structure involves a cyclic water trimer in which one of the water molecules is near the sixfold axis in a π hydrogen-bonded configuration. This structure is then expanded in the 1:4 and 1:5 clusters to incorporate the fourth and fifth water molecules in cyclic structures which place the additional water molecules far from the benzene ring without disturbing the interaction of the other water molecules with the benzene ring. For 1:n clusters with n≥6, subtle and then significant changes are observed in the spectra which indicate changes in the way the water cluster interacts with the benzene ring. This development occurs at precisely the water cluster size which calculations predict that cagelike water cluster structures will begin to compete and eventually be favored over large cyclic structures. Finally, cursory scans of the 2:1 cluster show that this cluster also fragments efficiently upon photoionization by loss of a single water molecule and that it possesses a

  12. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  13. Non-equilibrium dynamics in AMO quantum simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the possibility to control and measure AMO systems time-dependently has generated a lot of progress in exploring out-of-equilibrium dynamics for strongly interacting many-particle systems. This connects directly to fundamental questions relating to the relaxation of such systems to equilibrium, as well as the spreading of correlations and build-up of entanglement. While ultracold atoms allow for exceptional microscopic control over quantum gases with short-range interactions, experiments with polar molecules and chains of trapped ions now also offer the possibility to investigate spin models with long-range interactions. I will give an introduction to the recent developments in this area, illustrated with two examples: (i) the possibility to measurement entanglement for many itinerant particles with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, and (ii) new opportunities to compare dynamics with short and long-range interactions, especially using systems of trapped ions, where it is possible to control the effective range of interactions.

  14. Nonsequential double ionization of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2005-03-01

    Double ionization of diatomic molecules by short linearly polarized laser pulses is analyzed. We consider the final stage of the ionization process, that is the decay of a highly excited two electron molecule, which is formed after rescattering. The saddles of the effective adiabatic potential energy close to which simultaneous escape of electrons takes place are identified. Numerical simulations of the ionization of molecules show that the process can be dominated by either sequential or nonsequential events. In order to increase the ratio of nonsequential to sequential ionizations very short laser pulses should be applied.

  15. Thermodynamic equilibrium at heterogeneous pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in metamorphic petrology point out the importance of grain-scale pressure variations in high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Pressures derived from chemical zonation using unconventional geobarometry based on equal chemical potentials fit mechanically feasible pressure variations. Here a thermodynamic equilibrium method is presented that predicts chemical zoning as a result of pressure variations by Gibbs energy minimization. Equilibrium thermodynamic prediction of the chemical zoning in the case of pressure heterogeneity is done by constraint Gibbs minimization using linear programming techniques. Compositions of phases considered in the calculation are discretized into 'pseudo-compounds' spanning the entire compositional space. Gibbs energies of these discrete compounds are generated for a given range and resolution of pressures for example derived by barometry or from mechanical model predictions. Gibbs energy minimization is subsequently performed considering all compounds of different composition and pressure. In addition to constraining the system composition a certain proportion of the system is constraint at a specified pressure. Input pressure variations need to be discretized and each discrete pressure defines an additional constraint for the minimization. The proportion of the system at each different pressure is equally distributed over the number of input pressures. For example if two input pressures P1 and P2 are specified, two constraints are added: 50 percent of the system is constraint at P1 while the remaining 50 percent is constraint at P2. The method has been tested for a set of 10 input pressures obtained by Tajčmanová et al. (2014) using their unconventional geobarometry method in a plagioclase rim around kyanite. Each input pressure is added as constraint to the minimization (1/10 percent of the system for each discrete pressure). Constraining the system composition to the average composition of the plagioclase rim

  16. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Martin, Crystal L.

    2011-11-01

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby starburst galaxy. This high-excitation feature is identified by mapping the emission-line ratios in the galaxy using [S III] {lambda}9069, [S II] {lambda}6716, and H{alpha} narrowband images from the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. The ionization cone appears optically thin, which suggests the escape of ionizing photons. The cone morphology is narrow with an estimated solid angle covering just 3% of 4{pi} steradians, and the young, massive clusters of the nuclear starburst can easily generate the radiation required to ionize the cone. Although less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of an obscured active galactic nucleus source. An echelle spectrum along the minor axis shows complex kinematics that are consistent with outflow activity. The narrow morphology of the ionization cone supports the scenario that an orientation bias contributes to the difficulty in detecting Lyman continuum emission from starbursts and Lyman break galaxies.

  17. Equilibrium Potentials of Membrane Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jui H.; Copeland, Eva

    1973-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic theory of the equilibrium potentials of membrane electrodes is formulated and applied to the glass electrode for measurement of pH. The new formulation assumes the selective adsorption or binding of specific ions on the surface of the membrane which may or may not be permeable to the ion, and includes the conventional derivation based on reversible ion transport across membranes as a special case. To test the theory, a platinum wire was coated with a mixture of stearic acid and methyl-tri-n-octyl-ammonium stearate. When this coated electrode was immersed in aqueous phosphate solution, its potential was found to be a linear function of pH from pH 2 to 12 with a slope equal to the theoretical value of 59.0 mV per pH unit at 24°. PMID:4516194

  18. Neoclassical equilibrium in gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, Ph.

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents a set of model collision operators, which reproduce the neoclassical equilibrium and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on an entropy variational principle, which allows one to perform a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity. It is shown that the force balance equation is recovered at lowest order in the expansion parameter, the normalized gyroradius, hence allowing one to calculate correctly the radial electric field. Also, the conventional neoclassical transport and the poloidal velocity are reproduced in the plateau and banana regimes. The advantages and drawbacks of the various model operators are discussed in view of the requirements for neoclassical and turbulent transport.

  19. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  20. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  1. Equilibrium calculations of firework mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Tanaka, Katsumi; Iida, Mitsuaki; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    1994-12-31

    Thermochemical equilibrium calculations have been used to calculate detonation conditions for typical firework components including three report charges, two display charges, and black powder which is used as a fuse or launch charge. Calculations were performed with a modified version of the TIGER code which allows calculations with 900 gaseous and 600 condensed product species at high pressure. The detonation calculations presented in this paper are thought to be the first report on the theoretical study of firework detonation. Measured velocities for two report charges are available and compare favorably to predicted detonation velocities. However, the measured velocities may not be true detonation velocities. Fast deflagration rather than an ideal detonation occurs when reactants contain significant amounts of slow reacting constituents such as aluminum or titanium. Despite such uncertainties in reacting pyrotechnics, the detonation calculations do show the complex nature of condensed phase formation at elevated pressures and give an upper bound for measured velocities.

  2. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  3. Hierarchical condensation near phase equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Yushchenko, O. V.; Borisyuk, V. N.; Zhilenko, T. I.; Kosminska, Yu. O.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    A novel mechanism of new phase formation is studied both experimentally and theoretically in the example of quasi-equilibrium stationary condensation in an ion-plasma sputterer. Copper condensates are obtained to demonstrate that a specific network structure is formed as a result of self-assembly in the course of deposition. The fractal pattern related is inherent in the phenomena of diffusion limited aggregation. Condensate nuclei are shown to form statistical ensemble of hierarchically subordinated objects distributed in ultrametric space. The Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation related are found to describe stationary distribution of thermodynamic potential variations at condensation. Time dependence of the formation probability of branching structures is found to clarify the experimental situation.

  4. Plasma diagnostics of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Keidar, Michael; Shneider, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Intensive development and biomedical application of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jet (NEAPJ) facilitates rapid growth of the plasma medicine field. The NEAPJ facility utilized at the George Washington University (GWU) demonstrated efficacy for treatment of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). In this work we review recent advances of the research conducted at GWU concerned with the development of NEAPJ diagnostics including Rayleigh Microwave Scattering setup, method of streamer scattering on DC potential, Rogowski coils, ICCD camera and optical emission spectroscopy. These tools allow conducting temporally-resolved measurements of plasma density, electrical potential, charge and size of the streamer head, electrical currents flowing though the jet, ionization front propagation speed etc. Transient dynamics of plasma and discharge parameters will be considered and physical processes involved in the discharge will be analyzed including streamer breakdown, electrical coupling of the streamer tip with discharge electrodes, factors determining NEAPJ length, cross-sectional shape and propagation path etc.

  5. Equilibrium thermophysical properties of alkanes at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Arunachalam, C.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P.T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to perform calculations for thermal plasmas, sparks, and arcs, as in the thermal arc and electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes, thermophysical properties, such as the density, enthalpy, and heat capacity, of the original ambient dielectric liquid are required at very high temperatures and often pressures in the plasma state. A statistical model has been developed to provide these properties. At high temperatures, these hydrocarbons undergo a series of reactions to first dissociate and then to ionize to produce a plasma. The partition functions of each of the species generated are calculated and sued to determine the equilibrium mole fractions or particle fractions of each constituent of the resultant plasma. Only the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio matters so mixtures of alkanes can also be used. Specifically, tables of particles fractions, densities, enthalpies, and specific heat capacities are provided for methane and for hexadecane to 60,000 K and 10 kbar.

  6. Equilibrium Slab Models of Lyman-Alpha Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Salpeter, Edwin E.; Hogan, Craig J.

    1993-01-01

    We model the L(sub y(alpha)) clouds as slabs of hydrogen with an ionizing extragalactic radiation field incident from both sides. In general, the equilibrium configuration of a slab at redshift z approx. less than 5 is determined by a balance of the gas pressure, gravity (including the effects of a dark matter halo), and the pressure exerted by the inter-galactic medium, P(sub ext). These models have been used to make predictions of the number of slabs as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density, N(sub H). A break in the curve is predicted at the transition between regimes where gravity and pressure are the dominant confining forces, with a less rapid decrease at larger N(sub H). The transition from optically thin to optically thick slabs leads to a gap in the distribution, whose location is governed largely by the spectrum of ionizing radiation. There are certain parallels between lines of sight through the outer HI disk of spiral galaxy with increasing radius, and the progression from damped, to Lyman limit, to forest clouds. We discuss briefly the possibility that at least some of the observed low z forest clouds may be a separate population, associated with galaxies, as suggested by the observations of Bahcall et al. This population could dominate the forest at present if the dark matter attached to galaxies should lead to gravity confinement for this disk population, while the isolated clouds remain pressure confined. The formalism developed in this paper will allow a more detailed study. We also discuss a more general parameter study of the equilibrium configuration of slabs, including mock gravity and L(sub y(alpha)) photon trapping.

  7. A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

  8. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  9. Ionized cluster beam deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) deposition, a new technique originated by Takagi of Kyoto University in Japan, offers a number of unique capabilities for thin film metallization as well as for deposition of active semiconductor materials. ICB allows average energy per deposited atom to be controlled and involves impact kinetics which result in high diffusion energies of atoms on the growth surface. To a greater degree than in other techniques, ICB involves quantitative process parameters which can be utilized to strongly control the characteristics of films being deposited. In the ICB deposition process, material to be deposited is vaporized into a vacuum chamber from a confinement crucible at high temperature. Crucible nozzle configuration and operating temperature are such that emerging vapor undergoes supercondensation following adiabatic expansion through the nozzle.

  10. Multiphoton ionization of Uracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Eladio; Martinez, Denhi; Guerrero, Alfonso; Alvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization and dissociation of Uracil using a Reflectron time of flight spectrometer was performed along with radiation from the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. Uracil is one of the four nitrogen bases that belong to RNA. The last years special interest has been concentrated on the study of the effects under UV radiation in nucleic acids1 and also in the role that this molecule could have played in the origin and development of life on our planet.2 The MPI mass spectra show that the presence and intensity of the resulting ions strongly depend on the density power. The identification of the ions in the mass spectra is presented. The results are compared with those obtained in other laboratories under different experimental conditions and some of them show partial agreement.3 The present work was supported by CONACYT-Mexico Grant 165410 and DGAPA UNAM Grant IN101215 and IN102613.

  11. Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.; Velusamy, T.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The edge of the central molecular zone (CMZ) is the location where massive dense molecular clouds with large internal velocity dispersions transition to the surrounding more quiescent and lower CO emissivity region of the Galaxy. Little is known about the ionized gas surrounding the molecular clouds and in the transition region. Aims: We determine the properties of the ionized gas at the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E using observations of N+ and C+. Methods: We observed a small portion of the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E with spectrally resolved [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine structure lines at six positions with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA and in [C ii] using Herschel HIFI on-the-fly strip maps. We use the [N ii] spectra along with a radiative transfer model to calculate the electron density of the gas and the [C ii] maps to illuminate the morphology of the ionized gas and model the column density of CO-dark H2. Results: We detect two [C ii] and [N ii] velocity components, one along the line of sight to a CO molecular cloud at - 207 km s-1 associated with Sgr E and the other at -174 km s-1 outside the edge of another CO cloud. From the [N ii] emission we find that the average electron density is in the range of ~5 to 21 cm-3 for these features. This electron density is much higher than that of the disk's warm ionized medium, but is consistent with densities determined for bright diffuse H ii nebula. The column density of the CO-dark H2 layer in the -207 km s-1 cloud is ~1-2 × 1021 cm-2 in agreement with theoretical models. The CMZ extends further out in Galactic radius by ~7 to 14 pc in ionized gas than it does in molecular gas traced by CO. Conclusions: The edge of the CMZ likely contains dense hot ionized gas surrounding the neutral molecular material. The high fractional abundance of N+ and high electron density require an intense EUV field with a photon flux of order 106 to 107 photons cm-2 s-1, and/or efficient proton charge exchange with

  12. [Equilibrium surface charge distribution in phospholipid vesicles. I. Method of calculation].

    PubMed

    Tenchov, B G; Raĭchev, B D

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a method of calculation of the surface charge equilibrium distribution between the two surfaces of a spherically closed phospholipid bilayer suspended in aqueous electrolyte solution. The net surface charge is supposed to be provided by the ionized polar groups of the phospholipid molecules. Its equilibrium distribution is found by minimization of the free electrostatic energy. The procedure of minimization utilizes the solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes the double electric layers of the membrane and an expression for the membrane potential derived under the assumption of absence of charges in the membrane phase. An analytical solution of the problem in the range of validity of the linearized Poisson-Boltzman equation is obtained. It is shown that in this case an equilibrium transmembrane potential exists, and the surface charge density is greater at the outer surface of the vesicle. PMID:588604

  13. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  14. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  15. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  16. Mathematical modeling of non-equilibrium sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliev, Ibragim A.; Mukhambetzhanov, Saltanbek T.; Sabitova, Gulnara S.; Sakhit, Anghyz E.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the system of equations modeling the process of non-equilibrium sorption. Difference approximation of differential problem by the implicit scheme is formulated. The solution of the difference problem is constructed using the sweep method. Based on the numerical results we can conclude the following: when the relaxation time decreases to 0, then the solution of non-equilibrium problem tends with increasing time to solution of the equilibrium problem.

  17. Philicities, Fugalities, and Equilibrium Constants.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Herbert; Ofial, Armin R

    2016-05-17

    The mechanistic model of Organic Chemistry is based on relationships between rate and equilibrium constants. Thus, strong bases are generally considered to be good nucleophiles and poor nucleofuges. Exceptions to this rule have long been known, and the ability of iodide ions to catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, because they are good nucleophiles as well as good nucleofuges, is just a prominent example for exceptions from the general rule. In a reaction series, the Leffler-Hammond parameter α = δΔG(⧧)/δΔG° describes the fraction of the change in the Gibbs energy of reaction, which is reflected in the change of the Gibbs energy of activation. It has long been considered as a measure for the position of the transition state; thus, an α value close to 0 was associated with an early transition state, while an α value close to 1 was considered to be indicative of a late transition state. Bordwell's observation in 1969 that substituent variation in phenylnitromethanes has a larger effect on the rates of deprotonation than on the corresponding equilibrium constants (nitroalkane anomaly) triggered the breakdown of this interpretation. In the past, most systematic investigations of the relationships between rates and equilibria of organic reactions have dealt with proton transfer reactions, because only for few other reaction series complementary kinetic and thermodynamic data have been available. In this Account we report on a more general investigation of the relationships between Lewis basicities, nucleophilicities, and nucleofugalities as well as between Lewis acidities, electrophilicities, and electrofugalities. Definitions of these terms are summarized, and it is suggested to replace the hybrid terms "kinetic basicity" and "kinetic acidity" by "protophilicity" and "protofugality", respectively; in this way, the terms "acidity" and "basicity" are exclusively assigned to thermodynamic properties, while "philicity" and "fugality" refer to kinetics

  18. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  19. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems. PMID:27078486

  20. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  1. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  2. Passive equilibrium studies on ZT-P

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Reass, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    The poloidal field system of ZT-P was modified by the addition of a transformer, which coupled the magnetizing and equilibrium circuits. ZT-P is a small, air core, Reversed Field Pinch, operated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is used as test bed for the much larger ZT-H, RFP experiment, now under construction at LANL. Planned experiments include size scaling measurements and determining the effect of low time constant measurements and determining the effect of low time constant shell operation. ZT-P has had an entirely passive equilibrium system, which did not provide a well centered equilibrium, although a tolerable equilibrium was realized by removing half of the equilibrium coil set. The transformer was added to the poloidal field system to adjust the equilibrium current for a centered plasma, while using the entire coil set. It also had the effect of reducing the dependence of the equilibrium on the plasma resistance. Stable, well centered discharges were achieved over a broad range of plasma currents. The improved equilibrium also lowered the loop voltage and extended the discharge lifetime. These experiments also investigated the unique problems of equilibrium systems on air core RFP devices. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  3. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  4. Equilibrium coexistence of three amphiboles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, P.; Jaffe, H.W.; Klein, C., Jr.; Ross, M.

    1969-01-01

    Electron probe and wet chemical analyses of amphibole pairs from the sillimanite zone of central Massachusetts and adjacent New Hampshire indicated that for a particular metamorphic grade there should be a restricted composition range in which three amphiboles can coexist stably. An unequivocal example of such an equilibrium three amphibole rock has been found in the sillimanite-orthoclase zone. It contains a colorless primitive clinoamphibole, space group P21/m, optically and chemically like cummingtonite with blue-green hornblende exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; blue-green hornblende, space group C2/m, with primitive cummingtonite exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; and pale pinkish tan anthophyllite, space group Pnma, that is free of visible exsolution lamellae but is a submicroscopic intergrowth of two orthorhombic amphiboles. Mutual contacts and coarse, oriented intergrowths of two and three host amphiboles indicate the three grew as an equilibrium assemblage prior to exsolution. Electron probe analyses at mutual three-amphibole contacts showed little variation in the composition of each amphibole. Analyses believed to represent most closely the primary amphibole compositions gave atomic proportions on the basis of 23 oxygens per formula unit as follows: for primitive cummingtonite (Na0.02Ca0.21- Mn0.06Fe2+2.28Mg4.12Al0.28) (Al0.17Si7.83), for hornblende (Na0.35Ca1.56Mn0.02Fe1.71Mg2.85Al0.92) (Al1.37Si6.63), and for anthophyllite (Na0.10Ca0.06Mn0.06Fe2.25Mg4.11Al0.47) (Al0.47Si7.53). The reflections violating C-symmetry, on X-ray single crystal photographs of the primitive cummingtonite, are weak and diffuse, and suggest a partial inversion from a C-centered to a primitive clinoamphibole. Single crystal photographs of the anthophyllite show split reflections indicating it is an intergrowth of about 80% anthophyllite and about 20% gedrite which differ in their b crystallographic dimensions. Split reflections are

  5. Theoretical studies of photoexcitation and ionization in H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diercksen, G. H. F.; Kraemer, W. P.; Rescigno, T. N.; Bender, C. F.; Mckoy, B. V.; Langhoff, S. R.; Langhoff, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical studies using Franck-Condon and static-exchange approximations are reported for the complete dipole excitation and ionization spectrum in H2O, where (1) large Cartesian Gaussian basis sets are used to represent the required discrete and continuum electronic eigenfunctions at the ground state equilibrium geometry, and (2) previously devised moment-theory techniques are employed in constructing the continuum oscillator-strength densities from the calculated spectra. Comparisons are made of the calculated excitation and ionization profiles with recent experimental photoabsorption studies and corresponding spectral assignments, electron impact-excitation cross sections, and dipole and synchrotron-radiation studies of partial-channel photoionization cross sections. The calculated partial-channel cross sections are found to be atomic-like, and dominated by 2p-kd components. It is suggested that the latter transition couples with the underlying 1b(1)-kb(1) channel, accounting for a prominent feature in recent synchrotron-radiation measurements.

  6. Viscosity Coefficient Curve Fits for Ionized Gas Species Grant Palmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viscosity coefficient curve fits for neutral gas species are available from many sources. Many do a good job of reproducing experimental and computational chemistry data. The curve fits are usually expressed as a function of temperature only. This is consistent with the governing equations used to derive an expression for the neutral species viscosity coefficient. Ionized species pose a more complicated problem. They are subject to electrostatic as well as intermolecular forces. The electrostatic forces are affected by a shielding phenomenon where electrons shield the electrostatic forces of positively charged ions beyond a certain distance. The viscosity coefficient for an ionized gas species is a function of both temperature and local electron number density. Currently available curve fits for ionized gas species, such as those presented by Gupta/Yos, are a function of temperature only. What they did was to assume an electron number density. The problem is that the electron number density they assumed was unrealistically high. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, the proper expression for determining the viscosity coefficient of an ionized species as a function of both temperature and electron number density will be presented. Then curve fit coefficients will be developed using the more realistic assumption of an equilibrium electron number density. The results will be compared against previous curve fits and against highly accurate computational chemistry data.

  7. Influence of Multiple Ionization on Studies of Nanoflare Heated Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2015-04-01

    The spectrum emitted by a plasma depends on the charge state distribution (CSD) of the gas. This, in turn, is determined by the corresponding rates for electron-impact ionization and recombination. Current CSD calculations for solar physics do not account for electron-impact multiple ionization (EIMI), a process in which multiple electrons are ejected by a single electron-ion collision. We have estimated the EIMI cross sections for all charge states of iron using a combination of the available experimental data and semi-empirical formulae. We then modeled the CSD and observed the influence of EIMI compared to only including single ionization. One case of interest for solar physics is nanoflare heating. Recent work has attempted to predict the spectra of impulsively heated plasmas in order to identify diagnostics arising from non-equilibrium ionization that can constrain the nanoflare properties, but these calculations have ignored EIMI. Our findings suggest that EIMI can have a significant effect on the CSD of a nanoflare-heated plasma, changing the ion abundances by up to about 50%.

  8. Influence of X-ray radiation on the hot star wind ionization state and on the radiative force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtička, Jiří; Kubát, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Hot stars emit large amounts of X-rays, which are assumed to originate in the supersonic stellar wind. Part of the emitted X-rays is subsequently absorbed in the wind and influences its ionization state. Because hot star winds are driven radiatively, the modified ionization equilibrium affects the radiative force. We review the recent progress in modeling the influence of X-rays on the radiative equilibrium and on the radiative force. We focus particularly on single stars with X-rays produced in wind shocks and on binaries with massive components, which belong to the most luminous objects in X-rays.

  9. Ringed Accretion Disks: Equilibrium Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  10. Electronic structure and spectroscopy of nucleic acid bases: Ionization energies, ionization-induced structural changes, and photoelectron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Kostko, Oleg; Dolgikh, Stanislav; Landau, Arie; Ahmed, Musahid; Krylov, Anna I.

    2010-08-02

    We report high-level ab initio calculations and single-photon ionization mass spectrometry study of ionization of adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). For thymine and adenine, only the lowest-energy tautomers were considered, whereas for cytosine and guanine we characterized five lowest-energy tautomeric forms. The first adiabatic and several vertical ionization energies were computed using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for ionization potentials with single and double substitutions. Equilibrium structures of the cationic ground states were characterized by DFT with the {omega}B97X-D functional. The ionization-induced geometry changes of the bases are consistent with the shapes of the corresponding molecular orbitals. For the lowest-energy tautomers, the magnitude of the structural relaxation decreases in the following series G > C > A > T, the respective relaxation energies being 0.41, 0.32, 0.25 and 0.20 eV. The computed adiabatic ionization energies (8.13, 8.89, 8.51-8.67 and 7.75-7.87 eV for A,T,C and G, respectively) agree well with the onsets of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves (8.20 {+-} 0.05, 8.95 {+-} 0.05, 8.60 {+-} 0.05 and 7.75 {+-} 0.05 eV). Vibrational progressions for the S{sub 0}-D{sub 0} vibronic bands computed within double-harmonic approximation with Duschinsky rotations are compared with previously reported experimental photoelectron spectra.

  11. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE: I. EQUILIBRIUM BIOSORPTION OF ZINC AND COPPER ON NON-VIABLE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosorption is potentially attractive technology for treament of acid mine drainage for separation/recovery of metal ions and mitigation of their toxicity to sulfate reducing bacteria. This study describes the equilibrium biosorptio of Zn(II) and CU(II) by nonviable activated slu...

  12. 6D Ionization Cooling Channel with Resonant Dispersion Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Alexahin, Yuri I.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    For muons with preferable for ionization cooling momentum <300MeV/c the longitudinal motion is naturally undamped. In order to provide the longitudinal damping a correlation between muon momentum and transverse position--described in terms of the dispersion function--should be introduced. In the present report we consider the possibility of dispersion generation in a periodic sequence of alternating solenoids (FOFO channel) by choosing the tune in the second passband (i.e. above half-integer per cell) and tilting the solenoids in adjacent cells in the opposite direction. Analytical estimates for equilibrium emittances and cooling rates are presented.

  13. Ionization potential depression for non equilibrated aluminum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.

    2015-11-01

    A classical molecular dynamics simulation model, designed to simulate neutral plasmas with various charge states of a given atom together with electrons, is used to investigate the ionization potential depression (IPD) in dense plasmas. The IPD is discussed for aluminum plasma at and out of equilibrium. The simulation results are compared with those of earlier theoretical models and with experimental data obtained in the framework of x-ray free-electron laser experiments. The model proposed in this work appears as an important tool to provide data for further discussion on IPD models.

  14. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  15. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  16. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization.

    PubMed

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization. PMID:26671401

  17. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites. PMID:25184484

  18. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  19. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  20. Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.

  1. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  2. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  3. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  4. Martian Meteor Ionization Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Pesnell, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Small interplanetary grains bombard Mars, like all the solar system planets, and, like all the planets with atmospheres, meteoric ion and atom layers form in the upper atmosphere. We have developed a comprehensive one-dimensional model of the Martian meteoric ionization layer including a full chemical scheme. A persistent layer of magnesium ions should exist around an altitude of 70 km. Unlike the terrestrial case, where the metallic ions are formed via charge-exchange with the ambient ions, Mg(+) in the Martian atmosphere is produced by photoionization. Nevertheless, the predicted metal layer peak densities for Earth and Mars are similar. Diffusion solutions, such as those presented here, should be a good approximation of the metallic ions in regions where the magnetic field is negligible and may provide a significant contribution to the nightside ionosphere. The low ultraviolet absorption of the Martian atmosphere may make Mars an excellent laboratory in which to study meteoric ablation. Resonance lines not seen in the spectra of terrestrial meteors may be visible to a surface observatory in the Martian highlands.

  5. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  6. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  7. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

  8. Non-equilibrium ionization around clouds evaporating in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballet, J.; Luciani, J. F.; Mora, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is of prime importance for global models of the interstellar medium to know whether dense clouds do or do not evaporate in the hot coronal gas. The rate of mass exchanges between phases depends very much on that. McKee and Ostriker's model, for instance, assumes that evaporation is important enough to control the expansion of supernova remnants, and that mass loss obeys the law derived by Cowie and McKee. In fact, the geometry of the magnetic field is nearly unknown, and it might totally inhibit evaporation, if the clouds are not regularly connected to the hot gas. Up to now, the only test of the theory is the U.V. observation (by the Copernicus and IUE satellites) of absorption lines of ions such as OVI or NV, that exist at temperatures of a few 100,000 K typical of transition layers around evaporating clouds. Other means of testing the theory are discussed.

  9. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  10. A Holistic Equilibrium Theory of Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baiyin; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a holistic equilibrium theory of organizational development (OD). The theory states that there are three driving forces in organizational change and development--rationality, reality, and liberty. OD can be viewed as a planned process of change in an organization so as to establish equilibrium among these three interacting…

  11. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  12. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  13. M-shell ionization of atoms by C, N, and O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Braziewicz, J.; Semaniak, J.; CzyŻewski, T.; Glowacka, L.; Jaskól, M.; Haller, M.; Karschnick, R.; Kretschmer, W.; Kobzev, A. P.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.

    1997-02-01

    M-shell ionization in selected heavy atoms (Au, Bi, Th and U) by energetic Cq+, Nq+ and Oq+, ions of different charge states (q=1-6) has been studied in the energy range 0.1-2 MeV/amu. The measurements were performed using target thicknesses allowing ion charge equilibration in the target. Derived equilibrium M-shell ionization cross sections are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the semiclassical (SCA) and the PWBA approximations for direct ionization and the OBK approximation for the electron capture, as well as the ECPSSR theory including the corrections for higher-order effects. Substantial contribution of the electron capture caused by the ion charge equilibration is observed for high energies. The influence of the multiple ionization in M-, N- and O-shells on measured cross sections is discussed.

  14. A Lagrangian scheme for time-dependent ionization in simulations of astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Raymond, J. C.; Murphy, N. A.; Lin, J.

    2015-09-01

    Time-dependent ionization is important in astrophysical environments where the thermodynamical time scale is shorter than the ionization or recombination time scales. In this work, we report a FORTRAN program that performs fast non-equilibrium ionization calculations in post-processing based on hydrodynamics(HD) or magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) simulation results. Using HD or MHD simulation results, we track the movement of plasma in a Lagrangian framework, and obtain the evolutionary history of temperature and electron density. The time-dependent ionization equations are then solved by the Eigenvalue method. For any complex temperature and electron density histories, we introduce an adaptive time-step strategy to improve the computational efficiency. Our tests show that this program has advantages of high numerical stability and high accuracy. In addition, it is also easy to extend this solver to other HD and MHD simulations. This code is freely available for download from the Web.

  15. Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture has been followed using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement has been achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2-0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.

  16. Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture was studied using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement was achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2 - 0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.

  17. Implementing an Equilibrium Law Teaching Sequence for Secondary School Students to Learn Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    A didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium law. In this approach, we have avoided the kinetic derivation and the thermodynamic justification of the equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant expression is established empirically by a trial-and-error approach. Additionally, students learn to use the criterion of…

  18. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  19. Probing local equilibrium in nonequilibrium fluids.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, J J; Garrido, P L; Hurtado, P I

    2015-08-01

    We use extensive computer simulations to probe local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in a quintessential model fluid, the two-dimensional hard-disks system. We show that macroscopic LTE is a property much stronger than previously anticipated, even in the presence of important finite-size effects, revealing a remarkable bulk-boundary decoupling phenomenon in fluids out of equilibrium. This allows us to measure the fluid's equation of state in simulations far from equilibrium, with an excellent accuracy comparable to the best equilibrium simulations. Subtle corrections to LTE are found in the fluctuations of the total energy which strongly point to the nonlocality of the nonequilibrium potential governing the fluid's macroscopic behavior out of equilibrium. PMID:26382354

  20. How Far from Equilibrium Is Active Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Étienne; Nardini, Cesare; Cates, Michael E.; Tailleur, Julien; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Active matter systems are driven out of thermal equilibrium by a lack of generalized Stokes-Einstein relation between injection and dissipation of energy at the microscopic scale. We consider such a system of interacting particles, propelled by persistent noises, and show that, at small but finite persistence time, their dynamics still satisfy a time-reversal symmetry. To do so, we compute perturbatively their steady-state measure and show that, for short persistent times, the entropy production rate vanishes. This endows such systems with an effective fluctuation-dissipation theorem akin to that of thermal equilibrium systems. Last, we show how interacting particle systems with viscous drags and correlated noises can be seen as in equilibrium with a viscoelastic bath but driven out of equilibrium by nonconservative forces, hence providing energetic insight into the departure of active systems from equilibrium.

  1. Ionization-based detectors for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    The gas phase ionization detectors are the most widely used detectors for gas chromatography. The column and makeup gases commonly used in gas chromatography are near perfect insulators. This facilitates the detection of a minute number of charge carriers facilitating the use of ionization mechanisms of low efficiency while providing high sensitivity. The main ionization mechanism discussed in this report are combustion in a hydrogen diffusion flame (flame ionization detector), surface ionization in a plasma (thermionic ionization detector), photon ionization (photoionization detector and pulsed discharge helium ionization detector), attachment of thermal electrons (electron-capture detector), and ionization by collision with metastable helium species (helium ionization detector). The design, response characteristics, response mechanism, and suitability for fast gas chromatography are the main features summarized in this report. Mass spectrometric detection and atomic emission detection, which could be considered as ionization detectors of a more sophisticated and complex design, are not discussed in this report. PMID:25757823

  2. Systematic Approach to Calculate the Concentration of Chemical Species in Multi-Equilibrium Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Baeza, Juan Jose; Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Maria Celia

    2011-01-01

    A general systematic approach is proposed for the numerical calculation of multi-equilibrium problems. The approach involves several steps: (i) the establishment of balances involving the chemical species in solution (e.g., mass balances, charge balance, and stoichiometric balance for the reaction products), (ii) the selection of the unknowns (the…

  3. A Virtual Mixture Approach to the Study of Multistate Equilibrium: Application to Constant pH Simulation in Explicit Water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-10-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66's pKa. PMID:26506245

  4. A Virtual Mixture Approach to the Study of Multistate Equilibrium: Application to Constant pH Simulation in Explicit Water

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66’s pKa. PMID:26506245

  5. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea < glycine < glucose. Illite and kaolinite (unexpandable clays) barely affected the CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer. PMID:24844562

  6. Out-of-equilibrium phenomena and Transport in Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    superfluidity and thermally activated transport which leads to a conductance minimum and poses several theoretical questions for its theoretical description. Work supported in part by Swiss NSF under division II and the ARO-MURI Non-equilibrium Many-body Dynamics Grant (W911NF-14-1-0003).

  7. Measuring Ionization at Extreme Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Dominik; Doeppner, Tilo; Kritcher, Andrea; Bachmann, Benjamin; Fletcher, Luke; Falcone, Roger; Gericke, Dirk; Glenzer, Siegfried; Masters, Nathan; Nora, Ryan; Boehm, Kurt; Divol, Laurent; Landen, Otto; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Redmer, Ronald; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A precise knowledge of ionization at given temperature and density is crucial in order to properly model compressibility and heat capacity of ICF ablator materials for efficient implosions producing energy gain. Here, we present a new experimental platform to perform spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements of ionization, density and temperature in imploding CH or beryllium capsules on the National Ignition Facility. Recording scattered x-rays at 9 keV from a zinc He-alpha plasma source at a scattering angle of 120 degrees, first experiments show strong sensitivity to k-shell ionization, while at the same time constraining density and temperature. This platform will allow for x-ray Thomson scattering studies of dense plasmas with free electron densities up to 1025 cm-3, giving the possibility to investigate effects of continuum lowering and Pauli blocking on the ablator ionization state right before stagnation of the implosion.

  8. Double ionization of atomic cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Linusson, P.; Fritzsche, S.; Eland, J. H. D.; Hedin, L.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.

    2011-02-15

    We have recorded the double photoionization spectrum of atomic Cd at four different photon energies in the range 40-200 eV. The main channel is single ionization and subsequent decay of excited Cd{sup +} states, some involving Coster-Kronig processes, whereas direct double ionization is found to be weak. The decay of the excited Cd{sup +} states shows a strong selectivity, related to the configuration of the final state. Double ionization leading to the Cd{sup 2+} ground state is investigated in some detail and is found to proceed mainly through ionization and decay of 4d correlation satellites. The most prominent autoionization peaks have been identified with the aid of quantum-mechanical calculations.

  9. Salts Are Mostly NOT Ionized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the misconception that salts are completely ionizing in solution, the presence of this error in textbooks, probable origins of the error, covalent bonding and ion pairs, and how to tell students the truth. (MKR)

  10. Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.

  11. On the formation of Mg ii h and k lines in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C.; Anzer, U.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: With the recent launch of the IRIS mission, it has become urgent to develop the spectral diagnostics using the Mg ii resonance h and k lines. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate the behavior of these lines under various prominence conditions. Our results serve as a basis for analysis of new IRIS data and for more sophisticated prominence modeling. Methods: For this exploratory work, we use a canonical 1D prominence-slab model, which is isobaric and may have three different temperature structures: isothermal, PCTR-like (prominence-corona transition region), and consistent with the radiative equilibrium. The slabs are illuminated by a realistic incident solar radiation obtained from the UV observations. A five-level plus continuum Mg ii model atom is used to solve the full NLTE problem of the radiative transfer. We use the numerical code based on the ALI techniques and apply the partial frequency redistribution for both Mg ii resonance lines. We also use the velocity-dependent boundary conditions to study the effect of Doppler dimming in the case of moving prominences. Finally, the relaxation technique is used to compute a grid of models in radiative equilibrium. Results: We computed the Mg ii h and k line profiles that are emergent from prominence-slab models and show their dependence on kinetic temperature, gas pressure, geometrical extension, and microturbulent velocity. By increasing the line opacity, significant departures from the complete frequency redistribution take place in the line wings. Models with a PCTR temperature structure show that Mg ii becomes ionized to Mg iii in the temperature range between roughly 15 000 and 30 000 K. Doppler dimming is significant for Mg ii resonance lines. At the velocity 300 km s-1, the line intensity decreases to about 20% of the value for static prominences. Finally, we demonstrate the role of Mg ii h and k radiation losses on the prominence energy balance. Their dominant role is at lower pressures, while the

  12. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1998-01-01

    We have begun a comprehensive series of analyses and experiments to study the basic problem of shock wave dynamics in ionized media. Our objective is to isolate the mechanisms that are responsible for the decrease in the shock amplitude and also to determine the relevant plasma parameters that will be required for a drag reduction scheme in an actual high altitude hypersonic flight. Specifically, we have initiated a program of analyses and measurements with the objective of (i) fully characterizing the propagation dynamics in plasmas formed in gases of aerodynamic interest, (ii) isolating the mechanisms responsible for the decreased shock strength and increased shock velocity, (iii) extrapolating the laboratory observations to the technology of supersonic flight.

  13. Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.

  14. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  15. Laser ionization mass spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardez, Luis J., III; Siekhaus, W. J.

    1989-10-01

    Laser Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (LIMS) is a simple technique with several advantages and disadvantages over standard mass spectroscopy techniques. The LIMS technique uses a laser to vaporize a small portion of a sample. The vapor from the sample consists of a mixture of charged and neutral atoms or fragments. Using electrostatic grids, the ions (positive or negative) are given a known amount of kinetic energy and sent down a time-of-flight tube. The time it takes the ions to travel down the flight tube is recorded. Knowing the ions' energy, the length of the flight tube, and the time it takes the ions to travel that distance, the masses of the ions can be calculated. The instrument used is a LIMA 3 made by Cambridge Mass Spectrometry. It has a Quanta Ray DCR-11 Nd:YAG laser, which was frequency-quadrupled to 266 nm. The laser spot size is typically between 2 and 5 microns in diameter and the pulse width is between 5 and 10 nanoseconds. The energy of the laser is continually variable between 0.1 and 3.0 millijoules. The detector is a 17-stage venetian-blind multiplier made by Thorn EMI. The analysis is carried out under vacuum, usually between 10(exp -8) and 10(exp -9) Torr. The LIMA 3 has several useful features such as: a He-Ne pilot laser used to target the Nd:YAG laser; a microscope (which is used to view the sample through the laser optics); and a precision sample stage for accurate sample alignment.

  16. Laser ionization mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardez, L.J. III; Siekhaus, W.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Laser Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (LIMS) is a simple technique with several advantages and disadvantages over standard mass spectroscopy techniques. The LIMS technique uses a laser to vaporize a small portion of a sample. The vapor from the sample consists of a mixture of charged and neutral atoms or fragments. Using electrostatic grids, the ions (positive or negative) are given a known amount of kinetic energy and sent down a time-of-flight tube. The time it takes the ions to travel down the flight tube is recorded. Knowing the ions' energy, the length of the flight tube, and the time it takes the ions to travel that distance, the masses of the ions can be calculated. The instrument we use is a LIMA 3 made by Cambridge Mass Spectrometry. It has a Quanta Ray DCR-11 Nd:YAG laser, which we frequency-quadruple to 266 nm. The laser spot size is typically between 2 and 5 microns in diameter and the pulse width is between 5 and 10 nanoseconds. The energy of the laser is continually variable between 0.1 and 3.0 millijoules. The detector is a 17-stage venetian-blind multiplier made by Thorn EMI. The analysis is carried out under vacuum, usually between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}9} Torr. The LIMA 3 has several useful features such as: a He-Ne pilot laser used to target the Nd:YAG laser; a microscope (which is used to view the sample through the laser optics); and a precision sample stage for accurate sample alignment. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Numerical simulation of hypersonic inlet flows with equilibrium or finite rate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sheng-Tao; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient numerical program incorporated with comprehensive high temperature gas property models has been developed to simulate hypersonic inlet flows. The computer program employs an implicit lower-upper time marching scheme to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with variable thermodynamic and transport properties. Both finite-rate and local-equilibrium approaches are adopted in the chemical reaction model for dissociation and ionization of the inlet air. In the finite rate approach, eleven species equations coupled with fluid dynamic equations are solved simultaneously. In the local-equilibrium approach, instead of solving species equations, an efficient chemical equilibrium package has been developed and incorporated into the flow code to obtain chemical compositions directly. Gas properties for the reaction products species are calculated by methods of statistical mechanics and fit to a polynomial form for C(p). In the present study, since the chemical reaction time is comparable to the flow residence time, the local-equilibrium model underpredicts the temperature in the shock layer. Significant differences of predicted chemical compositions in shock layer between finite rate and local-equilibrium approaches have been observed.

  18. Physical Conditions in Low Ionization Regions of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Crotts, A.; DuFour, R. J.; Ferland, G. J.; Heathcote, S.; Hester, J. J.; Korista, K. T.; Martin, P. J.; ODell, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We reexamine the spectroscopic underpinnings of recent claims that low ionization (O(I)) and (Fe(II)) lines from the Orion H(II) region are produced in a region where the iron-carrying grains have been destroyed and the electron density is surprisingly high. Our new HST and CTIO observations show that previous reported detections of(O(I)) lambda 5577 were strongly affected by telluric emission. Our line limits consistent with a moderate density (approx. 10(exp 4)/cu. cm photoionized gas. We show that a previously proposed model of the Orion H(II) region reproduces the observed (O(I)) and (Fe(II)) spectrum. These lines are fully consistent with formation in a moderate density dusty region.

  19. The Lack of Influence of Metallicity on Cooling and Collapse of Ionized Gas in Small Protogalactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jappsen, A.-K.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2005-12-01

    We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of ionized gas in small protogalactic halos. We use three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, run with the publicly available parallel code GADGET (Springel et al. 2001). We implement a sink particle algorithm. This allows us to safely represent gas that has collapsed beyond the resolution limit without causing numerical errors within the resolved regions of the simulation. We also include the necessary framework for following the non-equilibrium chemistry of H2 in the protogalactic gas, and a treatment of radiative heating and cooling. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a fossil H ii region---a previously ionized H ii region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. Prior to cosmological reionization, such regions should be relatively common, since the characteristic lifetimes of the likely ionizing sources are significantly shorter than a Hubble time. We show that in these regions, H2 is the dominant and most effective coolant, even in the presence of small amounts of metals. It is the amount of H2 which forms that controls whether or not the gas can collapse and form stars. For metallicities Z ≤ 10-3 Z⊙, we find that metal line cooling alters the density and temperature evolution of the gas by less than 1% compared to the metal-free case at densities below 1 cm-3 and temperatures above 2000 K. However, at higher densities and lower temperatures, metal line cooling does become rather more important, and will affect the ability of the gas to fragment. We also show that an external ultraviolet background delays or suppresses the cooling and collapse of the gas regardless of whether or not it is metal-enriched. RSK and A-KJ acknowledge support from the Emmy Noether Program of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant no. KL1358/1). M-MML acknowledges support from NSF grants AST99-85392 and AST03-07854, and NASA grant NAG5

  20. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  1. IONIZATION-DRIVEN FRAGMENTATION OF GAS OUTFLOWS RESPONSIBLE FOR FeLoBALs IN QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Dunn, Jay P.

    2010-07-10

    We show that time variations in the UV ionizing continuum of quasars, on scales of {approx}1 yr, affect the dynamic structure of the plasmas responsible for low-ionization broad absorption lines. Variations of the ionizing continuum produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the absorbing clouds and supersonically moving ionization fronts. When the flux drops, the contraction of the ionized region drives a supersonic cooling front toward the radiation source and a rarefaction wave in the opposite direction. The pressure imbalance is compensated by an increased speed of the cool gas relative to the front. When the flux recovers, the cool gas is re-ionized and re-heated by a supersonic ionization front traveling away from the radiation source and a forward shock is created. The re-heated clouds equilibrate to a temperature of {approx}10{sup 4} K and are observed to have different radial velocities than the main cloud. Such fragmentation seems consistent with the multicomponent structure of troughs seen in some objects. The velocity differences measured among various components in the quasars QSO 2359-1241 and SDSS J0318-0600 can be reproduced by our model if strong magnetic fields ({approx}10 mG) are present within the clouds.

  2. Ionization-driven Fragmentation of Gas Outflows Responsible for FeLoBALs in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Dunn, Jay P.

    2010-07-01

    We show that time variations in the UV ionizing continuum of quasars, on scales of ~1 yr, affect the dynamic structure of the plasmas responsible for low-ionization broad absorption lines. Variations of the ionizing continuum produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the absorbing clouds and supersonically moving ionization fronts. When the flux drops, the contraction of the ionized region drives a supersonic cooling front toward the radiation source and a rarefaction wave in the opposite direction. The pressure imbalance is compensated by an increased speed of the cool gas relative to the front. When the flux recovers, the cool gas is re-ionized and re-heated by a supersonic ionization front traveling away from the radiation source and a forward shock is created. The re-heated clouds equilibrate to a temperature of ~104 K and are observed to have different radial velocities than the main cloud. Such fragmentation seems consistent with the multicomponent structure of troughs seen in some objects. The velocity differences measured among various components in the quasars QSO 2359-1241 and SDSS J0318-0600 can be reproduced by our model if strong magnetic fields (~10 mG) are present within the clouds.

  3. STORAGE RING CROSS-SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ELECTRON IMPACT SINGLE AND DOUBLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 9+} AND SINGLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 10+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Becker, A.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Wolf, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Repnow, R.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.

    2012-11-20

    We have measured electron impact ionization from the ground state of Fe{sup 9+} and Fe{sup 10+} over the relative electron-ion collision energy ranges 200-1900 eV and 250-1800 eV, respectively. The ions were confined in an ion storage ring long enough for essentially all metastable levels to radiatively relax to the ground state. For single ionization, we find a number of discrepancies between the existing theoretical cross sections and our results. The calculations appear to neglect some excitation-autoionization (EA) channels, particularly from n = 3 to n' excitations, which are important near threshold, and those from n = 2 {yields} 3 excitations, which contribute at about 650 eV. Conversely, at higher energies the calculations appear to overestimate the importance of EA channels due to excitation into levels where n {>=} 4. The resulting experimental rate coefficients agree with the most recent theory for Fe{sup 9+} to within 16% and for Fe{sup 10+} to within 19% at temperatures where these ions are predicted to form in collisional ionization equilibrium. We have also measured double ionization of Fe{sup 9+} forming Fe{sup 11+} in the energy range 450-3000 eV and found that although there is an appreciable cross section for direct double ionization, the dominant mechanism appears to be through direct ionization of an inner shell electron producing an excited state that subsequently stabilizes through autoionization.

  4. Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-08-01

    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper, we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III] λ5007 Å emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ˜13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore, in samples of obscured and unobscured quasars carefully matched in [O III] luminosity, we find support for the standard geometry-based unification model of active galactic nuclei, in that the intrinsic properties of the quasars, of their hosts and of their ionized gas appear to be very similar. Given the apparent ubiquity of extended ionized regions, we are forced to conclude that either the quasar is at least partially illuminating pre-existing gas or that both samples of quasars are seen during advanced stages of quasar feedback. In the latter case, we may be biased by our [O III]-based selection against quasars in the early `blow-out' phase, for example due to dust obscuration.

  5. Non-equilibrium Transport of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chiao-Hsuan; Taylor, Jacob

    Non-equilibrium Transport of Light The thermalization of light under conditions of parametric coupling to a bath provides a robust chemical potential for light. We study non-equilibrium transport of light using non-equilibrium Green's function approach under the parametric coupling scheme, and explore a potential photonic analogue to the Landauer transport equation. Our results provide understandings of many-body states of photonic matter with chemical potential imbalances. The transport theory of light paves the way for quantum simulation and even practical applications of diode-like circuits using quantum photonic sources in the microwave and optical domain.

  6. MEASURING NEBULAR TEMPERATURES: THE EFFECT OF NEW COLLISION STRENGTHS WITH EQUILIBRIUM AND {kappa}-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Palay, Ethan

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we develop tools for observers to use when analyzing nebular spectra for temperatures and metallicities, with two goals: to present a new, simple method to calculate equilibrium electron temperatures for collisionally excited line flux ratios, using the latest atomic data; and to adapt current methods to include the effects of possible non-equilibrium ''{kappa}'' electron energy distributions. Adopting recent collision strength data for [O III], [S III], [O II], [S II], and [N II], we find that existing methods based on older atomic data seriously overestimate the electron temperatures, even when considering purely Maxwellian statistics. If {kappa} distributions exist in H II regions and planetary nebulae as they do in solar system plasmas, it is important to investigate the observational consequences. This paper continues our previous work on the {kappa} distribution. We present simple formulaic methods that allow observers to (1) measure equilibrium electron temperatures and atomic abundances using the latest atomic data, and (2) to apply simple corrections to existing equilibrium analysis techniques to allow for possible non-equilibrium effects. These tools should lead to better consistency in temperature and abundance measurements, and a clearer understanding of the physics of H II regions and planetary nebulae.

  7. A breakthrough biosorbent in removing heavy metals: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism analyses in a lab-scale study.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Atefeh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lu, Shaoyong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jie; Wu, Yun

    2016-01-15

    A breakthrough biosorbent namely multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) made from a combination of tea wastes, maple leaves and mandarin peels, was prepared to evaluate their biosorptive potential for removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from multi-metal aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM were conducted, before and after biosorption, to explore the intensity and position of the available functional groups and changes in adsorbent surface morphology. Carboxylic, hydroxyl and amine groups were found to be the principal functional groups for the sorption of metals. MMBB exhibited best performance at pH 5.5 with maximum sorption capacities of 31.73, 41.06, 76.25 and 26.63 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models represented the kinetic experimental data in different initial metal concentrations very well. Among two-parameter adsorption isotherm models, the Langmuir equation gave a better fit of the equilibrium data. For Cu(II) and Zn(II), the Khan isotherm describes better biosorption conditions while for Cd(II) and Pb(II), the Sips model was found to provide the best correlation of the biosorption equilibrium data. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated feasible, spontaneous and exothermic biosorption process. Overall, this novel MMBB can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26544889

  8. Nonequilibrium ionization effects in asymmetrically heated loops. [in solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadaro, D.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Mariska, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of nonequilibrium ionization on magnetic loop models with a steady siphon flow that is driven by a nonuniform heating rate are investigated. The model developed by Mariska (1988) to explain the observed redshifts of transition region emission lines is examined, and the number densities of the ions of carbon and oxygen along the loop are computed, with and without the approximation of ionization equilibrium. Considerable deviations from equilibrium were found. In order to determine the consequences of these nonequilibrium effects on the characteristics of the EUV emission from the loop plasma, the profiles and wavelength positions of all the important emission lines due to carbon and oxygen were calculated. The calculations are in broad agreement with Mariska's conclusions, although they show a significant diminution of the Doppler shifts, as well as modifications to the line widths. It is concluded that the inclusion of nonequilibrium effects make it more difficult to reproduce the observed characteristics of the solar transition region by means of the asymmetric-heating models.

  9. The Conceptual Change Approach to Teaching Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Nurtac; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Bayrakceken, Samih; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts (e.g. dynamic nature of equilibrium, definition of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, qualitative interpreting of equilibrium constant, changing the reaction conditions). This…

  10. Ionization balance in EBIT and tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, N. J.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Crosby, D.; Silver, J. D.; Rainnie, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The equilibrium state in tokamak core plasmas has been studied using the relative intensities of resonance x-ray lines, for example Lyα (H-like), "w" (He-like), and "q" (Li-like) from test ions such as Ar+15, Ar+16, and Ar+17. A full spatial analysis involves comparison of the line intensities with ion diffusion calculations, including relevant atomic rates. A zero-dimensional model using a global ion loss rate approximation has also been demonstrated by comparison with the data collected from a Johann configuration spectrometer with a charged coupled device (CCD) detector. Since the lines are nearly monoenergetic, their intensities are independent of the instrument sensitivity and are directly proportional to the ion abundances. This method has recently been applied to Ar in the Oxford electron beam ion trap (EBIT) with a beam energy in the range 3-10 keV. Taking into account the cross sections for monoenergetic electron collisions and polarization effects, model calculations agree with the observed line ratios at 4.1 keV beam energy. This work will be expanded to provide nomograms of ionization state versus line intensity ratios as a function of EBIT beam energy.

  11. The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Photons in the Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of radiative feedback and star formation in galaxies at high redshift is hindered by the rarity of similar systems at low redshift. However, the recently identified Green Pea (GP) galaxies are similar to high-redshift galaxies in their morphologies and star formation rates and are vital tools for probing the generation and transmission of ionizing photons. The GPs contain massive star clusters that emit copious amounts of high-energy radiation, as indicated by intense [OIII] 5007 emission and HeII 4686 emission. We focus on six GP galaxies with high ratios of [O III] 5007,4959/[O II] 3727 ~10 or more. Such high ratios indicate gas with a high ionization parameter or a low optical depth. The GP line ratios and ages point to chemically homogeneous massive stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or shock ionization as the most likely sources of the He II emission. Models including shock ionization suggest that the GPs may have low optical depths, consistent with a scenario in which ionizing photons escape along passageways created by recent supernovae. The GPs and similar galaxies can shed new light on cosmic reionization by revealing how ionizing photons propagate from massive star clusters to the intergalactic medium.

  12. The role of partial ionization effects in the chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-05-28

    The energy for the coronal heating must be provided from the convection zone. However, the amount and the method by which this energy is transferred into the corona depend on the properties of the lower atmosphere and the corona itself. We review: (i) how the energy could be built in the lower solar atmosphere, (ii) how this energy is transferred through the solar atmosphere, and (iii) how the energy is finally dissipated in the chromosphere and/or corona. Any mechanism of energy transport has to deal with the various physical processes in the lower atmosphere. We will focus on a physical process that seems to be highly important in the chromosphere and not deeply studied until recently: the ion-neutral interaction effects in the chromosphere. We review the relevance and the role of the partial ionization in the chromosphere and show that this process actually impacts considerably the outer solar atmosphere. We include analysis of our 2.5D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Bifrost code (Gudiksen et al. 2011 Astron. Astrophys. 531, A154 (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116520)) including the partial ionization effects on the chromosphere and corona and thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The photosphere, chromosphere and transition region are partially ionized and the interaction between ionized particles and neutral particles has important consequences on the magneto-thermodynamics of these layers. The partial ionization effects are treated using generalized Ohm's law, i.e. we consider the Hall term and the ambipolar diffusion (Pedersen dissipation) in the induction equation. The interaction between the different species affects the modelled atmosphere as follows: (i) the ambipolar diffusion dissipates magnetic energy and increases the minimum temperature in the chromosphere and (ii) the upper chromosphere may get heated and expanded over a greater range of heights. These processes reveal appreciable differences between the modelled atmospheres

  13. The role of partial ionization effects in the chromosphere

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The energy for the coronal heating must be provided from the convection zone. However, the amount and the method by which this energy is transferred into the corona depend on the properties of the lower atmosphere and the corona itself. We review: (i) how the energy could be built in the lower solar atmosphere, (ii) how this energy is transferred through the solar atmosphere, and (iii) how the energy is finally dissipated in the chromosphere and/or corona. Any mechanism of energy transport has to deal with the various physical processes in the lower atmosphere. We will focus on a physical process that seems to be highly important in the chromosphere and not deeply studied until recently: the ion–neutral interaction effects in the chromosphere. We review the relevance and the role of the partial ionization in the chromosphere and show that this process actually impacts considerably the outer solar atmosphere. We include analysis of our 2.5D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Bifrost code (Gudiksen et al. 2011 Astron. Astrophys. 531, A154 (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116520)) including the partial ionization effects on the chromosphere and corona and thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The photosphere, chromosphere and transition region are partially ionized and the interaction between ionized particles and neutral particles has important consequences on the magneto-thermodynamics of these layers. The partial ionization effects are treated using generalized Ohm's law, i.e. we consider the Hall term and the ambipolar diffusion (Pedersen dissipation) in the induction equation. The interaction between the different species affects the modelled atmosphere as follows: (i) the ambipolar diffusion dissipates magnetic energy and increases the minimum temperature in the chromosphere and (ii) the upper chromosphere may get heated and expanded over a greater range of heights. These processes reveal appreciable differences between the modelled

  14. The role of partial ionization effects in the chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-04-01

    The energy for the coronal heating must be provided from the convection zone. However, the amount and the method by which this energy is transferred into the corona depend on the properties of the lower atmosphere and the corona itself. We review: (i) how the energy could be built in the lower solar atmosphere, (ii) how this energy is transferred through the solar atmosphere, and (iii) how the energy is finally dissipated in the chromosphere and/or corona. Any mechanism of energy transport has to deal with the various physical processes in the lower atmosphere. We will focus on a physical process that seems to be highly important in the chromosphere and not deeply studied until recently: the ion-neutral interaction effects in the chromosphere. We review the relevance and the role of the partial ionization in the chromosphere and show that this process actually impacts considerably the outer solar atmosphere. We include analysis of our 2.5D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Bifrost code (Gudiksen et al. 2011 Astron. Astrophys. 531, A154 (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116520)) including the partial ionization effects on the chromosphere and corona and thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The photosphere, chromosphere and transition region are partially ionized and the interaction between ionized particles and neutral particles has important consequences on the magneto-thermodynamics of these layers. The partial ionization effects are treated using generalized Ohm's law, i.e. we consider the Hall term and the ambipolar diffusion (Pedersen dissipation) in the induction equation. The interaction between the different species affects the modelled atmosphere as follows: (i) the ambipolar diffusion dissipates magnetic energy and increases the minimum temperature in the chromosphere and (ii) the upper chromosphere may get heated and expanded over a greater range of heights. These processes reveal appreciable differences between the modelled atmospheres

  15. An Elementary Discussion of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Carl W.

    1988-01-01

    This discussion uses a more difficult reaction as the prototype to derive the standard equation for chemical equilibrium. It can be used by students who can understand and use partial derivatives. (CW)

  16. Spreadsheet Templates for Chemical Equilibrium Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Bhairav D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two general spreadsheet templates to carry out all types of one-equation chemical equilibrium calculations encountered by students in undergraduate chemistry courses. Algorithms, templates, macros, and representative examples are presented to illustrate the approach. (PR)

  17. Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2015-04-01

    We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.

  18. Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki

    2012-07-27

    Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

  19. Points of Equilibrium in Electrostatic Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Peter J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the electric field line pattern for four equal charges of the same sign placed at the corners of a square. The electric field intensity and the point of equilibrium are interpreted, taking into account three dimensions. (HM)

  20. Surface roughness effects on equilibrium temperature.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houchens, A. F.; Hering, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented for evaluation of equilibrium temperature distribution on radiatively adiabatic, adjoint planes which are uniformly irradiated by a collimated solar flux. The analysis employs a semigrey spectral model. Radiation properties for surface emitted radiation are obtained from the expressions of electromagnetic theory for smooth surfaces. Rough surface properties for solar radiation are given by the Beckmann bidirectional reflectance model. Numerical solutions to the governing equations yield equilibrium temperature distributions for a range of the influencing parameters. Surface roughness has little influence on equilibrium temperature for materials with high values for solar absorptance. However, for low or intermediate values of solar absorptance, roughness effects on the spatial distribution of reflected solar radiation can significantly alter equilibrium temperature particularly at surface elements where radiant interaction is small.