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Sample records for ii nptii gene

  1. Self-excision of the antibiotic resistance gene nptII using a heat inducible Cre-loxP system from transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Wilmer; Gaudin, Amlie; Solrzano, Dennis; Casas, Armando; Nopo, Luis; Chudalayandi, Prakash; Medrano, Giuliana; Kreuze, Jan; Ghislain, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Resistance to antibiotics mediated by selectable marker genes remains a powerful selection tool for transgenic event production. However, regulatory agencies and consumer concerns favor these to be eliminated from food crops. Several excision systems exist but none have been optimized or shown to be functional for clonally propagated crops. The excision of the nptII gene conferring resistance to kanamycin has been achieved here using a gene construct based on a heat-inducible cre gene producing a recombinase that eliminates cre and nptII genes flanked by two loxP sites. First-generation regenerants with the Cre-loxP system were obtained by selection on kanamycin media. Following a heat treatment, second generation regenerants were screened for excision by PCR using nptII, cre, and T-DNA borders primers. Excision efficiency appeared to be at 4.7% depending on the heat treatment. The footprint of the excision was shown by sequencing between T-DNA borders to correspond to a perfect recombination event. Selectable marker-free sprouts were also obtained from tubers of transgenic events when submitted to similar heat treatment at 4% frequency. Spontaneous excision was not observed out of 196 regenerants from untreated transgenic explants. Biosafety concerns are minimized because the expression of cre gene driven by the hsp70 promoter of Drosophila melanogaster was remarkably low even under heat activation and no functional loxP site were found in published Solanum sequence database. A new plant transformation vector pCIP54/55 was developed including a multiple cloning site and the self-excision system which should be a useful tool not only for marker genes in potato but for any gene or sequence removal in any plant. PMID:16912912

  2. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jnsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances. PMID:22680697

  3. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: Assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes ?-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. Results The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3?years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Conclusions Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the selectable marker genes that are most commonly used in citrus transformation were substantially equivalent to the non-transformed controls with regard to their overall agronomic performance, as based on the use of robust and powerful assessment techniques. Therefore, future studies of the possible pleiotropic effects induced by the integration and expression of transgenes in field-grown GM citrus may focus on the newly inserted trait(s) of biotechnological interest. PMID:22794278

  4. A Universal Positive-Negative Selection System for Gene Targeting in Plants Combining an Antibiotic Resistance Gene and Its Antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Nonaka, Satoko; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    Gene targeting (GT) is a useful technology for accurate genome engineering in plants. A reproducible approach based on a positive-negative selection system using hygromycin resistance and the diphtheria toxin A subunit gene as positive and negative selection markers, respectively, is now available. However, to date, this selection system has been applied exclusively in rice (Oryza sativa). To establish a universally applicable positive-negative GT system in plants, we designed a selection system using a combination of neomycin phosphotransferaseII (nptII) and an antisense nptII construct. The concomitant transcription of both sense and antisense nptII suppresses significantly the level of expression of the sense nptII gene, and transgenic calli and plants become sensitive to the antibiotic geneticin. In addition, we were able to utilize the sense nptII gene as a positive selection marker and the antisense nptII construct as a negative selection marker for knockout of the endogenous rice genes Waxy and 33-kD globulin through GT, although negative selection with this system is relatively less efficient compared with diphtheria toxin A subunit. The approach developed here, with some additional improvements, could be applied as a universal selection system for the enrichment of GT cells in several plant species. PMID:26143254

  5. A Universal Positive-Negative Selection System for Gene Targeting in Plants Combining an Antibiotic Resistance Gene and Its Antisense RNA1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Nonaka, Satoko; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting (GT) is a useful technology for accurate genome engineering in plants. A reproducible approach based on a positive-negative selection system using hygromycin resistance and the diphtheria toxin A subunit gene as positive and negative selection markers, respectively, is now available. However, to date, this selection system has been applied exclusively in rice (Oryza sativa). To establish a universally applicable positive-negative GT system in plants, we designed a selection system using a combination of neomycin phosphotransferaseII (nptII) and an antisense nptII construct. The concomitant transcription of both sense and antisense nptII suppresses significantly the level of expression of the sense nptII gene, and transgenic calli and plants become sensitive to the antibiotic geneticin. In addition, we were able to utilize the sense nptII gene as a positive selection marker and the antisense nptII construct as a negative selection marker for knockout of the endogenous rice genes Waxy and 33-kD globulin through GT, although negative selection with this system is relatively less efficient compared with diphtheria toxin A subunit. The approach developed here, with some additional improvements, could be applied as a universal selection system for the enrichment of GT cells in several plant species. PMID:26143254

  6. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. PMID:26232739

  7. No impact of transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Burgess, E P J; Barraclough, E I; Kean, A M; Walter, C; Malone, L A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the biosafety to insects of transgenic Pinus radiata D. Don containing the antibiotic resistance marker gene nptII and the reproductive control gene leafy, bioassays were conducted with an endemic lepidopteran pest of New Zealand plantation pine forests and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid. Larvae of the common forest looper, Pseudocoremia suavis (Butler), were fed from hatching on P. radiata needles from either one of two nptII-leafy transgenic clones, or an isogenic unmodified control line. For both unparasitized P. suavis and those parasitized by Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), consuming transgenic versus control pine had no impact on larval growth rate or mass at any age, larval duration, survival, pupation or successful emergence as an adult. Total larval duration was 1 d (3%) longer in larvae fed nptII-2 than nptII-1, but this difference was considered trivial and neither differed from the control. In unparasitized P. suavis larvae, pine type consumed did not affect rate of pupation or adult emergence, pupal mass, or pupal duration. Pine type had no effect on the duration or survival of M. pulchricornis larval or pupal stages, mass of cocoons, stage at which they died, adult emergence, or fecundity. Parasitism by M. pulchricornis reduced P. suavis larval growth rate, increased the duration of the third larval stadium, and resulted in the death of all host larvae before pupation. The lack of impact of an exclusive diet of nptII-leafy transgenic pines on the life history of P. suavis and M. pulchricornis suggests that transgenic plantation pines expressing nptII are unlikely to affect insect populations in the field. PMID:22251744

  8. Extrachromosomal homologous recombination and gene targeting in plant cells after Agrobacterium mediated transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Offringa, R; de Groot, M J; Haagsman, H J; Does, M P; van den Elzen, P J; Hooykaas, P J

    1990-01-01

    We determined whether T-DNA molecules introduced into plant cells using Agrobacterium are suitable substrates for homologous recombination. For the detection of such recombination events different mutant versions of a NPTII construct were used. In a first set of experiments protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum SR1 were cocultivated with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. Each strain contained a different T-DNA, one carrying a 5' deleted NPTII gene and the other a NPTII gene with a 3' deletion. A restored NPTII gene was found in 1-4% of the protoplasts that had been cotransformed with both T-DNAs. Restoration of the NPTII gene could only be the consequence of homologous recombination between the two different T-DNAs in the plant cell, since the possibility of recombination in Agrobacterium was excluded in control experiments. In subsequent experiments was investigated the potential use of Agrobacterium for gene targeting in plants. A transgenic tobacco line with a T-DNA insertion carrying a defective NPTII gene with a 3' deletion was transformed via Agrobacterium with a T-DNA containing a defective NPTII repair gene. Several kanamycin resistant plant lines were obtained with an intact NPTII gene integrated in their genome. In one of these lines the defective NPTII gene at the target locus had been properly restored. Our results show that in plants recombination can occur between a chromosomal locus and a homologous T-DNA introduced via A. tumefaciens. This opens the possibility of using the Agrobacterium transformation system for site directed mutagenesis of the plant genome. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2209538

  9. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF LYSOZYME TYPE II GENE IN RAINBOW TROUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has two types of lysozyme. Type II lysozyme differs from type I by only one amino acid, but only type II lysozyme has significant bactericidal activity. Due to this novel antibacterial property, lysozyme II appears to be a candidate gene for potentially enhancing ...

  10. Transcript levels and synthesis of photosystem II components in cyanobacterial mutants with inactivated photosystem II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiujiang Yu; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    After interruption or deletion of the photosystem II genes psbB, psbC, and psbD in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, thylakoids from such mutants were found to be depleted in a number of photosystem II proteins in addition to those for which the gene(s) had been inactivated. Transcript levels of photosystem II genes were measured and protein pulse-labeling was carried out to determine the reason for this effect. Transcripts of all photosystem II genes except the inactivated one(s) were found to be present in the various mutants. In certain cases, inactivation of one photosystem II gene led to overexpression of another. Protein pulse-labeling experiments using {sup 35}S-methionine, in which not only the rapidly turing over D1 protein but also D2, CP43, and CP47 appear to be preferentially labeled, showed that the mutants studied synthesize the D1 protein as well as other photosystem II proteins whose genes were not inactivated. The fact that, in the various mutants, photosystem II proteins for which the gene is not inactivated are synthesized but do not accumulate in the thylakoid indicates that the psbB, psbC, and psbD gene products are all required for a stable assembly of the photosystem II complex.

  11. Splicing patterns of the Chinese hamster MT-II gene

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Jackson, P.J.; Ratliff, R.L.; Walters, R.A.; Moyzis, R.K.

    1986-05-01

    Heavy metal induction of the synthesis of metallothioneins (MTs) provides an ideal model system for basic mechanistic studies of gene expression. Previous work from their laboratory has shown that a cell line designated 20 OT1, resistant to 200 ..mu..M CdCl/sub 2/, has coordinately amplified the MT-I and MT-II genes 10-20 fold. A region encompassing 14 kilobases (Kb) of overlapping DNA clones isolated from this cell line includes the structural genes for Chinese hamster MT-I and MT-II proteins. The MT-I gene is located 6 Kb downstream from the MT-II gene and is in the same transcriptional orientation. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of the MT-II gene uncovered an alternative splice site in the first intron of this gene. To determine whether splicing occurs in vivo at this alternative splice site, oligonucleotide probes were synthesized. These probes consisted of 30 nucleotides bracketing either the normal or alternative splice sites. Northern blot analysis indicated that the alternative site is rarely used in the normal processing of the primary MT-II transcript. They suggest that efficient splicing does not occur at this alternative site due to inaccessibility of the proximal lariat site. Intron specific probes have been used to determine if there is a specific order to intron removal for this gene transcript. These studies indicate that the second intron is preferentially removed before the first intron.

  12. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Modified versions of the Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were transferred into Norway spruce (Picea abies). Both the biolistic approach and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedure were employed for transformation of embryogenic tissue (ET) cultures. The latter method proved to be more efficient yielding 70 transgenic embryogenic tissue lines compared with 18 lines obtained by biolistics. The modified Cry3A genes were driven by a 35S promoter and the nptII screenable selection marker gene was used in all vectors. The transgenic ETs were molecularly characterized and converted into mature somatic embryos. Germinating embryos formed plantlets which were finally planted into perlite and their Cry3A gene transcription activities were demonstrated by RT-PCR. PMID:23888296

  13. PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Tobias; Alzrigat, Mohammad; Horch, Almut; Reuter, Nina; von Mikecz, Anna; Steimle, Viktor; Schmitt, Eberhard; Krämer, Oliver H; Stamminger, Thomas; Hemmerich, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies selectively associate with transcriptionally active genomic regions, including the gene-rich major histocompatibility (MHC) locus. In this paper, we have explored potential links between PML and interferon (IFN)-γ-induced MHC class II expression. IFN-γ induced a substantial increase in the spatial proximity between PML bodies and the MHC class II gene cluster in different human cell types. Knockdown experiments show that PML is required for efficient IFN-γ-induced MHC II gene transcription through regulation of the class II transactivator (CIITA). PML mediates this function through protection of CIITA from proteasomal degradation. We also show that PML isoform II specifically forms a stable complex with CIITA at PML bodies. These observations establish PML as a coregulator of IFN-γ-induced MHC class II expression. PMID:23007646

  14. PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Tobias; Alzrigat, Mohammad; Horch, Almut; Reuter, Nina; von Mikecz, Anna; Steimle, Viktor; Schmitt, Eberhard; Krämer, Oliver H.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies selectively associate with transcriptionally active genomic regions, including the gene-rich major histocompatibility (MHC) locus. In this paper, we have explored potential links between PML and interferon (IFN)-γ–induced MHC class II expression. IFN-γ induced a substantial increase in the spatial proximity between PML bodies and the MHC class II gene cluster in different human cell types. Knockdown experiments show that PML is required for efficient IFN-γ–induced MHC II gene transcription through regulation of the class II transactivator (CIITA). PML mediates this function through protection of CIITA from proteasomal degradation. We also show that PML isoform II specifically forms a stable complex with CIITA at PML bodies. These observations establish PML as a coregulator of IFN-γ–induced MHC class II expression. PMID:23007646

  15. Increased resistance to fungal wilts in transgenic eggplant expressing alfalfa glucanase gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepali; Ambroise, Annick; Haicour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-04-01

    The wilt diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum are the major diseases of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In order to generate transgenic resistance against the wilt diseases, Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was performed to introduce alfalfa glucanase gene encoding an acidic glucanase into eggplant using neomycin phosphotransferase (npt-II) gene as a plant selection marker. The transgene integration into eggplant genome was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis and transgene expression by the glucanase activity and western blot analysis. The selected transgenic lines were challenged with V. dahliae and F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo growth conditions, and transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance against the wilt-causing fungi with a delay of 5-7days in the disease development as compared to wild-type plants. PMID:24757318

  16. Group II Intron-Anchored Gene Deletion in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kaizhi; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron ClosTron system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC14931494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established. PMID:21304965

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species.

    PubMed

    Gerbod, D; Edgcomb, V P; Nol, C; Vancov, S; Wintjens, R; Tachezy, J; Sogin, M L; Viscogliosi, E

    2001-08-01

    Class II fumarase sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from five trichomonad species. All residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme were present. Nuclear run-on assays showed that one of the two genes identified in Tritrichomonas foetus was expressed, whereas no fumarase transcripts were detected in the related species Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings corroborate previous biochemical data. Fumarase genes were also expressed in Monocercomonas sp. and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum but not in Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas tenax, and Trichomitus batrachorum under the culture conditions used. Molecular trees inferred by likelihood methods reveal that trichomonad sequences have no affinity to described class II fumarase genes from other eukaryotes. The absence of functional mitochondria in protists such as trichomonads suggests that they diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the alpha-proteobacterial symbiosis that led to mitochondria. Furthermore, they are basal to other eukaryotes in rRNA analyses. However, support for the early-branching status of trichomonads and other amitochondriate protists based on phylogenetic analyses of multiple data sets has been equivocal. Although the presence of hydrogenosomes suggests that trichomonads once had mitochondria, their class II iron-independent fumarase sequences differ markedly from those of other mitochondriate eukaryotes. All of the class II fumarase genes described from other eukaryotes are of apparent alpha-proteobacterial origin and hence a marker of mitochondrial evolution. In contrast, the class II fumarase from trichomonads emerges among other eubacterial homologs. This is intriguing evidence for an independent acquisition of these genes in trichomonads apart from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the form present in other eukaryotes. The ancestral trichomonad class II fumarase may represent a prokaryotic form that was replaced in other eukaryotes after the divergence of trichomonads with the movement of endosymbiont genes into the nucleus. Alternatively, it may have been acquired via a separate endosymbiotic event or lateral gene transfer. PMID:11470849

  18. Major histocompatibility complex class II genes of zebrafish.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, H; Klein, D; Vincek, V; Figueroa, F; O'hUigin, C; Tichy, H; Klein, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty cDNA clones derived from beta-chain-encoding class II genes of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been sequenced. They fall into three groups identifying three loci of expressed genes. The length and organization of these genes are similar to those of their mammalian homologs. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of genomic DNA from zebrafish collected at different locations in India indicate the existence of a fourth group of sequences (fourth locus). A high degree of polymorphism at the B. rerio MHC loci and concentration of variability to the putative peptide-binding region of the beta 1-domain-encoding part of the gene are also indicated. Large genetic distances between alleles suggest trans-specific evolution of fish MHC polymorphism. Zebrafish genes appear to be derived from a different ancestor than the various class II gene families of other vertebrates. In spite of great sequence divergence between fish and mammalian MHC genes, there seems to be a striking conservation in their overall organization. PMID:1465413

  19. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E.; Vandova, Gergana A.; Berlew, Erin E.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  20. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E; Vandova, Gergana A; Berlew, Erin E; Charkoudian, Louise K

    2015-11-10

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  1. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2015-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future. PMID:25227756

  2. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  3. Overview of BioCreative II gene mention recognition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Larry; Tanabe, Lorraine K; Ando, Rie Johnson nee; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chung, I-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Shi; Klinger, Roman; Friedrich, Christoph M; Ganchev, Kuzman; Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang; Haddow, Barry; Struble, Craig A; Povinelli, Richard J; Vlachos, Andreas; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence; Carpenter, Bob; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Dai, Hong-Jie; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yifei; Sun, Chengjie; Katrenko, Sophia; Adriaans, Pieter; Blaschke, Christian; Torres, Rafael; Neves, Mariana; Nakov, Preslav; Divoli, Anna; Maa-Lpez, Manuel; Mata, Jacinto; Wilbur, W John

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen teams presented results for the Gene Mention Task at the BioCreative II Workshop. In this task participants designed systems to identify substrings in sentences corresponding to gene name mentions. A variety of different methods were used and the results varied with a highest achieved F1 score of 0.8721. Here we present brief descriptions of all the methods used and a statistical analysis of the results. We also demonstrate that, by combining the results from all submissions, an F score of 0.9066 is feasible, and furthermore that the best result makes use of the lowest scoring submissions. PMID:18834493

  4. Group II Intron-Based Gene Targeting Reactions in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    White, Travis B.; Zhuang, Fanglei; Vernon, Jamie; Matsuura, Manabu; Wallingford, John; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mobile group II introns insert site-specifically into DNA target sites by a mechanism termed retrohoming in which the excised intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA strand and is reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. Retrohoming is mediated by a ribonucleoprotein particle that contains the intron-encoded protein and excised intron RNA, with target specificity determined largely by base pairing of the intron RNA to the DNA target sequence. This feature enabled the development of mobile group II introns into bacterial gene targeting vectors (targetrons) with programmable target specificity. Thus far, however, efficient group II intron-based gene targeting reactions have not been demonstrated in eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings By using a plasmid-based Xenopus laevis oocyte microinjection assay, we show that group II intron RNPs can integrate efficiently into target DNAs in a eukaryotic nucleus, but the reaction is limited by low Mg2+ concentrations. By supplying additional Mg2+, site-specific integration occurs in up to 38% of plasmid target sites. The integration products isolated from X. laevis nuclei are sensitive to restriction enzymes specific for double-stranded DNA, indicating second-strand synthesis via host enzymes. We also show that group II intron RNPs containing either lariat or linear intron RNA can introduce a double-strand break into a plasmid target site, thereby stimulating homologous recombination with a co-transformed DNA fragment at frequencies up to 4.8% of target sites. Chromatinization of the target DNA inhibits both types of targeting reactions, presumably by impeding RNP access. However, by using similar RNP microinjection methods, we show efficient Mg2+-dependent group II intron integration into plasmid target sites in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and into plasmid and chromosomal target sites in Drosophila melanogster embryos, indicating that DNA replication can mitigate effects of chromatinization. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an experimental foundation for the development of group II intron-based gene targeting methods for higher organisms. PMID:18769669

  5. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  6. Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413 by Transgenic Sugar Beet DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Frank; Smalla, Kornelia

    1998-01-01

    The ability of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413(pFG4?nptII) to take up and integrate transgenic plant DNA based on homologous recombination was studied under optimized laboratory conditions. Restoration of nptII, resulting in kanamycin-resistant transformants, was observed with plasmid DNA, plant DNA, and homogenates carrying the gene nptII. Molecular analysis showed that some transformants not only restored the 317-bp deletion but also obtained additional DNA. PMID:9546192

  7. Mutation of Panax ginseng genes during long-term cultivation of ginseng cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Shumakova, Olga A; Tchernoded, Galina K

    2011-07-15

    It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during the long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of Panax ginseng. In the present report, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in the 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We sequenced the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and dammarenediol synthase genes (DDS), which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) genes, which control plant development. We demonstrate that the plant genes also developed mutations during long-term cultivation. The highest level of nucleotide substitution was detected in the sequences of the SERK genes (2.000.11 nt per 1000 nt), and the level was significantly higher when compared with the cultivated P. ginseng plant. Interestingly, while the diversity of Actin genes was similar in the P. ginseng cell culture and the cultivated plants, the diversity of the DDS and SERK genes was less in the 20-year-old cell culture than in the cultivated plants. In this work, we detail the level of nucleotide substitutions in different plant genes during the long-term culture of plant cells. PMID:21497411

  8. Polycomb recruitment at the Class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Nathaniel H; Morgan, Julie E; Greer, Susanna F

    2015-10-01

    The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes. Transcription of CIITA through the IFN-? inducible CIITA promoter IV (CIITA pIV) during activation is characterized by a decrease in trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), catalyzed by the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). While EZH2 is the known catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is present at the inactive CIITA pIV, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to mammalian promoters remains unknown. Here we identify two DNA-binding proteins, which interact with and regulate PRC2 recruitment to CIITA pIV. We demonstrate Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and Jumonji domain containing protein 2 (JARID2) are binding partners along with EZH2 in mammalian cells. Upon IFN-? stimulation, YY1 dissociates from CIITA pIV while JARID2 binding to CIITA pIV increases, suggesting novel roles for these proteins in regulating expression of CIITA pIV. Knockdown of YY1 and JARID2 yields decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 at CIITA pIV, suggesting important roles for YY1 and JARID2 at CIITA pIV. JARID2 knockdown also results in significantly elevated levels of CIITA mRNA upon IFN-? stimulation. This study is the first to identify novel roles of YY1 and JARID2 in the epigenetic regulation of the CIITA pIV by recruitment of PRC2. Our observations indicate the importance of JARID2 in CIITA pIV silencing, and also provide a novel YY1-JARID2-PRC2 regulatory complex as a possible explanation of differential PRC2 recruitment at inducible versus permanently silenced genes. PMID:26283540

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  10. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  11. A Caenorhabditis Elegans RNA Polymerase II Gene, Ama-1 Iv, and Nearby Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20° but are arrested as larvae at 25°, and two others are fertile at 20° and sterile at 25°. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25° is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four γ-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development. PMID:8608933

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class II A gene polymorphism in the striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.J.; Godwin, U.; Benedetto, R.; McConnell, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Adaptions of the polymerase chain reaction were used to isolate cDNA sequences encoding the Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A gene(s) of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Four complete Mhc class II A genes were cloned and sequenced from a specimen originating on the Roanoke River, North Carolina, and another three A genes from a specimen originating from the Santee-Cooper Reservoir, South Carolina, identifying a total of seven unique sequences. The sequence suggests the presence of at least two Mhc class II A loci. The extensive sequence variability observed between the seven different Mhc class II clones was concentrated in the {alpha}1 encoding domain. The encoded {alpha}2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of all seven striped bass genes correlated well with those of known vertebrate Mhc class II proteins. Overall, the striped bass sequences showed greatest similarity to the Mhc class II A genes of the zebrafish. Southern blot analysis demonstrated extensive polymorphism in the Mhc class II A genes in members of a Roanoke river-caught population of striped bass versus a lesser degree of polymorphism in an aquacultured Santee-Cooper population of striped bass. 55 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Iron regulates Bacillus thuringiensis haemolysin hlyII gene expression during insect infection.

    PubMed

    Tran, Seav-Ly; Guillemet, Elisabeth; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore-forming entomopathogen broadly used in agriculture crop. The haemolysin HlyII is an important Bt virulence factor responsible for insect death. In this work, we focused on the regulation of the hlyII gene throughout the bacterial growth in vitro and in vivo during insect infection. We show that hlyII regulation depends on the global regulator Fur. This regulation occurs independently of HlyIIR, the other known regulator of hlyII gene expression. Moreover, we show that hlyII is highly expressed when iron is depleted in vivo. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, which are involved in the sequestration of iron upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow bacteria to gain access to iron. PMID:23598183

  14. Disruption of largest subunit RNA polymerase II genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H M; Lee, M G; Dietrich, P; Huang, J; Van der Ploeg, L H

    1993-01-01

    Two types of largest subunit RNA polymerase II (pol II) genes (pol IIA and pol IIB), differing in 3 amino acid substitutions, are encoded in the Trypanosoma brucei (stock 427-60) genome. As a result, the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of the procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) and variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes was proposed to involve a modified, alpha-amanitin-resistant form of the largest subunit of pol II. Alternatively, pol I could transcribe the PARP and VSG genes. To discriminate between these two models, we deleted the N-terminal domain (about one-third of the polypeptide), which encodes the amino acid substitutions which discriminated the pol IIA and pol IIB genes, at both pol IIB alleles. The pol IIB- trypanosomes still transcribe the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region in insect-form trypanosomes by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases, while control housekeeping genes are transcribed in an alpha-amanitin-sensitive manner, presumably by pol IIA. We conclude that the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of protein coding genes in T. brucei is not mediated by a diverged form of the largest subunit of pol II and that the presence of both the pol IIA and pol IIB genes is not essential for trypanosome viability. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that individual trypanosome variants exhibited allelic heterogeneity for the previously identified amino acid substitutions and that various permutations of the polymorphic amino acids generate at least four different types of largest subunit pol II genes. The expression of the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases in the pol IIB- trypanosomes provides evidence for transcription of these genes by pol I. Images PMID:8497277

  15. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  16. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K.

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Lack of cosegregation of the subgroup II antigens on genes 2 and 6 in porcine rotaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Padilla-Noriega, L; Taniguchi, K; Greenberg, H B

    1990-01-01

    The rotavirus subgroup I and II specificities associated with gene 2 and 6 products (vp2 and vp6, respectively) were shown not to cosegregate in a number of porcine rotavirus strains. The porcine OSU rotavirus strain and OSU-vp7-like strains were all found to possess a subgroup II-specific region on vp2 and a subgroup I-specific region on vp6. Of interest is the observation that the subgroup II-specific epitope on vp2 appears to be present only in human and porcine rotavirus strains, suggesting a possible human-pig ancestral lineage for gene 2. Images PMID:1688386

  18. Polymorphic gene for human carbonic anhydrase II: a molecular disease marker located on chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Venta, P J; Shows, T B; Curtis, P J; Tashian, R E

    1983-01-01

    A panel of 28 mouse-human somatic cell hybrids of known karyotype was screened for the presence of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene, which encodes one of the three well-characterized, genetically distinct carbonic anhydrase isozymes (carbonate dehydratase; carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1). The human and mouse CA II genes can be clearly distinguished by Southern blot analysis of BamHI-digested genomic DNA with a mouse CA II cDNA hybridization probe. The two major hybridizing fragments in mouse were 15 and 6.0 kilobase pairs, and in human they were 15 and 4.3 kilobase pairs. Analysis of the somatic cell hybrids by this technique identified those containing human CA II gene sequences. Segregation analysis of the molecular marker and chromosomes in cell hybrids indicated a clear correlation between the presence of chromosome 8 and the human CA II gene (CA2). This finding provides the second polymorphic marker for human chromosome 8 and, moreover, a molecular disease marker, because human CA II deficiency has recently been linked to an autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Images PMID:6410391

  19. Structure of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, F C; van het Schip, A D; Arnberg, A C; Wieringa, B; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-09-25

    We describe two cloned genomic DNA fragments, both bearing the entire apo very low density lipoprotein II gene. Electron microscopy and restriction enzyme mapping showed that this gene is split into at least four coding sequences by three or more intervening sequences. A very short exon at the 5'-end of the gene is separated by a 1.5-kilobase intron from the second exon, which codes for the AUG initiation codon of the mRNA. PMID:6270096

  20. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16weeks), small genome size (206Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10days after spraying. PMID:23160638

  1. Comparative genomics provides evidence for close evolutionary relationships between the urotensin II and somatostatin gene families

    PubMed Central

    Tostivint, Herv; Joly, Lucille; Lihrmann, Isabelle; Parmentier, Caroline; Lebon, Alexis; Morisson, Mireille; Calas, Andr; Ekker, Marc; Vaudry, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    Although urotensin II (UII) and somatostatin 1 (SS1) exhibit some structural similarities, their precursors do not show any appreciable sequence identity and, thus, it is widely accepted that the UII and SS1 genes do not derive from a common ancestral gene. The recent characterization of novel isoforms of these two peptides, namely urotensin II-related peptide (URP) and somatostatin 2 (SS2)/cortistatin (CST), provides new opportunity to revisit the phylogenetic relationships of UII and SS1 using a comparative genomics approach. In the present study, by radiation hybrid mapping and in silico sequence analysis, we have determined the chromosomal localization of the genes encoding UII- and somatostatin-related peptides in several vertebrate species, including human, chicken, and zebrafish. In most of the species investigated, the UII and URP genes are closely linked to the SS2/CST and SS1 genes, respectively. We also found that the UII-SS2/CST locus and the URP/SS1 locus are paralogous. Taken together, these data indicate that the UII and URP genes, on the one hand, and the SS1 and SS2/CST genes, on the other hand, arose through a segmental duplication of two ancestral genes that were already physically linked to each other. Our results also suggest that these two genes arose themselves through a tandem duplication of a single ancestral gene. It thus appears that the genes encoding UII- and somatostatin-related peptides belong to the same superfamily. PMID:16467151

  2. Gene insulation. Part II: natural strategies in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Amouyal, Michle

    2010-12-01

    The way a gene is insulated from its genomic environment in vertebrates is not basically different from what is observed in yeast and Drosophila (preceding article in this issue). If the formation of a looped chromatin domain, whether generated by attachment to the nuclear matrix or not, has become a classic way to confine an enhancer to a specific genomic domain and to coordinate, sequentially or simultaneously, gene expression in a given program, its role has been extended to new networks of genes or regulators within the same gene. A wider definition of the bases of the chromatin loops (nonchromosomal nuclear structures or genomic interacting elements) is also available. However, whereas insulation in Drosophila is due to a variety of proteins, in vertebrates insulators are still practically limited to CTCF (the CCCTC-binding factor), which appears in all cases to be the linchpin of an architecture that structures the assembly of DNA-protein interactions for gene regulation. As in yeast and Drosophila, the economy of means is the rule and the same unexpected diversion of known transcription elements (active or poised RNA polymerases, TFIIIC elements out of tRNA genes, permanent histone replacement) is observed, with variants peculiar to CTCF. Thus, besides structuring DNA looping, CTCF is a barrier to DNA methylation or interferes with all sorts of transcription processes, such as that generating heterochromatin. PMID:21102651

  3. Synthetic gene transfer vectors II: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-17

    The discovery of RNA interference has given a new lease on life to both the chemistry of oligonucleotides and chemical approaches for the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids. In particular, delivery of siRNA, whether in vitro for screening and target validation purposes or in humans as a new class of drugs, may revolutionize our approach to therapy. Their impact could equal that of the bioproduction and various uses of monoclonal antibodies today. Unfortunately, global pharmaceutical companies again seem to be waiting to buy the next Genentech or Genzyme of gene silencing rather than investing research and development into this promising area of research. Gene silencing encounters barriers similar to gene addition and hence may benefit from the extra decade of experience brought by gene therapy. "Chemical" transfection of cells in culture has become routine, and this Account discusses some of the reasons this success has not extended to nonviral gene therapy trials, most of which do not progress beyond the phase 2 stage. The author also discusses a (much debated) mechanism of nucleic acid cell entry and subsequent release of the polycationic particles into the cytoplasm. Both topics should be useful to those interested in delivery of siRNA. The move from gene therapy toward siRNA as an oligonucleotide-based therapy strategy provides a much wider range of druggable targets. Even though these molecules are a hundredfold smaller than a gene, they are delivered via similar cellular mechanisms. Their complexes with cationic polymers are less stable than those with a higher number of phosphate groups, which may be compensated by siRNA concatemerization or by chemical conjugation with the cationic carrier. Thus chemistry is again desperately needed. PMID:22311735

  4. Cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene in mitochondria of Oenothera has no intron

    PubMed Central

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Brennicke, Axel

    1983-01-01

    The cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has been localized in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera berteriana and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The coding sequence contains 777 bp and, unlike the corresponding gene in Zea mays, is not interrupted by an intron. No TGA codon is found within the open reading frame. The codon CGG, as in the maize gene, is used in place of tryptophan codons of corresponding genes in other organisms. At position 742 in the Oenothera sequence the TGG of maize is changed into a CGG codon, where Trp is conserved as the amino acid in other organisms. Homologous sequences occur more than once in the mitochondrial genome as several mitochondrial DNA species hybridize with DNA probes of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:16453484

  5. ATTED-II in 2014: Evaluation of Gene Coexpression in Agriculturally Important Plants

    PubMed Central

    Obayashi, Takeshi; Okamura, Yasunobu; Ito, Satoshi; Tadaka, Shu; Aoki, Yuichi; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2014-01-01

    ATTED-II (http://atted.jp) is a database of coexpressed genes that was originally developed to identify functionally related genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Herein, we describe an updated version of ATTED-II, which expands this resource to include additional agriculturally important plants. To improve the quality of the coexpression data for Arabidopsis and rice, we included more gene expression data from microarray and RNA sequencing studies. The RNA sequencing-based coexpression data now cover 94% of the Arabidopsis protein-encoding genes, representing a substantial increase from previously available microarray-based coexpression data (76% coverage). We also generated coexpression data for four dicots (soybean, poplar, grape and alfalfa) and one monocot (maize). As both the quantity and quality of expression data for the non-model species are generally poorer than for the model species, we verified coexpression data associated with these new species using multiple methods. First, the overall performance of the coexpression data was evaluated using gene ontology annotations and the coincidence of a genomic feature. Secondly, the reliability of each guide gene was determined by comparing coexpressed gene lists between platforms. With the expanded and newly evaluated coexpression data, ATTED-II represents an important resource for identifying functionally related genes in agriculturally important plants. PMID:24334350

  6. Organization of genes required for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in three type II methylotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, C.; Machlin, S.; Zhang, Y.; Donaldson, K.; Hanson, R.S. )

    1989-12-01

    Restriction maps of genes required for the synthesis of active methanol dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium organophilum XX and Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 have been completed and compared. In these two species of pink-pigmented, type II methylotrophs, 15 genes were identified that were required for the expression of methanol dehydrogenase activity. None of these genes were required for the synthesis of the prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase, pyrroloquinoline quinone. The structural gene required for the synthesis of cytochrome c{sub L}, an electron acceptor uniquely required for methanol dehydrogenase, and the genes encoding small basic peptides that copurified with methanol dehydrogenases were closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. A cloned 22-kilobase DNA insert from Methylsporovibrio methanica 81Z, an obligate type II methanotroph, complemented mutants that contained lesions in four genes closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. The methanol dehydrogenase and cytochrome c{sub L} structural genes were found to be transcribed independently in M. organophilum XX. Only two of the genes required for methanol dehydrogenase synthesis in this bacterium were found to be cotranscribed.

  7. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

  8. Rex transregulation of human T-cell leukemia virus type II gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J H; Kaufman, P A; Hanly, S M; Rimsky, L T; Greene, W C

    1991-01-01

    The Rex protein of the human T-cell leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II), Rex-II, plays a central role in regulating the expression of the structural genes of this retrovirus. Rex-II acts posttranscriptionally by inducing the cytoplasmic expression of the incompletely spliced viral mRNAs that encode the Gag and Env structural proteins and the enzymes derived from the pol gene. We now define a 295-nucleotide cis-acting regulatory element within the 3' long terminal repeat of HTLV-II that is required for the effects of Rex-II. This Rex-II response element (RexIIRE) corresponds to a predicted, highly stable RNA secondary structure and functions when present in the sense but not in the antisense orientation. The RexIIRE confers responsiveness not only to Rex-II but also to the Rex protein of HTLV-I. Deletion and substitution mutagenesis of the RexIIRE permitted identification of a small subregion within the larger element critically required for Rex-II responsiveness and further suggested that the structurally distinct RexIIREs generated from the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats of HTLV-II may differentially regulate the cytoplasmic expression of unspliced gag-pol and singly spliced env mRNAs. While the Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fails to function via the RexIIRE, the Rex-II protein, like Rex-I, can functionally replace the Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 via its interaction with the Rev response element (RevRE). Images PMID:1985205

  9. A zinc finger protein that represses transcription of the human MHC class II gene, DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, T.; Mahanta, S.; Stevens, M.B.; Strominger, J.L.

    1996-02-15

    The proximal promoters of all MHC class II genes contain a sequence element, the 19-bp X box, that is conserved in both sequence and position. Extensive analysis using a wide variety of approaches has demonstrated that the integrity of the X box is essential for transcription initiation from all class II genes studies. However, the X box is now recognized to contain two subregions, termed X1 and X2. Radiolabeled oligonucleotides corresponding to the X2 box of the MHC class II genes DPA and DQB were used to screen B cell and T cell expression libraries. A novel cDNA, termed XBR (X box repressor), encoding a putative zinc finger protein that binds specifically to the DPA X2 box was isolated from a human T cell line. The XBR gene encodes a 7-kb message that is ubiquitously transcribed, although at higher levels in tissues of the lymphocytic compartment. Southern blots indicate that this gene is single copy in primates and contains regions that are highly divergent in other species. Overexpression of XBR in a B cell line resulted in a dramatic reduction of transcription from a reporter gene construct driven by the DPA promoter, but not from similar constructs with mutations in the X2 box. Similarly, overexpression of XBR reduced induction of reporter gene activity driven from the DPA promoter in HeLa cells treated with IFN-{gamma}. XBR may, therefore, mediate transcriptional repression, this preventing inappropriate MHC class II expression. XBR function may in part explain the dominant trans-acting repression of MHC class II expression reported in cell fusion experiments. 50 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  11. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  12. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed Central

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. Images PMID:6856469

  13. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-05-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. PMID:6856469

  14. In vivo footprinting of the estrogen-inducible vitellogenin II gene from chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Philipsen, J N; Hennis, B C; Ab, G

    1988-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions in the promoter region of the chicken vitellogenin II gene were analyzed by in vivo dimethylsulphate footprinting with expressing and non-expressing tissues. The reactivity of G-residues is essentially the same in erythrocytes, oviduct and control liver, not expressing the gene. In the expressing estrogen-induced liver we find a number of G-residues with altered reactivities. These G's are located within distinct sequences: the estrogen responsive elements, a sequence resembling the NF-1 recognition motive, and several elements which are conserved between yolk protein genes. The expression-dependent binding of proteins to these sites was confirmed by DNaseI footprinting applied to nuclei isolated from estrogen-induced and control liver. Estradiol appears to establish a transcription complex comprising a number of distinct proteins bound to different sites in the 5' flanking region of the vitellogenin II gene. Images PMID:3186442

  15. In vivo footprinting of the estrogen-inducible vitellogenin II gene from chicken.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, J N; Hennis, B C; Ab, G

    1988-10-25

    Protein-DNA interactions in the promoter region of the chicken vitellogenin II gene were analyzed by in vivo dimethylsulphate footprinting with expressing and non-expressing tissues. The reactivity of G-residues is essentially the same in erythrocytes, oviduct and control liver, not expressing the gene. In the expressing estrogen-induced liver we find a number of G-residues with altered reactivities. These G's are located within distinct sequences: the estrogen responsive elements, a sequence resembling the NF-1 recognition motive, and several elements which are conserved between yolk protein genes. The expression-dependent binding of proteins to these sites was confirmed by DNaseI footprinting applied to nuclei isolated from estrogen-induced and control liver. Estradiol appears to establish a transcription complex comprising a number of distinct proteins bound to different sites in the 5' flanking region of the vitellogenin II gene. PMID:3186442

  16. Conservation of DNA photolyase genes in group II nucleopolyhedroviruses infecting plusiine insects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M

    2008-09-01

    DNA photolyase genes (phr) encode photoreactive enzymes, which are involved in the repair of UV-damaged DNA. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) specific photolyase genes are present in nucleopolyhedroviruses isolated from Chrysodeixis chalcites (ChchNPV) and Trichoplusia ni (TnSNPV), insects belonging to the Plusiinae (Noctuidae). To better understand the occurrence and evolution of these genes in baculoviruses, we investigated their possible conservation in other group II NPVs, which infect plusiine insects. A PCR based strategy using degenerate phr-specific primers was designed to detect and analyze possible photolyase genes. Six additional Plusiinae-infecting NPVs were analyzed and all, except Thysanoplusia oricalcea NPV A28-1, which is a group I NPV, contained one or more phr-like sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all photolyase genes of the tested Plusiinae-infecting baculoviruses group in a single clade, separated into three subgroups. The phylogeny of the polyhedrin sequences of these viruses confirmed that the analyzed viruses also formed a single clade in group II NPVs. We hypothesize that all plusiine group II NPVs contain one or more photolyase genes and that these have a common ancestor. PMID:18513819

  17. Association of transcriptionally active vitellogenin II gene with the nuclear matrix of chicken liver.

    PubMed Central

    Jost, J P; Seldran, M

    1984-01-01

    Supercoiled DNA loops linked to the nuclear matrix can be progressively cleaved with deoxyribonuclease I. The DNA which remains associated with the nuclear matrix can be purified and analysed for vitellogenin II sequence content by dot blot hybridization. Using this technique we show that vitellogenin II gene sequences are selectively associated with the nuclear matrix of liver but not with oviduct of laying hens. Following primary stimulation in immature chicks of vitellogenin synthesis with estradiol, the association of the gene with the nuclear matrix precedes vitellogenin mRNA synthesis. After 15 days when the level of vitellogenin mRNA has returned to zero, the gene is no longer preferentially associated with the nuclear matrix. At this time a second stimulation with estradiol results in a reassociation of the vitellogenin II gene with the nuclear matrix. In addition to the structural gene, both the 3' and 5' end flanking regions (1.5-2 kb) also bind to the nuclear matrix. However, beyond the limit of 1.5-2 kb upstream from the 5' end of the gene, there is no preferential binding of DNA to the nuclear matrix. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:6489318

  18. Differential expression of the topoisomerase II alpha and beta genes in human breast cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, M. I.; Hochhauser, D.; Ayton, P.; Camplejohn, R. C.; Whitehouse, R.; Turley, H.; Gatter, K.; Hickson, I. D.; Harris, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Topoisomerase II is a key target for several anti-cancer drugs used for breast cancer therapy, including doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone. Two isoforms of topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) have been described in human cells which differ in their subcellular localisation, biochemical properties and susceptibility to inhibition by anti-cancer drugs. The relative level of expression of the alpha and beta isoforms may contribute to the degree of tumour responsiveness to different chemotherapeutic agents. To assess the relationship between expression of topoisomerase II isoforms and established prognostic factors and pathological variables, 56 primary breast tumour samples were studied. The expression of the two topoisomerase II genes was apparently not co-ordinately regulated in these tissue samples. There was no relationship between any of the commonly used pathological variables [tumour size, lymph node status, S-phase fraction (SPF)] and the level of expression of topoisomerase II beta mRNA. However, high topoisomerase II alpha gene expression was significantly associated with a high SPF (sign-rank test; P = 0.01). Moreover, the ratio of mRNA levels for topoisomerase II alpha and beta showed a stronger relationship to SPF (median raito 0.62 for tumours with SPF < 10, and 1.64 for SPF > 10; P = 0.0021, sign-rank test). As expected from previous studies, an SPF > 10 was associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that topoisomerase II beta was widely distributed ( > 90% positive tumour cells), but that topoisomerase II alpha expression was less widely expressed, with a pattern of expression similar to that of the proliferation-dependent antigen recognised by Ki67. Because topoisomerase II gene expression showed a log-normal distribution, log-transformed data were used in multivariate analysis of relapse-free survival. This showed that lymph node status and topoisomerase II beta mRNA expression were the only significant survival factors (P = 0.001 and 0.05, respectively, with relative risks of 1.3 and 1.8). These results indicate that topoisomerase II alpha, but not beta, expression is dependent upon cellular proliferation status, but that the more widely expressed topoisomerase II beta protein may play a significant role as a target for anti-tumour therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 PMID:8664122

  19. [Clinical characteristics and gene mutation analysis of one pedigree with infantile glycogen storage disease type II].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiao-Heng; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Si-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The clinical data of 2 infants with infantile glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II) from one pedigree were collected. The method of dried blood spots (DBS) was applied to collect peripheral blood samples, and the activity of acid alpha-D-glucosidase (GAA) in leukocytes was measured. The coding region of GAA gene in this pedigree was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and then direct sequencing was used to analyze mutations in GAA gene. The two infants were twins, who were admitted to the hospital due to feeding difficulties, generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia, cardiomegaly, and cardiac insufficiency when they were 10 months old. The GAA activity in leukocytes in the two infants was significantly lower than in normal controls. Gene sequencing revealed 2 compound heterozygous mutations in the two infants, i.e., G1942A and G2214A, respectively. G1942A had been proved pathogenic, and the latter one, G2214A, was a nonsense mutation, resulting in the change of tryptophan, the 738th amino acid of GAA, into a stop codon. The two infants were diagnosed with GSD II by gene detection and no enzyme replacement therapy could be provided to them. Follow-up visits showed that the two infants died at home at the age of 15 months and 17 months, respectively. GSD II is caused by deficiency of GAA activity resulting from mutation of GAA gene. The detection of GAA activity in peripheral blood by DBS and GAA gene detection are effective and feasible methods for diagnosis of GSD II. PMID:26575883

  20. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  1. Role of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum ntrC gene product in differential regulation of the glutamine synthetase II gene (glnII)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.B.; Chapman, K.A.; Chelm, B.K. )

    1988-12-01

    We isolated the ntrC gene from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the endosymbiont of soybean (Glycine max), and examined its role in regulating nitrogen assimilation. Two independent ntrC mutants were constructed by gene replacement techniques. One mutant was unable to produce NtrC protein, while the other constitutively produced a stable, truncated NtrC protein. Both ntrC mutants were unable to utilize potassium nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. In contrast to wild-type B. japonicum, the NtrC null mutant lacked glnII transcripts in aerobic, nitrogen-starved cultures. However, the truncated-NtrC mutant expressed glnII in both nitrogen-starved and nitrogen-excess cultures. Both mutants expressed glnII under oxygen-limited culture conditions and in symbiotic cells. These results suggest that nitrogen assimilation in B. japonicum is regulated in response to both nitrogen limitation and oxygen limitation and that separate regulatory networks exist in free-living and symbiotic cells.

  2. DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo-Chi; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:23696909

  3. Transactivation of mouse insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene promoters by the AP-1 complex.

    PubMed Central

    Caricasole, A; Ward, A

    1993-01-01

    The mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf2) is transcribed from three promoters (P1, P2 and P3), and is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion; however, little information is available on the transcription factors controlling Igf2 expression. The AP-1 complex is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of genes, including those encoding certain growth factors. We show that Igf2 P3 is transactivated by AP-1 in a transient expression assay, and that this effect is mediated through two non-consensus AP-1 binding sites characterised by DNA-protein interaction studies. Mutational analysis indicates these sites are required for AP-1 responsiveness and full promoter activity. Images PMID:8493103

  4. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chun-Ki; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, Dong-Keon; Park, Chan-Woong; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang Jun; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Goo Taeg, Oh; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE) and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL). Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-?B-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1), without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE?/? mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-?B activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-?-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-?B-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis. PMID:23243449

  5. Expression of Type II Chorionic Gonadotropin Genes Supports a Role in the Male Reproductive System ?

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Andrew M.; Sriram, Ganapathy; Liu, Yijun; Mathews, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone essential to pregnancy. hCG is heterodimeric and functionally defined by its ? subunit. hCG? evolved from the ? subunit of luteinizing hormone in two phases. In the first phase, type I genes (hCG?3, -5, -7, and -8) acquired changes affecting gene expression and extending the proteins' C terminus. In the second phase, type II genes (hCG?1 and -2) were formed by the insertion of a DNA element into the type I 5? end. The insertion includes the small noncoding RNA gene snaR-G and has been predicted to drastically change the protein products encoded. We trace the insertion to the common ancestor of the African great apes and show that it contains transcription signals, including snaR-G. Type II transcripts are predominantly expressed in testis. Contrary to predictions, the product of the major mRNA splice form is hCG?. A novel peptide is encoded by alternatively spliced transcripts. These findings support the view that type II genes evolved in African great apes to function in the male reproductive system. PMID:21078876

  6. Expression of class II cytokine genes in children's skin.

    PubMed

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Suutre, Siim; Paavo, Maarjaliis; Loite, Ulvi; Porosaar, Orm; Abram, Kristi; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2014-07-01

    Immune regulation of the skin plays an important role in susceptibility and development of illnesses. The aim of our study was to localise the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, in children's skin and to determine possible age-related differences in the expression level. The mRNA expression level of IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24, IL26, IL28B, IL29 and their receptors IL10RA, IL10RB, IL20RA, IL20RB, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL28RA was compared in skin biopsies of children and adults and in childrens' skin cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the qRT-PCR findings. We found age-related differences in the expression of IL10RB, IL20, IL20RA, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL26 and IL28RA genes. Cell type-dependent expression of IL10 family cytokines was apparent in the skin. In addition to previously known differences in systemic immunological response of adults and children, the present results reveal differences in immune profile of adult and juvenile skin. PMID:24284923

  7. Expression Regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Encoding Genes

    PubMed Central

    van den Elsen, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II molecules play an essential role in the immune response to pathogens by virtue of their ability to present peptides to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively. Given this critical role, MHC-I and MHC-II genes are regulated in a tight fashion at the transcriptional level by a variety of transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting regulatory promoter elements. In addition to the activities of these regulatory factors, modification of chromatin also plays an essential role in the efficient transcription of these genes to meet with local requirement for an effective immune response. The focus of this review is on the transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting promoter elements and the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate induced and constitutive expression of these MHC genes. PMID:22566838

  8. Overexpression of Ran gene from Lepidium latifolium L. (LlaRan) renders transgenic tobacco plants hypersensitive to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vimlendu Bhushan; Grover, Atul; Singh, Sadhana; Pande, Veena; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2014-09-01

    Ran is a multifunctional small GTPase involved in important cellular activities like nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, nuclear envelope formation, etc., but is also known to be differentially expressed in response to abiotic stress, particularly low temperature. We have over-expressed Lepidium latifolium (Fam. Brassicaceae) Ran gene in tobacco to study the response of the plants to cold stress (24 h; 4 C). Transformation of the tobacco plants was verified using PCR targeting Ran gene and co-transformed selectable marker gene nptII. Segregation in Mendelian ratios was validated in five transgenic lines by germination of T1 and T2 seeds on moist filter papers containing 150 mg/l kanamycin. Higher levels of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation pointed towards hypersensitivity of plants. Similarly, lesser proline accumulation compared to wild types also indicated susceptibility of plants to death under chilling conditions. Specific activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was also measured under stressed and control conditions. A variation was observed across the different lines, and four out of five lines showed lesser specific activity compared to wild type plants, thus indicating reduced capability of scavenging free radicals. In totality, a strong evidence on induced hypersensitivity to cold stress has been collected which may further be helpful in designing appropriate strategies for engineering crop plants for survival under cold stress conditions. PMID:24973880

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  10. RNA polymerase II pausing can be retained or acquired during activation of genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Samarakkody, Ann; Abbas, Ata; Scheidegger, Adam; Warns, Jessica; Nnoli, Oscar; Jokinen, Bradley; Zarns, Kris; Kubat, Brooke; Dhasarathy, Archana; Nechaev, Sergei

    2015-04-30

    Promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing is implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, the mechanisms of pausing including its dynamics during transcriptional responses remain to be fully understood. We performed global analysis of short capped RNAs and Pol II Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to map Pol II pausing across the genome, and used permanganate footprinting to specifically follow pausing during transcriptional activation of several genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We find that the gene for EMT master regulator Snail (SNAI1), but not Slug (SNAI2), shows evidence of Pol II pausing before activation. Transcriptional activation of the paused SNAI1 gene is accompanied by a further increase in Pol II pausing signal, whereas activation of non-paused SNAI2 gene results in the acquisition of a typical pausing signature. The increase in pausing signal reflects increased transcription initiation without changes in Pol II pausing. Activation of the heat shock HSP70 gene involves pausing release that speeds up Pol II turnover, but does not change pausing location. We suggest that Pol II pausing is retained during transcriptional activation and can further undergo regulated release in a signal-specific manner. PMID:25820424

  11. RNA polymerase II pausing can be retained or acquired during activation of genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Samarakkody, Ann; Abbas, Ata; Scheidegger, Adam; Warns, Jessica; Nnoli, Oscar; Jokinen, Bradley; Zarns, Kris; Kubat, Brooke; Dhasarathy, Archana; Nechaev, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing is implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, the mechanisms of pausing including its dynamics during transcriptional responses remain to be fully understood. We performed global analysis of short capped RNAs and Pol II Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to map Pol II pausing across the genome, and used permanganate footprinting to specifically follow pausing during transcriptional activation of several genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We find that the gene for EMT master regulator Snail (SNAI1), but not Slug (SNAI2), shows evidence of Pol II pausing before activation. Transcriptional activation of the paused SNAI1 gene is accompanied by a further increase in Pol II pausing signal, whereas activation of non-paused SNAI2 gene results in the acquisition of a typical pausing signature. The increase in pausing signal reflects increased transcription initiation without changes in Pol II pausing. Activation of the heat shock HSP70 gene involves pausing release that speeds up Pol II turnover, but does not change pausing location. We suggest that Pol II pausing is retained during transcriptional activation and can further undergo regulated release in a signal-specific manner. PMID:25820424

  12. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the /beta/-casein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-11-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the /beta/-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5/prime/- and 3/prime/-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat /beta/-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region.

  13. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Y.; Krishnan, V.; Zeng, Z.

    1995-09-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are orphan members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. COUP-TF homologues have been cloned in many species, from Drosophila to human. The protein sequences of COUP-TFs are highly homologous across species, suggesting functional conservation. Two COUP-TF genes have been cloned from human, and their genomic organizations have been characterized. To determine whether the genomic organization is conserved between human and mouse, we isolated two mouse COUP-TF genes (I and II) and characterized their genomic structures. Both genes have relatively simple structures that are similar to those of their human counterparts. In addition, we mapped mouse COUP-TF I to the distal region of chromosome 13 and COUP-TF II to the central region of chromosome 7. Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Involvement of aph(3')-IIa in the formation of mosaic aminoglycoside resistance genes in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Kuffner, Melanie; Domingues, Sara; Nielsen, Kaare M

    2015-01-01

    Intragenic recombination leading to mosaic gene formation is known to alter resistance profiles for particular genes and bacterial species. Few studies have examined to what extent aminoglycoside resistance genes undergo intragenic recombination. We screened the GenBank database for mosaic gene formation in homologs of the aph(3')-IIa (nptII) gene. APH(3')-IIa inactivates important aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene is widely used as a selectable marker in biotechnology and enters the environment via laboratory discharges and the release of transgenic organisms. Such releases may provide opportunities for recombination in competent environmental bacteria. The retrieved GenBank sequences were grouped in three datasets comprising river water samples, duck pathogens and full-length variants from various bacterial genomes and plasmids. Analysis for recombination in these datasets was performed with the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4), and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD). From a total of 89 homologous sequences, 83% showed 99-100% sequence identity with aph(3')-IIa originally described as part of transposon Tn5. Fifty one were unique sequence variants eligible for recombination analysis. Only a single recombination event was identified with high confidence and indicated the involvement of aph(3')-IIa in the formation of a mosaic gene located on a plasmid of environmental origin in the multi-resistant isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA96. The available data suggest that aph(3')-IIa is not an archetypical mosaic gene as the divergence between the described sequence variants and the number of detectable recombination events is low. This is in contrast to the numerous mosaic alleles reported for certain penicillin or tetracycline resistance determinants. PMID:26042098

  15. [Genetic transformation of OSISAP1 gene to onion (Allium cepa L.) mediated by amicroprojectile bombardment].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Jiang; Cui, Cheng-Ri

    2007-06-01

    Microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation method has been developed for onion (Allium cepa L.) using embryogenic calli, induced from stem discs, as target tissue. Zinc-finger protein gene OSISAP1 (Oryza sative subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene) was introduced into the open-pollinated onion cultivar (subs.) 'HG400B'. Bombardment parameters were optimized as: the pressure is 1,100 psi, the distance is 6 cm, two times, the ratio of mass between plasmid DNA and golden particles is 1:320. An efficient microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation system of onion (Allium cepa L.) callus has been established. The binary vector used carried the nptII gene for kanamycin resistance and the GUS reporter gene. Transgenic cultures were screened for their ability to express the GUS reporter gene and to grow in the presence of kanamycin (150 mg/L). Transient expression of GUS reporter gene was observed through histochemical staining of embryogenic callus transformed by microprojectile bombardment. The putative transgenic plants were analysed at the molecular level using PCR, southern hybridization, and RT-PCR. The results confirmed that the OSISAP1 gene was integrated as one copy into the genome of onion and expression. Transgenic plants were produced efficiently with a transformation frequency of about 10%. Test of salinity-alkali stress showed that sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate at 200 mmol/L effectively killed non-transgenic plants within 1 week of irrigation, while the transgenic plants were completely unaffected by salinity of 400 mmol/L. So transformation with the OSISAP1 gene raised the salinity-alkali-tolerance of the transgenic plants to a high level. PMID:17556805

  16. MHC class II and non-MHC class II genes differentially influence humoral immunity to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor and protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J; Crowe, Sherry R; Nguyen, Melissa L; Cox, Philip M; James, Judith A; Farris, A Darise

    2012-12-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus), B6 (H-2b), and B6.H2k (H-2k). IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA. PMID:23342680

  17. Evolution of Mhc class II B genes in Darwin's finches and their closest relatives: birth of a new gene.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Mayer, W E; Tichy, H; Grant, P R; Grant, B R; Klein, J

    2001-12-01

    The 15 extant species of Darwin's finches on the Galpagos and Cocos Islands are the products of an unfinished adaptive radiation from a founder flock of birds related to the South American species Tiaris obscura. Molecular characterization of their major histocompatibility complex ( Mhc) class II B genes has revealed the existence of several related groups of sequences (presumably encoded in distinct loci) from which one (group 5) stands out because of its low divergence over extended time periods. Analysis of group 5 exon 2 and intron 2 sequences has revealed that the encoding locus apparently arose 2-3 million years ago in the Tiaris group of South and Central American Thraupini. The locus shows no evidence of inactivation, but displays a very low degree of polymorphism, both in terms of number of alleles and genetic distances between alleles. Some of the polymorphism, however, appears to be trans-specific. All the observed intergenic differences can be explained by point mutations and most of the exon 2 changes represent non-synonymous substitutions, although the rate of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions appears to be the same. The origin of the new locus is explained by the birth-and-death model of Mhc evolution with two important extensions. First, the ancestor of the group 5 genes may have arisen without new gene duplication and second, the birth of the new group may have been brought about by a switch from balancing to directional selection. The ancestor of the group 5 genes may have been a classical class II B allele (one of many) which directional selection fixed in the ancestral population and drove into the category of nonclassical genes. PMID:11862412

  18. Construction of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector containing the rat preproinsulin II gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Sidner, R A; Bochan, M R; Burton, M M; Cooper, S T; Jindal, R M

    1997-04-01

    We have investigated a possible delivery system for the rat preproinsulin II gene (rI2) utilising a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector system, with the long-term goal of engineering stably infected insulin-producing cell lines. The rAAV vector was chosen because it is a safe and nonpathogenic method for gene transfer. The plasmid pBC12BI (ATCC) was purified and digested with restriction enzymes SepI and StuI to release a fragment containing the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (RSV-LTR) promoter-driven rat preproinsulin II gene (rI2). Subsequently, the RSV-rI2 gene fragment was cloned into the BamHI site of rAAV vector plasmid pWP-19 to produce the rI2 recombinant plasmid designated pLP-1. The pWP-19 also encodes the AAV inverted terminal repeats for integration and replication and the herpes virus thymidine kinase promoter-driven gene for neomycin resistance (neoR). The cell line 293 (ATCC) was then cotransfected with pLP-1 and helper plasmid pAAV/AD, which is required for viral replication. The rAAV genome, now containing rI2, was rescued using adenovirus and packaged into mature AAV virions termed vLP-1. Finally, human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (HPAC; ATCC) were exposed to vLP-1, selected for G418 resistance, and screened for insulin production. Successful rescue was confirmed by Southern blot analysis using the rI2 gene probe derived from the original plasmid. The final titer of 1.25 x 10(9) particles/ ml was determined by DNA slot blots using pLP-1 as the standard, HPAC cells were infected with vLP-1 (termed HPAC/rI2). Integration of the rI2 genome in G418-resistant clones was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and again after 6 months in culture by amplification of the rI2 gene by PCR. Insulin gene transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR. We have developed a rAAV-mediated gene transfer system for the rat preproinsulin II gene. Successful transduction and stable integration of rI2 into HPAC was achieved. Production of insulin by HPAC/rI2 was confirmed by RIA and RT-PCR, validating this system as an effective approach to experimental gene therapy. PMID:9202669

  19. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  20. Molecular basis of iduronate-2-sulphatase gene mutations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Bellows, A.; Thompson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) is an X linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from heterogeneous mutations in the iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS) gene. To detect IDS gene mutations, direct sequencing of IDS cDNA fragments coupled with assays on IDS genomic amplicons was applied to 18unrelated patients with MPS II. Seventeen mutations were detected from the 18patients including seven missense mutations (S71R, A82E, A85T, R88C, R468W, R468Q, and E521V), five deletions (?R95, 383delAT, 596delAACA, 1148delC, and 1216delCT), two insertions (208insC and 1063insA), two splicing mutations (1006+5g?c in intron 7,1122C?T in exon 8), and an intragenic deletion of IDS exons 4,5,6,and 7.Nine of the small mutations were novel mutations. Mutation 596delAACA was detected in two unrelated patients. The mutation in intron 7was found to cause aberrant splicing and resulted in a 22bp insertion into its mRNA transcript. The intragenic deleted IDS gene expressed two aberrant mRNA transcripts consisting of exons 1-2-8-9and 3-8-9.Analysis of mutations A85T, R88C, R468Q, R468W, and 438C/T found no polymorphism for the four missense mutations but about 36% heterozygosity for the 438C/T silent mutation. These results provide further evidence of mutational heterogeneity for MPS II. Also, underlying sequence directed mutagenesis mechanisms for some recurrent mutations in the IDS gene were proposed.???Keywords: mucopolysaccharidosis type II; Hunter syndrome; iduronate-2-sulphatase gene; mutation detection PMID:9950361

  1. Characterisation of a Plancitoxin-1-Like DNase II Gene in Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Pan; Wang, Xuelin; Li, Tingting; Tang, Bin; Gao, He; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Xidong; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Feng; Wu, Xiuping; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Background Deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II) is a well-known acidic endonuclease that catalyses the degradation of DNA into oligonucleotides. Only one or a few genes encoding DNase II have been observed in the genomes of many species. 125 DNase II-like protein family genes were predicted in the Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) genome; however, none have been confirmed. DNase II is a monomeric nuclease that contains two copies of a variant HKD motif in the N- and C-termini. Of these 125 genes, only plancitoxin-1 (1095 bp, GenBank accession no. XM_003370715.1) contains the HKD motif in its C-terminus domain. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we cloned and characterised the plancitoxin-1 gene. However, the sequences of plancitoxin-1 cloned from T. spiralis were shorter than the predicted sequences in GenBank. Intriguingly, there were two HKD motifs in the N- and C-termini in the cloned sequences. Therefore, the gene with shorter sequences was named after plancitoxin-1-like (Ts-Pt, 885 bp) and has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KF984291. The recombinant protein (rTs-Pt) was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis showed that rTs-Pt was recognised by serum from T. spiralis-infected mice; the anti-rTs-Pt serum recognised crude antigens but not ES antigens. The Ts-Pt gene was examined at all T. spiralis developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. Immunolocalisation analysis showed that Ts-Pt was distributed throughout newborn larvae (NBL), the tegument of adults (Ad) and muscle larvae (ML). As demonstrated by DNase zymography, the expressed proteins displayed cation-independent DNase activity. rTs-Pt had a narrow optimum pH range in slightly acidic conditions (pH 4 and pH 5), and its optimum temperature was 25C, 30C, and 37C. Conclusions This study indicated that Ts-Pt was classified as a somatic protein in different T. spiralis developmental stages, and demonstrated for the first time that an expressed DNase II protein from T. spiralis had nuclease activity. PMID:25165857

  2. Relationship between polymorphism of class II transactivator gene promoters and chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Ren; Gong, Ling; He, Ying-Li; Liu, Fang; Lu, Chang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the polymorphism of class II transactivator (CIITA) gene promoters and chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Promoters I, III and IV of gene were analyzed respectively with polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 65 patients with CHB, 26 patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB) and 85 normal controls. RESULTS: No abnormal migration was found in PCR-SSCP analysis of the three promoters in the three groups. Also, no sequential difference was observed at the three promoters among the CHB patients, AHB patients and normal controls. CONCLUSION: No polymorphism in promoters I, III and IV of CIITA gene exists in CHB patients, ABH patients and normal controls, suggesting that the promoter of CIITA gene might be a conserved domain. PMID:15682480

  3. Chiropteran types I and II interferon genes inferred from genome sequencing traces by a statistical gene-family assembler

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of emergence of human pathogens is steadily increasing; most of these novel agents originate in wildlife. Bats, remarkably, are the natural reservoirs of many of the most pathogenic viruses in humans. There are two bat genome projects currently underway, a circumstance that promises to speed the discovery host factors important in the coevolution of bats with their viruses. These genomes, however, are not yet assembled and one of them will provide only low coverage, making the inference of most genes of immunological interest error-prone. Many more wildlife genome projects are underway and intend to provide only shallow coverage. Results We have developed a statistical method for the assembly of gene families from partial genomes. The method takes full advantage of the quality scores generated by base-calling software, incorporating them into a complete probabilistic error model, to overcome the limitation inherent in the inference of gene family members from partial sequence information. We validated the method by inferring the human IFNA genes from the genome trace archives, and used it to infer 61 type-I interferon genes, and single type-II interferon genes in the bats Pteropus vampyrus and Myotis lucifugus. We confirmed our inferences by direct cloning and sequencing of IFNA, IFNB, IFND, and IFNK in P. vampyrus, and by demonstrating transcription of some of the inferred genes by known interferon-inducing stimuli. Conclusion The statistical trace assembler described here provides a reliable method for extracting information from the many available and forthcoming partial or shallow genome sequencing projects, thereby facilitating the study of a wider variety of organisms with ecological and biomedical significance to humans than would otherwise be possible. PMID:20663124

  4. Cloning, characterization, and regulation of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.A.; Huberman, E. |

    1997-01-01

    Human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. Regulated IMPDH activity is associated with cellular proliferation, transformation, and differentiation. The authors cloned and sequenced the entire gene for type II IMPDH and here provide details regarding the organization of the gene and the characterization of its promoter. The gene spans approximately 5 kb and is disrupted by 12 introns. The transcriptional start sites were determined by S1 nuclease mapping to be somewhat heterogeneous but predominated at 102 and 85 nucleotides from the translational initiation codon. Through the use of heterologous gene constructs and transient transfection assays, a minimal promoter from {minus}206 to {minus}85 was defined. This promoter is TATA-less and contains several transcription factor motifs including four potential Sp 1 binding sites. The minimal promoter is GC-rich (69%) and resembles a CpG island. Through the use of gel mobility shift assays, nuclear proteins were shown to specifically interact with this minimal promoter. Stable transfectants were used to demonstrate that the down-regulation of IMPDH gene expression in response to reduced cellular proliferation occurs by a transcriptional mechanism.

  5. RNA Pol IV and V in gene silencing: Rebel polymerases evolving away from Pol II's rules.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Law, Julie A

    2015-10-01

    Noncoding RNAs regulate gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and play critical roles in development, imprinting and the maintenance of genome integrity in eukaryotic organisms [1,2,3]. Therefore, it is important to understand how the production of such RNAs are controlled. In addition to the three canonical DNA dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) Pol I, II and III, two non-redundant plant-specific RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V, have been identified and shown to generate noncoding RNAs that are required for transcriptional gene silencing via the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Thus, somewhat paradoxically, transcription is required for gene silencing. This paradox extends beyond plants, as silencing pathways in yeast, fungi, flies, worms, and mammals also require transcriptional machinery [4,5]. As plants have evolved specialized RNA polymerases to carry out gene silencing in a manner that is separate from the essential roles of Pol II, their characterization offers unique insights into how RNA polymerases facilitate gene silencing. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of Pol IV and Pol V function, including their compositions, their transcripts, and their modes of recruitment to chromatin. PMID:26344361

  6. Differential accumulation of Phytophthora cambivora cox II gene transcripts in infected chestnut tissue.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vettraino, Anna M

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a novel qRT-PCR protocol for specific detection and proof of viability of Phytophthora in environmental samples based on differential accumulation of cox II transcripts. Chemical and physical treatments were tested for their ability to induce in vitro the accumulation of cytochrome oxidase genes encoding subunits II (cox II) transcripts in Phytophthora cambivora. Glucose 170mM, KNO3 0.25mM and K3 PO3 0.5 and 0.8mM induced the transcription of cox II in P.cambivora living mycelium while no transcription was observed in mycelium previously killed with 0.5% (p/v) RidomilGold() R WG. Living chestnut tissue was artificially infected with P.cambivora and treated with inducers. In vivo experiments confirmed the ability of glucose to induce the accumulation of P.cambivora cox II transcripts. Based on these results, pretreatment of environmental samples with glucose prior to nucleic acid extraction increased the accumulation of specific cox II transcripts, and therefore the sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay for detection of P.cambivora in living tissues. Furthermore, differential accumulation of transcripts between treated and untreated samples represents an unequivocal proof of inoculum viability. PMID:24527950

  7. Cloning DPB3, the gene encoding the third subunit of DNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, H; Hamatake, R K; Morrison, A; Johnson, A L; Johnston, L H; Sugino, A

    1991-01-01

    DNA polymerase II purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of greater than 200, 80, 34, 30 and 29 kDa, the two largest of which (subunits A and B) are encoded by the essential genes POL2 and DPB2. By probing a lambda gt11 expression library of yeast DNA with antiserum against DNA polymerase II, we isolated a single gene, DPB3, that encodes both the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides (subunit C and C'). The nucleotide sequence of DPB3 contained an open reading frame encoding a 23-kDa protein, significantly smaller than the observed molecular masses, 34- or 30-kDa, which might represent post-translationally modified forms of the DPB3 product. The predicted amino acid sequence contained a possible NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. A dpb3 deletion mutant (dpb3 delta) was viable and yielded a DNA polymerase II lacking the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides. dpb3 delta strains exhibited an increased spontaneous mutation rate, suggesting that the DPB3 product is required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication. Since a fifth, 29-kDa polypeptide was present in DNA polymerase II preparations from wild-type cell extracts throughout purification, the subunit composition appears to be A, B, C (or C and C') and D. The 5' nontranscribed region of DPB3 contained the MulI-related sequence ACGCGA, while the 0.9-kb DPB3 transcript accumulated periodically during the cell cycle and peaked at the G1/S boundary. The level of DPB3 transcript thus appears to be under the same cell cycle control as those of POL2, DPB2 and other DNA replication genes. DPB3 was mapped to chromosome II, 30 cM distal to his7. Images PMID:1923754

  8. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression, genetic variation and disease.

    PubMed

    Handunnetthi, L; Ramagopalan, S V; Ebers, G C; Knight, J C

    2010-03-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are central to adaptive immune responses and maintenance of self-tolerance. Since the early 1970s, the MHC class II region at chromosome 6p21 has been shown to be associated with a remarkable number of autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Given that a full explanation for most MHC class II disease associations has not been reached through analysis of structural variation alone, in this review we examine the role of genetic variation in modulating gene expression. We describe the intricate architecture of the MHC class II regulatory system, indicating how its unique characteristics may relate to observed associations with disease. There is evidence that haplotype-specific variation involving proximal promoter sequences can alter the level of gene expression, potentially modifying the emergence and expression of key phenotypic traits. Although much emphasis has been placed on cis-regulatory elements, we also examine the role of more distant enhancer elements together with the evidence of dynamic inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions and epigenetic processes. The role of genetic variation in such mechanisms may hold profound implications for susceptibility to common disease. PMID:19890353

  9. Regulation of MHC class II gene expression, genetic variation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Handunnetthi, Lahiru; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.; Ebers, George C.; Knight, Julian C.

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are central to adaptive immune responses and maintenance of self-tolerance. Since the early 1970s the MHC class II region at chromosome 6p21 has been shown to be associated with a remarkable number of autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Given that a full explanation for most MHC class II disease associations has not been reached through analysis of structural variation alone, in this review we explore the role of genetic variation in modulating gene expression. We describe the intricate architecture of the MHC class II regulatory system, indicating how its unique characteristics may relate to observed associations with disease. There is evidence that haplotype-specific variation involving proximal promoter sequences can alter the level of gene expression, potentially modifying the emergence and expression of key phenotypic traits. Although much emphasis has been placed on cis-regulatory elements, we also explore the role of more distant enhancer elements together with the evidence of dynamic inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions and epigenetic processes. The role of genetic variation in such mechanisms may hold profound implications for susceptibility to common disease. PMID:19890353

  10. Production of soft rot resistant calla lily by expressing a ferredoxin-like protein gene (pflp) in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Yip, Mei-Kuen; Huang, Hsiang-En; Ger, Mang-Jye; Chiu, Shih-Hua; Tsai, Yuh-Chih; Lin, Chin-I; Feng, Teng-Yung

    2007-04-01

    An efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana (W. Wats.) Engl. cultivar 'Florex Gold') is described. Shoot basal discs were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens C58C1 carrying a plasmid containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and plant ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) genes. After Agrobacterium co-cultivation, the shoot basal discs were exposed to 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin for selection. Twenty-eight out of 260 discs (10.8%) were found to have survived and produced shoot clusters. Twenty-six of these were confirmed to contain the pflp transgene by PCR, ending up in 10% transformation efficiency. The disease resistance investigation revealed that 18 transgenic plants exhibited resistance to soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The presence of pflp gene was demonstrated by PCR, and its accumulation and activity was confirmed by Western blot and disease resistance assay. This was the first report to show the successful transformation and resistance to a bacterial pathogen in Zantedeschia. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of calla lily through genetic transformation. PMID:17033825

  11. Selection of a subpopulation with fewer DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene copies in a doxorubicin-resistant cell line panel.

    PubMed Central

    Withoff, S.; Keith, W. N.; Knol, A. J.; Coutts, J. C.; Hoare, S. F.; Mulder, N. H.; de Vries, E. G.

    1996-01-01

    A panel of doxorubicin-resistant sublines of the human small-cell lung carcinoma cell line GLC4 displays decreasing DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TopoII alpha) mRNA levels with increasing resistance. In the present study we describe how this decrease may be regulated. No significant differences in TopoII alpha mRNA stability or gene arrangement were found, using mRNA slot-blotting and Southern blotting, in the most resistant cell line compared with the parental cell line. To investigate if TopoII alpha gene copy loss contributed to the mRNA decrease, fluorescence in situ hybridisation using a TopoII alpha-specific probe was performed. During doxorubicin resistance development, the composition of the population in each cell line shifted with increasing resistance, from a population in which most cells contain three TopoII alpha gene copies (GLC4) to a population in which most cells contain only two copies. A partial revertant of the most resistant cell line displayed a shift back to the original situation. We conclude that the TopoII alpha gene copy number decrease per cell line is in good agreement with the decreased TopoII alpha mRNA and protein levels, and TopoII activity levels in these cell lines which were described previously. Images Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:8761362

  12. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV. PMID:26527207

  13. Suppressors of Mutations in the rII Gene of Bacteriophage T4 Affect Promoter Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Dwight H.; Snyder, Ronald D.

    1981-01-01

    Homyk, Rodriguez and Weil (1976) have described T4 mutants, called sip, that partially suppress the inability of T4rII mutants to grow in ? lysogens. We have found that mutants sip1 and sip2 are resistant to folate analogs and overproduce FH2 reductase. The results of recombination and complementation studies indicate that sip mutations are in the mot gene. Like other mot mutations (Mattson, Richardson and Goodin 1974; Chace and Hall 1975; Sauerbier, Hercules and Hall 1976), the sip2 mutation affects the expression of many genes and appears to affect promoter utilization. The mot gene function is not required for T4 growth on most hosts, but we have found that it is required for good growth on E. coli CTr5X. Homyk, Rodriguez and Weil (1976) also described L mutations that reverse the effects of sip mutations. L2 decreases the folate analog resistance and the inability of sip2 to grow on CTr5X. L2 itself is partially resistant to a folate analog, and appears to reverse the effects of sip2 on gene expression. These results suggest that L2 affects another regulatory gene related to the mot gene. PMID:7262547

  14. Uniform Distribution of Elongating RNA Polymerase II Complexes in Transcribed Gene Locus*

    PubMed Central

    Peil, Kadri; Vrv, Signe; Loke, Marko; Kristjuhan, Kersti; Kristjuhan, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of gene transcription is generally reflected by the level of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment to the gene. However, genome-wide studies of polymerase occupancy indicate that RNAPII distribution varies among genes. In some loci more polymerases are found in the 5? region, whereas in other loci, in the 3? region of the gene. We studied the distribution of elongating RNAPII complexes at highly transcribed GAL-VPS13 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that in the cell population the amount of polymerases gradually decreased toward the 3? end of the gene. However, the conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assay averages the signal from the cell population, and no data on single cell level can be gathered. To study the spacing of elongating polymerases on single chromosomes, we used a sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assay for the detection of multiple RNAPII complexes on the same DNA fragment. Our results demonstrate uniform distribution of elongating polymerases throughout all regions of the GAL-VPS13 gene. PMID:21606489

  15. Uniform distribution of elongating RNA polymerase II complexes in transcribed gene locus.

    PubMed

    Peil, Kadri; Vrv, Signe; Loke, Marko; Kristjuhan, Kersti; Kristjuhan, Arnold

    2011-07-01

    The intensity of gene transcription is generally reflected by the level of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment to the gene. However, genome-wide studies of polymerase occupancy indicate that RNAPII distribution varies among genes. In some loci more polymerases are found in the 5' region, whereas in other loci, in the 3' region of the gene. We studied the distribution of elongating RNAPII complexes at highly transcribed GAL-VPS13 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that in the cell population the amount of polymerases gradually decreased toward the 3' end of the gene. However, the conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assay averages the signal from the cell population, and no data on single cell level can be gathered. To study the spacing of elongating polymerases on single chromosomes, we used a sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assay for the detection of multiple RNAPII complexes on the same DNA fragment. Our results demonstrate uniform distribution of elongating polymerases throughout all regions of the GAL-VPS13 gene. PMID:21606489

  16. Elimination of a group II intron from a plastid gene causes a mutant phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kerstin; Schöttler, Mark A.; Karcher, Daniel; Thiele, Wolfram; Bock, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Group II introns are found in bacteria and cell organelles (plastids, mitochondria) and are thought to represent the evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns. It is generally believed that group II introns are selfish genetic elements that do not have any function. Here, we have scrutinized this assumption by analyzing two group II introns that interrupt a plastid gene (ycf3) involved in photosystem assembly. Using stable transformation of the plastid genome, we have generated mutant plants that lack either intron 1 or intron 2 or both. Interestingly, the deletion of intron 1 caused a strong mutant phenotype. We show that the mutants are deficient in photosystem I and that this deficiency is directly related to impaired ycf3 function. We further show that, upon deletion of intron 1, the splicing of intron 2 is strongly inhibited. Our data demonstrate that (i) the loss of a group II intron is not necessarily phenotypically neutral and (ii) the splicing of one intron can depend on the presence of another. PMID:21357608

  17. Involvement of aph(3′)-IIa in the formation of mosaic aminoglycoside resistance genes in natural environments

    PubMed Central

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Kuffner, Melanie; Domingues, Sara; Nielsen, Kaare M.

    2015-01-01

    Intragenic recombination leading to mosaic gene formation is known to alter resistance profiles for particular genes and bacterial species. Few studies have examined to what extent aminoglycoside resistance genes undergo intragenic recombination. We screened the GenBank database for mosaic gene formation in homologs of the aph(3′)-IIa (nptII) gene. APH(3′)-IIa inactivates important aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene is widely used as a selectable marker in biotechnology and enters the environment via laboratory discharges and the release of transgenic organisms. Such releases may provide opportunities for recombination in competent environmental bacteria. The retrieved GenBank sequences were grouped in three datasets comprising river water samples, duck pathogens and full-length variants from various bacterial genomes and plasmids. Analysis for recombination in these datasets was performed with the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4), and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD). From a total of 89 homologous sequences, 83% showed 99–100% sequence identity with aph(3′)-IIa originally described as part of transposon Tn5. Fifty one were unique sequence variants eligible for recombination analysis. Only a single recombination event was identified with high confidence and indicated the involvement of aph(3′)-IIa in the formation of a mosaic gene located on a plasmid of environmental origin in the multi-resistant isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA96. The available data suggest that aph(3′)-IIa is not an archetypical mosaic gene as the divergence between the described sequence variants and the number of detectable recombination events is low. This is in contrast to the numerous mosaic alleles reported for certain penicillin or tetracycline resistance determinants. PMID:26042098

  18. Cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor II gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, B H; Chen, K J; Yao, Y B; Liu, Q L; Xiao, T Y; Su, J M; Peng, H Z

    2015-01-01

    Here, we characterized the structure and function of the coagulation factor II (FII) gene in grass carp and determined its role in coagulation mechanisms. The FII gene EST was obtained using a constructed splenic transcriptome database; the full-length FII gene sequence was obtained by 3' and 5' RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of FII was cloned and the full-length gene was found to be 1718 bp, with an ORF of 1572 bp; the gene contained a 25 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 108 bp 3'-UTR. The ORF encoded 524 amino acids, including 74 alkaline amino acids (arginine and lysine) and 69 acidic amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The theoretical pI was 6.22. The calculated instability index (II) was 39.81, indicating that FII was a stable protein; the half-life period was predicted to be approximately 30 h. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that grass carp FII showed most similarity (71%) to FII of Takifugu rubripes, followed by Oplegnathus fasciatus (48% similarity) and Larimichthys crocea (47% similarity). A real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that under normal circumstances, FII was most highly expressed in the liver, followed by the gill, spleen, thymus, and head-kidney (P < 0.001). After injection of the grass carp reovirus 873 (GCRV873), the pattern of FII expression was significantly altered (P < 0.001); gene expression was high after injection, suggesting a response involving the initiation of the coagulation system and defense of the body in combination with the platelet and complement system. PMID:26535692

  19. Stem Cell-Like Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer Predicts Type II Subtype and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Matthew; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Bentink, Stefan; Hofmann, Oliver; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Harrington, David; Quackenbush, John; Culhane, Aedn C.

    2013-01-01

    Although ovarian cancer is often initially chemotherapy-sensitive, the vast majority of tumors eventually relapse and patients die of increasingly aggressive disease. Cancer stem cells are believed to have properties that allow them to survive therapy and may drive recurrent tumor growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells are a rare cell population and difficult to isolate experimentally. Genes that are expressed by stem cells may characterize a subset of less differentiated tumors and aid in prognostic classification of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was the genomic identification and characterization of a subtype of ovarian cancer that has stem cell-like gene expression. Using human and mouse gene signatures of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells, we performed an unsupervised bipartition class discovery on expression profiles from 145 serous ovarian tumors to identify a stem-like and more differentiated subgroup. Subtypes were reproducible and were further characterized in four independent, heterogeneous ovarian cancer datasets. We identified a stem-like subtype characterized by a 51-gene signature, which is significantly enriched in tumors with properties of Type II ovarian cancer; high grade, serous tumors, and poor survival. Conversely, the differentiated tumors share properties with Type I, including lower grade and mixed histological subtypes. The stem cell-like signature was prognostic within high-stage serous ovarian cancer, classifying a small subset of high-stage tumors with better prognosis, in the differentiated subtype. In multivariate models that adjusted for common clinical factors (including grade, stage, age), the subtype classification was still a significant predictor of relapse. The prognostic stem-like gene signature yields new insights into prognostic differences in ovarian cancer, provides a genomic context for defining Type I/II subtypes, and potential gene targets which following further validation may be valuable in the clinical management or treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23536770

  20. Efficient gene-targeting in rat embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas and generation of human kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) knock-in rat.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ooshima, Yuki; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Nishimura, Naoya; Nishigaki, Ryuuichi; Satomi, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Takeyama, Michiyasu

    2015-12-01

    The relative proportion of kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) I-IV activities in the brain is similar between humans and rats. Moreover, KAT II is considered to be the main enzyme for kynurenic acid production in the brain. Taken together, human KAT II knock-in (hKAT II KI) rats will become a valuable tool for the evaluation of KAT II targeted drugs as a human mimetic model. Although we initially tried the approach by conventional gene-targeting via embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to generate them, we had to give up the production because of no recombinant ESCs. Accordingly, we developed a method to improve the efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs by the combination with the CRISPR/Cas system. Co-electroporation of Cas9 plasmid, single guide RNA plasmid and hKAT II KI vector increased the number of drug-resistant colonies and greatly enhanced the HR efficiency from 0 to 36 %. All the clones which we obtained showed the same sequence as designed. These recombinant clones resulted in chimeras that transmitted the hKAT II KI allele to their offspring. hKAT II KI rats showed no reduction of KATs mRNA expression and the amount of kynurenic acid was similar between the hKAT II KI rats and the wild type in their brains. These results indicate that the methodology presented in this report can overcome the problem encountered in conventional gene-targeting that prevented production of humanized rats. PMID:26454650

  1. Differential estrogen responsiveness of the vitellogenin and apo very low density lipoprotein II genes in the rooster liver.

    PubMed

    Noteborn, M H; Bakker, O; de Jonge, M A; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1986-01-01

    The primary transcript of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL-II) gene is formed almost immediately after a first estrogen administration, contrary to the appearance of the vitellogenin primary transcript which has a lag of at least 4 h. However, after a second estrogen administration the vitellogenin gene transcription shows no detectable lag (memory effect). After estrogen withdrawal, the primary transcripts of both genes rapidly decline to undetectably low levels. In the presence of estrogen, the half-lives of the mRNAs of apoVLDL-II and vitellogenin are 15 and at least 70 h, respectively, whereas in the absence of hormone they are only 3.5 and 5.5 h, respectively. Thus estrogen not only controls the transcription of both genes, but also the turnover of their mRNAs. In short, there appears to be a quantitative difference in the response of both genes. PMID:3634868

  2. pSiM24 Is a Novel Versatile Gene Expression Vector for Transient Assays As Well As Stable Expression of Foreign Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3′rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) both transiently (agro-infiltration, protoplast electroporation and biolistic) and stably in plant systems (Arabidopsis and tobacco) using both agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistic procedures. Not only reporter genes, several other introduced genes were also effectively expressed using pSiM24 expression vector. Hence, the pSiM24 vector would be useful for various plant biotechnological applications. In addition, the pSiM24 plasmid can act as a platform for other applications, such as gene expression studies and different promoter expressional analyses. PMID:24897541

  3. Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection occurs in the absence of functional major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganta, Roman Reddy; Wilkerson, Melinda J.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Rokey, Aaron M.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We investigated the impact of two genes that control macrophage and T-cell function on murine resistance to E. chaffeensis. Congenic pairs of wild-type and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4)- or major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-deficient mice were used for these studies. Wild-type mice cleared the infection within 2 weeks, and the response included macrophage activation and the synthesis of E. chaffeensis-specific Th1-type immunoglobulin G response. The absence of a functional tlr4 gene depressed nitric oxide and interleukin 6 secretion by macrophages and resulted in short-term persistent infections for > or =30 days. In the absence of MHC-II alleles, E. chaffeensis infections persisted throughout the entire 3-month evaluation period. Together, these data suggest that macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity, orchestrated by CD4(+) T cells, are critical for conferring resistance to E. chaffeensis.

  4. Developmental regulation of the orphan receptor COUP-TF II gene in spinal motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Lutz, B; Kuratani, S; Cooney, A J; Wawersik, S; Tsai, S Y; Eichele, G; Tsai, M J

    1994-01-01

    Members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily are involved in the control of cell identity and of pattern formation during embryonic development. Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFs) can act as regulators of various steroid/thyroid hormone receptor pathways. To begin to study the role of COUP-TFs during embryogenesis, we cloned a chicken COUP-TF (cCOUP-TF II) which is highly homologous to human COUP-TF II. Northern analysis revealed high levels of cCOUP-TF II transcripts during organogenesis. Nuclear extracts from whole embryos and from embryonic spinal cords were used in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. These assays showed that COUP-TF protein is present in these tissues and is capable of binding to a COUP element (a direct repeat of AGGTCA with one base pair spacing). Analysis of cCOUP-TF expression by in situ hybridization revealed high levels of cCOUP-TF II mRNA in the developing spinal motor neurons. Since the ventral properties of the spinal cord, including the development of motor neurons, is in part established by inductive signals from the notochord, we transplanted an additional notochord next to the dorsal region of the neural tube in order to induce ectopic motor neurons. We observed that an ectopic notochord induced cCOUP-TF II gene expression in the dorsal spinal cord in a region coextensive with ectopic domains of SC1 and Islet-1, two previously identified motor neuron markers. Collectively, our studies raise the possibility that cCOUP-TF II is involved in motor neuron development. PMID:8119130

  5. Myocardial Overexpression of Mecr, a Gene of Mitochondrial FAS II Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijun; Leskinen, Hanna; Liimatta, Erkki; Sormunen, Raija T.; Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Hassinen, Ilmo E.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently recognized that mammalian mitochondria contain most, if not all, of the components of fatty acid synthesis type II (FAS II). Among the components identified is 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (Etr1/Mecr), which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trans-2-enoyl thioesters, generating saturated acyl-groups. Although the FAS type II pathway is highly conserved, its physiological role in fatty acid synthesis, which apparently occurs simultaneously with breakdown of fatty acids in the same subcellular compartment in mammals, has remained an enigma. To study the in vivo function of the mitochondrial FAS in mammals, with special reference to Mecr, we generated mice overexpressing Mecr under control of the mouse metallothionein-1 promoter. These Mecr transgenic mice developed cardiac abnormalities as demonstrated by echocardiography in vivo, heart perfusion ex vivo, and electron microscopy in situ. Moreover, the Mecr transgenic mice showed decreased performance in endurance exercise testing. Our results showed a ventricular dilatation behind impaired heart function upon Mecr overexpression, concurrent with appearance of dysmorphic mitochondria. Furthermore, the data suggested that inappropriate expression of genes of FAS II can result in the development of hereditary cardiomyopathy. PMID:19440339

  6. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  7. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M.; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5? splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5? exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. PMID:24214997

  8. Modulation of Angiotensin IImediated cardiac remodeling by the MEF2A target gene Xirp2

    PubMed Central

    McCalmon, Sarah A.; Desjardins, Danielle M.; Ahmad, Saad; Davidoff, Katharine S.; Snyder, Christine M.; Sato, Kaori; Ohashi, Koji; Kielbasa, Ondra M.; Mathew, Matthen; Ewen, Elizabeth P.; Walsh, Kenneth; Gavras, Haralambos; Naya, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent cardiotoxic hormone whose actions have been well studied, yet questions remain pertaining to the downstream factors that mediate its effects in cardiomyocytes. Objective The in vivo role of the MEF2A target gene Xirp2 in AngII-mediated cardiac remodeling was investigated. Methods and Results Here we demonstrate that the MEF2A target gene Xirp2 (also known as cardiomyopathy associated gene 3; CMYA3) is an important effector of the AngII signaling pathway in the heart. Xirp2 belongs to the evolutionarily conserved, muscle-specific, actin-binding Xin gene family and is significantly induced in the heart in response to systemic administration of AngII. Initially, we characterized the Xirp2 promoter and demonstrate that AngII activates Xirp2 expression by stimulating MEF2A transcriptional activity. To further characterize the role of Xirp2 downstream of AngII signaling we generated mice harboring a hypomorphic allele of the Xirp2 gene that resulted in a marked reduction in its expression in the heart. In the absence of AngII, adult Xirp2 hypomorphic mice displayed cardiac hypertrophy and increased ?MHC expression. Strikingly, Xirp2 hypomorphic mice chronically infused with AngII exhibited altered pathological cardiac remodeling including an attenuated hypertrophic response, as well as diminished fibrosis and apoptosis. Conclusions These findings reveal a novel MEF2A-Xirp2 pathway that functions downstream of AngII signaling to modulate its pathological effects in the heart. PMID:20093629

  9. From genotype to phenotype: computer-based modeling of gene expression with STELLA II.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, J L; Hulsey, M G; Summers, A O

    1993-12-01

    STELLA II is a microcomputer program that is designed to simulate and animate the dynamics generated by biological systems in a quantitative fashion. The program employs the Macintosh user interface and includes a tool kit for assembling models, plus menus for setting parameters and selecting input or output. Quantitative relationships among components may be expressed with user-defined equations, graphical functions or data from spreadsheets. System dynamics are simulated by running the program after defining initial conditions, and results may be viewed immediately using windows for graphical or tabular plots. The present article describes how STELLA II may be used to simulate gene expression as an adjunct to experimentation or student-directed learning. PMID:7507334

  10. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  11. A new point mutation in the ND1 mitochondrial gene identified in a type II diabetic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, V.N.; Schmidt, W.; Olek, K.

    1995-08-01

    A novel mutation in a mitochondrial gene was identified in a patient with type II diabetes mellitus. G-to-A transition was localized at the nt3316 position of gene ND1 and resulted in alanine threonine replacement at position 4 of mitochondrial NAD-H-dehydrogenase. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin II gene produces multiple proteins by use of alternative tissue-specific promoters and alternative splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, P D; Storti, R V

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin II (TmII) gene has been determined by DNA sequencing of cDNA clones and the genomic DNA coding for the gene. Two overlapping transcriptional units produce at least four different tropomyosin isoforms. A combination of developmentally regulated promoters and alternative splicing produces both muscle and cytoskeletal tropomyosin isoforms. One promoter is a muscle-specific promoter and produces three different tropomyosin isoforms by alternative splicing of the last three 3' exons. The second promoter has the characteristics of a housekeeping promoter and produces a cytoskeletal tropomyosin isoform. Several internal exons along with a final 3' exon are alternatively spliced in the cytoskeletal transcript. The intron-exon boundaries of the TmII gene are identical to the intron-exon boundaries of all vertebrate tropomyosin genes reported, but are very different from the intron-exon boundaries of the D. melanogaster tropomyosin I gene. The TmII gene is the only reported tropomyosin gene that has two promoters and a quadruple alternative splice choice for the final exon. Models for the mechanism of D. melanogaster tropomyosin gene evolution are discussed. Images PMID:2851721

  13. Cdk12 Is A Gene-Selective RNA Polymerase II Kinase That Regulates a Subset of the Transcriptome, Including Nrf2 Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The Nrf2 transcription factor is well conserved throughout metazoan evolution and serves as a central regulator of adaptive cellular responses to oxidative stress. We carried out an RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to better understand the regulatory mechanisms governing Nrf2 target gene expression. This paper describes the identification and characterization of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) kinase Cdk12 as a factor that is required for Nrf2 target gene expression in cell culture and in vivo. Cdk12 is, however, not essential for bulk mRNA transcription and cells lacking CDK12 function are viable and able to proliferate. Consistent with previous findings on the DNA damage and heat shock responses, it emerges that Cdk12 may be specifically required for stress activated gene expression. Transcriptome analysis revealed that antioxidant gene expression is compromised in flies with reduced Cdk12 function, which makes them oxidative stress sensitive. In addition to supporting Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induced gene activation, Cdk12 suppresses genes that support metabolic functions in stressed conditions. We suggest that Cdk12 acts as a gene-selective Pol II kinase that engages a global shift in gene expression to switch cells from a metabolically active state to "stress-defence mode" when challenged by external stress. PMID:26911346

  14. Cdk12 Is A Gene-Selective RNA Polymerase II Kinase That Regulates a Subset of the Transcriptome, Including Nrf2 Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The Nrf2 transcription factor is well conserved throughout metazoan evolution and serves as a central regulator of adaptive cellular responses to oxidative stress. We carried out an RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to better understand the regulatory mechanisms governing Nrf2 target gene expression. This paper describes the identification and characterization of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) kinase Cdk12 as a factor that is required for Nrf2 target gene expression in cell culture and in vivo. Cdk12 is, however, not essential for bulk mRNA transcription and cells lacking CDK12 function are viable and able to proliferate. Consistent with previous findings on the DNA damage and heat shock responses, it emerges that Cdk12 may be specifically required for stress activated gene expression. Transcriptome analysis revealed that antioxidant gene expression is compromised in flies with reduced Cdk12 function, which makes them oxidative stress sensitive. In addition to supporting Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induced gene activation, Cdk12 suppresses genes that support metabolic functions in stressed conditions. We suggest that Cdk12 acts as a gene-selective Pol II kinase that engages a global shift in gene expression to switch cells from a metabolically active state to “stress-defence mode” when challenged by external stress. PMID:26911346

  15. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encoded HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  17. In vitro mutagenesis of the human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II tax genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cann, A J; Rosenblatt, J D; Wachsman, W; Chen, I S

    1989-01-01

    The tax gene of the human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) is essential for viral replication and acts by increasing the level of RNA transcription. The tax genes of HTLV-I and HTLV-II encode proteins of 40 and 37 kilodaltons, respectively. By in vitro mutagenesis of the tax gene, we have investigated those regions of the protein which are essential for its function. Mutation of either the amino- or carboxy-terminal domain of the protein resulted in loss of trans-activation ability. In addition, specificity of its activity with regard to trans-activation of either the HTLV-I or HTLV-II long terminal repeats was conferred by the first 59 amino acids. Images PMID:2783740

  18. Parental allele specific methylation of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Schneid, H; Seurin, D; Vazquez, M P; Gourmelen, M; Cabrol, S; Le Bouc, Y

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the role of methylation in parental imprinting at the IGF-II gene locus, for which imprinting has already been described in the mouse, we undertook an allele specific methylation study of the human IGF-II gene (mapped to 11p15.5) in a control population and in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In control leucocyte DNA (16 unrelated adults and eight families), the maternal allele of the IGF-II gene was specifically hypomethylated, whereas no such allele specific methylation was found for either the insulin or the calcitonin genes which are located in 11p15.5 and 11p15.1, respectively. Furthermore, the IGF-II gene specific hypomethylation was localised on the 5' portion of exon 9. In the patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in which the IGF-II gene is thought to be involved and where paternal isodisomy has been described, hypomethylation of the maternal allele was conserved in leucocyte DNA, but abnormal methylation was detected in malformed tissues where the paternal allele was also demethylated. Some specific mechanism linked to methylation therefore seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Images PMID:8320696

  19. Characterization, polymorphism, and evolution of MHC class II B genes in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V; Negro, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    During the last decade, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology because of its potential implications in many biological processes. New insights into the gene structure and evolution of MHC genes can be gained through study of additional lineages of birds not yet investigated at the genomic level. In this study, we characterized MHC class II B genes in five families of birds of prey (Accipitridae, Pandionidae, Strigidae, Tytonidae, and Falconidae). Using PCR approaches, we isolated genomic MHC sequences up to 1300 bp spanning exons 1 to 3 in 26 representatives of each raptor lineage, finding no stop codons or frameshift mutations in any coding region. A survey of diversity across the entirety of exon 2 in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni reported 26 alleles in 21 individuals. Bayesian analysis revealed 21 positively selected amino acid sites, which suggests that the MHC genes described here are functional and probably expressed. Finally, through interlocus comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also discuss genetic evidence for concerted and transspecies evolution in the raptor MHC. PMID:17925996

  20. Plant Elongator regulates auxin-related genes during RNA polymerase II transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Hilde; De Groeve, Steven; Fleury, Delphine; Neyt, Pia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van der Straeten, Dominique; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert; Houben, Andreas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2010-01-26

    In eukaryotes, transcription of protein-encoding genes is strongly regulated by posttranslational modifications of histones that affect the accessibility of the DNA by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The Elongator complex was originally identified in yeast as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex that activates RNAPII-mediated transcription. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Elongator mutants elo1, elo2, and elo3 with decreased leaf and primary root growth due to reduced cell proliferation identified homologs of components of the yeast Elongator complex, Elp4, Elp1, and Elp3, respectively. Here we show that the Elongator complex was purified from plant cell cultures as a six-component complex. The role of plant Elongator in transcription elongation was supported by colocalization of the HAT enzyme, ELO3, with euchromatin and the phosphorylated form of RNAPII, and reduced histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation at the coding region of the SHORT HYPOCOTYL 2 auxin repressor and the LAX2 auxin influx carrier gene with reduced expression levels in the elo3 mutant. Additional auxin-related genes were down-regulated in the transcriptome of elo mutants but not targeted by the Elongator HAT activity showing specificity in target gene selection. Biological relevance was apparent by auxin-related phenotypes and marker gene analysis. Ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses were up-regulated in the elo transcriptome and might contribute to the pleiotropic elo phenotype. Thus, although the structure of Elongator and its substrate are conserved, target gene selection has diverged, showing that auxin signaling and influx are under chromatin control. PMID:20080602

  1. Molecular analysis of G+C-rich upstream sequences regulating transcription of the human carbonic anhydrase II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, L H; Venta, P J; Tashian, R E

    1987-01-01

    The upstream promoter sequences of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene have been studied by 5' deletion analysis. Promoter activity was assayed by transfection and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay in both human HeLa cells and murine L cells. This investigation showed that the CA II promoter is comparable in activity to that of the simian virus 40 early-region promoter and enhancer and that the CA II upstream sequences exert a different pattern of control in the two cell lines. Images PMID:2830500

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the Dpn II DNA methylase gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its relationship to the dam gene of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, B.M.; Balganesh, T.S.; Greenberg, B.; Springhorn, S.S.; Lacks, S.A.

    1985-07-01

    The structural gene (dpnM) for the Dpn II DNA methylase of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is part of the Dpn II restriction system and methylates adenine in the sequence 5'-G-A-T-C-3', was identified by subcloning fragments of a chromosomal segment from a Dpn II-producing strain in an S. pneumoniae host/vector cloning system and demonstrating function of the gene also in Bacillus subtilis. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene and adjacent DNA indicates that it encodes a polypeptide of 32,903 daltons. A putative promoter for transcription of the gene lies within a hundred nucleotides of the polypeptide start codon. Comparison of the coding sequence to that of the dam gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes a similar methylase, revealed 30% of the amino acid residues in the two enzymes to be identical. This homology presumably reflects a common origin of the two genes prior to the divergence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is suggested that the restriction function of the gene is primitive, and that the homologous restriction system in E. coli has evolved to play an accessory role in heteroduplex DNA base mismatch repair.

  3. Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in murine fibroblasts transformed by nickel(II) to nickel(II)-resistant malignant phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kowara, Renata . E-mail: Renata.Kowara@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Karaczyn, Aldona; Cheng, Robert Y.S.; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.

    2005-05-15

    B200 cells are Ni(II)-transformed mouse BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts displaying a malignant phenotype and increased resistance to Ni(II) toxicity. In an attempt to find genes whose expression has been altered by the transformation, the Atlas Mouse Stress/Toxicology cDNA Expression Array (Clontech Laboratories, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) was used to analyze the levels of gene expression in both parental and Ni(II)-transformed cells. Comparison of the results revealed a significant up- or downregulation of the expression of 62 of the 588 genes present in the array (approximately 10.5%) in B200 cells. These genes were assigned to different functional groups, including transcription factors and oncogenes (9/14; fractions in parentheses denote the number of up-regulated versus the total number of genes assigned to this group), stress and DNA damage response genes (11/12), growth factors and hormone receptors (6/9), metabolism (7/7), cell adhesion (2/7), cell cycle (3/6), apoptosis (3/4), and cell proliferation (2/3). Among those genes, overexpression of beta-catenin and its downstream targets c-myc and cyclin D1, together with upregulated cyclin G, points at the malignant character of B200 cells. While the increased expression of glutathione (GSH) synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4), and glutathione-S-transferase theta (GSTT), together with high level of several genes responding to oxidative stress, suggests the enforcement of antioxidant defenses in Ni-transformed cells.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in ?-defensin II gene in Amazon sheep from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, B B; Barbosa, E M; Azevedo, J S N; Campelo, J E G; Rodrigues, L F S; Pinheiro, L M L; Silva, S C B; Schierholt, A S; Souza, P H; Gonalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    The northern region of Brazil produces a large number of sheep, with Par being the largest sheep breeding state in the region. In the Amazon region, livestock production is a challenge due to the high diversity of pathogens affecting humans and animals. Defensins are antimicrobial peptides acting as a first barrier against micro-organisms and present high variation in different organisms. The objective of this study was to detect polymorphisms in exon II in ?-defensin II in Amazon sheep. The gene was amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from 47 sheep blood samples from the Santa Ins breed. Products were sequenced, aligned and analyzed. Three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) positions were observed with transition substitutions (A?G) at positions 1643, 1659, and 1750. The 1643 and 1750 SNPs showed a low variability and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P < 0.05) meanwhile the SNP 1659 showed moderate absence of genetic variability and deviation from HWE (P > 0.05). Polymorphisms at 1643 and 1659 were predicted to modify amino acids in the peptide chain (isoleucine to valine and arginine to lysine, respectively) with no effects on protein function. Results from this study suggest that SNPs are important markers for ?-defensin II efficiency studies on the immune system of sheep in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:26505431

  5. Early diagnosis of and surgical strategy for adrenal medullary disease in MEN II gene carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.; Tisell, L.E.; Fjaelling, M.L.; Lindberg, S.; Jacobsson, L.; Zachrisson, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN II) gene carriers--12 who had undergone thyroidectomy because of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and 4 whose thyroid glands had been removed because of C cell hyperplasia--were examined for the presence of pheochromocytomas. No patient had sought medical advice for pheochromocytoma symptoms. Fourteen patients had MEN IIa syndromes, one patient had a MEN IIb and another patient had a mixed syndrome of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis and MEN II. Eight patients had undergone unilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 11 +/- 4 years before. The patients underwent clinical examination, determination of the urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, and /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) and CAT scans. /sup 131/I-MIBG scanning was performed with images 1, 4, and 7 days after the radionuclide injection. In seven of eight patients who had undergone unilateral adrenalectomies, the /sup 131/I-MIBG scans showed accumulation of the radionuclide in the remaining adrenal gland. Bilateral adrenal accumulation of the radionuclide was demonstrated in seven of eight MEN IIa gene carriers who had not undergone adrenalectomy. Five patients, two of whom had undergone adrenalectomy, were found to have unilateral pheochromocytomas less than 2 cm in diameter. Only one of these five patients had an elevated excretion of urinary catecholamines. Between day 4 and day 7 after /sup 131/I-MIBG injection, adrenal glands with pheochromocytomas increased their relative accumulation of the radionuclide significantly more (p less than 0.02) than did adrenal glands without any demonstrable pheochromocytomas. All the pheochromocytomas were viewed by means of CAT scans.

  6. Genetic Diversity of the Flagellin Genes of Clostridium botulinum Groups I and II

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Cedric; Lambert, Dominic; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Austin, John

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by phenotypically and genetically different Clostridium species, including Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium baratii (serotype F) and Clostridium butyricum (serotype E). BoNT-producing clostridia responsible for human botulism encompass strains of group I (secreting proteases, producing toxin serotype A, B, or F, and growing optimally at 37°C) and group II (nonproteolytic, producing toxin serotype E, B, or F, and growing optimally at 30°C). Here we report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping C. botulinum strains of groups I and II based on flaVR (variable region sequence of flaA) sequences and the flaB gene. Real-time PCR typing of regions flaVR1 to flaVR10 and flaB was optimized and validated with 62 historical and Canadian C. botulinum strains that had been previously typed. Analysis of 210 isolates of European origin allowed the identification of four new C. botulinum flaVR types (flaVR11 to flaVR14) and one new flaVR type specific to C. butyricum type E (flaVR15). The genetic diversity of the flaVR among C. botulinum strains investigated in the present study reveals the clustering of flaVR types into 5 major subgroups. Subgroups 1, 3, and 4 contain proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, subgroup 2 is made up of nonproteolytic C. botulinum only, and subgroup 5 is specific to C. butyricum type E. The genetic variability of the flagellin genes carried by C. botulinum and the possible association of flaVR types with certain geographical areas make gene profiling of flaVR and flaB promising in molecular surveillance and epidemiology of C. botulinum. PMID:23603687

  7. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    PubMed

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates. PMID:19454336

  8. Major histocompatibility complex class II A genes in cichlid fishes: identification, expression, linkage relationships, and haplotype variation.

    PubMed

    Murray, B W; Shintani, S; Sltmann, H; Klein, J

    2000-06-01

    Two cichlid species, the haplochromine Aulonocara hansbaenschi and the tilapiine Oreochromis niloticus, were used to study the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A variation within this group. Multiple class II A sequences were recovered from A. hansbaenschi and O. niloticus cDNA libraries and three sequence families, DAA, DBA, and DCA, were identified. Sets of O. niloticus haploid embryo families were used to determine the linkage relationships of these genes. Two independently assorting linkage groups were detected, DAA and DBA/DCA, neither of which is linked to the previously described Mhc class I gene cluster. Three DCA genes and up to four DBA genes were found to segregate in different haplotypes, whereas DAA occurred as a single locus. Four DBA haplotypes, DBA*H1-H4, were identified and shown to co-segregate with the previously described class II B haplotypes. Four DCA haplotypes, DCA*H1-H4, were found at a distance of 37 cM from the DBA/class II B cluster; in one DCA haplotype, DCA*H5, the genes were tightly linked to the DBA/class II B clusters. Transcripts of DAA and DBA genes were found in O. niloticus hepatopancreas and spleen; transcripts of DCA genes were detected in the A. hansbaenschi cDNA library, but not in O. niloticus. These findings provide a basis for using class II haplotypes as markers in the study of adaptive radiation in the cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes. PMID:10912508

  9. Identification and mapping of two divergent, unlinked major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in Xiphophorus fishes.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, T J; Godwin, U B; Norton, S F; Nairn, R S; Kazianis, S; Morizot, D C

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes from the inbred fish strain Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 A. We mapped one of these genes, designated here as DXB, to linkage group III, linked to a malic enzyme locus, also syntenic with human and mouse MHC. Comparison of genomic and cDNA clones shows the gene consists of six exons and five introns. The encoded beta1 domain has three amino acids deleted and a cytoplasmic tail nine amino acids longer than in other teleost class II beta chains, more similar to HLA-DRB, clawed frog Xela-F3, and nurse shark Gici-B. Key residues for disulfide bonds, glycosylation, and interaction with alpha chains are conserved. These same features are also present in a swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) genomic DXB PCR clone. A second type of class II B clone was amplified by PCR from X. maculatus and found to be orthologous to class II genes identified in other fishes. This DAB-like gene is 63% identical to the X. maculatus DXB sequence in the conserved beta2-encoding exon and was mapped to new unassigned linkage group LG U24. The DXB gene, then, represents an unlinked duplicated locus not previously identified in teleosts. PMID:9691047

  10. Interactions between DNA and gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery, provides distinct treatment modalities for the inherited and acquired diseases, relies upon the encapsulation of a gene of interest, which is then ideally delivered to the target cells. Variations in the chemical structure of gemini surfactants and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of the gemini-based lipoplexes and their impact on efficient gene transfection were assessed in part I, which was published in first March 2016 issue of Nanomedicine (1103). In order to design an efficient vector using gemini surfactants, the interaction of the surfactant with DNA and other components of the delivery system must be characterized, and more critically, well understood. Such studies will help to understand how nonviral transfection complexes, in general, overcome various cellular barriers. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer studies, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, are extensively used to evaluate the interaction behavior of gemini surfactants with DNA and other vector components. Part II of this review focuses on the use of these unique techniques to understand their interaction with DNA. PMID:26784450

  11. Polymorphism of exon 3 of MHC class II B gene in Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Jiang, Zhigang

    2007-10-01

    The polymorphism of MHC class II B gene in 14 Chinese alligators was analyzed, which came from three different areas: a wild population from Xuancheng, Anhui, a captive population from Changxing, Zhejiang, and a captive population from Anhui Research Center for Reproduction of Chinese Alligators. The gene fragment was amplified using a pair of specific primers designed from the MHC gene sequence of the spectacled caiman. A total of 34 sequence haplotypes of exon 3 were detected in the sampled Chinese alligators. The numbers of haplotypes of the 3 Chinese alligator populations were 15, 10, and 9, respectively. The overall estimation of the MHC polymorphism in the Chinese alligator population was higher than those in mammals and in cyprinid fish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a significantly lower frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), which were not consistent with the common rule. This result might suggest that the polymorphism of exon 3 seemed not to be maintained by the balancing selection. The neutrality test of Tajima excluded the null hypothesis that the polymorphism of exon 3 was generated by a random drift, and the fact that D = -0.401 indicated an excess of rare mutations in the Chinese alligator. The nucleotide diversity of the sequences and the phylogenetic relations were also analyzed, and the results suggested that there was no significant difference in genetic diversity among the 3 populations of Chinese alligator. PMID:17945170

  12. Development of genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in allopolyploid species: the waxy and starch synthase II genes in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as examples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In allopolypoid crops, homoeologous genes in different genomes exhibit a very high sequence similarity, especially in the coding regions of genes. This makes it difficult to design genome-specific primers to amplify individual genes from different genomes. Development of genome-specific primers for agronomically important genes in allopolypoid crops is very important and useful not only for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of genes in natural populations, but also for the development of gene-based functional markers for marker-assisted breeding. Here we report on a useful approach for the development of genome-specific primers in allohexaploid wheat. Findings In the present study, three genome-specific primer sets for the waxy (Wx) genes and four genome-specific primer sets for the starch synthase II (SSII) genes were developed mainly from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertions or deletions (Indels) in introns and intron-exon junctions. The size of a single PCR product ranged from 750 bp to 1657 bp. The total length of amplified PCR products by these genome-specific primer sets accounted for 72.6%-87.0% of the Wx genes and 59.5%-61.6% of the SSII genes. Five genome-specific primer sets for the Wx genes (one for Wx-7A, three for Wx-4A and one for Wx-7D) could distinguish the wild type wheat and partial waxy wheat lines. These genome-specific primer sets for the Wx and SSII genes produced amplifications in hexaploid wheat, cultivated durum wheat, and Aegilops tauschii accessions, but failed to generate amplification in the majority of wild diploid and tetraploid accessions. Conclusions For the first time, we report on the development of genome-specific primers from three homoeologous Wx and SSII genes covering the majority of the genes in allohexaploid wheat. These genome-specific primers are being used for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of the three homoeologous Wx and SSII genes in natural populations of both hexaploid wheat and cultivated tetraploid wheat. The strategies used in this paper can be used to develop genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in any allopolypoid species. They may be also suitable for (i) the development of gene-specific primers for duplicated paralogous genes in any diploid species, and (ii) the development of allele-specific primers at the same gene locus. PMID:20497560

  13. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in the Barn owl (Aves: Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Burri, Reto; Niculita-Hirzel, Hlne; Roulin, Alexandre; Fumagalli, Luca

    2008-09-01

    We isolated major histocompatibility complex class II B (MHCIIB) genes in the Barn owl (Tyto alba). A PCR-based approach combined with primer walking on genomic and complementary DNA as well as Southern blot analyses revealed the presence of two MHCIIB genes, both being expressed in spleen, liver, and blood. Characteristic structural features of MHCIIB genes as well as their expression and high non-synonymous substitution rates in the region involved in antigen binding suggest that both genes are functional. MHC organization in the Barn owl is simple compared to passerine species that show multiple duplications, and resembles the minimal essential MHC of chicken. PMID:18548243

  14. Glucose 6P Binds and Activates HlyIIR to Repress Bacillus cereus Haemolysin hlyII Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cadot, Céline; Rognan, Didier; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation despite the recruitment of phagocytic cells. We have previously shown that B. cereus Haemolysin II (HlyII) induces macrophage cell death by apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the regulation of the hlyII gene. We show that HlyIIR, the negative regulator of hlyII expression in B. cereus, is especially active during the early bacterial growth phase. We demonstrate that glucose 6P directly binds to HlyIIR and enhances its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Glucose 6P activates HlyIIR, increasing its capacity to bind to its DNA-box located upstream of the hlyII gene, inhibiting its expression. Thus, hlyII expression is modulated by the availability of glucose. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, two cell types that play a role in the sequestration of nutrients upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow the bacteria to gain access to carbon sources that are essential components for bacterial growth. PMID:23405113

  15. Glucose 6P binds and activates HlyIIR to repress Bacillus cereus haemolysin hlyII gene expression.

    PubMed

    Guillemet, Elisabeth; Tran, Seav-Ly; Cadot, Céline; Rognan, Didier; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation despite the recruitment of phagocytic cells. We have previously shown that B. cereus Haemolysin II (HlyII) induces macrophage cell death by apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the regulation of the hlyII gene. We show that HlyIIR, the negative regulator of hlyII expression in B. cereus, is especially active during the early bacterial growth phase. We demonstrate that glucose 6P directly binds to HlyIIR and enhances its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Glucose 6P activates HlyIIR, increasing its capacity to bind to its DNA-box located upstream of the hlyII gene, inhibiting its expression. Thus, hlyII expression is modulated by the availability of glucose. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, two cell types that play a role in the sequestration of nutrients upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow the bacteria to gain access to carbon sources that are essential components for bacterial growth. PMID:23405113

  16. Evolutionary diversification and characterization of the eubacterial gene family encoding DXR type II, an alternative isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoprenoids constitute a vast family of natural compounds performing diverse and essential functions in all domains of life. In most eubacteria, isoprenoids are synthesized through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The production of MEP is usually catalyzed by deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR-I) but a few organisms use an alternative DXR-like enzyme (DXR-II). Results Searches through 1498 bacterial complete proteomes detected 130 sequences with similarity to DXR-II. Phylogenetic analysis identified three well-resolved clades: the DXR-II family (clustering 53 sequences including eleven experimentally verified as functional enzymes able to produce MEP), and two previously uncharacterized NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductase families (designated DLO1 and DLO2 for DXR-II-like oxidoreductases 1 and 2). Our analyses identified amino acid changes critical for the acquisition of DXR-II biochemical function through type-I functional divergence, two of them mapping onto key residues for DXR-II activity. DXR-II showed a markedly discontinuous distribution, which was verified at several levels: taxonomic (being predominantly found in Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes), metabolic (being mostly found in bacteria with complete functional MEP pathways with or without DXR-I), and phenotypic (as no biological/phenotypic property was found to be preferentially distributed among DXR-II-containing strains, apart from pathogenicity in animals). By performing a thorough comparative sequence analysis of GC content, 3:1 dinucleotide frequencies, codon usage and codon adaptation indexes (CAI) between DXR-II sequences and their corresponding genomes, we examined the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as opposed to an scenario of massive gene loss, in the evolutionary origin and diversification of the DXR-II subfamily in bacteria. Conclusions Our analyses support a single origin of the DXR-II family through functional divergence, in which constitutes an exceptional model of acquisition and maintenance of redundant gene functions between non-homologous genes as a result of convergent evolution. Subsequently, although old episodic events of HGT could not be excluded, the results supported a prevalent role of gene loss in explaining the distribution of DXR-II in specific pathogenic eubacteria. Our results highlight the importance of the functional characterization of evolutionary shortcuts in isoprenoid biosynthesis for screening specific antibacterial drugs and for regulating the production of isoprenoids of human interest. PMID:24004839

  17. Association between paternally inherited haplotypes upstream of the insulin gene and umbilical cord IGF-II levels.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Ronald M; Fain, John N; Krushkal, Julia; Klauser, Chad K; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2007-10-01

    The insulin (INS) and IGF 2 (IGF2) genes are in close proximity to each other and undergo maternal imprinting during fetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal and umbilical cord IGF 2 protein (IGF-II) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the INS and IGF2 genes in 207 healthy African-American mother-newborn pairs. No association was found between maternal IGF-II levels and polymorphism in the INS-IGF2 locus. A significant association was found between newborn IGF-II levels and two SNPs (rs3842738 and rs689) at the 5' end of the INS-IGF2 locus. Analyses of haplotypes inferred from these two SNPs demonstrate a significant relationship between paternally transmitted haplotypes and newborn IGF-II levels, but no association with maternally transmitted haplotypes. PMID:17667841

  18. Exclusion of 5 functional candidate genes for distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (distal HMN II) linked to 12q24.3.

    PubMed

    Irobi, J; Nelis, E; Meuleman, J; Venken, K; De Jonghe, P; Van Broeckhoven, C; Timmerman, V

    2001-11-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (distal HMNs) are characterised by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy. Distal HMN type II is genetically linked to chromosome 12q24.3 and located within a 13 cM region flanked by markers D12S86 and D12S340. We previously excluded the human phospholipase A2 group 1B gene (PLA2G1B) as the disease causing gene. Here, we report the mutation analysis of five other candidate genes localised within the distal HMN II region: the cytoskeletal proteins paxillin (PXN) and restin (RSN); the acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein, large P0 subunit (RPLP0); a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NME2B); and the beta 3 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNB3). DNA sequencing of the coding regions was performed but no disease causing mutations could be identified, hence excluding these five genes for distal HMN type II. PMID:11851982

  19. The gene encoding the large subunit of human RNA polymerase II is located on the short arm of chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Cannizzaro, L A; Emanuel, B S; Cho, K W; Weinmann, R

    1986-01-01

    We have used chromosomal in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids to determine the chromosomal localization of the subgenomic DNA fragment that encodes part of the large subunit of human RNA polymerase II. The results of our analysis demonstrate localization of the human RNA polymerase II large subunit gene to the short arm of chromosome 17. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3460332

  20. Coordinated changes of histone modifications and HDAC mobilization regulate the induction of MHC class II genes by Trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces the transcription of the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) DRA gene in a way independent of the master coactivator CIITA. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic regulator stimulates MHC II expression, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor the alterations in histone modifications that correlate with DRA transcription after TSA treatment. We found that a dramatic increase in promoter linked histone acetylation is followed by an increase in Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and a decrease of lysine 9 methylation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that TSA increases the mobility of HDAC while decreasing the mobility of the class II enhanceosome factor RFX5. These data, in combination with ChIP experiments, indicate that the TSA-mediated induction of DRA transcription involves HDAC relocation and enhanceosome stabilization. In order to gain a genome-wide view of the genes responding to inhibition of deacetylases, we compared the transcriptome of B cells before and after TSA treatment using Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis showed that in addition to the DRA gene, the entire MHC II family and the adjacent histone cluster that are located in chromosome 6p21-22 locus are strongly induced by TSA. A complex pattern of gene reprogramming by TSA involves immune recognition, antiviral, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways and extends the rationale for using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) to modulate the immune response. PMID:16452299

  1. Expression of Intratumoral IGF-II Is Regulated by the Gene Imprinting Status in Triple Negative Breast Cancer from Vietnamese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Vinodh Kumar; Hernandez, Lorraine Christine; Anderson, Kendra; Tan, Qianwei; De Len, Marino; De Len, Daisy D.

    2015-01-01

    African American women suffer higher incidence and mortality of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) than Caucasian women. TNBC is very aggressive, causing the worst clinical outcome. We previously demonstrated that tumors from these patients express high IGF-II and exhibit high activation of the IGF signaling pathways. IGF-II gene expression is imprinted (monoallelic), promotes tumor progression, and metastasis and regulates Survivin, a TNBC prognostic marker. Since BC mortality has increased among young Vietnamese women, we analyzed 48 (paired) TNBC samples from Vietnamese patients to assess IGF-II expression. We analyzed all samples by qrtPCR for identification of IGF-II heterozygosity and to determine allelic expression of the IGF-II gene. We also analyzed the tissues for proIGF-II and Survivin by RT-PCR and Western blotting. A total of 28 samples displayed IGF-II heterozygosity of which 78% were biallelic. Tumors with biallelic IGF-II gene expression exhibited the highest levels of proIGF-II and Survivin. Although 100% of these tissues corresponding normal samples were biallelic, they expressed significantly lower levels of or no proIGF-II and Survivin. Thus, IGF-II biallelic gene expression is differentially regulated in normal versus tumor tissues. We propose that intratumoral proIGF-II is dependent on the IGF-II gene imprinting status and it will promote a more aggressive TNBC. PMID:26448747

  2. Population genetics and natural selection in the gene encoding the Duffy binding protein II in Iranian Plasmodium vivax wild isolates.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Vahideh; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2014-01-01

    Region II of Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) is one of the most promising blood-stage vaccine candidate antigens against Plasmodium vivax and having knowledge of the nature and genetic polymorphism of PvDBP-II among global P. vivax isolates is important for developing a DBP-based vaccine. By using PCR and sequencing, the present molecular population genetic approach was carried out to investigate sequence diversity and natural selection of dbp-II gene in 63 P. vivax isolates collected from unstable and low transmission malaria-endemic areas of Iran during 2008-2012. Also, phylogenetic analysis, the diversifying natural selection, and recombination across the pvdbp-II gene, including regions containing B-cell epitopes were analyzed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs. Twenty two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including 20 non-synonymous and 2 synonymous) were identified in PvDBP-II, resulting in 16 different PvDBP-II haplotypes among the Iranian P. vivax isolates. High binding inhibitory B-cell epitope (H3) overlapping with intrinsically unstructured/disordered region (aa: 384-392) appeared to be highly polymorphic (D384G/E385K/ K386N/Q/R390H), and positive selective pressure acted on this region. Most of the polymorphic amino acids, which are located on the surface of the protein, are under selective pressure that implies increased recombination events and exposure to the human immune system. In summary, PvDBP-II gene displays genetic polymorphism among Iranian P. vivax isolates and it is under selective pressure. Mutations, recombination, and positive selection seem to play a role in the resulting genetic diversity, and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences demonstrates that Iranian isolates represent a sample of the global population. These results are useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Iran and also for development of PvDBP-II-based malaria vaccine. PMID:24384095

  3. The genomic structure of the gene encoding the human transforming growth factor {beta} type II receptor (TGF-{beta} RII)

    SciTech Connect

    Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nagashima, Makoto; Gemma, Akihiko

    1996-09-01

    The genomic structure of the human transforming growth factor-{beta} type II receptor gene (TGF-{beta} RII) was determined by two PCR-based methods, the {open_quotes}long distance sequencer{close_quotes} method and the {open_quotes}promoter finder{close_quotes} method. Genomic fragments containing exons and adjacent introns were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences were determined by direct sequencing and subcloning sequencing. The TGF-{beta} RII protein is encoded by 567 codons in 7 exons. This is the first report about the genomic structure of a gene that belongs to the serine/threonine kinase type II receptor subfamily. Knowledge of the genomic structure of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in normal human cells and of the aberrations occurring during carcinogenesis. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Btn2a2, a T cell immunomodulatory molecule coregulated with MHC class II genes.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Kerstin; Leimgruber, Elisa; Gobet, Florian; Agrawal, Vishal; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Barras, Emmanule; Mastelic-Gavillet, Batris; Kamath, Arun; Fontannaz, Paola; Gury, Leslie; Duraes, Fernanda do Valle; Lippens, Carla; Ravn, Ulla; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hugues, Stphanie; Reith, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that butyrophilins, which are members of the extended B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules, have diverse functions in the immune system. We found that the human and mouse genes encoding butyrophilin-2A2 (BTN2A2) are regulated by the class II trans-activator and regulatory factor X, two transcription factors dedicated to major histocompatibility complex class II expression, suggesting a role in T cell immunity. To address this, we generated Btn2a2-deficient mice. Btn2a2(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, impaired CD4(+) regulatory T cell induction, potentiated antitumor responses, and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Altered immune responses were attributed to Btn2a2 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells rather than T cells or nonhematopoietic cells. These results provide the first genetic evidence that BTN2A2 is a co-inhibitory molecule that modulates T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26809444

  5. Regulation of genes encoding PS I and PS II proteins in Synechocystis

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, L.B.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The mechanisms of regulation of the genes encoding PS I and PS II components are largely unknown for the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In an attempt to elucidate how PS I and PS II biogenesis is controlled, we have isolated RNA from cells grown in various light conditions and analyzed relative steady-state levels of transcripts on Northern blots. Results from blots probed with psaA and psaB (which we recently cloned and sequenced) as well as previously isolated clones for psbA1, psbA2, psbD2, psaD, rbcL, and rrn will be presented. Preliminary data indicate the psbA and psaA-psaB transcripts accumulate in cells put in the dark, although the psaA-psaB transcript levels are somewhat reduced in the dark. Future experiments will focus on molecular analysis of the promoter region for the psaA-psaB operon.

  6. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  7. Type II cytokeratin gene expression is indicative of early cell differentiation in the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Embryonic development in vertebrates appears to involve a series of inductive tissue interactions that lead to regional specializations, which eventually become elaborated in the basic body plan of the embryo. The inductive interactions leading to early regionalization of the embryo are often particularly difficult to evaluate because of the absence of available morphological or biochemical evidence that such events have occurred. In the 36 hour chick embryo, the regional subdivision of the early ectoderm is evidence by a marked lens-forming bias in the head ectoderm, which is absent in the presumptive dorsal epidermis of the trunk region. As a strategy for isolating genes whose differential expression might reflect this regional subdivision, a cDNA library from 36 hour embryos was prepared and screened for differential hybridization to ({sup 32}P)cDNA probes synthesized using template RNA isolated from 36 hour head ectoderm and trunk ectoderm. A cDNA clone (T4) was isolated which hybridizes to transcripts present at much higher levels in trunk ectoderm than in head ectoderm. Partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of this clone indicate that it represents a gene encoding a type II cytokeratin. The distribution of transcripts complementary to the T4 probe was evaluated in early embryos using RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections.

  8. Halogenated imidazole derivatives block RNA polymerase II elongation along mitogen inducible genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant activation of protein kinases is one of the essential oncogenic driving forces inherent to the process of tumorigenesis. The protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in diverse biological processes, including cell growth and proliferation as well as in the governing and transduction of prosurvival signals. Increased expression of CK2 is a hallmark of some cancers, hence its antiapoptotic properties may be relevant to cancer onset. Thus, the designing and synthesis of the CK2 inhibitors has become an important pursuit in the search for cancer therapies. Results Using a high-throughput microarray approach, we demonstrate that two potent inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-benzimidazole (TBBz) and 2-Dimethyloamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT), blocked mitogen induced mRNA expression of immediate early genes. Given the impact of these inhibitors on the process of transcription, we investigated their effects on RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation along the mitogen inducible gene, EGR1 (early growth response 1), using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. ChIP analysis demonstrated that both drugs arrest RNAPII elongation. Finally, we show that CDK9 kinase activity, essential for the triggering of RNAPII elongation, was blocked by TBBz and to lesser degree by DMAT. Conclusions Our approach revealed that small molecules derived from halogenated imidazole compounds may decrease cell proliferation, in part, by inhibiting pathways that regulate transcription elongation. PMID:20078881

  9. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, A.R. Center for Blood Research, Boston, MA American Red Cross Blood Services-Northeast Region, Dedham, MA ); Wagner, R.; Khatri, K.; Notani, G.; Awdeh, Z.; Alper, C.A. ); Yunis, E.J. American Red Cross Blood Services-Northeast Region, Dedham, MA )

    1991-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype (HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8) or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) halotypes in 25 non-Jewish PV patients, DR4, DQw8 was found in 12 of the patients and DRw6, DQw5 was found in 15. Only 3 patients had neither. The non-Jewish patients were of more Southern European extraction than our controls. This suggests that there are two major MHC susceptibility alleles in American patients with PV. The more ancient apparently arose on a haplotype in the Jews, HLA-B38(35), SC21(SC31), DR4, DQw8, and spread to other populations largely as D-region segments. The other arose in or near Italy on the haplotype HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5 amd has also partially fragmented so that many patients carry only DRw14, DQw5. The available data do not permit the specific localization of either the DR4, DQw8-or the DRw14, DQw5-linked susceptibility genes.

  10. Mutations in the gene encoding starch synthase II profoundly alter amylopectin structure in pea embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, J; Lloyd, J R; Tomlinson, K; Barber, L; Edwards, A; Wang, T L; Martin, C; Hedley, C L; Smith, A M

    1998-01-01

    Mutations at the rug5 (rugosus5) locus have been used to elucidate the role of the major soluble isoform of starch synthase II (SSII) in amylopectin synthesis in the developing pea embryo. The SSII gene maps to the rug5 locus, and the gene in one of three rug5 mutant lines has been shown to carry a base pair substitution that introduces a stop codon into the open reading frame. All three mutant alleles cause a dramatic reduction or loss of the SSII protein. The mutations have pleiotropic effects on the activities of other isoforms of starch synthase but apparently not on those of other enzymes of starch synthesis. These mutations result in abnormal starch granule morphology and amylopectin structure. Amylopectin contains fewer chains of intermediate length (B2 and B3 chains) and more very short and very long chains than does amylopectin from wild-type embryos. The results suggest that SSII may play a specific role in the synthesis of B2 and B3 chains of amylopectin. The extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to other species is discussed. PMID:9501114

  11. Characterization of the cis and trans elements essential for rat insulin II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Crowe, D T; Hwung, Y P; Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J

    1988-01-01

    We have constructed 14 different linker-scanner (LS) mutants throughout the enhancer and promoter of a rat insulin II-CAT fusion gene. These LS mutants were transiently transfected into an insulin-producing (HIT) cell line and three mutants (LS-261/252, LS-102/91, LS-54/45) displayed drastically reduced levels of CAT activity. Therefore, at least three regions are essential for the in vivo expression of an insulin-CAT fusion gene. To identify the trans-acting factors which interact with this cell-specific promoter, we performed band-shifting assays with either HIT or HeLa nuclear extracts and an end-labelled insulin fragment (-100 to +49). Three binding activities were common to both extracts, and another one was unique to HIT cells. DNase I protection studies localized one binding activity to -60 to -40 bp 5' to the cap site. We show that this factor is common to both cell lines and is identical to a previously characterized transcription factor (COUP) which binds to the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter. PMID:3064102

  12. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Type II Deiodinase Gene Expression Reduced in Obese Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, E; Korkmaz, H; Oguzkan Balci, S; Borazan, E; Korkmaz, S; Tarakcioglu, M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) type II deiodinase enzyme gene (DIO2) expression in developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 51 obese patients with MetS and without MetS and 13 healthy subjects enrolled in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), hip circumference, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) of all subjects were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) of all subjects were analyzed. Expression of the DIO2 gene in adipose tissue was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). BMI, WC and WHR were not significantly difference between obese with and without MetS. SBP, DBP, FPG and TG were significantly higher in obese with MetS group than obese without MetS group. While the free triiodothyronine (T3) level was in the normal range in all group, it was significantly lower in the obese with MetS than both obese without MetS and control group. DIO2 expression was significantly lower in the obese with MetS group compared to the control. In correlation analysis, DIO2 expression was negatively correlated with DBP, TG and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels and positively correlated with free T3. In conclusion, the reduction of SAT DIO2 expression is negatively correlated with DBP and TG levels that are associated with the MetS. This might have an effect on developing MetS. We believe that DIO2 gene may be an important molecular target for future studies in developing targeted treatment options for obese people with MetS. PMID:26588490

  13. Incomplete synthesis of N-glycans in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II caused by a defect in the gene encoding. alpha. -mannosidase II

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, M.N.; Masri, K.A. ); Dell, A. ); Luzzatto, L. ); Moremen, K.W. )

    1990-10-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II, or hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity with a positive acidified-serum-lysis test (HEMPAS), is a genetic anemia in humans inherited by an autosomally recessive mode. The enzyme defect in most HEMPAS patients has previously been proposed as a lowered activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, resulting in a lack of polylactosamine on proteins and leading to the accumulation of polylactosaminyl lipids. A recent HEMPAS case, G.C., has now been analyzed by cell-surface labeling, fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry of glycopeptides, and activity assay of glycosylation enzymes. Significantly decreased glycosylation of polylactosaminoglycan proteins and incompletely processed asparagine-linked oligosaccharides were detected in the erythrocyte membranes of G.C. These results suggest that G.C. cells contain a mutation in {alpha}-ManII-encoding gene that results in inefficient expression of {alpha}-ManII mRNA, either through reduced transcription or message instability. This report demonstrates that HEMPAS is caused by a defective gene encoding an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides.

  14. The distribution of active RNA polymerase II along the transcribed region is gene-specific and controlled by elongation factors

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez-Gil, Alfonso; Garca-Martnez, Jos; Pelechano, Vicent; Muoz-Centeno, Mara de la Cruz; Geli, Vincent; Prez-Ortn, Jos E.; Chvez, Sebastin

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the intragenic profiles of active transcription, we determined the relative levels of active RNA polymerase II present at the 3?- and 5?-ends of 261 yeast genes by run-on. The results obtained indicate that the 3?/5? run-on ratio varies among the genes studied by over 12 log2 units. This ratio seems to be an intrinsic characteristic of each transcriptional unit and does not significantly correlate with gene length, G + C content or level of expression. The correlation between the 3?/5? RNA polymerase II ratios measured by run-on and those obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation is poor, although the genes encoding ribosomal proteins present exceptionally low ratios in both cases. We detected a subset of elongation-related factors that are important for maintaining the wild-type profiles of active transcription, including DSIF, Mediator, factors related to the methylation of histone H3-lysine 4, the Bur CDK and the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb9. We conducted a more detailed investigation of the alterations caused by rpb9? to find that Rpb9 contributes to the intragenic profiles of active transcription by influencing the probability of arrest of RNA polymerase II. PMID:20385590

  15. IGF TYPE II RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION IN GRANULOSA AND THECA CELLS OF CATTLE SELECTED FOR TWIN OVULATIONS AND BIRTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of multiple ovulations in monotocous species such as cattle is not well understood. Therefore, gene expression of the IGF type II receptor (IGF2R) and LH receptor (LHR) in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells as well as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in follicular fluid (FF) ...

  16. Growth habit and photo-synthetic activity of shoot cultures of Medicago sativa L. transformed with the oryzacystatin II gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro maintained shoot cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Zajeÿarska 83) that were transformed with the oryzacystatin II (OCII) gene and propagated on growth regulator-free medium were subjected to analysis of morphological characteristics and photosynthetic activity. The most striking f...

  17. BMP type II receptors have redundant roles in the regulation of hepatic hepcidin gene expression and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Patricio A.; Kolodziej, Starsha A.; Yu, Binglan; Bloch, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of hepcidin, the hepatic hormone controlling iron homeostasis, is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We sought to identify which BMP type II receptor expressed in hepatocytes, ActR2a or BMPR2, is responsible for regulating hepcidin gene expression. We studied Bmpr2 heterozygous mice (Bmpr2+/−), mice with hepatocyte-specific deficiency of BMPR2, mice with global deficiency of ActR2a, and mice in which hepatocytes lacked both BMPR2 and ActR2a. Hepatic hepcidin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, serum hepcidin and iron levels, and tissue iron levels did not differ in wild-type mice, Bmpr2+/− mice, and mice in which either BMPR2 or ActR2a was deficient. Deficiency of both BMP type II receptors markedly reduced hepatic hepcidin gene expression and serum hepcidin levels leading to severe iron overload. Iron injection increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels in mice deficient in either BMPR2 or ActR2a, but not in mice deficient in both BMP type II receptors. In addition, in mouse and human primary hepatocytes, deficiency of both BMPR2 and ActR2a profoundly decreased basal and BMP6-induced hepcidin gene expression. These results suggest that BMP type II receptors, BMPR2 and ActR2a, have redundant roles in the regulation of hepatic hepcidin gene expression and iron metabolism. PMID:25075125

  18. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in Taq polymerases and a decontamination method applied to the detection of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Perron, Andr; Raymond, Philippe; Simard, Robin

    2006-03-01

    Different antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, such as Bla, Tet and NPTII, contaminate commercially available Taq polymerases. The specificity of the AR gene PCR can be increased when using a restriction enzyme-based decontamination of polymerase. The elimination of Taq polymerase contamination allows the use of PCR tests to screen seeds (corn) and processed food for the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on the detection of AR genes. Without a decontamination procedure for AR genes, PCR screening tests should be interpreted with caution. PMID:16614919

  19. The Fusarium verticillioides FUM gene cluster encodes a Zn(II)2Cys6 protein that affects FUM gene expression and fumonisin production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Butchko, Robert A E; Busman, Mark; Proctor, Robert H

    2007-07-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species and can contaminate maize or maize products. Ingestion of fumonisins is associated with diseases, including cancer and neural tube defects, in humans and animals. In fungi, genes involved in the synthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites are often located adjacent to each other in gene clusters. Such genes can encode structural enzymes, regulatory proteins, and/or proteins that provide self-protection. The fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster includes 16 genes, none of which appear to play a role in regulation. In this study, we identified a previously undescribed gene (FUM21) located adjacent to the fumonisin polyketide synthase gene, FUM1. The presence of a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain in the predicted protein suggested that FUM21 was involved in transcriptional regulation. FUM21 deletion (Deltafum21) mutants produce little to no fumonisin in cracked maize cultures but some FUM1 and FUM8 transcripts in a liquid GYAM medium. Complementation of a Deltafum21 mutant with a wild-type copy of the gene restored fumonisin production. Analysis of FUM21 cDNAs identified four alternative splice forms (ASFs), and microarray analysis indicated the ASFs were differentially expressed. Based on these data, we present a model for how FUM21 ASFs may regulate fumonisin biosynthesis. PMID:17483290

  20. Cloning and sequence determination of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rpb1 gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ueshima, R; Ishihama, A

    1991-01-01

    The gene, rpb1, encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II has been cloned from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the corresponding gene, RPB1, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cross-hybridization probe. We have determined the complete sequence of this gene, and parts of PCR-amplified rpb1 cDNA. The predicted coding sequence, interrupted by six introns, encodes a polypeptide of 1,752 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 194 kilodaltons. This polypeptide contains eight conserved structural domains characteristic of the largest subunit of RNA polymerases from other eukaryotes and, in addition, 29 repetitions of the C-terminal heptapeptide found in all the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II largest subunits so far examined. Images PMID:2011520

  1. Structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Acker, J; Wintzerith, M; Vigneron, M; Kedinger, C

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of the human RNA polymerase II (or B) has been elucidated. The gene consists of six exons, ranging from 52 to over 101 bp, interspaced with five introns ranging from 84 to 246 bp. It is transcribed into three major RNA species, present at low abundance in exponentially growing HeLa cells. The corresponding messenger RNAs contain the same open reading frame encoding a 125 amino acid residue protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 14,523 Da. This protein (named hRPB14.5) shares strong homologies with the homologous polymerase subunits encoded by the Drosophila (RpII15) and yeast (RPB9) genes. Cysteines characteristic of two zinc fingers are conserved in all three corresponding sequences and, like the yeast protein, the hRPB14.5 subunit exhibits zinc-binding activity. Images PMID:8265347

  2. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    PubMed

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Miles, Lee G; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II ? and ? evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II ? diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II ? is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II ? sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II ? sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II ? sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia. PMID:24503938

  3. Selection and Trans-Species Polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes in the Order Crocodylia

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Miles, Lee G.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II ? and ? evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II ? diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II ? is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II ? sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II ? sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II ? sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 8590 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia. PMID:24503938

  4. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)?0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton. PMID:24929128

  5. Constructs for insertional mutagenesis, transcriptional signal localization and gene regulation studies in root nodule and other bacteria.

    PubMed

    Reeve, W G; Tiwari, R P; Worsley, P S; Dilworth, M J; Glenn, A R; Howieson, J G

    1999-06-01

    Cassettes have been developed that contain an antibiotic resistance marker with and without a promoterless gusA reporter gene. The nptII (encoding kanamycin resistance) or aacCI (encoding gentamicin resistance) genes were equipped with the tac promoter (Ptac) and the trpA terminator (TtrpA) and then cloned between NotI sites to construct the CAS-Nm (Ptac-nptII-TtrpA) and CAS-Gm (Ptac/PaacCI-aacCI-TtrpA) cassettes. The markers were also cloned downstream to a modified promoterless Escherichia coli gusA gene (containing TGA stop codons in all three reading frames prior to its RBS and start codon) to construct the CAS-GNm (gusA-Ptac-nptII-TtrpA) or CAS-GGm (gusA-Ptac/PaacCI-aacCI-TtrpA) cassettes. Cassettes containing the promoterless gusA create type I fusions with a target DNA sequence to detect transcriptional activity. The promoterless gusA gene has also been cloned into a broad-host-range IncP1 plasmid. This construct will enable transcriptional activity to be monitored in different genetic backgrounds. Each cassette was cloned as a NotI fragment into the NotI site of a pUT derivative to construct four minitransposons. The mTn5-Nm (containing Ptac-nptII-TtrpA) and mTn5-Gm (containing Ptac/PaacCI-aacCI-TtrpA) minitransposons have been constructed specifically for insertional inactivation studies. The minitransposons mTn5-GNm (containing gusA-Ptac-nptII-TtrpA) and mTn5-GGm (containing gusA-Ptac/PaacCI-aacCI-TtrpA) can be used for transcription signal localization or insertional inactivation. The TAC-31R and TAC-105F primers can be used to sequence DNA flanking both sides of CAS-Nm, CAS-Gm, mTn5-Nm and mTn5-Gm. The WIL3 and TAC-105F primers can be used to sequence DNA flanking both sides of CAS-GNm, CAS-GGm, mTn5-GNm and mTn5-GGm. The specific application of these constructs to generate acid- or nodule-inducible fusions is presented. The new constructs provide useful tools for insertional mutagenesis, transcriptional signal localization and gene regulation studies in the root nodule bacteria and possibly other gram-negative bacteria. PMID:10411257

  6. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  7. merA gene expression in aquatic environments measured by mRNA production and Hg(II) volatilization.

    PubMed Central

    Nazaret, S; Jeffrey, W H; Saouter, E; Von Haven, R; Barkay, T

    1994-01-01

    The relationship of merA gene expression (specifying the enzyme mercuric reductase) to mercury volatilization in aquatic microbial communities was investigated with samples collected at a mercury-contaminated freshwater pond, Reality Lake, in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Levels of merA mRNA transcripts and the rate of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] volatilization were related to the concentration of mercury in the water and to heterotrophic activity in field samples and laboratory incubations of pond water in which microbial heterotrophic activity and Hg(II) concentration were manipulated. Levels of merA-specific mRNA and Hg(II) volatilization were influenced more by microbial metabolic activity than by the concentration of mercury. merA-specific transcripts were detected in some samples which did not reduce Hg(II), suggesting that rates of mercury volatilization in environmental samples may not always be proportional to merA expression. PMID:7527625

  8. ColoFinder: a prognostic 9-gene signature improves prognosis for 871 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF) prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83–0.91]). The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17–26.8]; P < 0.001) than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response. PMID:26989635

  9. Exonuclease III and the catalase hydroperoxidase II in Escherichia coli are both regulated by the katF gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Sak, B.D.; Eisenstark, A.; Touati, D.

    1989-05-01

    The levels of both exonuclease III (exo III, product of xthA) and hydroperoxidase II (HP-II, product of katE) activity in Escherichia coli were influenced by a functional katF gene. The katF gene product is also necessary for synthesis of HP-II. Mutations in either katF or xthA, but not katE, result in sensitivity to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and near-UV (300-400 nm) radiation. Exo III, encoded by the xthA locus, recognizes and removes nucleoside 5'-monophosphates near apurinic and apyrimidinic sites in damaged DNA. Extracts of katF mutant strains had little detectable exo III activity. When a katF+ plasmid was introduced into the katF mutant, exo III activity exceeded wild-type levels. We propose that the katF gene is a trans-acting positive regulator of exo III and HP-II enzymes, both of which are involved in cellular recovery from oxidative damage.

  10. Regulatory elements and DNA-binding proteins mediating transcription from the chicken very-low-density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Beekman, J M; Wijnholds, J; Schippers, I J; Pot, W; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1991-10-11

    The chicken Very-Low-Density Apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene is specifically expressed in liver in response to estrogen. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the 300-base pair region immediately 5' to the gene by gene transfer of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) constructs into chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH). Two estrogen response elements (EREs) could be distinguished which together form a potent estrogen response unit. Stimulation of transient expression by co-transfection with a plasmid expressing rat C/EBP confirmed that a similar protein in chicken liver may be involved in apoVLDL II transcription. In vitro DNaseI footprinting and band-shift analysis with liver, oviduct and spleen nuclear extract revealed the tissue distribution of the proteins binding to the promoter region. A liver-specific protein bound to multiple sites of which some resembled the recognition sequence of the CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein, C/EBP. Of the other proteins binding to the apoVLDL II promoter, one was identified as the liver-specific LF-A1 by mobility shift analysis, using purified bovine LF-A1, and another as the general COUP-transcription factor, using an antiserum against the human COUP-TF. PMID:1923821

  11. Regulatory elements and DNA-binding proteins mediating transcription from the chicken very-low-density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, J M; Wijnholds, J; Schippers, I J; Pot, W; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1991-01-01

    The chicken Very-Low-Density Apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene is specifically expressed in liver in response to estrogen. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the 300-base pair region immediately 5' to the gene by gene transfer of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) constructs into chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH). Two estrogen response elements (EREs) could be distinguished which together form a potent estrogen response unit. Stimulation of transient expression by co-transfection with a plasmid expressing rat C/EBP confirmed that a similar protein in chicken liver may be involved in apoVLDL II transcription. In vitro DNaseI footprinting and band-shift analysis with liver, oviduct and spleen nuclear extract revealed the tissue distribution of the proteins binding to the promoter region. A liver-specific protein bound to multiple sites of which some resembled the recognition sequence of the CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein, C/EBP. Of the other proteins binding to the apoVLDL II promoter, one was identified as the liver-specific LF-A1 by mobility shift analysis, using purified bovine LF-A1, and another as the general COUP-transcription factor, using an antiserum against the human COUP-TF. Images PMID:1923821

  12. Three Classes of Plasmid (47–63 kb) Carry the Type B Neurotoxin Gene Cluster of Group II Clostridium botulinum

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrew T.; Austin, John W.; Weedmark, Kelly A.; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47–63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin–antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4. PMID:25079343

  13. Differential alleleic expression of the type II collagen gene (COL2A2) in osteoarthritic cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Loughlin, J.; Irven, C.; Sykes, B.; Athanasou, N.; Carr, A.

    1995-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two COL2A1 alleles in articular cartilage obtained from each patient. Three patients demonstrated differential allelic expression and produced <12% of the normal level of mRNA from one of their COL2A1 alleles. The same allele shows reduced expression in a well-defined OA population than in a control group, suggesting the possible existence of a rare COL2A1 allele that predisposes to OA. 31 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation

    PubMed Central

    George, Amee J.; Purdue, Brooke W.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Thomas, Daniel W.; Handoko, Yanny; Qian, Hongwei; Quaife-Ryan, Gregory A.; Morgan, Kylie A.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Thomas, Walter G.; Hannan, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, however, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA screen of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1REGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes encoding proteins that both positively and negatively regulate AT1REGFR transactivation. Many candidates are components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, have not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR by angiotensin II stimulation, but this did not occur following direct stimulation of the EGFR with EGF, indicating that these proteins function between the activated AT1R and the EGFR. Further investigation of TRIO and CHKA revealed that their activity is likely to be required for AT1REGFR transactivation. CHKA also mediated EGFR transactivation in response to another G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand, thrombin, indicating a pervasive role for CHKA in GPCREGFR crosstalk. Our study reveals the power of unbiased, functional genomic screens to identify new signalling mediators important for tissue remodelling in cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:24046455

  15. ins-7 Gene Expression Is Partially Regulated by the DAF-16/IIS Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans under Celecoxib Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    DAF-16 target genes are employed as reporters of the insulin/IGF-1 like signal pathway (IIS), and this is notably true when Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is used to study the action of anti-aging compounds on IIS activity. However, some of these genes may not be specific to DAF-16, even if their expression levels are altered when DAF-16 is activated. Celecoxib was reported to extend the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of DAF-16. Our results confirmed the function of celecoxib on aging; however, we found that the expression of ins-7, a DAF-16 target gene, was abnormally regulated by celecoxib. ins-7 plays an important role in regulating aging, and its expression is suppressed in C. elegans when DAF-16 is activated. However, we found that celecoxib upregulated the expression of ins-7 in contrast to its role in DAF-16 activation. Our subsequent analysis indicated that the expression level of ins-7 in C. elegans was negatively regulated by DAF-16 activity. Additionally, its expression was also positively regulated by DAF-16-independent mechanisms, at least following external pharmacological intervention. Our study suggests that ins-7 is not a specific target gene of DAF-16, and should not be chosen as a reporter for IIS activity. This conclusion is important in the study of INSs on aging in C. elegans, especially under the circumstance of drug intervention. PMID:24945567

  16. Mutations That Affect the Efficiency of Translation of mRNA for the cII Gene of Coliphage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Dul, Ed; Mahoney, Michael E.; Wulff, Daniel L.

    1987-01-01

    Starting with the ? pRE- strain ?ctr1 cy3008, which forms clear plaques, we have isolated two mutant strains, ?dya2 ctr1 cy3008 and ? dya3 ctr1 cy3008, that form plaques with very slightly turbid centers. The dya2 and dya3 mutations lie in the region of overlap between the PRE promoter and the ribosome recognition region of the cII gene, and have nucleotide alterations at positions -1 and +5 of pRE, and alterations of cII mRNA at -16 and -21 nucleotides before the initial AUG codon of the gene. Both mutations destabilize a stem structure that may be formed by cII mRNA, and dya2 also changes the sequence on cII mRNA that is complementary to the 3'-end of 16 S rRNA from 5'-UAAGGA-3' to 5'-UGAGGA-3'.The dya2 and dya3 mutations, along with the ctr1 mutation, which destabilizes either of two alternate stem structures which may be formed by cII mRNA (these being more stable stem structures than the one affected by dya2 and dya3), were tested for their ability to reverse two cII- mutations that are characterized by inefficient translation of cII mRNA. These are cII3088, an A ? G mutation four bases before the initial AUG codon, and cII3059 , a GUU ? GAU (Val2 ? Asp) second codon mutation. It was found that ctr1 completely reverses the translation defects of these two mutations, while dya2 partially reverses these translation defects. The dya3 mutation has no effect on translation efficiency under any condition tested. However neither the ctr1 mutation nor the dya2 mutation has much effect on translation efficiency in an otherwise cII+ background, indicating that other factors must limit the rate of translation of cII mRNA under these conditions. PMID:2953647

  17. Polymorphism in a second ABC transproter gene located within the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Powis, S.H.; Mockridge, I.; Kelly, A.; Glynne, R.; Beck, S.; Trowsdale, J. ); Kerr, L.A. ); Gileadi, U. )

    1992-02-15

    Recent studies have identified genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that may play a role in presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells. The authors have previously described RING4, a gene within the human MHC class II region that has sequence homology with members of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily. They now report the nucleotide sequence of RING11, a second ABC transporter gene located approximately 7 kilobases telomeric to RING4. RING11 is {gamma}-interferon inducible, a property shared with other genes involved in antigen presentation. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of RING11 and RING4 reveals strong homology. They propose that they form a heterodimer that transports peptides from the cytoplasm into the endoplasmic reticulum. They have identified two RING11 alleles, which differ in length of their derived protein sequence by 17 amino acids. The more common of these alleles is present in a Caucasoid population at a frequency of 79%.

  18. Direct demonstration of termination signals for RNA polymerase II from the sea urchin H2A histone gene.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D; Jackson, D; Whitelaw, E; Proudfoot, N J

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies [1,2] suggested but did not prove that the sea urchin H2A histone gene possesses strong transcriptional termination signals close to, but separate from, the 3' processing signals. In this study we have demonstrated by two independent approaches that these sequences elicit authentic transcriptional termination. First we show by nuclear run off analysis that nascent transcription terminates in the immediate 3' flanking region of the H2A gene, in an A-rich region. Second we show that these termination signals prevent transcriptional read through when placed in the intron of a globin gene. The intronic position of the termination signal rules out any effect on steady state mRNA levels. We have therefore defined DNA sequences which act as a transcription terminator when placed in heterologous RNA polymerase II genes. Images PMID:2813057

  19. Nuclease-hypersensitive sites in chromatin of the estrogen-inducible apoVLDL II gene of chicken.

    PubMed

    Kok, K; Snippe, L; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1985-07-25

    DNAseI-hypersensitive sites were localized in apoVLDL II chromatin from chicken. In the liver two sites at 1.75 and 1.0 kb upstream from the cap-site are present before the gene is activated. After induction by estradiol a number of additional sites appear, three in the promotor region of the gene, one within the coding region and two behind the poly-A signal. These sites disappear when the expression of the gene is shut off upon estradiol withdrawal. All sites appear to be tissue-specific in that they are not found in other tissues of the rooster. However, in oviduct of the laying hen we find a hypersensitive site at 1.6 kb in front of the gene. PMID:4022779

  20. Nuclease-hypersensitive sites in chromatin of the estrogen-inducible apoVLDL II gene of chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, K; Snippe, L; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1985-01-01

    DNAseI-hypersensitive sites were localized in apoVLDL II chromatin from chicken. In the liver two sites at 1.75 and 1.0 kb upstream from the cap-site are present before the gene is activated. After induction by estradiol a number of additional sites appear, three in the promotor region of the gene, one within the coding region and two behind the poly-A signal. These sites disappear when the expression of the gene is shut off upon estradiol withdrawal. All sites appear to be tissue-specific in that they are not found in other tissues of the rooster. However, in oviduct of the laying hen we find a hypersensitive site at 1.6 kb in front of the gene. Images PMID:4022779

  1. The role of the UTS2 gene polymorphisms and plasma Urotensin-II levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Bykhatipoglu, Hakan; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Bozgeyik, Esra; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Bagis, Haydar; Cevik, M Ozgur; Kalender, M Emin; Eslik, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy predominantly affecting women. To date, numerous numbers of studies were reported novel genetic contributors with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential for the breast carcinogenesis. However, the role of urotensin-II in breast carcinogenesis has not been elucidated yet. Urotensin-II is a somatostatin-like cyclic tiny peptide identified by its potent vasoconstrictor activity. Soon after its discovery, its involvement in many disease states as well as its expression in various tissues including the tumors have been demonstrated. Moreover, there is strong evidence that suggest urotensin-II as the significant contributor of angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation and tumor biology. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to evaluate plasma levels of urotensin-II and Thr21Met and Ser89Asn polymorphisms of UTS2 gene in breast cancer patients. In the present case-control study, we noticed a significant decrease in the levels of urotensin-II protein in the plasma of the breast cancer patients (p?gene was associated with the risk of developing breast cancer (p??0.05). In addition, we demonstrated the gradual decreasing of urotensin-II protein levels from TT and TM to MM genotypes. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that urotensin-II could contribute to breast carcinogenesis and Thr21Met polymorphism can be an important risk factor in developing breast tumors. PMID:25604143

  2. Functional analysis of the class II hydrophobin gene HFB2-6 from the biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Mijiti, Gulijimila; Wang, Zhiying; Yu, Wenjing; Fan, Haijuan; Zhang, Rongshu; Liu, Zhihua

    2015-02-01

    A class II hydrophobin gene, HFB2-6, was cloned from Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536 and its biocontrol function was studied. According to our previous transcriptome data, six of the eight class II hydrophobin genes were obviously differential expression in four inducing conditions, especially the gene HFB2-6. Moreover, HFB2-6 proven to be differentially transcribed under eight different treatments. HFB2-6 transcripts were up-regulated under 1% Alternaria alternata cell wall and 5% A. alternata fermentation liquid treatments, and by nutritional stress conditions, suggesting that HFB2-6 plays roles in interactions with both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. HFB2-6 expression was down-regulated under 1% poplar leaf powder culture conditions, but its expression was up-regulated under 1% poplar root powder, indicating that HFB2-6 has a function in root colonization. Furthermore, the recombinant hydrophobin rHFB2-6 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-HFB2-6 and purified from the recombinant strain. Genes related to both the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signal transduction pathways were up-regulated by interaction with renatured rHFB2-6. The ORCA3 (octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain) gene of the poplar jasmonic acid signal transduction pathway showed a peak expression of 4.48 times at 2 h, and the peak expression of PR1 (pathogenesis-related protein gene) in the salicylic acid signal transduction pathway was 4.58 times at 72 h. Two genes, MP (monopteros) and GH3.17 (auxin original response gene), in the auxin signal transduction pathway were also up-regulated after induction with rHFB2-6, indicating that rHFB2-6 can promote poplar growth and confer broad-spectrum resistance to pathogens. PMID:25644947

  3. The selenocysteine tRNA gene in leishmania major is transcribed by both RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Vizuet-de-Rueda, Juan C; Cevallos, Ana M; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Eukaryotic tRNAs, transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), contain boxes A and B as internal promoter elements. One exception is the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (tRNA-Sec), whose transcription is directed by an internal box B and three extragenic sequences in vertebrates. Here we report on the transcriptional analysis of the tRNA-Sec gene in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. This organism has unusual mechanisms of gene expression, including Pol II polycistronic transcription and maturation of mRNAs by trans splicing, a process that attaches a 39-nucleotide miniexon to the 5' end of all the mRNAs. In L. major, tRNA-Sec is encoded by a single gene inserted into a Pol II polycistronic unit, in contrast to most tRNAs, which are clustered at the boundaries of polycistronic units. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that some tRNA-Sec transcripts contain the miniexon at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end, indicating that the tRNA-Sec gene is polycistronically transcribed by Pol II and processed by trans splicing and polyadenylation, as was recently reported for the tRNA-Sec genes in the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. However, nuclear run-on assays with RNA polymerase inhibitors and with cells that were previously UV irradiated showed that the tRNA-Sec gene in L. major is also transcribed by Pol III. Thus, our results indicate that RNA polymerase specificity in Leishmania is not absolute in vivo, as has recently been found in other eukaryotes. PMID:25548151

  4. The Selenocysteine tRNA Gene in Leishmania major Is Transcribed by both RNA Polymerase II and RNA Polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Mejía, Norma E.; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E.; Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Vizuet-de-Rueda, Juan C.; Cevallos, Ana M.; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Manning-Cela, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic tRNAs, transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), contain boxes A and B as internal promoter elements. One exception is the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (tRNA-Sec), whose transcription is directed by an internal box B and three extragenic sequences in vertebrates. Here we report on the transcriptional analysis of the tRNA-Sec gene in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. This organism has unusual mechanisms of gene expression, including Pol II polycistronic transcription and maturation of mRNAs by trans splicing, a process that attaches a 39-nucleotide miniexon to the 5′ end of all the mRNAs. In L. major, tRNA-Sec is encoded by a single gene inserted into a Pol II polycistronic unit, in contrast to most tRNAs, which are clustered at the boundaries of polycistronic units. 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that some tRNA-Sec transcripts contain the miniexon at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end, indicating that the tRNA-Sec gene is polycistronically transcribed by Pol II and processed by trans splicing and polyadenylation, as was recently reported for the tRNA-Sec genes in the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. However, nuclear run-on assays with RNA polymerase inhibitors and with cells that were previously UV irradiated showed that the tRNA-Sec gene in L. major is also transcribed by Pol III. Thus, our results indicate that RNA polymerase specificity in Leishmania is not absolute in vivo, as has recently been found in other eukaryotes. PMID:25548151

  5. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Three members of the nitric oxide synthase II gene family (NOS2A, NOS2B, and NOS2C) colocalize to human chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, K.D.; Wolfram, J.R.; Brown, D.M.

    1995-06-10

    Nitric oxide syntheses (NOSs) are a family of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine and molecular oxygen. Three human NOS enzymes (I, II, and III) with differing cellular distribution and regulatory mechanisms have been identified. To determine whether additional NOSs are encoded in the human genome, a bovine NOS II-related cDNA was used to screen two human genomic libraries. Clones containing three independent genes were isolated. One clone encoded the previously identified NOS II gene (NOS2A). The two other genes specified amino acids homologous, but not identical, to human NOS II (NOS2B and NOS2C). Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that all three genes are present in the human genome. DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids were used to determine the chromosomal location of the NOS II-related genes. All three NOS II-related genes colocalized to human chromosome 17 between bands p13.1 and q25. These observations suggest that there is more than one NOS II-related gene in the human genome. This finding may have important implications for the design of NOS isoform-specific inhibitors. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Transcriptional Network Analysis Reveals that AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptors Are Both Involved in the Regulation of Genes Essential for Glioma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Htylas; Fujita, Andr; Bando, Silvia Yumi; Iamashita, Priscila; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are aggressive primary brain tumors with high infiltrative potential. The expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors has been associated with poor prognosis in human astrocytomas, the most common type of glioma. In this study, we investigated the role of Angiotensin II in glioma malignancy through transcriptional profiling and network analysis of cultured C6 rat glioma cells exposed to Ang II and to inhibitors of its membrane receptor subtypes. C6 cells were treated with Ang II and specific antagonists of AT1 and AT2 receptors. Total RNA was isolated after three and six hours of Ang II treatment and analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray technology. Gene expression data was evaluated through transcriptional network modeling to identify how differentially expressed (DE) genes are connected to each other. Moreover, other genes co-expressing with the DE genes were considered in these analyses in order to support the identification of enriched functions and pathways. A hub-based network analysis showed that the most connected nodes in Ang II-related networks exert functions associated with cell proliferation, migration and invasion, key aspects for glioma progression. The subsequent functional enrichment analysis of these central genes highlighted their participation in signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated in gliomas such as ErbB, MAPK and p53. Noteworthy, either AT1 or AT2 inhibitions were able to down-regulate different sets of hub genes involved in protumoral functions, suggesting that both Ang II receptors could be therapeutic targets for intervention in glioma. Taken together, our results point out multiple actions of Ang II in glioma pathogenesis and reveal the participation of both Ang II receptors in the regulation of genes relevant for glioma progression. This study is the first one to provide systems-level molecular data for better understanding the protumoral effects of Ang II in the proliferative and infiltrative behavior of gliomas. PMID:25365520

  8. A mutation in the type II hair keratin KRT86 gene in a Han family with monilethrix?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin; Lin, Yongli; Xu, Wenrong; Li, Zhongming; Fan, Weixin

    2011-01-01

    Monilethrix, a congenital disease of hair, is usually associated with mutations in keratin genes, like KRT81, KRT83 and KRT86. We conducted this study to investigate the mutation of type II human basic hair keratin hHb/KRT gene in a Han family with monilethrix and obtain information for potential pathogenic mechanism study of monilethrix. Peripheral blood samples were drawn for genomic DNA detection. Exon 1 and exon 7 of the KRT81, KRT83 and KRT86 genes were amplified by PCR. All PCR products were sequenced directly using an ABI 310 DNA sequencer. These sequences were aligned with the standard sequences in GenBank using the BLAST software. PCR products were digested with restriction endonuclease and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed. In this study, we identified one novel mutation, which is a heterozygous transitional mutation of G?A at position 1,289 in exon 7 of the KRT86 gene [R430Q (KRT86)]. RFLP assays for the novel mutation excluded the possibility of polymorphism. The R430Q mutation of the KRT86 gene may be pathogenic for monilethrix. Meanwhile, we did not find any novel mutation or recurrent mutation in exons 1 and 7 of KRT81 and KRT83 and exon 1 of KRT86. There is a potential pathogenic gene in the subjects and our results expand the spectrum of mutations in the hHb6 gene. PMID:23554671

  9. Targeted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to alveolar type II epithelial cells reduces lung fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Temuri, Almas; Knudsen, Lars; Gugger, Mathias; Schmid, Ralph A; Ochs, Matthias; Geiser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inefficient alveolar wound repair contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) and may improve repair and reduce fibrosis. We studied whether targeted gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII improves lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. A plasmid encoding human HGF expressed from the human surfactant protein C promoter (pSpC-hHGF) was designed, and extracorporeal electroporation-mediated gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII was performed 7 days after bleomycin-induced lung injury in the rat. Animals were killed 7 days after hHGF gene transfer. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfer resulted in HGF expression specifically in AECII at biologically relevant levels. HGF gene transfer reduced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline determination, and design-based stereology compared with controls. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of HGF is due in part to a reduction of transforming growth factor-?(1), modulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and reduction of extravascular fibrin deposition. We conclude that targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to AECII decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23134111

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for human heparin cofactor II and mapping to chromosomal band 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, R.; Lutz, S.; Blin, N. ); Marasa, J.C.; Blinder, M.A.; Tollefsen, D.M. )

    1991-02-05

    Heparin cofactor II (HCII) is a 66-kDa plasma glycoprotein that inhibits thrombin rapidly in the presence of dermatan sulfate or heparin. Clones comprising the entire HCII gene were isolated from a human leukocyte genomic library in EMBL-3 {lambda} phage. The sequence of the gene was determined on both strands of DNA (15,849 bp) and included 1,749 bp of 5{prime}-flanking sequence, five exons, four introns, and 476 bp of DNA 3{prime} to the polyadenylation site. Ten complete and one partial Alu repeats were identified in the introns and 5{prime}-flanking region. The HCII gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 22 using rodent-human somatic cell hybrids, carrying only parts of human chromosome 22, and the chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. With the cDNA probe HCII7.2, containing the entire coding region of the gene, the HCII gene was shown to be amplified 10-20-fold in K562 cells by Southern analysis and in situ hybridization. From these data, the authors concluded that the HCII gene is localized on the chromosomal band 22q11 proximal to the breakpoint cluster region (BCR). Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the amplified HCII gene in K562 cells maps at least 2 Mbp proximal to BCR-1. Furthermore, the HCII7.2 cDNA probe detected two frequent restriction fragment length polymorphisms with the restriction enzymes BamHI and Hind III.

  11. Regulation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Gene Expression in the Adrenal Medulla by Acute and Repeated Immobilization Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nostramo, Regina; Tillinger, Andrej; Saavedra, Juan M.; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Varunkumar; Serova, Lidia; Kvetnansky, Richard; Sabban, Esther L.

    2012-01-01

    While the Renin-Angiotensin System is important for adrenomedullary responses to stress, the involvement of specific angiotensin II receptor subtypes is unclear. We examined gene expression changes of angiotensin II type 1A (AT1A) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in rat adrenal medulla in response to immobilization stress (IMO). AT2 receptor mRNA levels decreased immediately after a single 2 h IMO. Repeated IMO also decreased AT2 receptor mRNA levels, but the decline was more transient. AT1A receptor mRNA levels were unaltered with either single or repeated IMO, although binding was increased following repeated IMO. These effects of stress on angiotensin II receptor expression may alter catecholamine biosynthesis, as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase mRNA levels in PC12 cells are decreased with angiotensin II treatment in the presence of ZD7155 (AT1 receptor antagonist), or with CGP42112 (AT2 receptor agonist) treatment. Involvement of stress-triggered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) or sympatho-adrenal axis in AT2 receptor downregulation was examined. Cultured cells treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone displayed a transcriptionally-mediated decrease in AT2 receptor mRNA levels. However, glucocorticoids are not required for the immediate stress-triggered decrease in AT2 receptor gene expression, as demonstrated in corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH KO) mice and hypophysectomized rats, although they can regulate basal gene expression. cAMP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) also reduced AT2 receptor gene expression and may mediate this response. Overall, the effects of stress on adrenomedullary AT1A and AT2 receptor expression may contribute to allostatic changes, such as regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis. PMID:22911895

  12. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p < 0.05), whereas the HLA-DRB1*04 was increased in Mayans when compared to Nahuas (p < 0.05). The analysis of HLA-DQB1 alleles showed an increased frequency of DQB1*0302 in Mayans when compared to Nahuas and Mazatecans (p < 0.05), whereas the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0301 was decreased in Mayans when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p < 0.05). Decreased frequency of HLA-DQB1*0501 in Mayans when compared to Nahuas was found. Neighbour Joining dendrogram shows that Mexican Mayans are genetically close to some of the most ancient groups living in Mexico and some South American Amerindians. However, Guatemalan Mayans do not cluster together with Mexican Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico. PMID:20923326

  13. Five TGA "stop" codons occur within the translated sequence of the yeast mitochondrial gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    PubMed

    Fox, T D

    1979-12-01

    A mitochondrial mutation that genetically maps in the middle of the gene coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit II has been found to be a single-base-pair deletion. Three independently isolated spontaneous revertants of this mutant have different single-base-pair insertions within 15 nucleotides of the mutation. These findings clearly identify the location of the gene and suggest that the mutation causes a frame-shift. The sequence of about 900 base pairs surrounding the mutation has been determined and found to have several chain termination codons in every possible reading frame. The sequence can, however, be translated in one frame by assuming that the codon TGA does not cause chain termination in yeast mitochondira, as was recently suggested for the human organelle [Barrell, B. G., Bankier, A. T. & Drouin, J. (1979) Nature (London), in press]. If TGA codes for tryptophan residues, as is apparently the case in human mitochondria, a polypeptide can be read from the yeast mtDNA that is identical to bovine cytochrome oxidase subunit II at 37.8% of its residues. Furthermore, the DNA sequences of the frame-shift revertants discussed above predict relative isolectric point differences between the wild-type and various revertant forms of the polypeptide. The detection of these isolectric point differences by two-dimensional electrophoresis of subunit II from the various strains independently confirms the presumed reading frame of the gene. It is concluded that TGA is translated in yeast mitochondria, most probably as tryptophan. PMID:230513

  14. Five TGA stop codons occur within the translated sequence of the yeast mitochondrial gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A mitochondrial mutation that genetically maps in the middle of the gene coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit II has been found to be a single-base-pair deletion. Three independently isolated spontaneous revertants of this mutant have different single-base-pair insertions within 15 nucleotides of the mutation. These findings clearly identify the location of the gene and suggest that the mutation causes a frame-shift. The sequence of about 900 base pairs surrounding the mutation has been determined and found to have several chain termination codons in every possible reading frame. The sequence can, however, be translated in one frame by assuming that the codon TGA does not cause chain termination in yeast mitochondira, as was recently suggested for the human organelle [Barrell, B. G., Bankier, A. T. & Drouin, J. (1979) Nature (London), in press]. If TGA codes for tryptophan residues, as is apparently the case in human mitochondria, a polypeptide can be read from the yeast mtDNA that is identical to bovine cytochrome oxidase subunit II at 37.8% of its residues. Furthermore, the DNA sequences of the frame-shift revertants discussed above predict relative isolectric point differences between the wild-type and various revertant forms of the polypeptide. The detection of these isolectric point differences by two-dimensional electrophoresis of subunit II from the various strains independently confirms the presumed reading frame of the gene. It is concluded that TGA is translated in yeast mitochondria, most probably as tryptophan. Images PMID:230513

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for aspartokinase II from a thermophilic methylotrophic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, F J; Flickinger, M C

    1992-01-01

    The structural gene coding for the lysine-sensitive aspartokinase II of the methylotrophic thermotolerant Bacillus sp. strain MGA3 was cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking all three aspartokinase isozymes. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 2.2-kb PstI fragment was determined, and a single open reading frame coding for the aspartokinase II enzyme was found. Aspartokinase II was shown to be an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer (M(r) 122,000) with the beta subunit (M(r) 18,000) encoded within the alpha subunit (M(r) 45,000) in the samea reading frame. The enzyme was purified, and the N-terminal sequences of the alpha and beta subunits were identical with those predicted from the gene sequences. The predicted amino acid sequence was 76% identical with the sequence of the Bacillus subtilis aspartokinase II. The transcription initiation site was located approximately 350 bp upstream of the translation start site, and putative promoter regions at -10 (TATGCT) and -35 (ATGACA) were identified. A 300-nucleotide intervening sequence between the transcription initiation and translational start sites suggests a possible attenuation mechanism for the regulation of transcription of this enzyme in the presence of lysine. Images PMID:1444390

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2012-09-14

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

  17. The RNA Polymerase II Kinase Ctk1 Regulates Positioning of a 5? Histone Methylation Boundary along Genes ?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Tiaojiang; Shibata, Yoichiro; Rao, Bhargavi; Laribee, R. Nicholas; O'Rourke, Rose; Buck, Michael J.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Lieb, Jason D.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In yeast and other eukaryotes, the histone methyltransferase Set1 mediates methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me). This modification marks the 5? end of transcribed genes in a 5?-to-3? tri- to di- to monomethyl gradient and promotes association of chromatin-remodeling and histone-modifying enzymes. Here we show that Ctk1, the serine 2 C-terminal domain (CTD) kinase for RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), regulates H3K4 methylation. We found that CTK1 deletion nearly abolished H3K4 monomethylation yet caused a significant increase in H3K4 di- and trimethylation. Both in individual genes and genome-wide, loss of CTK1 disrupted the H3K4 methylation patterns normally observed. H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 spread 3? into the bodies of genes, while H3K4 monomethylation was diminished. These effects were dependent on the catalytic activity of Ctk1 but are independent of Set2-mediated H3K36 methylation. Furthermore, these effects are not due to spurious transcription initiation in the bodies of genes, to changes in RNAP II occupancy, to changes in serine 5 CTD phosphorylation patterns, or to transcriptional stress. These data show that Ctk1 acts to restrict the spread of H3K4 methylation through a mechanism that is independent of a general transcription defect. The evidence presented suggests that Ctk1 controls the maintenance of suppressive chromatin in the coding regions of genes by both promoting H3K36 methylation, which leads to histone deacetylation, and preventing the 3? spread of H3K4 trimethylation, a mark associated with transcriptional initiation. PMID:17088384

  18. Spread of Recombinant DNA by Roots and Pollen of Transgenic Potato Plants, Identified by Highly Specific Biomonitoring Using Natural Transformation of an Acinetobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Johann; Heine, Martin; Harms, Klaus; Wackernagel, Wilfried

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic potato plants with the nptII gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (kanamycin resistance) as a selection marker were examined for the spread of recombinant DNA into the environment. We used the recombinant fusion of nptII with the tg4 terminator for a novel biomonitoring technique. This depended on natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 cells having in their genomes a terminally truncated nptII gene (nptII?; kanamycin sensitivity) followed by the tg4 terminator. Integration of the recombinant fusion DNA by homologous recombination in nptII? and tg4 restored nptII, leading to kanamycin-resistant transformants. DNA of the transgenic potato was detectable with high sensitivity, while no transformants were obtained with the DNA of other transgenic plants harboring nptII in different genetic contexts. The recombinant DNA was frequently found in rhizosphere extracts of transgenic potato plants from field plots. In a series of field plot and greenhouse experiments we identified two sources of this DNA: spread by roots during plant growth and by pollen during flowering. Both sources also contributed to the spread of the transgene into the rhizospheres of nontransgenic plants in the vicinity. The longest persistence of transforming DNA in field soil was observed with soil from a potato field in 1997 sampled in the following year in April and then stored moist at 4C in the dark for 4 years prior to extract preparation and transformation. In this study natural transformation is used as a reliable laboratory technique to detect recombinant DNA but is not used for monitoring horizontal gene transfer in the environment. PMID:12902229

  19. Characterisation of class II B MHC genes from a ratite bird, the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii).

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary C; Bowker-Wright, Gemma; Kharkrang, Marie; Ramstad, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are important for vertebrate immune response and typically display high levels of diversity due to balancing selection from exposure to diverse pathogens. An understanding of the structure of the MHC region and diversity among functional MHC genes is critical to understanding the evolution of the MHC and species resilience to disease exposure. In this study, we characterise the structure and diversity of class II MHC genes in little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii, a ratite bird representing the basal avian lineage (paleognaths). Results indicate that little spotted kiwi have a more complex MHC structure than that of other non-passerine birds, with at least five class II MHC genes, three of which are expressed and likely to be functional. Levels of MHC variation among little spotted kiwi are extremely low, with 13 birds assayed having nearly identical MHC genotypes (only two genotypes containing four alleles, three of which are fixed). These results suggest that recent genetic drift due to a species-wide bottleneck of at most seven birds has overwhelmed past selection for high MHC diversity in little spotted kiwi, potentially leaving the species highly susceptible to disease. PMID:21221966

  20. Analysis of apoB and apoC-II gene polymorphism in random sample and CHD patients from Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Pogoda, T.V.; Nikonova, A.; Perova, N.V.

    1994-09-01

    We have analyzed the allele frequency distributions of the 3{prime} apoB gene minisatellite and apoC-II gene microsatellite in random sample of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. For this purpose we used the PCR technique followed by high-resolution PAGE. It was revealed that the apoB allele, harboring 30 repeats (apoB 30), as well as the apoC-II allele harboring 30 repeats (apoC-II 30), were less frequent in patients at the same time as the frequency of the apoB 32 and apoC-II 17 alleles was greater in patients. The greater frequency of apoB alleles which were larger in size than apoB 46 (defined as `long` - L) was observed in patients with high apoB levels (>160mg dl). The analysis of apoB genotype distribution showed that in a random sample the most common genotype was apoB 34,36 (a combination of the most frequent alleles in the random sample). In patients with high apoB levels, it was twice less frequent, and the most common genotype was apoB 36,L (43% versus 12% in the random sample). Analysis of data on a lipid spectrum of subjects from the random sample with different apoB and apoC-II 17 alleles were associated with atherogenic shifts in the lipid profile, at the same time as apoB 30 and apoC-II 30 alleles - with an apparently favorable lipid profile. The increment of the disease-related risk was observed for subjects with a combination of apoB 32 allele or apoB 36,L genotype with the apoC-11 17 allele. Alternatively, combination of these apoB variants with the apoC-II 30 allele resulted in decreased related risk. In conclusion, simultaneous analysis of two candidate gene variants demonstrated interaction in their influence on the lipid spectrum.

  1. Genomic instability in the type II TGF-beta1 receptor gene in atherosclerotic and restenotic vascular cells.

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, T A; Du, B; Consigli, S; Szabo, P; Bray, P J; Hartner, L; Weksler, B B; Sanborn, T A; Bergman, G; Bush, H L

    1997-01-01

    Cells proliferating from human atherosclerotic lesions are resistant to the antiproliferative effect of TGF-beta1, a key factor in wound repair. DNA from human atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions was used to test the hypothesis that microsatellite instability leads to specific loss of the Type II receptor for TGF-beta1 (TbetaR-II), causing acquired resistance to TGF-beta1. High fidelity PCR and restriction analysis was adapted to analyze deletions in an A10 microsatellite within TbetaR-II. DNA from lesions, and cells grown from lesions, showed acquired 1 and 2 bp deletions in TbetaR-II, while microsatellites in the hMSH3 and hMSH6 genes, and hypermutable regions of p53 were unaffected. Sequencing confirmed that these deletions occurred principally in the replication error-prone A10 microsatellite region, though nonmicrosatellite mutations were observed. The mutations could be identified within specific patches of the lesion, while the surrounding tissue, or unaffected arteries, exhibited the wild-type genotype. This microsatellite deletion causes frameshift loss of receptor function, and thus, resistance to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of TGF-beta1. We propose that microsatellite instability in TbetaR-II disables growth inhibitory pathways, allowing monoclonal selection of a disease-prone cell type within some vascular lesions. PMID:9410894

  2. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

  3. Dynamic expression pattern of corticotropin-releasing hormone, urotensin I and II genes under acute salinity and temperature challenge during early development of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Chen, Aqin; Hu, Chongchong; Lu, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urotensin I (UI) and urotensin II (UII) are found throughout vertebrate species from fish to human. To further understand the role of crh, uI and uII in teleosts during development, we investigated the expression pattern of crh, uI, uII? and uII? genes, and their response to acute salinity and temperature challenge during early development of zebrafish, Danio rerio. The results reveal that crh, uI, uII? and uII? mRNA are detected from 0hpf, and the expression levels increase to a maximum at 6 days post fertilization (dpf), with the exception of uII? that peak at 5dpf. Exposure of zebrafish embryos and larvae to acute osmotic (30ppt) stress for 15 min failed to modify expression levels of crh, uI, uII? and uII? mRNA from levels in control fish except at 6dpf when uII? and uII? were significantly (P < 0.05) modified. Exposure of embryos and larvae to a cold (18 C) or hot stress (38 C) generally down-regulated mRNA levels of crh, uI, uII? and uII? apart from at 3dpf. The results indicate that the contribution of crh, uI, uII? and uII? genes to the stress response in zebrafish may be stressor-specific during early development. Overall, the results from this study provide a basis for further research into the developmental and stressor-specific function of crh, uI, uII? and uII? in zebrafish. PMID:25154920

  4. A supervised learning approach for taxonomic classification of core-photosystem-II genes and transcripts in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Tzahor, Shani; Man-Aharonovich, Dikla; Kirkup, Benjamin C; Yogev, Tali; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Polz, Martin F; Bj, Oded; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus play a key role in marine photosynthesis, which contributes to the global carbon cycle and to the world oxygen supply. Recently, genes encoding the photosystem II reaction center (psbA and psbD) were found in cyanophage genomes. This phenomenon suggested that the horizontal transfer of these genes may be involved in increasing phage fitness. To date, a very small percentage of marine bacteria and phages has been cultured. Thus, mapping genomic data extracted directly from the environment to its taxonomic origin is necessary for a better understanding of phage-host relationships and dynamics. Results To achieve an accurate and rapid taxonomic classification, we employed a computational approach combining a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a codon usage position specific scoring matrix (cuPSSM). Our method has been applied successfully to classify core-photosystem-II gene fragments, including partial sequences coming directly from the ocean, to seven different taxonomic classes. Applying the method on a large set of DNA and RNA psbA clones from the Mediterranean Sea, we studied the distribution of cyanobacterial psbA genes and transcripts in their natural environment. Using our approach, we were able to simultaneously examine taxonomic and ecological distributions in the marine environment. Conclusion The ability to accurately classify the origin of individual genes and transcripts coming directly from the environment is of great importance in studying marine ecology. The classification method presented in this paper could be applied further to classify other genes amplified from the environment, for which training data is available. PMID:19445709

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of the gene coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II (acoD) of Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed Central

    Priefert, H; Krüger, N; Jendrossek, D; Schmidt, B; Steinbüchel, A

    1992-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II (AcDH-II) from ethanol-grown cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus was determined. By using oligonucleotides deduced from this sequence the structural gene for AcDH-II, which was referred to as acoD, was localized on a 7.2-kbp EcoRI restriction fragment (fragment D), which has been cloned recently (C. Fründ, H. Priefert, A. Steinbüchel, and H. G. Schlegel, J. Bacteriol. 171:6539-6548, 1989). A 2.8-kbp PstI subfragment of D, which harbored acoD, was sequenced. It revealed an open reading frame of 1,518 bp, encoding a protein with a relative molecular weight of 54,819. The insertions of Tn5::mob of two transposon-induced mutants of A. eutrophus, which were impaired in the catabolism of acetoin, were mapped 483 or 1,359 bp downstream from the translational start codon of acoD. The structural gene was preceded by a putative Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The transcriptional start site 57 bp upstream of acoD was identified and was preceded by a sequence which exhibited a striking homology to the enterobacterial sigma 54-dependent promoter consensus sequence. This was in accordance with the observation that the expression of acoD and of other acetoin-catabolic genes depended on the presence of an intact rpoN-like gene. Alignments of the amino acid sequence deduced from acoD with the primary structures of aldehyde dehydrogenases from other sources revealed high degrees of homology, amounting to 46.5% identical amino acids. Images PMID:1732222

  6. Two distinct nuclear factors bind the conserved regulatory sequences of a rabbit major histocompatibility complex class II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sittisombut, N

    1988-01-01

    The constitutive coexpression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes in B lymphocytes requires positive, trans-acting transcriptional factors. The need for these trans-acting factors has been suggested by the reversion of the MHC class II-negative phenotype of rare B-lymphocyte mutants through somatic cell fusion with B cells or T-cell lines. The mechanism by which the trans-acting factors exert their effect on gene transcription is unknown. The possibility that two highly conserved DNA sequences, located 90 to 100 base pairs (bp) (the A sequence) and 60 to 70 bp (the B sequence) upstream of the transcription start site of the class II genes, are recognized by the trans-acting factors was investigated in this study. By using the gel electrophoresis retardation assay, a minimum of two proteins which specifically bound the conserved A or B sequence of a rabbit DP beta gene were identified in murine nuclear extracts of a B-lymphoma cell line, A20-2J. Fractionation of nuclear extract through a heparin-agarose column allowed the identification of one protein, designated NF-MHCIIB, which bound an oligonucleotide containing the B sequence and protected the entire B sequence in the DNase I protection analysis. Another protein, designated NF-MHCIIA, which bound an oligonucleotide containing the A sequence and partially protected the 3' half of this sequence, was also identified. NF-MHCIIB did not protect a CCAAT sequence located 17 bp downstream of the B sequence. The possible relationship between these DNA-binding factors and the trans-acting factors identified in the cell fusion experiments is discussed. Images PMID:3133552

  7. Comprehensive analysis of MHC class II genes in teleost fish genomes reveals dispensability of the peptide-loading DM system in a large part of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play an essential role in presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes in the acquired immune system. The non-classical class II DM molecule, HLA-DM in the case of humans, possesses critical function in assisting the classical MHC class II molecules for proper peptide loading and is highly conserved in tetrapod species. Although the absence of DM-like genes in teleost fish has been speculated based on the results of homology searches, it has not been definitively clear whether the DM system is truly specific for tetrapods or not. To obtain a clear answer, we comprehensively searched class II genes in representative teleost fish genomes and analyzed those genes regarding the critical functional features required for the DM system. Results We discovered a novel ancient class II group (DE) in teleost fish and classified teleost fish class II genes into three major groups (DA, DB and DE). Based on several criteria, we investigated the classical/non-classical nature of various class II genes and showed that only one of three groups (DA) exhibits classical-type characteristics. Analyses of predicted class II molecules revealed that the critical tryptophan residue required for a classical class II molecule in the DM system could be found only in some non-classical but not in classical-type class II molecules of teleost fish. Conclusions Teleost fish, a major group of vertebrates, do not possess the DM system for the classical class II peptide-loading and this sophisticated system has specially evolved in the tetrapod lineage. PMID:24279922

  8. Molecular basis and functional significance of Angiotensin II-induced increase in Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    George, Mereena; Vijayakumar, Anupama; Dhanesh, Sivadasan Bindu; James, Jackson; Shivakumar, K

    2016-01-01

    Delineation of mechanisms underlying the regulation of fibrosis-related genes in the heart is an important clinical goal as cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of myocardial dysfunction. This study probed the regulation of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene expression and the regulatory links between Angiotensin II, DDR2 and collagen in Angiotensin II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses showed that Angiotensin II enhances DDR2 mRNA and protein expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species induction. NF-?B activation, demonstrated by gel shift assay, abolition of DDR2 expression upon NF-?B inhibition, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed transcriptional control of DDR2 by NF-?B in Angiotensin II-treated cells. Inhibitors of Phospholipase C and Protein kinase C prevented Angiotensin II-dependent p38 MAPK phosphorylation that in turn blocked NF-?B activation. Angiotensin II also enhanced collagen gene expression. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of Angiotensin II on DDR2 and collagen were inter-dependent as siRNA-mediated silencing of one abolished the other. Angiotensin II promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation whose inhibition attenuated Angiotensin II-stimulation of collagen but not DDR2. Furthermore, DDR2 knockdown prevented Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that DDR2-dependent ERK1/2 activation enhances collagen expression in cells exposed to Angiotensin II. DDR2 knockdown was also associated with compromised wound healing response to Angiotensin II. To conclude, Angiotensin II promotes NF-?B activation that up-regulates DDR2 transcription. A reciprocal regulatory relationship between DDR2 and collagen, involving cross-talk between the GPCR and RTK pathways, is central to Angiotensin II-induced increase in collagen expression in cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:26674152

  9. Assignment of the human casein kinase II [alpha][prime] subunit gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosome 16p13. 2-p13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Yang-Feng, T.L. ); Naiman, T.; Kopatz, I.; Eli, D.; Dafni, N.; Canaani, D. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors have previously mapped the CK II-[beta] gene (CSNK2B) to chromosome 6p12-p21 and the CK II-[alpha] sequence to two sites, chromosomes 11p15.5-p15.4 and 20p13, the latter having been verified by other investigators. The sequencing of a genomic human DNA fragment has shown that the CK II-[alpha] gene (CSNK2A) localized to chromosome 11 is a processed (pseudo) gene and therefore the active gene is presumably on chromosome 20. The other catalytic subunit gene CK II-[alpha][prime] was localized to chromosome 16 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The authors now report the regional mapping of the CK II-[alpha][prime] gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosome 16p13.2-p13.3. The probe used was a 414-bp fragment from the 3[prime] nontranslated region of the human CK II-[alpha][prime] cDNA. Chromosomal localization was carried out by in situ hybridization as previously described. Of 128 grains scored in 75 cells, 13 (10.2%) were located on the distal short arm of chromosome 16, bands p13.2-p13.3. No other sites were labeled above background. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  10. RNA pol II transcript abundance controls condensin accumulation at mitotically up-regulated and heat-shock-inducible genes in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Sajiki, Kenichi; Xu, Xingya; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Arakawa, Orie; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Condensin plays fundamental roles in chromosome dynamics. In this study, we determined the binding sites of condensin on fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) chromosomes at the level of nucleotide sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq). We found that condensin binds to RNA polymerase I-, II- and III-transcribed genes during both mitosis and interphase, and we focused on pol II constitutive and inducible genes. Accumulation sites for condensin are distinct from those of cohesin and DNA topoisomerase II. Using cell cycle stage and heat-shock-inducible genes, we show that pol II-mediated transcripts cause condensin accumulation. First, condensin's enrichment on mitotically activated genes was abolished by deleting the sep1+ gene that encodes an M-phase-specific forkhead transcription factor. Second, by raising the temperature, condensin accumulation was rapidly induced at heat-shock protein genes in interphase and even during mid-mitosis. In interphase, condensin accumulates preferentially during the postreplicative phase. Pol II-mediated transcription was neither repressed nor activated by condensin, as levels of transcripts per se did not change when mutant condensin failed to associate with chromosomal DNA. However, massive chromosome missegregation occurred, suggesting that abundant pol II transcription may require active condensin before proper chromosome segregation. PMID:25847133

  11. Mucolipidosis types II and III and non-syndromic stuttering are associated with different variants in the same genes.

    PubMed

    Raza, M Hashim; Domingues, Carlos E F; Webster, Ronald; Sainz, Eduardo; Paris, Emily; Rahn, Rachel; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chow, Ho Ming; Mundorff, Jennifer; Kang, Chang-Soo; Riaz, Naveeda; Basra, Muhammad A R; Khan, Shaheen; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Braun, Allen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Homozygous mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG are classically associated with mucolipidosis II (ML II) alpha/beta and mucolipidosis III (ML III) alpha/beta/gamma, which are rare lysosomal storage disorders characterized by multiple pathologies. Recently, variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and the functionally related NAGPA gene have been associated with non-syndromic persistent stuttering. In a worldwide sample of 1013 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic persistent stuttering we found 164 individuals who carried a rare non-synonymous coding variant in one of these three genes. We compared the frequency of these variants with those in population-matched controls and genomic databases, and their location with those reported in mucolipidosis. Stuttering subjects displayed an excess of non-synonymous coding variants compared to controls and individuals in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases. We identified a total of 81 different variants in our stuttering cases. Virtually all of these were missense substitutions, only one of which has been previously reported in mucolipidosis, a disease frequently associated with complete loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesize that rare non-synonymous coding variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA may account for as much as 16% of persistent stuttering cases, and that variants in GNPTAB and GNPTG are at different sites and may in general, cause less severe effects on protein function than those in ML II alpha/beta and ML III alpha/beta/gamma. PMID:26130485

  12. Mutations in the COL5A1 gene are causal in the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes I and II.

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, A; Nuytinck, L; Hausser, I; Anton-Lamprecht, I; Naeyaert, J M

    1997-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous connective-tissue disorder of which at least nine subtypes are recognized. Considerable clinical overlap exists between the EDS I and II subtypes, suggesting that both are allelic disorders. Recent evidence based on linkage and transgenic mice studies suggest that collagen V is causally involved in human EDS. Collagen V forms heterotypic fibrils with collagen I in many tissues and plays an important role in collagen I fibrillogenesis. We have identified a mutation in COL5A1, the gene encoding the pro(alpha)1(V) collagen chain, segregating with EDS I in a four-generation family. The mutation causes the substitution of the most 5' cysteine residue by a serine within a highly conserved sequence of the pro(alpha)1(V) C-propeptide domain and causes reduction of collagen V by preventing incorporation of the mutant pro(alpha)1(V) chains in the collagen V trimers. In addition, we have detected splicing defects in the COL5A1 gene in a patient with EDS I and in a family with EDS II. These findings confirm the causal role of collagen V in at least a subgroup of EDS I, prove that EDS I and II are allelic conditions, and represent a, so far, unique example of a human collagen disorder caused by substitution of a highly conserved cysteine residue in the C-propeptide domain of a fibrillar collagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9042913

  13. Global gene silencing is caused by the dissociation of RNA polymerase II from DNA in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    ABE, Ken-Ichiro; INOUE, Azusa; SUZUKI, Masataka G; AOKI, Fugaku

    2010-10-01

    As mouse oocytes approach maturity, a global repression of gene transcription occurs. Here, we investigated the involvement of RPB1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), in the regulation of this transcriptional silencing mechanism. Using BrUTP to follow transcription in an in vitro run-on assay, we observed an abrupt decrease in transcriptional activity when oocytes reached their full size (approximately 80 µm). Immunoblotting using antibodies specific for the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of RPB1 revealed that RPB1 is phosphorylated at Ser-2 and Ser-5 in the small growing oocytes in which active transcription occurs. By contrast, in transcriptionally inactive, full-grown oocytes, RPB1 is predominantly unphosphorylated. When we permeabilized the nuclear membrane using Triton X-100 during fixation for immunocytochemistry, the unphosphorylated form of RPB1 diffused out of the nucleus in the full-grown oocytes but still remained there in the small growing oocytes, indicating that RPB1 is not bound to DNA in full-grown oocytes. These results suggest that the immediate cause of global transcriptional silencing is the dissociation of RNAP II from the DNA. We also observed dissociation of RPB1 from the DNA in full-grown oocytes treated with trichostatin A to decondense their chromatin, suggesting that chromatin condensation is not an essential process in gene silencing during oocyte growth. PMID:20562521

  14. Computational Prediction of Phylogenetically Conserved Sequence Motifs for Five Different Candidate Genes in Type II Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, T; Rajamanikandan, S; Srinivasan, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Computational identification of phylogenetic motifs helps to understand the knowledge about known functional features that includes catalytic site, substrate binding epitopes, and protein-protein interfaces. Furthermore, they are strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. The study aimed to analyze five candidate genes involved in type II diabetic nephropathy and to predict phylogenetic motifs from their corresponding orthologous protein sequences. Methods: AKR1B1, APOE, ENPP1, ELMO1 and IGFBP1 are the genes that have been identified as an important target for type II diabetic nephropathy through experimental studies. Their corresponding protein sequences, structures, orthologous sequences were retrieved from UniprotKB, PDB, and PHOG database respectively. Multiple sequence alignments were constructed using ClustalW and phylogenetic motifs were identified using MINER. The occurrence of amino acids in the obtained phylogenetic motifs was generated using WebLogo and false positive expectations were calculated against phylogenetic similarity. Results: In total, 17 phylogenetic motifs were identified from the five proteins and the residues such as glycine, leucine, tryptophan, aspartic acid were found in appreciable frequency whereas arginine identified in all the predicted PMs. The result implies that these residues can be important to the functional and structural role of the proteins and calculated false positive expectations implies that they were generally conserved in traditional sense. Conclusion: The prediction of phylogenetic motifs is an accurate method for detecting functionally important conserved residues. The conserved motifs can be used as a potential drug target for type II diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23113206

  15. Chromatin features, RNA polymerase II and the comparative expression of lens genes encoding crystallins, transcription factors, and autophagy mediators

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Rockowitz, Shira; Chauss, Daniel; Wang, Ping; Kantorow, Marc; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gene expression correlates with local chromatin structure. Our studies have mapped histone post-translational modifications, RNA polymerase II (pol II), and transcription factor Pax6 in lens chromatin. These data represent the first genome-wide insights into the relationship between lens chromatin structure and lens transcriptomes and serve as an excellent source for additional data analysis and refinement. The principal lens proteins, the crystallins, are encoded by predominantly expressed mRNAs; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying their high expression in the lens remain poorly understood. Methods The formaldehyde-assisted identification of regulatory regions (FAIRE-Seq) was employed to analyze newborn lens chromatin. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data published earlier (GSE66961) have been used to assist in FAIRE-seq data interpretation. RNA transcriptomes from murine lens epithelium, lens fibers, erythrocytes, forebrain, liver, neurons, and pancreas were compared to establish the gene expression levels of the most abundant mRNAs versus median gene expression across other differentiated cells. Results Normalized RNA expression data from multiple tissues show that crystallins rank among the most highly expressed genes in mammalian cells. These findings correlate with the extremely high abundance of pol II all across the crystallin loci, including crystallin genes clustered on chromosomes 1 and 5, as well as within regions of “open” chromatin, as identified by FAIRE-seq. The expression levels of mRNAs encoding DNA-binding transcription factors (e.g., Foxe3, Hsf4, Maf, Pax6, Prox1, Sox1, and Tfap2a) revealed that their transcripts form “clusters” of abundant mRNAs in either lens fibers or lens epithelium. The expression of three autophagy regulatory mRNAs, encoding Tfeb, FoxO1, and Hif1α, was found within a group of lens preferentially expressed transcription factors compared to the E12.5 forebrain. Conclusions This study reveals novel features of lens chromatin, including the remarkably high abundance of pol II at the crystallin loci that exhibit features of “open” chromatin. Hsf4 ranks among the most abundant fiber cell-preferred DNA-binding transcription factors. Notable transcripts, including Atf4, Ctcf, E2F4, Hey1, Hmgb1, Mycn, RXRβ, Smad4, Sp1, and Taf1 (transcription factors) and Ctsd, Gabarapl1, and Park7 (autophagy regulators) have been identified with high levels of expression in lens fibers, which suggests specific roles in lens fiber cell terminal differentiation. PMID:26330747

  16. Major histocompatibility genes in the Lake Tana African large barb species flock: evidence for complete partitioning of class II B, but not class I, genes among different species.

    PubMed

    Kruiswijk, Corine P; Hermsen, Trudi; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Dixon, Brian; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Stet, Ren J M

    2005-03-01

    The 16 African 'large' barb fish species of Lake Tana inhabit different ecological niches, exploit different food webs and have different temporal and spatial spawning patterns within the lake. This unique fish species flock is thought to be the result of adaptive radiation within the past 5 million years. Previous analyses of major histocompatibility class II B exon 2 sequences in four Lake Tana African large barb species revealed that these sequences are indeed under selection. No sharing of class II B alleles was observed among the four Lake Tana African large barb species. In this study we analysed the class II B exon 2 sequences of seven additional Lake Tana African large barb species and African large barbs from the Blue Nile and its tributaries. In addition, the presence and variability of major histocompatibility complex class I UA exon 3 sequences in six Lake Tana and Blue Nile African large barb species was analysed. Phylogenetic lineages are maintained by purifying or neutral selection on non-peptide binding regions. Class II B intron 1 and exon 2 sequences were not shared among the different Lake Tana African large barb species or with the riverine barb species. In contrast, identical class I UA exon 3 sequences were found both in the lacustrine and riverine barb species. Our analyses demonstrate complete partitioning of class II B alleles among Lake Tana African large barb species. In contrast, class I alleles remain for the large part shared among species. These different modes of evolution probably reflect the unlinked nature of major histocompatibility genes in teleost fishes. PMID:15700121

  17. Splitting Hares and Tortoises: A Classification of Neuronal Immediate Early Gene Transcription Based on Poised RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ramendra N.; Dudek, Serena M.

    2013-01-01

    Immediate early transcription is an integral part of the neuronal response to environmental stimulation and serves many brain processes including development, learning, triggers of programmed cell death, and reaction to injury and drugs. Following a stimulus, neurons express a select few genes within a short period of time without undergoing de novo protein translation. Referred to as the gateway to genetic response, these immediate early genes (IEGs) are either expressed within a few minutes of stimulation or later within the hour. In neuronal IEGs that are expressed rapidly, productive elongation in response to neuronal activity is jump-started by constitutive transcription initiation together with RNA polymerase II stalling in the vicinity of the promoter. IEGs expressed later in the hour do not depend on this mechanism. On the basis of this Polymerase II poising, we propose that the immediate early genes can be grouped in two distinct classes: the rapid and the delayed IEGs. The possible biological relevance of these classes in neurons is discussed. PMID:23711585

  18. The Role of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in HIV-1 Gene Expression, Replication, and Latency.

    PubMed

    Nilson, Kyle A; Price, David H

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 usurps the RNA polymerase II elongation control machinery to regulate the expression of its genome during lytic and latent viral stages. After integration into the host genome, the HIV promoter within the long terminal repeat (LTR) is subject to potent downregulation in a postinitiation step of transcription. Once produced, the viral protein Tat commandeers the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, and brings it to the engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II), leading to the production of viral proteins and genomic RNA. HIV can also enter a latent phase during which factors that regulate Pol II elongation may play a role in keeping the virus silent. HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, is a worldwide health concern. It is hoped that knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the HIV genome will lead to treatments and ultimately a cure. PMID:22567366

  19. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  20. Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.; Fukai, K.; Holmes, S.A.

    1995-06-01

    Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,400. We have identified abnormalities of the P gene in each of 13 unrelated patients with OCA2 from Tanzania. One of these, a deletion of exon 7, is strongly predominant, accounting for {approximately}77% of mutant alleles in this group of patients. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Estrogen-inducible and liver-specific expression of the chicken Very Low Density Apolipoprotein II gene locus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wijnholds, J; Philipsen, S; Pruzina, S; Fraser, P; Grosveld, F; Ab, G

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the chicken Very Low Density Apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene locus in transgenic mice. A DNA fragment composed of the transcribed region, 16 kb of 5' flanking and 400 bp of 3' flanking sequences contained all the information sufficient for estrogen-inducible, liver-specific expression of the apoVLDL II gene. The far-upstream region contains a Negative Regulating Element coinciding with a DNaseI-hypersensitive site at -11 kb. In transgenic mice, the NRE at -11 kb is used for downregulating the expression to a lower maximum level. The NRE might be used for modulating apoVLDL II gene expression, and may be involved in the rapid shut-down of the expression after hormone removal. Images PMID:8479914

  2. Estrogen-inducible and liver-specific expression of the chicken Very Low Density Apolipoprotein II gene locus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wijnholds, J; Philipsen, S; Pruzina, S; Fraser, P; Grosveld, F; Ab, G

    1993-04-11

    We have examined the chicken Very Low Density Apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene locus in transgenic mice. A DNA fragment composed of the transcribed region, 16 kb of 5' flanking and 400 bp of 3' flanking sequences contained all the information sufficient for estrogen-inducible, liver-specific expression of the apoVLDL II gene. The far-upstream region contains a Negative Regulating Element coinciding with a DNaseI-hypersensitive site at -11 kb. In transgenic mice, the NRE at -11 kb is used for downregulating the expression to a lower maximum level. The NRE might be used for modulating apoVLDL II gene expression, and may be involved in the rapid shut-down of the expression after hormone removal. PMID:8479914

  3. Lipophilic tetranuclear ruthenium(II) complexes as two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bole; Ouyang, Cheng; Qiu, Kangqiang; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-02-23

    Fluorescence detection is the most effective tool for tracking gene delivery in living cells. To reduce photodamage and autofluorescence and to increase deep penetration into cells, choosing appropriate fluorophores that are capable of two-photon activation under irradiation in the NIR or IR regions is an effective approach. In this work, we have developed six tetranuclear ruthenium(II) complexes, GV1-6, and have studied their one- and two-photon luminescence properties. DNA interaction studies have demonstrated that GV2-6, bearing hydrophobic alkyl ether chains, show more efficient DNA condensing ability but lower DNA binding constants than GV1. However, the hydrophobic alkyl ether chains also enhance the DNA delivery ability of GV2-6 compared with that of GV1. More importantly, we have applied GV1-6 as non-viral gene vectors for tracking DNA delivery in living cells by one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopies. In two-photon microscopy, a high signal-to-noise contrast was achieved by irradiation with an 830?nm laser. This is the first example of the use of transition-metal complexes for two-photon luminescent tracking of the cellular pathways of gene delivery and as DNA carriers. Our work provides new insights into improving real-time tracking during gene delivery and transfection as well as important information for the design of multifunctional non-viral vectors. PMID:25597394

  4. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  5. Protein signaling and regulation of gene transcription in leukemia: role of the Casein Kinase II-Ikaros axis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Chandrika S; Song, Chunhua; Ding, Yali; Kapadia, Malika; Dovat, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    Protein signaling and regulation of gene expression are the two major mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation in leukemia. Discerning the function of these processes is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of leukemia and for developing the targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of one of the mechanisms that regulates gene transcription in leukemia. This mechanism involves the direct interaction between Casein Kinase II (CK2) and the Ikaros transcription factor. Ikaros (IKZF1) functions as a master regulator of hematopoiesis and a tumor suppressor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Impaired Ikaros function results in the development of high-risk leukemia. Ikaros binds to the upstream regulatory elements of its target genes and regulates their transcription via chromatin remodeling. In vivo, Ikaros is a target for CK2, a pro-oncogenic kinase. CK2 directly phosphorylates Ikaros at multiple amino acids. Functional experiments showed that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ikaros, regulates Ikaros' DNA binding affinity, subcellular localization and protein stability. Recent studies revealed that phosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 regulates Ikaros binding and repression of the terminal deoxytransferase (TdT) gene in normal thymocytes and in T-cell ALL. Available data suggest that the oncogenic activity of CK2 in leukemia involves functional inactivation of Ikaros and provide a rationale for CK2 inhibitors as a potential treatment for ALL. PMID:26912004

  6. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene) in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weicai; Bei, Yongjian; Li, Hanhua

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB) exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ? dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation. PMID:25629763

  7. Sequence, distribution and chromosomal context of class I and class II pilin genes of Neisseria meningitidis identified in whole genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis expresses type four pili (Tfp) which are important for colonisation and virulence. Tfp have been considered as one of the most variable structures on the bacterial surface due to high frequency gene conversion, resulting in amino acid sequence variation of the major pilin subunit (PilE). Meningococci express either a class I or a class II pilE gene and recent work has indicated that class II pilins do not undergo antigenic variation, as class II pilE genes encode conserved pilin subunits. The purpose of this work was to use whole genome sequences to further investigate the frequency and variability of the class II pilE genes in meningococcal isolate collections. Results We analysed over 600 publically available whole genome sequences of N. meningitidis isolates to determine the sequence and genomic organization of pilE. We confirmed that meningococcal strains belonging to a limited number of clonal complexes (ccs, namely cc1, cc5, cc8, cc11 and cc174) harbour a class II pilE gene which is conserved in terms of sequence and chromosomal context. We also identified pilS cassettes in all isolates with class II pilE, however, our analysis indicates that these do not serve as donor sequences for pilE/pilS recombination. Furthermore, our work reveals that the class II pilE locus lacks the DNA sequence motifs that enable (G4) or enhance (Sma/Cla repeat) pilin antigenic variation. Finally, through analysis of pilin genes in commensal Neisseria species we found that meningococcal class II pilE genes are closely related to pilE from Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria polysaccharea, suggesting horizontal transfer among these species. Conclusions Class II pilins can be defined by their amino acid sequence and genomic context and are present in meningococcal isolates which have persisted and spread globally. The absence of G4 and Sma/Cla sequences adjacent to the class II pilE genes is consistent with the lack of pilin subunit variation in these isolates, although horizontal transfer may generate class II pilin diversity. This study supports the suggestion that high frequency antigenic variation of pilin is not universal in pathogenic Neisseria. PMID:24690385

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (P<0.05) in LXSN rats (23+/-1, 37+/-2, and 52+/-2 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng). Importantly, treating LSN-HHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli. PMID:15166181

  9. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Venta, P J; Welty, R J; Johnson, T M; Sly, W S; Tashian, R E

    1991-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), which has the highest turnover number and widest tissue distribution of any of the seven CA isozymes known in humans, is absent from the red blood cells and probably from other tissues of patients with CA II deficiency syndrome. We have sequenced the CA II gene in a patient from a consanguinous marriage in a Belgian family and identified the mutation that is probably the cause of the CA II deficiency in that family. The change is a C-to-T transition which results in the substitution of Tyr (TAT) for His (CAT) at position 107. This histidine is invariant in all amniotic CA isozymes sequenced to date, as well as the CAs from elasmobranch and algal sources and in a viral CA-related protein. His-107 appears to have a stabilizing function in the structure of all CA molecules, and its substitution by Tyr apparently disrupts the critical hydrogen bonding of His-107 to two other similarly invariant residues, Glu-117 and Tyr-194, resulting in an unstable CA II molecule. We have also completed the intron-exon structure of the normal human CA II gene, which has allowed us to prepare PCR primers for all exons. These primers will facilitate the determination of the mutations in other inherited CA II deficiencies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1928091

  10. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal. PMID:20821315

  11. EVIDENCE OF MINOR GENES IN CHICKPEA 'SPANISH WHITE' FOR RESISTANCE TO ASCOCHYTA RABIEI PATHOTYPE II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVES Isolates from the United States of Ascochyta rabiei, the causal agent of chickpea Ascochyta blight, were divided into two pathotypes (I and II). Cultivar ‘Spanish White’ is susceptible to both pathotypes and ‘Dwelley’ is resistant to pathotype I but susceptible to pathotyp...

  12. Atypical Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b strains harboring a lineage II-specific gene cassette

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a severe foodborne illness. The population of L. monocytogenes is divided into four lineages (I-IV) and serotype 4b in lineage I has been involved in numerous outbreaks. Several serotype 4b epidemic-associated clonal groups (ECI, II, an...

  13. TALE-PvuII Fusion Proteins – Novel Tools for Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24349308

  14. Inactivation of topoisomerases affects transcription-dependent chromatin transitions in rDNA but not in a gene transcribed by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, G; Bachmann, D; Thoma, F

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies on a chromatin reporter gene (GAL-URARIB) in yeast showed that nucleosomes were maintained but rearranged during transcription in galactose, which was consistent with local dissociation of histones at the site of the RNA polymerase. Furthermore, repositioning of nucleosomes occurred rapidly after glucose repression. Because nucleosomal disruption and transcription produce topological changes in the chromatin substrate, the effect of topoisomerase activity was tested by the insertion of GAL-URABIB in topoisomerase mutant strains. The chromatin structure was analysed by nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking, and compared with that of the rDNA locus. In GAL-URARIB, neither the inactivation of topoisomerases I, II or I and II generated nucleosomal loss during transcription, nor was topoisomerase activity required for repositioning of the nucleosomes after repression. In contrast, the inactivation of topoisomerase I promoted an enhanced psoralen accessibility of the transcribed rDNA, possibly because of altered supercoiling, and the inactivation of topoisomerases I and II disrupted the chromatin structure of the whole rDNA locus by redistribution of the nucleosomes. The inactivation of topoisomerase II alone had no effect. These observations substantiate a differential participation of topoisomerases in the modulation of the chromatin structures of rDNA genes and of a single copy polymerase II gene. It is suggested that topological stress in genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II might diffuse away into flanking regions. Images PMID:8599942

  15. Expanding our Understanding of Sequence-Function Relationships of Type II Polyketide Biosynthetic Gene Clusters: Bioinformatics-Guided Identification of Frankiamicin A from Frankia sp. EAN1pec

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Yackley, Benjamin J.; Greenberg, Jacob A.; Rogelj, Snezna; Melanon, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    A large and rapidly increasing number of unstudied orphan natural product biosynthetic gene clusters are being uncovered in sequenced microbial genomes. An important goal of modern natural products research is to be able to accurately predict natural product structures and biosynthetic pathways from these gene cluster sequences. This requires both development of bioinformatic methods for global analysis of these gene clusters and experimental characterization of select products produced by gene clusters with divergent sequence characteristics. Here, we conduct global bioinformatic analysis of all available type II polyketide gene cluster sequences and identify a conserved set of gene clusters with unique ketosynthase ?/? sequence characteristics in the genomes of Frankia species, a group of Actinobacteria with underexploited natural product biosynthetic potential. Through LC-MS profiling of extracts from several Frankia species grown under various conditions, we identified Frankia sp. EAN1pec as producing a compound with spectral characteristics consistent with the type II polyketide produced by this gene cluster. We isolated the compound, a pentangular polyketide which we named frankiamicin A, and elucidated its structure by NMR and labeled precursor feeding. We also propose biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for frankiamicin A based on comparative genomic analysis and literature precedent, and conduct bioactivity assays of the compound. Our findings provide new information linking this set of Frankia gene clusters with the compound they produce, and our approach has implications for accurate functional prediction of the many other type II polyketide clusters present in bacterial genomes. PMID:25837682

  16. HER2 gene amplification and EGFR expression in a large cohort of surgically staged patients with nonendometrioid (type II) endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Konecny, G E; Santos, L; Winterhoff, B; Hatmal, M; Keeney, G L; Mariani, A; Jones, M; Neuper, C; Thomas, B; Muderspach, L; Riehle, D; Wang, H-J; Dowdy, S; Podratz, K C; Press, M F

    2008-01-01

    Type II endometrial cancers (uterine serous papillary and clear cell histologies) represent rare but highly aggressive variants of endometrial cancer (EC). HER2 and EGFR may be differentially expressed in type II EC. Here, we evaluate the clinical role of HER2 and EGFR in a large cohort of surgically staged patients with type II (nonendometrioid) EC and compare the findings with those seen in a representative cohort of type I (endometrioid) EC. In this study HER2 gene amplification was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 279 patients with EC (145 patients with type I and 134 patients with type II EC). All patients were completely surgically staged and long-term clinical follow up was available for 258 patients. The rate of HER2 gene amplification was significantly higher in type II EC compared with type I EC (17 vs 1%, P<0.001). HER2 gene amplification was detected in 17 and 16% of the cases with uterine serous papillary and clear cell type histology, respectively. In contrast, EGFR expression was significantly lower in type II compared with type I EC (34 vs 46%, P=0.041). EGFR expression but not HER2 gene amplification was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with type II EC, (EGFR, median survival 20 vs 33 months, P=0.028; HER2, median survival 18 vs 29 months, P=0.113) and EGFR expression retained prognostic independence when adjusting for histology, stage, grade, and age (EGFR, P=0.0197; HER2, P=0.7855). We conclude that assessment of HER2 gene amplification and/or EGFR expression may help to select type II EC patients who could benefit from therapeutic strategies targeting both HER2 and EGFR. PMID:19088718

  17. Temporal Dissection of Rate Limiting Transcriptional Events Using Pol II ChIP and RNA Analysis of Adrenergic Stress Gene Activation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel P.; Lei, Beilei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Bomsztyk, Karol; Schwinn, Debra A.; Michelotti, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, increasing evidence supports mechanisms of co-transcriptional gene regulation and the generality of genetic control subsequent to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment. In this report, we use Pol II Chromatin Immunoprecipitation to investigate relationships between the mechanistic events controlling immediate early gene (IEG) activation following stimulation of the α1a-Adrenergic Receptor expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. We validate our Pol II ChIP assay by comparison to major transcriptional events assessable by microarray and PCR analysis of precursor and mature mRNA. Temporal analysis of Pol II density suggests that reduced proximal pausing often enhances gene expression and was essential for Nr4a3 expression. Nevertheless, for Nr4a3 and several other genes, proximal pausing delayed the time required for initiation of productive elongation, consistent with a role in ensuring transcriptional fidelity. Arrival of Pol II at the 3’ cleavage site usually correlated with increased polyadenylated mRNA; however, for Nfil3 and probably Gprc5a expression was delayed and accompanied by apparent pre-mRNA degradation. Intragenic pausing not associated with polyadenylation was also found to regulate and delay Gprc5a expression. Temporal analysis of Nr4a3, Dusp5 and Nfil3 shows that transcription of native IEG genes can proceed at velocities of 3.5 to 4 kilobases/min immediately after activation. Of note, all of the genes studied here also used increased Pol II recruitment as an important regulator of expression. Nevertheless, the generality of co-transcriptional regulation during IEG activation suggests temporal and integrated analysis will often be necessary to distinguish causative from potential rate limiting mechanisms. PMID:26244980

  18. Characterization of a putative cis-regulatory element that controls transcriptional activity of the pig uroplakin II gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Mi-Ryung; Park, Jong-Yi; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Oh, Jae-Wook; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} The sequences of -604 to -84 bp of the pUPII promoter contained the region of a putative negative cis-regulatory element. {yields} The core promoter was located in the 5F-1. {yields} Transcription factor HNF4 can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. {yields} These features of the pUPII promoter are fundamental to development of a target-specific vector. -- Abstract: Uroplakin II (UPII) is a one of the integral membrane proteins synthesized as a major differentiation product of mammalian urothelium. UPII gene expression is bladder specific and differentiation dependent, but little is known about its transcription response elements and molecular mechanism. To identify the cis-regulatory elements in the pig UPII (pUPII) gene promoter region, we constructed pUPII 5' upstream region deletion mutants and demonstrated that each of the deletion mutants participates in controlling the expression of the pUPII gene in human bladder carcinoma RT4 cells. We also identified a new core promoter region and putative negative cis-regulatory element within a minimal promoter region. In addition, we showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter (5F-1) region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. Transient cotransfection experiments showed that HNF4 positively regulates pUPII gene promoter activity. Thus, the binding element and its binding protein, HNF4 transcription factor, may be involved in the mechanism that specifically regulates pUPII gene transcription.

  19. Loss of DNase II function in the gonad is associated with a higher expression of antimicrobial genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Chen, Chang-Shi; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-08-15

    Three waves of apoptosis shape the development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the exact roles of the three DNase II genes (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), which are known to mediate degradation of apoptotic DNA, in the embryonic and larval phases of apoptosis have been characterized, the DNase II acting in the third wave of germ cell apoptosis remains undetermined. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo assays on various mutant nematodes to demonstrate that NUC-1 and CRN-7, but not CRN-6, function in germ cell apoptosis. In addition, in situ DNA-break detection and anti-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) staining illustrated the sequential and spatially regulated actions of NUC-1 and CRN-7, at the pachytene zone of the gonad and at the loop respectively. In line with the notion that UV-induced DNA fragment accumulation in the gonad activates innate immunity responses, we also found that loss of NUC-1 and CRN-7 lead to up-regulation of antimicrobial genes (abf-2, spp-1, nlp-29, cnc-2, and lys-7). Our observations suggest that an incomplete digestion of DNA fragments resulting from the absence of NUC-1 or CRN-7 in the gonad could induce the ERK signalling, consequently activating antimicrobial gene expression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that nuc-1 and crn-7 play a role in degrading apoptotic DNA in distinct sites of the gonad, and act as negative regulators of innate immunity in C. elegans. PMID:26251453

  20. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II: report of a novel mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Shafeghati, Yousef; Momenin, Nima; Esfahani, Taher; Reyniers, Edwin; Wuyts, Wim

    2008-05-01

    Hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets type or vitamin D-dependent rickets type II is a genetically determined and rare autosomal recessive disorder, most often caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor gene. It usually presents with rachitic changes not responsive to vitamin D treatment and the circulating levels of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D-3 are elevated, differentiating it from vitamin D-dependent rickets type I. Alopecia capitis or alopecia totalis is seen in some families with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II. This is usually associated with a more severe phenotype. In this report, we present the clinical findings on a family which exhibited the typical clinical features of hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets in two siblings. In addition, molecular analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene was performed by sequencing all coding exons. The cardinal findings in the index patient were alopecia totalis, renal tubular acidosis, mild generalized aminoaciduria, refractory rickets, high alkaline phosphatase, and hyperparathyroidism. Other routine biochemical tests were within normal limits, but 1+ glycine was detected in his urine. Skin biopsy results were compatible with alopecia areata. A previous child with similar phenotype was reported to be deceased at the age of 32 months. Mutation analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene by direct sequencing analysis of all coding exons showed a homozygous c.122GA(p.Cys41Tyr) variant in exon 2 with several arguments pointing to a pathogenic effect. We should be aware of this very rare disease whenever we see a patient with refractory rickets and alopecia. PMID:18426327

  1. Overexpression of the IGF-II/M6P receptor in mouse fibroblast cell lines differentially alters expression profiles of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlin; Thinakaran, Gopal; Kar, Satyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of senile dementia affecting elderly people. The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leading to the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide contributes to neurodegeneration and development of AD pathology. The endocytic trafficking pathway, which comprises of the endosomes and lysosomes, acts as an important site for Aβ generation, and endocytic dysfunction has been linked to increased Aβ production and loss of neurons in AD brains. Since insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptor plays a critical role in the transport of lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, it is likely that the receptor may have a role in regulating Aβ metabolism in AD pathology. However, very little is known on how altered levels of the IGF-II receptor can influence the expression/function of various molecules involved in AD pathology. To address this issue, we evaluated the expression profiles of 87 selected genes related to AD pathology in mouse fibroblast MS cells that are deficient in murine IGF-II receptor and corresponding MS9II cells overexpressing ∼ 500 times the human IGF-II receptors. Our results reveal that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels alters the expression profiles of a number of genes including APP as well as enzymes regulating Aβ production, degradation and clearance mechanisms. Additionally, it influences the expression of various lysosomal enzymes and protein kinases that are involved in Aβ toxicity. IGF-II receptor overexpression also alters expression of several genes involved in intracellular signalling as well as cholesterol metabolism, which play a critical role in AD pathology. The altered gene profiles observed in this study closely match with the corresponding protein levels, with a few exceptions. These results, taken together, suggest that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels can influence the expression profiles of transcripts as well as proteins that are involved in AD pathogenesis. PMID:24846272

  2. Topoisomerase II? binding protein 1 c.*229C>T (rs115160714) gene polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Forma, Ewa; Wjcik-Krowiranda, Katarzyna; J?wiak, Pawe?; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bie?kiewicz, Andrzej; Bry?, Magdalena; Krze?lak, Anna

    2014-07-01

    TopBP1 (topoisomerase II? binding protein 1) protein is involved in DNA replication, DNA damage checkpoint response and transcriptional regulation. In this study we investigated whether alterations in the TopBP1 gene can influence the risk of endometrial cancer. We examined the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs185903567, rs116645643, rs115160714, rs116195487, and rs112843513) located in the 3'UTR region of the TopBP1 gene and endometrial cancer risk as well as allele-specific gene expression. One hundred twenty-one endometrial cancer patients were genotyped for these SNPs. Allele-specific TopBP1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real time PCR and western blotting methods, respectively. Only one SNP (rs115160714) showed an association with endometrial cancer. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygous for the T variant had significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?5.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.96-15.91, p?=?0.0003]. Mean TopBP1 mRNA and protein expression were higher in the individuals with the CT genotype. There was a significant association between the rs115160714 and tumor grade and FIGO classification. Most carriers of minor allele had a high grade tumors (G3) classified as FIGO III/IV. The results of our study raise a possibility that a genetic variation of TopBP1 may be implicated in the etiology of endometrial cancer. PMID:24346708

  3. 9-cis-retinoic acid represses estrogen-induced expression of the very low density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Schippers, I J; Kloppenburg, M; Snippe, L; Ab, G

    1994-11-01

    The chicken very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene is estrogen-inducible and specifically expressed in liver. We examined the possible involvement of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) in the activation of the apoVLDLII promoter. We first concentrated on a potential RXR recognition site, which deviates at only one position from a perfect direct A/GGGTCA repeat spaced by one nucleotide (DR-1) and was earlier identified as a common HNF-4/COUP-TF recognition site. However, band shift analysis revealed that this imperfect DR-1 motif does not interact with RXR alpha-homodimers. In accordance with this observation we found that this regulatory element does not mediate transactivation through RXR alpha in the presence of 9-cis-RA. However, our experiments revealed another, unexpected, effect of 9-cis-RA. Instead of stimulating, 9-cis-RA attenuated estrogen-induced expression of transfected estrogen-responsive VLDL-CAT reporter plasmids. This repression appeared to take place through the main estrogen response element (ERE) of the gene. Importantly, 9-cis-RA also strongly repressed the estrogen-induced expression of the endogenous apoVLDLII gene in cultured chicken hepatoma cells. PMID:7859923

  4. IGFBP-3 Gene Methylation in Primary Tumor Predicts Recurrence of Stage II Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tao; Pappou, Emmanouil P.; Guzzetta, Angela A.; de Freitas Calmon, Marilia; Sun, Lifeng; Herrera, Alexander; Li, Fan; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Tong, Weidong; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the influence of IGFBP-3 methylation on recurrence in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) from 2 independent cohorts. Background The relationship between IGFBP-3 methylation in primary tumors (PTs) or lymph nodes (LNs) and risk of recurrence in patients with stage II CRC treated with surgery alone is unknown. Methods IGFBP-3 methylation of DNA from 115 PTs and 1641 LNs in patients with stage II CRC from 2 independent cohorts was analyzed. Forty patients developed recurrence, whereas 75 matched patients remained recurrence free for more than 2 years after surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of recurrence, adjusted for patient and tumor characteristics. Results Methylation of IGFBP-3 in PTs was identified to be significantly associated with risk of recurrence in the training set. The signature was tested in a validation set and classified 40.7% of patients as high risk. Five-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.4% and 58.3% for low- and high-risk patients, respectively, with an HR of 2.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–4.68; P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, the signature remained the most significant prognostic factor, with an HR of 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.10–5.25; P = 0.029). A combined analysis of 1641 LNs from the 2 sets identified IGFBP-3 methylation in LNs was not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions Detection of IGFBP-3 methylation in PTs, but not in LNs, provides a powerful tool for the identification of patients with stage II CRC at high risk of recurrence. PMID:25822686

  5. [cDNA cloning and analysis of tissue-specific gene expression of rat urocortin II].

    PubMed

    Chae, J I; Ju, S K; Lee, M K; Park, J H; Yoon, J H; Shim, J H; Lee, D S

    2009-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family of neuropeptides includes CRH (a 41 amino acid hypothalamic peptide) and urocortin. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide first isolated from mammalian, plays an important role in the regulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis, and in endocrine, autonomic, immune and behavioral responses to stress. In this study we cloned rat urocortin II (UCNII) cDNA from rat mid-brain by RT-PCR. The rat UCNII clone contained an open reading frame (ORF) coding 109 amino acids which shared 90% and 63% homology with mouse and human homologues, respectively, The expression of UCN HII mRNA is mainly distributed in bone marrow, ovary, uterus, hypophysis, adrenal gland, and skin. In this study, rat recombinant UCN was expressed in E. coli and purified in active form. Furthermore, purified recombinant UCN II protein specifically binds to CRF receptor 2 in rat ROS 17/2.8 and GH3 cells by flow-cytometry analysis. UCN II cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation on behavioral responses to stress in rats. PMID:19334530

  6. Polymorphisms in Factor II and Factor V thrombophilia genes among Circassians in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, R; Arafat, A; Hakooz, N; Al-Abbadi, Z; Yousef, Al-Motassem; El Khateeb, M; Quadan, F

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic factors are one component of thrombosis. We studied the prevalence of two mutations that are known risk factors in the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis in the genetically isolated Circassian population in Jordan. Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 104 random unrelated subjects from the Circassian population in Jordan. The prevalence rates among the Circassian population in Jordan for Factor II G20210A was 12.2% and for Factor V Leiden was 7.7%. We have shown that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and that the prevalences of both mutations are within the range of other ethnic groups. This is the first study to describe Circassian health related genetic characteristics in Jordan. Such population-based studies will contribute to understanding the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. It will remain to be seen whether carriers of Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden are more likely to develop thrombosis. This issue should be studied in the future to determine the need for screening of these mutations particularly in thrombophilia patients. PMID:23011539

  7. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Heather A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Geraghty, Daniel E; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H; Krebs, Shelly J; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; McElrath, M Juliana; Montefiori, David C; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H; Thomas, Rasmi

    2015-07-15

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1-specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120-204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium inferred from partial RNA polymerase II gene sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there are no robust phylogenetic hypotheses for Fusarium based on large-scale sampling across the breadth of this important group of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens. Nucleotide variation within the second largest RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) protein-coding gene, however, has clearly demonst...

  9. Sex Determination in Bees. II. Additivity of Maleness Genes in APIS MELLIFERA

    PubMed Central

    Chaud-Netto, Jos

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-two randomly taken morphological characters were used in order to estimate the Mahalanobis generalized distance between diploid males, diploid workers, haploid males and triploid workers. It was found that adult diploid males are metamales and triploid females are slightly masculinized. These facts indicate that the maleness genes are slightly additive. PMID:1132678

  10. SIX MAJOR CLADES OF AGARICALES INFERRED FROM PNA POLYMERASE II AND NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL RNA GENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many taxonomic families of agarics are not monophyletic and require re-evaluation by molecular phylogenetic methods. Using over 5600 nucleotide characters from rpb1, rpb1-intron 2, rpb2 and 18S, 25S, and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes, we recover six major clades of Agaricales with Bayesian and parsimony ...

  11. QTL mapping of genetic determinants of lipoprotein metabolism in mice: Mutations of the apolipoprotein A-II gene affecting lipoprotein turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Weinreb, A.; Purcell-Huynh, D.A.; Castellani, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    Cholesterol and lipoproteins represent important risk factors for atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the genes involved in determining lipoprotein levels, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed using a cross between NZB and SM/J mice. Significant LOD scores for loci determining total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) were obtained. NZB mice have a 7-10 fold higher apoA-II level SM/J. LOD scores of 19.6 (chow) and 10.3 (high fat) were obtained at the apoA-II gene locus. Comparison of apoA-II levels by apoA-II genotype reveals that {approximately}30% of the variance in apoA-II levels can be accounted for by differences within the apoA-II gene. Northern analysis of mRNA from NZB and SM/J mice fed a high fat diet failed to show any significant differences in mRNA levels. The rates of apoA-II protein synthesis relative to total protein synthesis between the two strains were similar, with a rate of 0.16% for NZB and 0.18% for SM/J. Sequencing of NZB and SM/J apoA-II cDNAs revealed a pro5 to gln5 substitution in SM/J. Therefore, differences in the apoA-II levels between NZB and SM/J may be partly due to a structural difference in apoA-II resulting in an increased rate of apoA-II clearance in SM/J. A coincident QTL for HDL at the same chromosome 1 locus suggests that a structural difference in apoA-II may be affecting the rate of HDL clearance. It is of interest to note that the pro5 to gln5 substitution leads to apoA-II amyloid deposition in the SAM mouse.

  12. A novel role for the Pol I transcription factor UBTF in maintaining genome stability through the regulation of highly transcribed Pol II genes

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Jeannine; Lesmana, Analia; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hein, Nadine; Lidgerwood, Grace; Cameron, Donald P.; Ellul, Jason; Goodall, Gregory J.; Wong, Lee H.; Dhillon, Amardeep S.; Hamdane, Nourdine; Rothblum, Lawrence I.; Pearson, Richard B.; Haviv, Izhak; Moss, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms to coordinate programs of highly transcribed genes required for cellular homeostasis and growth are unclear. Upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF, also called UBF) is thought to function exclusively in RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription of the ribosomal genes. Here, we report that the two isoforms of UBTF (UBTF1/2) are also enriched at highly expressed Pol II-transcribed genes throughout the mouse genome. Further analysis of UBTF1/2 DNA binding in immortalized human epithelial cells and their isogenically matched transformed counterparts reveals an additional repertoire of UBTF1/2-bound genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA damage response. As proof of a functional role for UBTF1/2 in regulating Pol II transcription, we demonstrate that UBTF1/2 is required for recruiting Pol II to the highly transcribed histone gene clusters and for their optimal expression. Intriguingly, lack of UBTF1/2 does not affect chromatin marks or nucleosome density at histone genes. Instead, it results in increased accessibility of the histone promoters and transcribed regions to micrococcal nuclease, implicating UBTF1/2 in mediating DNA accessibility. Unexpectedly, UBTF2, which does not function in Pol I transcription, is sufficient to regulate histone gene expression in the absence of UBTF1. Moreover, depletion of UBTF1/2 and subsequent reduction in histone gene expression is associated with DNA damage and genomic instability independent of Pol I transcription. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for UBTF1 and UBTF2 in maintaining genome stability through coordinating the expression of highly transcribed Pol I (UBTF1 activity) and Pol II genes (UBTF2 activity). PMID:25452314

  13. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  14. Differential stimulation by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha isoforms of the estrogen-activated promoter of the very-low-density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Calkhoven, C F; Snippe, L; Ab, G

    1997-10-01

    The transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha and beta (C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta) are highly expressed in liver and are believed to function in maintaining the differentiated state of the hepatocytes. C/EBP alpha appears to be a critical regulator of genes involved in metabolic processes. We are interested in the roles of C/EBP in the expression of the very-low-density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene. This gene encodes an avian yolk protein, is induced by estrogens and is only expressed in liver. To examine the role of C/EBP in apoVLDL II expression, footprinting and electromobility-shift analysis were performed. For three of the protein-binding sites in the apoVLDL II promoter region, C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta were identified as the major DNA-binding activities. For one of the C/EBP genes, C/EBP alpha, the effect of the gene products on apoVLDL II transcription was examined. From transfection experiments we conclude that maximal estrogen-dependent activity of the apoVLDL II promoter requires the dual action of the estrogen receptor and C/EBP. The level of activity is different depending on the nature of the C/EBP alpha translational isoform transfected, the full-length C/EBP alpha polypeptide being the most active isoform and the N-terminally truncated isoform being moderately active. The present results suggest a role of C/EBP alpha translational isoform ratio in the modulation of expression of C/EBP target genes, such as those involved in metabolic processes. PMID:9363761

  15. Characterization of type I and II procollagen α1chain in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and comparison of their gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Azuma, Noriko; Hagihara, Seishi; Adachi, Shinji; Ura, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yasuaki

    2016-03-15

    To characterize type I and II collagen in the Amur sturgeon at the molecular level, mRNAs encoding the proα chain of both types of collagen were cloned and sequenced. Full sequences of both were obtained, and the molecular phylogeny based on the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the correct sequences of the target genes were obtained. Analyses of primary structure of the proα chains revealed that type I and II collagen share the basic structure of the proα chain of fibril collagen, but have different characteristics, especially in residues related to thermal stability. In the triple helical domain, Gly-Pro-Pro sequence stabilizing the tripeptide unit was more frequent in type II than in type I, and Gly-Gly, which likely decline in thermal stability, was more frequent in type I than in type II. These results suggested that the denaturation temperature of type II would be remarkably higher than type I. The spatial pattern of gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that relatively ubiquitous type I gene and strongly skewed distribution of type II gene, which highly expressed only in vertebra, snout cartilage, and notochord. This pattern was similar to the distribution pattern of each collagen protein detected by previous biochemical analyses using Amur and Bester sturgeons. The present study is the first report of the cloning of the full-length cDNAs for both of type I and type II collagen in the Amur sturgeon, and is the first comparative analysis of type I and II collagens in a sturgeon species at the molecular level. The results provide basic and general information on collagens in sturgeons. PMID:26768575

  16. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-06-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with (355)methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units.

  17. DNA Replication Factor C1 Mediates Genomic Stability and Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Junguo; Miki, Daisuke; Xia, Ran; Yu, Wenxiang; He, Junna; Zheng, Zhimin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2010-01-01

    Genetic screening identified a suppressor of ros1-1, a mutant of REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1; encoding a DNA demethylation protein). The suppressor is a mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of replication factor C (RFC1). This mutation of RFC1 reactivates the unlinked 35S-NPTII transgene, which is silenced in ros1 and also increases expression of the pericentromeric Athila retrotransposons named transcriptional silent information in a DNA methylation-independent manner. rfc1 is more sensitive than the wild type to the DNA-damaging agent methylmethane sulphonate and to the DNA inter- and intra- cross-linking agent cisplatin. The rfc1 mutant constitutively expresses the G2/M-specific cyclin CycB1;1 and other DNA repair-related genes. Treatment with DNA-damaging agents mimics the rfc1 mutation in releasing the silenced 35S-NPTII, suggesting that spontaneously induced genomic instability caused by the rfc1 mutation might partially contribute to the released transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The frequency of somatic homologous recombination is significantly increased in the rfc1 mutant. Interestingly, ros1 mutants show increased telomere length, but rfc1 mutants show decreased telomere length and reduced expression of telomerase. Our results suggest that RFC1 helps mediate genomic stability and TGS in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:20639449

  18. The halo-opsin gene. II. Sequence, primary structure of halorhodopsin and comparison with bacteriorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, A.; Oesterhelt, D.

    1987-01-01

    The gene for the protein moiety of the light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin (HR), hop gene, was sequenced and the primary structure of the protein derived thereof. The gene has a GC content of 67% and codes for 274 amino acids. A promoter structure, resembling that of the halobacterial 16S rRNA genes, is present and both a terminating stem and a loop sequence is found downstream of the TGA stop codon. A ribosomal binding site is located within the translated region. The HR protein moiety is processed at the amino terminus, as well as the carboxy terminus, yielding a dominant species of calculated Mr 26 961. Seven transmembrane helical parts of the protein are defined by hydropathy and acrophilicity calculations. Comparision with the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure reveals a conservation of 36% of amino acid residues in the transmembrane part and 19% in the connecting loops at both surfaces. The most conspicuous conserved amino acids are the retinal-binding Lys residue, four Trp residues (eventually interacting with retinal), two Asp residues (providing possibly the negative charge environment of retinal) and three Pro residues of unknown function. No significant homology with the opsins of eucaryotes was found. Helical wheel analysis shows that HR is an inside-out protein with the majority of conserved amino acid residues inside the circle of the seven transmembrane helices. It is postulated that the intrahelical spaces, which could be gated by the retinal moiety, are the physical entities for translocation of protons in BR and chloride ions in HR. Retinal, by its cis−trans isomerization, serves as a switch connecting the ion-specific binding sites in both proteins. PMID:15981336

  19. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of positively selected amino acids by supertyping revealed a single supertype shared by only jungle and carrion crows, a pattern consistent with convergence, the overall phylogenetic patterns we observed suggest that TSP, rather than convergence, explains the interspecific allelic similarity of MHC IIB genes in these species of crows. PMID:25802816

  20. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eimes, John A; Townsend, Andrea K; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of positively selected amino acids by supertyping revealed a single supertype shared by only jungle and carrion crows, a pattern consistent with convergence, the overall phylogenetic patterns we observed suggest that TSP, rather than convergence, explains the interspecific allelic similarity of MHC IIB genes in these species of crows. PMID:25802816

  1. Repair of bone defect by using vascular bundle implantation combined with Runx II gene-transfected adipose-derived stem cells and a biodegradable matrix.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Jianjun

    2013-06-01

    A large hurdle in orthopedics today is the difficulty of dealing with the non-union of fractured bones. We therefore evaluated the effects of runt-related transcription factor II (Runx II), a factor used to create gene-modified tissue-engineered bone, combined with vascular bundle implantation for repairing segmental bone defects. Adenovirus Runx II gene (Ad-Runx II)-modified rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded onto polylactic acid/polycaprolacton (PLA/PCL) scaffolds to construct gene-modified tissue-engineered bone. The following four methods were used for repair in rabbit radial-defect (1.5 cm long) models: gene-modified tissue-engineered bone with vascular bundle (Group A), gene-modified tissue-engineered bone (Group B), non-gene-modified tissue-engineered bone with vascular bundle (Group C), and PLA/PCL scaffolds only (Group D). X-ray, histological examination, biomechanics analysis, and micro-angiography were conducted 4, 8, and 12 weeks later to determine angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The volume and speed of production of newly formed bones in Group A were significantly superior to those in other groups, and de-novo vascular network circulation from the vessel bundle through newly formed bone tissue was observed, with the defect being completely repaired. Group B showed a slightly better effect in terms of speed and quality of bone formation than Group C, whereas the bone defect in Group D was replaced by fibrous tissue. The maximal anti-bending strength in Group A was significantly higher than that in the other groups. Runx II gene therapy combined with vascular bundle implantation thus displays excellent abilities for osteoinduction and vascularization and is a promising method for the treatment of bone non-union and defect. PMID:23604755

  2. Interactive roles of NPR1 gene-dosage and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels inmutantmice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Das, Subhankar; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to elucidate the interactive roles of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokines levels in Npr1 gene-targeted (1-copy, 2-copy, 3-copy, 4-copy) mice. Methods Npr1 genotypes included 1-copy gene-disrupted heterozygous (+/?), 2-copy wild-type (+/+), 3-copy gene-duplicated heterozygous (++/+) and 4-copy gene-duplicated homozygous (++/++) mice. Animals were fed low, normal and high-salt diets. Plasma and cardiac levels of ANG II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined. Results With a high-salt diet, cardiac ANG II levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (13.7 2.8 fmol/mg protein, 111%) compared with 2-copy mice (6.5 0.6), but decreased (?) in 4-copy (4.0 0.5, 38%) mice. Cardiac aldosterone levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (80 4 fmol/mg protein, 79%) compared with 2-copy mice (38 3). Plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha was increased (+) in 1-copy mice (30.27 2.32 pg/ml, 38%), compared with 2-copy mice (19.36 2.49, 24%), but decreased (?) in 3-copy (11.59 1.51, 12%) and 4-copy (7.13 0.52, 22%) mice. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1? levels were also significantly increased (+) in 1-copy compared with 2-copy mice but decreased (?) in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a high-salt diet aggravates cardiac ANG II, aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels in Npr1 gene-disrupted 1-copy mice, whereas, in Npr1 gene-duplicated (3-copy and 4-copy) mice, high salt did not render such elevation, suggesting the potential roles of Npr1 against salt loading. PMID:23188418

  3. TinII intron, an enhancer to affect the function of the cytoplasmic male sterility related gene T in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jin, ZhuPing; Wu, LingLing; Cao, JiaShu; Chen, ZhuJun; Pei, YanXi

    2013-12-01

    The T gene, which was cloned from the mitochondria of tumorous stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida), is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-related gene that can produce two transcripts, T1170 and T1243. The latter is transcribed with the uncleaved intron TinII. In our previous study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing the T1243 transcript (OE-T1243) showed a severe male-sterile phenotype, whereas OE-T1170 plants did not. However, the functional mechanism of the T gene in B. Juncea remained unknown. In this study, microscopic analyses of paraffin sections of anthers confirmed that OE-T1243 plants did not produce normal pollen, whereas OE-T1170 plants did. We analyzed the transcription of 15 anther development-related genes and found that transcript levels of nozzle/sporocyteless and barely any meristem 1 and 2 were markedly lower in OE-T1243 plants than those in wild type, while the transcript levels of these genes in OE-T1170 plants were unchanged. To investigate the potential roles of TinII, we inserted the TinII sequence upstream of a minimal region (-60) of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter fused to the 5' end of the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of the transgenic plants suggested that TinII acted as an enhancer to significantly increase GUS expression. The potential action mechanism is that the TinII intron acts as an enhancer to affect the function of the CMS-related gene T. PMID:24302291

  4. Reference materials (RMs) for analysis of the human factor II (prothrombin) gene G20210A mutation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christoph L; Mrki-Zay, Jnos; Corbisier, Philippe; Gancberg, David; Cooper, Susan; Gemmati, Donato; Halbmayer, Walter-Michael; Kitchen, Steve; Melegh, Bla; Neumaier, Michael; Oldenburg, Johannes; Leibundgut, Elisabeth Oppliger; Reitsma, Pieter H; Rieger, Sandra; Schimmel, Heinz G; Spannagl, Michael; Tordai, Attilia; Tosetto, Alberto; Visvikis, Sophie; Zadro, Renata; Mannhalter, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific Committee of Molecular Biology Techniques (C-MBT) in Clinical Chemistry of the IFCC has initiated a joint project in co-operation with the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements to develop and produce plasmid-type reference materials (RMs) for the analysis of the human prothrombin gene G20210A mutation. Although DNA tests have a high impact on clinical decision-making and the number of tests performed in diagnostic laboratories is high, issues of quality and quality assurance exist, and currently only a few RMs for clinical genetic testing are available. A gene fragment chosen was produced that spans all primer annealing sites published to date. Both the wild-type and mutant alleles of this gene fragment were cloned into a pUC18 plasmid and two plasmid RMs were produced. In addition, a mixture of both plasmids was produced to mimic the heterozygous genotype. The present study describes the performance of these reference materials in a commutability study, in which they were tested by nine different methods in 13 expert laboratories. This series of plasmid RMs are, to the best of our knowledge, the first plasmid-type clinical genetic RMs introduced worldwide. PMID:16201898

  5. p13 from group II baculoviruses is a killing-associated gene

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Nan; Du, Enqi; Liu, Yangkun; Qiao, Hong; Yao, Lunguang; Pan, Zishu; Lu, Songya; Qi, Yipeng

    2012-01-01

    p13 gene was first described in Leucania separata multinuclear polyhedrosis virus (Ls-p13) several years ago, but the function of P13 protein has not been experimentally investigated to date. In this article, we indicated that the expression of p13 from Heliothis armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (Ha-p13) was regulated by both early and late promoter. Luciferase assay demonstrated that the activity of Ha-p13 promoter with hr4 enhancer was more than 100 times in heterologous Sf9 cells than that in nature host Hz-AM1 cells. Both Ls-P13 and Ha-P13 are transmembrane proteins. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that both mainly located in the cytoplasm membrane at 48 h. Results of RNA interference indicated that Ha-p13 was a killing-associated gene for host insects H. armigera. The AcMNPV acquired the mentioned killing activity and markedly accelerate the killing rate when expressing Ls-p13. In conclusion, p13 is a killing associated gene in both homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedrovirus. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(12): 730-735] PMID:23261060

  6. Inhibition of human type i gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) function by expression of a human type II GnRHR gene fragment.

    PubMed

    Pawson, Adam J; Maudsley, Stuart; Morgan, Kevin; Davidson, Lindsay; Naor, Zvi; Millar, Robert P

    2005-06-01

    Humans possess only one functional GnRH receptor, the type I GnRH receptor (GnRHR-I). A type II GnRH receptor (GnRHR-II) gene homolog exists, but it is disrupted by a frame shift and premature stop codon, suggesting that a conventional receptor is not translated from this gene. However, the gene remains transcriptionally active and displays alternative splicing. We identified a putative translational start site 117 bp downstream of the premature stop codon. Use of this start codon encodes a protein (designated as the GnRHR-II-reliquum) corresponding to the domains from the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane domain-5 to the carboxyl terminus of the putative full-length receptor. Immunocytochemistry revealed that GnRHR-II-reliquum expression appeared to be localized throughout the cytoplasm. Transient cotransfection of GnRHR-I and GnRHR-II-reliquum constructs into COS-7 cells resulted in reduced expression of the GnRHR-I at the cell surface and impaired signaling via the GnRHR-I as revealed by reduction of GnRH-induced inositol phosphate accumulation. This inhibitory effect was specific and dependent on the degree of GnRHR-II-reliquum coexpressed. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the total cell GnRHR-I complement, i.e. both cell-surface and nascent intracellular receptors, was markedly reduced by coexpression of the GnRHR-II-reliquum. Treatments with cell-permeable agents that blocked either de novo protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or proteinase-mediated degradation (leupeptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) failed to alter the inhibitory effect of GnRHR-II-reliquum coexpression, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is exerted at the nucleus/endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus level, possibly by perturbing normal processing of GnRHR-I from these sites. We suggest that the GnRHR-II-reliquum plays a modulatory role in GnRHR-I expression. PMID:15761034

  7. Experimental diabetes increases insulin-like growth factor I and II receptor concentration and gene expression in kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.; Shen-Orr, Z.; Stannard, B.; Burguera, B.; Roberts, C.T. Jr.; LeRoith, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) is a mitogenic hormone with important regulatory roles in growth and development. One of the target organs for IGF-I action is the kidney, which synthesizes abundant IGF-I receptors and IGF-I itself. To study the involvement of IGF-I and the IGF-I receptor in the development of nephropathy, one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus, we measured the expression of these genes in the kidney and in other tissues of the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat. The binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I to crude membranes was measured in the same tissues. We observed a 2.5-fold increase in the steady-state level of IGF-I-receptor mRNA in the diabetic kidney, which was accompanied by a 2.3-fold increase in IGF-I binding. In addition to this increase in IGF-I binding to the IGF-I receptor, there was also binding to a lower-molecular-weight material that may represent an IGF-binding protein. No change was detected in the level of IGF-I-peptide mRNA. Similarly, IGF-II-receptor mRNA levels and IGF-II binding were significantly increased in the diabetic kidney. IGF-I- and IGF-II-receptor mRNA levels and IGF-I and IGF-II binding returned to control values after insulin treatment. Because the IGF-I receptor is able to transduce mitogenic signals on activation of its tyrosine kinase domain, we hypothesize that, among other factors, high levels of receptor in the diabetic kidney may also be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Increased IGF-II-receptor expression in the diabetic kidney may be important for the intracellular transport and packaging of lysosomal enzymes, although a role for this receptor in signal transduction cannot be excluded. Finally, the possible role of IGF-binding proteins requires further study.

  8. Gene cloning of cellobiohydrolase II from the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus MC-2 and its expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroshi; Nagahata, Naoki; Amano, Yoshihiko; Nozaki, Kouichi; Kanda, Takahisa; Okazaki, Mitsuo; Shimosaka, Makoto

    2008-12-01

    A gene (cel4) coding for a cellobiohydrolase II (Ex-4) was isolated from the white rot basidiomycete, Irpex lacteus strain MC-2. The cel4 ORF was composed of 452 amino acid residues and was interrupted by eight introns. Its deduced amino acid sequence revealed a multi domain structure composed of a cellulose-binding domain, a linker, and a catalytic domain belonging to family 6 of glycosyl hydrolases, from the N-terminus. cel4 cDNA was successfully expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Recombinant Ex-4 showed endo-processive degrading activity towards cellulosic substrates, and a synergistic effect in the degradation of Avicel was observed when the enzyme acted together with either cellobiohydrolase I (Ex-1) or endoglucanase (En-1) produced by I. lacteus MC-2. PMID:19060394

  9. Portal vein thrombosis following percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography-An unusual presentation of Prothrombin (Factor II) gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Ian M; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2012-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an uncommonly reported complication of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). A thorough review of the available literature shows no reported cases. In this case, a 29 year old female presented on two separate occasions with portal vein thrombosis following PTC without drain placement. This unusual complication of image guided percutaneous biliary access is unreported in the literature and prompted evaluation of the patients coagulation parameters. A thrombophilia screen demonstrated a mutation in the Prothrombin (Factor II) gene. A thorough literature review shows no reported cases of portal vein thrombosis following percutaneous biliary access, is an unusual complication, and should raise suspicion of an underlying pro-coagulant state. PMID:22761983

  10. Epigenetic modification of DRG neuronal gene expression subsequent to nerve injury: Etiological contribution to complex regional pain syndromes (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuzhou; Stefano, George B.; Kream, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence indicated that nerve injury-associated cellular and molecular changes play an essential role in contributing to the development of pathological pain, and more recent findings implicated the critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in pain-related sensitization in the DRG subsequent to nerve injury. In this part of the dyad review (Part II), we reviewed and paid special attention on the etiological contribution of DGR gene expression modulated by epigenetic mechanisms of CRPS. As essential effectors to different molecular activation, we first discussed the activation of various signaling pathways that subsequently from nerve injury, and in further illustrated the fundamental and functional underpinnings of nerve injury-induced pain, in which we argued for the potential epigenetic mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury. Therefore, understanding the specific mediating factors that influence individual epigenetic differences contributing to pain sensitivity and responsiveness to analgesics possesses crucial clinical implications. PMID:25027291

  11. Group II Intron-Mediated Trans-Splicing in the Gene-Rich Mitochondrial Genome of an Enigmatic Eukaryote, Diphylleia rotans.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Miyashita, Hideaki; Roger, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondria have evolved from a single endosymbiotic event, present day mitochondria of diverse eukaryotes display a great range of genome structures, content and features. Group I and group II introns are two features that are distributed broadly but patchily in mitochondrial genomes across branches of the tree of eukaryotes. While group I intron-mediated trans-splicing has been reported from some lineages distantly related to each other, findings of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing has been restricted to members of the Chloroplastida. In this study, we found the mitochondrial genome of the unicellular eukaryote Diphylleia rotans possesses currently the second largest gene repertoire. On the basis of a probable phylogenetic position of Diphylleia, which is located within Amorphea, current mosaic gene distribution in Amorphea must invoke parallel gene losses from mitochondrial genomes during evolution. Most notably, although the cytochrome c oxidase subunit (cox) 1 gene was split into four pieces which located at a distance to each other, we confirmed that a single mature mRNA that covered the entire coding region could be generated by group II intron-mediated trans-splicing. This is the first example of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing outside Chloroplastida. Similar trans-splicing mechanisms likely work for bipartitely split cox2 and nad3 genes to generate single mature mRNAs. We finally discuss origin and evolution of this type of trans-splicing in D. rotans as well as in eukaryotes. PMID:26833505

  12. Group II Intron-Mediated Trans-Splicing in the Gene-Rich Mitochondrial Genome of an Enigmatic Eukaryote, Diphylleia rotans

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Miyashita, Hideaki; Roger, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondria have evolved from a single endosymbiotic event, present day mitochondria of diverse eukaryotes display a great range of genome structures, content and features. Group I and group II introns are two features that are distributed broadly but patchily in mitochondrial genomes across branches of the tree of eukaryotes. While group I intron-mediated trans-splicing has been reported from some lineages distantly related to each other, findings of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing has been restricted to members of the Chloroplastida. In this study, we found the mitochondrial genome of the unicellular eukaryote Diphylleia rotans possesses currently the second largest gene repertoire. On the basis of a probable phylogenetic position of Diphylleia, which is located within Amorphea, current mosaic gene distribution in Amorphea must invoke parallel gene losses from mitochondrial genomes during evolution. Most notably, although the cytochrome c oxidase subunit (cox) 1 gene was split into four pieces which located at a distance to each other, we confirmed that a single mature mRNA that covered the entire coding region could be generated by group II intron-mediated trans-splicing. This is the first example of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing outside Chloroplastida. Similar trans-splicing mechanisms likely work for bipartitely split cox2 and nad3 genes to generate single mature mRNAs. We finally discuss origin and evolution of this type of trans-splicing in D. rotans as well as in eukaryotes. PMID:26833505

  13. Mechanisms of HDA6-mediated rRNA gene silencing: suppression of intergenic Pol II transcription and differential effects on maintenance versus siRNA-directed cytosine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Keith W.; Pontvianne, Frdric; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T.; Blevins, Todd; Tucker, Sarah; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Pontes, Olga; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis histone deacetylase HDA6 is required to silence transgenes, transposons, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes subjected to nucleolar dominance in genetic hybrids. In nonhybrid Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that a class of 45S rRNA gene variants that is normally inactivated during development fails to be silenced in hda6 mutants. In these mutants, symmetric cytosine methylation at CG and CHG motifs is reduced, and spurious RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription occurs throughout the intergenic spacers. The resulting sense and antisense spacer transcripts facilitate a massive overproduction of siRNAs that, in turn, direct de novo cytosine methylation of corresponding gene sequences. However, the resulting de novo DNA methylation fails to suppress Pol I or Pol II transcription in the absence of HDA6 activity; instead, euchromatic histone modifications typical of active genes accumulate. Collectively, the data reveal a futile cycle of unregulated transcription, siRNA production, and siRNA-directed DNA methylation in the absence of HDA6-mediated histone deacetylation. We propose that spurious Pol II transcription throughout the intergenic spacers in hda6 mutants, combined with losses of histone deacetylase activity and/or maintenance DNA methylation, eliminates repressive chromatin modifications needed for developmental rRNA gene dosage control. PMID:20516197

  14. Maturation in Larch : II. Effects of Age on Photosynthesis and Gene Expression in Developing Foliage.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, K W; Sherman, C D; Weber, J; Smith, S S; Singer, P B; Greenwood, M S

    1990-11-01

    The effect of maturation on the morphological and photosynthetic characteristics, as well as the expression of two genes involved in photosynthesis in the developing, current year foliage of Eastern larch (Larix laricina [Du Roi]) is described. These effects were observed on foliage during the third growing season after grafting of scions from trees of different ages onto 2 year old rootstock. Specific leaf weight (gram dry weight per square meter), leaf cross-sectional area (per square millimeter), and chlorophyll content (milligram per gram dry weight) all increase with increasing age in long shoot foliage from both indoor- and outdoor-grown trees. Net photosynthesis (NPS) (mole of CO(2) per square millimeter per second) increases with age on indoor- but not outdoor-grown trees. NPS also increases with increased chlorophyll content, but outdoor-grown scions of all ages had higher chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll does not appear to be limiting for NPS outdoors. To extend these studies of maturation-related differences in foliar morphology and physiology to the molecular genetic level, sequences were cloned from the cab and rbsS gene families of larch. Both cab and rbcS gene families are expressed in foliage but not in roots, and they are expressed in light-grown seedlings of larch but only at very low levels in dark-grown seedlings (~2% of light-grown seedlings). Steady-state cab mRNA levels are relatively higher (~40%) in newly expanding short shoot foliage from juvenile plants compared to mature plants. Unlike cab, the expression of the rbcS gene family did not seem to vary with age. These data show that the maturation-related changes in morphological and physiological phenotypes are associated with changes in gene expression. No causal relationship has been established, however. Indeed, we conclude that the faster growth of juvenile scions reported previously (MS Greenwood, CA Hopper, KW Hutchison [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 406-412) is not due to increased NPS or cab expression. Long shoot foliage is the dominant foliar type on young trees and its lower specific leaf weight will permit production of more photosynthetic surface area per unit of leaf biomass. PMID:16667834

  15. MHC class II genes in European wolves: a comparison with dogs.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Jennifer M; Ellegren, Hans

    2002-10-01

    The genome of the grey wolf, one of the most widely distributed land mammal species, has been subjected to both stochastic factors, including biogeographical subdivision and population fragmentation, and strong selection during the domestication of the dog. To explore the effects of drift and selection on the partitioning of MHC variation in the diversification of species, we present nine DQA, 10 DQB, and 17 DRB1 sequences of the second exon for European wolves and compare them with sequences of North American wolves and dogs. The relatively large number of class II alleles present in both European and North American wolves attests to their large historical population sizes, yet there are few alleles shared between these regions at DQB and DRB1. Similarly, the dog has an extensive array of class II MHC alleles, a consequence of a genetically diverse origin, but allelic overlap with wolves only at DQA. Although we might expect a progression from shared alleles to shared allelic lineages during differentiation, the partitioning of diversity between wolves and dogs at DQB and DRB1 differs from that at DQA. Furthermore, an extensive region of nucleotide sequence shared between DRB1 and DQB alleles and a shared motif suggests intergenic recombination may have contributed to MHC diversity in the Canidae. PMID:12389097

  16. Genome sequence of Fulvimarina pelagi HTCC2506T, a Mn(II)-oxidizing alphaproteobacterium possessing an aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic gene cluster and Xanthorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ilnam; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lim, Seung-Il; Ferriera, Steve; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2010-09-01

    Fulvimarina pelagi is a Mn(II)-oxidizing marine heterotrophic bacterium in the order Rhizobiales. Here we announce the draft genome sequence of F. pelagi HTCC2506(T), which was isolated from the Sargasso Sea by using dilution-to-extinction culturing. The genome sequence contained a xanthorhodopsin gene as well as a photosynthetic gene cluster, which suggests the coexistence of two different phototrophic mechanisms in a single microorganism. PMID:20639329

  17. Differentiation of human promonocytic leukemia U-937 cells with DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors: induction of vimentin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rius, C; Zorrilla, A R; Cabañas, C; Mata, F; Bernabeu, C; Aller, P

    1991-04-01

    The administration of the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) (10(-7) M), VP-16 (2 x 10(-7) M), or novobiocin (1.5 x 10(-4) M) reduces the growth activity of human promonocytic leukemia U-937 cells, by arresting them preferentially at the G2 (m-AMSA and VP-16) or at the G1 and G2 (novobiocin) phases of the cell cycle. Under these conditions, m-AMSA and VP-16 induce the differentiation of the cells efficiently, as proved both by an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and by the activation of the surface expression of CD11b and CD11c, two differentiation-specific antigens. Novobiocin also induces the expression of those differentiation markers, but to a lesser extent. Analyses by Northern blot indicate that the topoisomerase II inhibitors reduce the levels of c-myc and beta-actin mRNA and increase the levels of vimentin mRNA. The expression of vimentin is also stimulated at the protein level, as indicated by immunofluorescence assays. This represents one of the few known instances in which topoisomerase inhibitors stimulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:1850089

  18. The expression of class II MHC gene products by fallopian tube epithelium in pregnancy and throughout the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, J N; Earl, U

    1987-01-01

    The expression of HLA class II antigens by human fallopian tube epithelium was investigated in ectopic tubal pregnancy, in normal early and full-term intrauterine pregnancy, and during the menstrual cycle. Monoclonal antibodies directed against non-polymorphic (DA6.231, CR3/43, B7/21) and polymorphic (DA6.147, DA6.164, anti-leu-10) determinants of the HLA-D locus were used in a standard indirect immunoperoxidase method on fresh cryostat sections of fallopian tube. In ectopic pregnancy the tube epithelium showed uniform, intense reactivity for DR, DP and DQ. A similar reaction pattern was observed in normal first-trimester pregnancy. At term, most epithelial cells were DR-, DP- and DQ-positive, but a few were DP- and DQ-negative. In fallopian tubes from non-pregnant individuals, a variable number of epithelial cells labelled for DR alpha and DR beta but there was essentially no reactivity for DP or DQ. These results suggest differential regulation of class II MHC gene expression by tube epithelial cells, possibly mediated by hormones and/or a trophoblast product. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3298023

  19. Horizontal gene transfer of chromosomal Type II toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2016-02-01

    Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are small autoregulated bicistronic operons that encode a toxin protein with the potential to inhibit metabolic processes and an antitoxin protein to neutralize the toxin. Most of the bacterial genomes encode multiple TAs. However, the diversity and accumulation of TAs on bacterial genomes and its physiological implications are highly debated. Here we provide evidence that Escherichia coli chromosomal TAs (encoding RNase toxins) are 'acquired' DNA likely originated from heterologous DNA and are the smallest known autoregulated operons with the potential for horizontal propagation. Sequence analyses revealed that integration of TAs into the bacterial genome is unique and contributes to variations in the coding and/or regulatory regions of flanking host genome sequences. Plasmids and genomes encoding identical TAs of natural isolates are mutually exclusive. Chromosomal TAs might play significant roles in the evolution and ecology of bacteria by contributing to host genome variation and by moderation of plasmid maintenance. PMID:26667220

  20. Polymorphism of HLA class II genes in Berbers from Southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, K; Buhler, S; Dridi, A; Benammar El Gaaied, A; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 molecular diversity of two Berber-speaking populations of Southern Tunisia was analysed. Genetic comparisons indicate that both populations exhibit peculiar profiles for HLA-DRB1, as they diverge significantly from most other North Africans, while being highly diversified. At the opposite, they are much less differentiated from neighbouring populations according to the HLA-DQB1 polymorphism. Overall, the HLA class II genetic structure of Arab and Berber-speaking populations from Tunisia, and of North Africa as a whole, is complex and cannot be simply explained by geographic or linguistic differentiations. The present North African genetic pool has probably been shaped by both genetic drift and the contribution of genetically heterogeneous populations during the history of settlement of North Africa. PMID:20670354

  1. Cloning and complete nucleotide sequences of the type II restriction-modification genes of Salmonella infantis.

    PubMed Central

    Karreman, C; de Waard, A

    1988-01-01

    The complete type II restriction-modification system of Salmonella infantis was cloned in Escherichia coli as an R . Sau3AI fragment of 3,430 base pairs. The clone was shown to express the restriction endonuclease as well as the modification methylase. The nucleotide sequence of the above fragment showed two open reading frames of 461 and 230 codons in tail-to-tail orientation. These were shown to represent the modification methylase M . SinI and the restriction endonuclease R . SinI, respectively. The methylase M . SinI amino acid sequence revealed a considerable similarity to those of other deoxycytidylate methylases. In contrast, endonuclease R . SinI did not exhibit such a similarity to other restriction enzymes. Images PMID:2836359

  2. Directional substitution and evolution of nucleotide content in the cytochrome oxidase II gene in earwigs (dermapteran insects).

    PubMed

    Wirth, T; Le Guellec, R; Veuille, M

    1999-12-01

    The cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene was sequenced for six dermapteran species. The nucleotide composition of this gene is biased in most animals. While the CG content of other insect orders is low (mean, 27.6%; range, 19.5%-33.1%), species from the Forficula genus showed unusually high values (mean, 42.4%; range, 37.3%-44.1%), mostly due to high CG frequencies at third codon positions: the mean CG content at these positions was around 45% (range, 43.9%-46.9%) for Forficula, compared with only 13.3% for other insects. This effect was so strong that in one species, Forficula lesnei, there was no significant difference between the frequencies of the four bases. During evolution, this loss of bias has involved a significant increase in the synonymous substitution rate and an increase of transitions over transversions compared with other insects. A strong directionality of substitutions has favored T-->C and A-->G changes. This phenomenon was also observed between two conspecific populations of Forficula auricularia. A species from a closely related genus, Anechura bipunctata, was intermediate between Forficula and other insects for these parameters, while two remotely related dermapteran species, Labidura riparia and Euborellia moesta, were similar to other insects. These results suggest that the evolution of Forficula DNA content has been both rapid and recent. PMID:10605107

  3. Gene expression in the DpnI and DpnII restriction enzyme systems of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Sabelnikov, A.G.; Chen, Jau-Der; Greenberg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Although a number of bacterial species are naturally transformable, that is, their cells are able to take up external DNA in substantial amounts and integrate it into the chromosome without artificial manipulation of the cell surface, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the first species in which this phenomenon was detected, remains a prototype of such transformation. Cells of S. pneumonias also contain potent restriction endonucleases able to severely restrict DNA introduced during viral infection. Our current understanding of the genetic basis of the complementary DpnI and DpnII restriction systems and of the biochemistry of their component enzymes are briefly reviewed. The manner in which these enzymes impinge on the transfer of chromosomal genes and of plasmeds will be examined in detail. It will be seen that far from acting against foreign DNA in general, the restriction systems seem to be designed to exclude only infecting viral DNA The presence of complementary restriction systems in different cells of S. pneumonias enhances their effectiveness in blocking viral infection and promoting species survival. This enhanced effectiveness requires the expression of alternative restriction systems. Therefore, the ability of the cells to transfer the restriction enzyme genes and to regulate their expression are important for survival of the species.

  4. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  5. Live-cell imaging of Pol II promoter activity to monitor gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-01-01

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time. PMID:24753407

  6. Resemblance and Dissemblance of Arabidopsis Type II Peroxiredoxins: Similar Sequences for Divergent Gene Expression, Protein Localization, and Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Brhlin, Claire; Meyer, Etienne H.; de Souris, Jean-Paul; Bonnard, Graldine; Meyer, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis type II peroxiredoxin (PRXII) family is composed of six different genes, five of which are expressed. On the basis of the nucleotide and protein sequences, we were able to define three subgroups among the PRXII family. The first subgroup is composed of AtPRXII-B, -C, and -D, which are highly similar and localized in the cytosol. AtPRXII-B is ubiquitously expressed. More striking is the specific expression of AtPRXII-C and AtPRXII-D localized in pollen. The second subgroup comprises the mitochondrial AtPRXII-F, the corresponding gene of which is expressed constitutively. We show that AtPRXII-E, belonging to the last subgroup, is expressed mostly in reproductive tissues and that its product is addressed to the plastid. By in vitro enzymatic experiments, we demonstrate that glutaredoxin is the electron donor of recombinant AtPRXII-B for peroxidase reaction, but the donors of AtPRXII-E and AtPRXII-F have still to be identified. PMID:12913160

  7. cAMP prevents glucose-mediated modifications of histone H3 and recruitment of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme to the L-PK gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Burke, Susan J; Collier, J Jason; Scott, Donald K

    2009-09-25

    Glucose and cAMP reciprocally regulate expression of the L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene by controlling the formation of a complex containing the carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) and the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP) on the L-PK promoter. However, the role of posttranslational histone modifications on the opposing effects of glucose and cAMP on the L-PK gene is unknown. Using the highly glucose-sensitive 832/13 rat insulinoma cell line, we demonstrated that glucose regulates acetylation and methylation of various histone residues at the L-PK gene promoter. These glucose-dependent histone modifications correlated with an increase in the recruitment and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the L-PK gene promoter. Conversely, the cAMP agonist forskolin prevented glucose-mediated expression of the L-PK gene by decreasing the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 on the promoter, decreasing the methylation of H3-K4 on the coding region, and increasing the methylation of H3-K9 on the coding region. These changes induced by cAMP culminated with a decrease in the glucose-dependent recruitment of phosphorylated Pol II to the L-PK gene promoter. Furthermore, maneuvers that interfere with the glucose-dependent assembly of ChREBP and CBP on the L-PK promoter, such as increasing intracellular cAMP levels, overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ChREBP, and small-interfering-RNA-mediated suppression of CBP abundance, all altered the acetylation and methylation of histones on the L-PK promoter, which decreased Pol II recruitment and subsequently inhibited transcriptional activation of the L-PK gene. We conclude that the effects of glucose and cAMP are mediated in part by epigenetic modulation of histones. PMID:19631660

  8. Alternative Chromatin Structures of the 35S rRNA Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Provide a Molecular Basis for the Selective Recruitment of RNA Polymerases I and II?

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Hannah; Wittner, Manuel; Hamperl, Stephan; Hondele, Maria; Merz, Katharina; Stoeckl, Ulrike; Griesenbeck, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, a specialized enzyme, RNA polymerase I (Pol I), is dedicated to transcribe the 35S rRNA gene from a multicopy gene cluster, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In certain Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, 35S rRNA genes can be transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In these mutants, rDNA silencing of Pol II transcription is impaired. It has been speculated that upstream activating factor (UAF), which binds to a specific DNA element within the Pol I promoter, plays a crucial role in forming chromatin structures responsible for polymerase specificity and silencing at the rDNA locus. We therefore performed an in-depth analysis of chromatin structure and composition in different mutant backgrounds. We demonstrate that chromatin architecture of the entire Pol I-transcribed region is substantially altered in the absence of UAF, allowing RNA polymerases II and III to access DNA elements flanking a Pol promoter-proximal Reb1 binding site. Furthermore, lack of UAF leads to the loss of Sir2 from rDNA, correlating with impaired Pol II silencing. This analysis of rDNA chromatin provides a molecular basis, explaining many phenotypes observed in previous genetic analyses. PMID:20154141

  9. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding human DNA topoisomerase II and localization of the gene to chromosome region 17q21-22

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.; Liu, L.F.; Liu, A.A.; Tewey, K.M.; Whang-Peng, J.; Knutsen, T.; Huebner, K.; Croce, C.M.; Wang, J.C. )

    1988-10-01

    Two overlapping cDNA clones encoding human DNA topoisomerase II were identified by two independent methods. In one, a human cDNA library in phage {lambda} was screened by hybridization with a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding a stretch of seven amino acids found in yeast and Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II; in the other, a different human cDNA library in a {lambda}gt11 expression vector was screened for the expression of antigenic determinants that are recognized by rabbit antibodies specific to human DNA topoisomerase II. The entire coding sequences of the human DNA topoisomerase II gene were determined from these and several additional clones, identified through the use of the cloned human TOP2 gene sequences as probes. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene. The location of the gene was mapped to chromosome 17q21-22 by in situ hybridization of a cloned fragment to metaphase chromosomes and by hybridization analysis with a panel of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each retaining a subset of human chromosomes.

  10. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S.

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  11. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  12. Expression of a partially deleted gene of human type II procollagen (COL2A1) in transgenic mice produces a chondrodysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, P.; Khillan, J.S.; Prockop, D.J.; Helminen, H.; Kontusaari, S.; Ala-Kokko, L. )

    1991-09-01

    A minigene version of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2AI) was prepared that lacked a large central region containing 12 of the 52 exons and therefore 291 of the 1523 codons of the gene. The construct was modeled after sporadic in-frame deletions of collagen genes that cause synthesis of shortened pro{alpha} chains that associate with normal pro{alpha} chains and thereby cause degradation of the shortened and normal pro{alpha} chains through a process called procollagen suicide. The gene construct was used to prepare five lines of transgenic mice expressing the minigene. A large proportion of the mice expressing the minigene developed a phenotype of a chondrodysplasia with dwarfism, short and thick limbs, a short snout, a cranial bulge, a cleft palate, and delayed mineralization of bone. A number of mice died shortly after birth. Microscopic examination of cartilage revealed decreased density and organization of collagen fibrils. In cultured chondrocytes from the transgenic mice, the minigene was expressed as shortened pro{alpha}1(II) chains that were disulfide-linked to normal mouse pro{alpha}1(II) chains. Therefore, the phenotype is probably explained by depletion of the endogenous mouse type II procollagen through the phenomenon of procollagen suicide.

  13. Gene dysregulation is restored in the Parkinson’s disease MPTP neurotoxic mice model upon treatment of the therapeutic drug CuII(atsm)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lesley; Quek, Camelia Y. J.; Hung, Lin W.; Sharples, Robyn A.; Sherratt, Nicki A.; Barnham, Kevin J.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of MPTP selectively targets the dopaminergic system resulting in Parkinsonism-like symptoms and is commonly used as a mice model of Parkinson’s disease. We previously demonstrated that the neuroprotective compound CuII(atsm) rescues nigral cell loss and improves dopamine metabolism in the MPTP model. The mechanism of action of CuII(atsm) needs to be further defined to understand how the compound promotes neuronal survival. Whole genome transcriptomic profiling has become a popular method to examine the relationship between gene expression and function. Substantia nigra samples from MPTP-lesioned mice were evaluated using whole transcriptome sequencing to investigate the genes altered upon CuII(atsm) treatment. We identified 143 genes affected by MPTP lesioning that are associated with biological processes related to brain and cognitive development, dopamine synthesis and perturbed synaptic neurotransmission. Upon CuII(atsm) treatment, the expression of 40 genes involved in promoting dopamine synthesis, calcium signaling and synaptic plasticity were restored which were validated by qRT-PCR. The study provides the first detailed whole transcriptomic analysis of pathways involved in MPTP-induced Parkinsonism. In addition, we identify key therapeutic pathways targeted by a potentially new class of neuroprotective agents which may provide therapeutic benefits for other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26928495

  14. Variation of HLA class II genes in the Nganasan and Ket, two aboriginal Siberian populations.

    PubMed

    Uinuk-Ool, T S; Takezaki, N; Derbeneva, O A; Volodko, N V; Sukernik, R I

    2004-02-01

    Allelic frequencies at the three most polymorphic loci of the HLA class II region (DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1) were determined in the Nganasan and Ket, the remnants of the two most ancient groups in the Lower Yenisey River/Taimyr Peninsula region in northern Siberia. By single-stranded conformational polymorphism typing, verified by sequencing, 19 HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and 15 HLA-DRB1, seven DQA1 and 11 DQB1 alleles were found. The most frequent alleles were DRB1*1301 (23.5%), DQA1*0103 (29.4%), *0501/03/05 (29.4%), and DQB1*0301/09 (32.4%) in the Ket, and DRB1*0901 (25%), DQA1*0301 (39.6%), and DQB1*0301/09 (37.5%) in the Nganasan. The distribution patterns and comprehensive phylogenic analysis based on the haplotype frequencies of 17 Siberian populations suggest that the founders of both the Ket and the Nganasan came from Palaeolithic populations in the Altai-Sayan Upland. PMID:15009181

  15. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon ? receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFN? mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFN? in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFN?, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFN? and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFN? but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFN? and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds. PMID:26345454

  16. Phenotypic evidence that the function of the [Fe]-hydrogenase Hmd in Methanococcus maripaludis requires seven hcg (hmd co-occurring genes) but not hmdII.

    PubMed

    Lie, Thomas J; Costa, Kyle C; Pak, Daniel; Sakesan, Varun; Leigh, John A

    2013-06-01

    The H2 -dependent methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Hmd), also known as the [Fe]-hydrogenase, is found only in methanogens without cytochromes. In contrast to the binuclear metal centers of the [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases, the [Fe]-hydrogenase contains only a single Fe atom, which is coordinated by a novel guanylylpyridinol cofactor in the active site. The biosynthesis of the cofactor is not well understood and the responsible genes are unknown. However, seven genes (hmd co-occurring genes, hcg) encoding proteins of unknown function are always associated with the hmd gene. In the model methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis, we used a genetic background in which a deletion of hmd had a distinct growth phenotype, and made null-mutations in each hcg gene as well as in a gene encoding the Hmd paralog HmdII, which is hypothesized to function as a scaffold for cofactor synthesis. Deletions in all seven hcg genes resulted in the same growth phenotype as a deletion in hmd, suggesting they are required for Hmd function. In all cases, genetic complementation of the mutation restored the wild-type phenotype. A deletion in hmdII had no effect. PMID:23551135

  17. Identification of two novel critical mutations in PCNT gene resulting in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Feng; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Min-Wei; Lou, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Chun-Yu; Feng, Hong-Lin; Lin, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a highly detrimental human autosomal inherited recessive disorder. The hallmark characteristics of this disease are intrauterine and postnatal growth restrictions, with some patients also having cerebrovascular problems such as cerebral aneurysms. The genomic basis behind most clinical features of MOPD II remains largely unclear. The aim of this work was to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with MOPD II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient had typical MOPD II syndrome, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. We identified three novel mutations in the PCNT gene, including one single base alteration (9842A>C in exon 45) and two deletions (Del-C in exon 30 and Del-16 in exon 41). The deletions were co-segregated with the affected individual in the family and were not present in the control population. Computer modeling demonstrated that the deletions may cause drastic changes on the secondary and tertiary structures, affecting the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the mutant proteins. In conclusion, we identified two novel mutations in the PCNT gene associated with MOPD II and intracranial aneurysms, and the mutations were expected to alter the stability and functioning of the protein by computer modeling. PMID:26231886

  18. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory compliance. PMID:17994293

  19. Comparison of HLA class II genes in Caucasoid, Chinese, and Japanese patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Ho-II.; Chan, E.; Peebles, C.; Fox, R.I. ); Fei, I.; Chen, S. ); Saito, Ichiro; Sawada, Shigemasa ); Bugawan, T.L.; Erlich, H.A. ); Yi, D. )

    1993-04-15

    To better define the genetic factors that predispose to primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SS), the authors used polymerase chain reaction in combination with oligonucleotide probe hybridization and DNA sequencing to analyze HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 alleles in Caucasoid (California), Japanese (Tokyo), and Chinese (Shanghai and Beijing) SS patients. In comparison to local controls in each region, we found: (1) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype HLA-DRB1[sup *]0301-DRB3[sup *]0101-DQA1[sup *]0501-DQB1[sup *]0201 in Caucasoid patients (p < 0.001); (2) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype HLA-DRB1[sup *]0405-DRB4[sup *]0101-DQA1[sup *]0301-DQB1[sup *]0401 in Japanese patients (p < 0.05); (3) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype DRB1[sup *]0803-DQA1[sup *]0103-DQB1[sup *]0601 in Chinese patients (p < 0.05); and (4) no statistically significant association with DBP1 alleles in any group, although an increased number of Caucasoid and Japanese SS patients possessed DPB1[sup *]0301. Comparison of DNA sequences for the three disease-associated haplotypes in these ethnic groups revealed a shared region of predicted amino acids from positions 58 to 69 in the first domain of HLA-DQB1. These results extend previous studies by demonstrating that no single class II allele was associated with 1[degrees] SS in the different ethnic groups. However, a shared amino acid motif in the DQB1 first domain was present in each disease-associated haplotype. 25 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Expression of type II iodothyronine deiodinase gene in the brain of a tropical spinefoot, Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Wambiji, Nina; Park, Yong-Ju; Kim, Se-Jae; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takeuchi, Yuki; Takemura, Akihiro

    2011-12-01

    Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) converts 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and is involved in regulating thyroid hormone-dependent processes in various tissues. D2 mRNA expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus is affected by photoperiod, which influences reproductive processes in temperate birds and mammals. We examined whether D2 mRNA is expressed in the hypothalamus (located in the forebrain within the diencephalon area) and whether its abundance is affected by day length, temperature, or food availability in the tropical spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, which is endemic to tropical monsoon areas. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that D2 mRNA is expressed in various brain regions. The abundance of hypothalamic D2 mRNA was higher at 12.00h than at 06.00h or 24.00h. Rearing fish under constant dark conditions resulted in a decrease in D2 mRNA abundance during the subjective night. A single injection of melatonin lowered D2 mRNA abundance within 3h. Collectively, it appears that hypothalamic D2 mRNA abundance is regulated by the circadian system and/or melatonin. No differences in D2 mRNA abundance were observed, when fish were reared at 20, 25, and 30C. However, food deprivation stimulated D2 mRNA expression during the daytime. These results suggest that photoperiodic and nutritive conditions affect hypothalamic D2 mRNA expression in S. guttatus. PMID:21463701

  1. The sequence of the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a frameshift containing gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and seven unassigned reading frames in Trypanosoma brucei mitochrondrial maxi-circle DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hensgens, L A; Brakenhoff, J; De Vries, B F; Sloof, P; Tromp, M C; Van Boom, J H; Benne, R

    1984-01-01

    A 9.2 kb segment of the maxi-circle of Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial DNA contains the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II (coxI and coxII) and seven Unassigned Reading Frames ("URFs"). The genes for coxI and coxII display considerable homology at the aminoacid level (38 and 25%, respectively) to the corresponding genes in fungal and mammalian mtDNA, the only striking point of divergence being an unusually high cysteine content (about 4.5%). The reading frame coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II is discontinuous: the C-terminal portion of about 40 aminoacids, is present in the DNA-sequence in a -1 reading frame with respect to the N-terminal moiety. URF5, 8 and 10, show a low but distinct homology (about 20%) to mammalian mitochondrial URF-1, 4 and 5, respectively. In URF5, the first AUG is found at codon 145, whereas extensive homology to mammalian URF-1 sequences occurs upstream of this position. The possibility exists that UUG can serve as an initiator codon. URF7 and URF9 have a highly unusual aminoacid composition and do not possess AUG or UUG initiator codons. These URFs probably do not have a protein-coding function. The segment does not contain conventional tRNA genes. Images PMID:6093040

  2. Influence of Intron II microsatellite polymorphism in human toll-like receptor 2 gene in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Naveen Chandra; Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Jain, Suman; SivaSai, Krovvidi S R; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Jonnalagada, Subbanna; Anandaraj, M P J S

    2013-08-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. TLR2 plays a key role when activated by M. leprae lipoproteins initiating protective responses which induce bacterial killing and therefore control of disease spread. Microsatellite polymorphisms in intron2 of TLR2 gene have been reported to be associated with development of clinical features of several infectious diseases. The study aims to evaluate the influence of GT microsatellite on the expression of TLR2 which could make humans prone to M. leprae infections. A total of 279 individuals were enrolled in the study, 88 were leprosy patients, 95 were house hold contacts (HHC) and 96 were healthy controls (HC). Genotyping was done using PCR-Sequencing method. TLR2 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured using ELISA in MLSA stimulated cell culture supernatants. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square (χ(2)) test and t-tests. Allele/genotype of TLR2 microsatellite which includes longer GT repeats was associated with low TLR2 mRNA expression and high IL-10 production while that including shorter GT repeats was associated with high TLR2 mRNA expression and low IL-10 production. High IL10 producing allele of TLR2 microsatellite might predispose house hold contacts to leprosy. PMID:23619473

  3. Molecular analysis of HLA Class I and Class II genes in four indigenous Malaysian populations.

    PubMed

    Jinam, T A; Saitou, N; Edo, J; Mahmood, A; Phipps, M E

    2010-02-01

    This is the first report of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing in four indigenous groups in Malaysia. A total of 99 normal, healthy participants representing the Negrito (Jehai and Kensiu), Proto-Malay (Temuan) and a native group of Borneo (Bidayuh) were typed for HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 genes using sequence-based typing. Eleven HLA-A, 26 HLA-B, 16 HLA-DRB1 and 14 HLA-DQB1 alleles were detected, including a new allele, HLA-B*3589 in the Jehai. Highly frequent alleles were A*2407, B*1513, B*1801, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1202, DRB1*1502, DQB1*0303 and DQB1*0502. Principal component analysis based on high-resolution HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allele frequencies showed close affinities among all four groups, including the Negritos, with other Southeast Asian populations. These results showed the scope of HLA diversity in these indigenous minority groups and may prove beneficial for future disease association, anthropological and forensic studies. PMID:20003135

  4. Polymorphism of the MHC class II Eb gene determines the protection against collagen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Zanelli, E.; Krco, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an animal model of auto immune polyarthritis, sharing similarities with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Paradoxally, susceptibility to mouse CIA is controlled by the H2A loci (DQ homologous) while RA is linked to HLA.DR genes (H2E homologous). We recently showed that the E{beta}{sup d} molecule prevents CIA development in susceptible H2{sup q} mice. We addressed the question of whether H2Eb polymorphism will influence CIA incidence as HLA.DRB1 polymorphism does in RA. In F{sub 1} mice, only H2Eb{sup d} and H2Eb{sup s} molecules showed protection. Using recombinant B10.RDD (Eb{sup d/b}) mice, we found that CIA protection was mediated by the first domain of the E{beta}{sup d} molecule. Using peptides covering the third hypervariable region of the E{beta} chain, we found a perfect correlation between presentation of E{beta} peptides by the H2A{sup q} molecule and protection on CIA. Therefore, the mechanism by which H2Eb protects against CIA seems to rely on the affinity of E{beta} peptides for the H2A{sup q} molecule. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vector

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kangqiang; Yu, Bole; Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Zou, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent tracking gene delivery could provide us with a better understanding of the critical steps in the transfection process. However, for in vivo tracking applications, a small diameter (<10?nm) is one of the rigorous requirements for tracking vectors. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for two-photon tracking gene delivery based on a dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. Because this metallodendrimer has a multivalent periphery, the complex, which is 6.1?nm, showed high stability and excellent dispersibility and could stepwise condense DNA in vitro. With the outstanding photochemical properties of Ru(II) polypyridyl, this complex could track gene delivery in vivo using one- and two-photon imaging. PMID:26185052

  6. A young root-specific gene (ArMY2) from horseradish encoding a MYR II myrosinase with kinetic preference for the root-specific glucosinolate gluconasturtiin.

    PubMed

    Loebers, Andreas; Mller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    The pungent taste of horseradish is caused by isothiocyanates which are released from glucosinolates by myrosinases. These enzymes are encoded by genes belonging to one of two subfamilies, termed MYR I and MYR II, respectively. A MYR II-type myrosinase gene was identified for the first time in horseradish. The gene termed ArMY2 was only expressed in young roots. A full-length cDNA encoding a myrosinase termed ArMy2 was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant His-tagged enzyme was characterized biochemically. Substrate affinity was 5 times higher towards gluconasturtiin than towards sinigrin. Gluconasturtiin was found to be the most abundant glucosinolate in young horseradish roots while sinigrin dominated in storage roots and leaves. This indicates that a specialized glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system might be active in young roots. PMID:24333031

  7. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  8. Estradiol-dependent transcription initiation upstream from the chicken apoVLDLII gene coding for the very-low-density apolipoprotein II.

    PubMed

    Strijker, R; Blom van Assendelft, G; Dikkeschei, B D; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated RNAs originating from the 5'-flanking region of the chicken very-low-density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene. S1 nuclease mapping and primer extension experiments revealed two minor upstream transcription start points located 1105 and 1530 nucleotides in front of the apoVLDLII gene. Transcription starting at these points is dependent upon estradiol as is transcription from the major start points. The transcripts are polyadenylated, but are not detectable in polysomes. Run-on assays indicated that the low concentration of the upstream initiated transcripts is due both to low transcription levels and to low transcript stability. The sequence around the upstream start points does not show strong homologies with consensus sequences of promoters for eukaryotic protein encoding genes. Nevertheless, the upstream sequences are transcribed in vivo by RNA polymerase II. PMID:3781248

  9. Spatial and temporal gene expression of Fn-type II and cysteine-rich secretory proteins in the reproductive tracts and ejaculated sperm of Chinese Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, C Y; Gao, B; Wu, H; Wang, X Y; Zhou, H Y; Wang, S Z; Li, B C; Chen, G H; Mao, J D

    2011-10-01

    Fibronectin type II and cysteine-rich secretory proteins have been well studied in the murine and human. The present study evaluated CRISP1, CRISP2, CRISP3 and Fn-type II (ELSPBP1 and pB1) gene expression patterns in ejaculated sperm and reproductive tracts of Chinese Meishan pigs from birth to day 150 of age. In ejaculated sperm, except for ELSPBP1, all others genes studied were detectable. In sexually mature boars and gilts, CRISP1 gene was expressed strongly in whole epididymides, moderate in prostate and weak in seminal vesicle. CRISP2 gene represented extensive distribution along reproductive tracts with highest abundance in testis. CRISP3 gene was expressed highly in prostate and bulbourethral gland, but weakly in testis. ELSPBP1 gene was expressed with highest abundance in cauda epididymides, moderate in corpus epididymides and weak in seminal vesicle and prostate. pB1 mRNA expression was also abundant along reproductive tracts. During the sexual development of boars after birth, these genes showed different expression patterns. CRISP1 and CRISP3 gene expression was high on day 1 and maintained until day 150, while CRISP2 expression was detectable on day 60 with high abundance and maintained until day 90 and dropped on day 150. ELSPBP1 showed low expression at birth and increased significantly on day 30 (p < 0.05) and then kept static until day 150. pB1 gene displayed moderate expression from birth to day 30 and increased significantly on day 60 (p < 0.05) and maintained at high level until day 150. Collectively, CRISP and Fn-type II genes were expressed extensively along genital tracts, and most of them showed mRNA signal in ejaculated sperm. The expression of CRISP1 and CRISP3 genes in Meishan boar was not age-dependent, while CRISP2 and pB1 gene expression was parallel with sexual development. Their unique gene expression patterns may shed light on the mechanism for the high prolificacy of Meishan pigs. PMID:21323754

  10. Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish

    PubMed Central

    Lutfalla, Georges; Crollius, Hugues Roest; Stange-thomann, Nicole; Jaillon, Olivier; Mogensen, Knud; Monneron, Danièle

    2003-01-01

    Background The high degree of sequence conservation between coding regions in fish and mammals can be exploited to identify genes in mammalian genomes by comparison with the sequence of similar genes in fish. Conversely, experimentally characterized mammalian genes may be used to annotate fish genomes. However, gene families that escape this principle include the rapidly diverging cytokines that regulate the immune system, and their receptors. A classic example is the class II helical cytokines (HCII) including type I, type II and lambda interferons, IL10 related cytokines (IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24 and IL26) and their receptors (HCRII). Despite the report of a near complete pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) genome sequence, these genes remain undescribed in fish. Results We have used an original strategy based both on conserved amino acid sequence and gene structure to identify HCII and HCRII in the genome of another pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis that is amenable to laboratory experiments. The 15 genes that were identified are highly divergent and include a single interferon molecule, three IL10 related cytokines and their potential receptors together with two Tissue Factor (TF). Some of these genes form tandem clusters on the Tetraodon genome. Their expression pattern was determined in different tissues. Most importantly, Tetraodon interferon was identified and we show that the recombinant protein can induce antiviral MX gene expression in Tetraodon primary kidney cells. Similar results were obtained in Zebrafish which has 7 MX genes. Conclusion We propose a scheme for the evolution of HCII and their receptors during the radiation of bony vertebrates and suggest that the diversification that played an important role in the fine-tuning of the ancestral mechanism for host defense against infections probably followed different pathways in amniotes and fish. PMID:12869211

  11. The cloning and expression of the aroL gene from Escherichia coli K12. Purification and complete amino acid sequence of shikimate kinase II, the aroL-gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, G; Lewendon, A; Hunter, M G; Coggins, J R

    1986-01-01

    The aroL gene encoding the enzyme shikimate kinase II was cloned from Escherichia coli K12. Construction of over-expressing strains permitted for the first time the purification to homogeneity of a monofunctional shikimate kinase. The complete amino acid sequence of shikimate kinase II was determined by a combined nucleotide and direct amino acid sequencing strategy. E. coli shikimate kinase II is a monomeric enzyme containing 173 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr 18,937. The amino acid sequence contains a region homologous with other kinases and ATP-requiring enzymes. Evidence is presented suggesting that the transcriptional start site of the aroL gene is located within a potential operator site. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3026317

  12. A novel role for IFN-stimulated gene factor 3II in IFN-? signaling and induction of antiviral activity in human cells.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Angel N; Schmeisser, Hana; Tsuno, Takaya; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2011-02-01

    Type I (e.g., IFN-?, IFN-?) and type II IFNs (IFN-?) have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory properties. Both types of IFN signal through the Jak/STAT pathway to elicit antiviral activity, yet IFN-? is thought to do so only through STAT1 homodimers, whereas type I IFNs activate both STAT1- and STAT2-containing complexes such as IFN-stimulated gene factor 3. In this study, we show that IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 containing unphosphorylated STAT2 (ISGF3(II)) also plays a role in IFN-?-mediated antiviral activity in humans. Using phosphorylated STAT1 as a marker for IFN signaling, Western blot analysis of IFN-?2a-treated human A549 cells revealed that phospho-STAT1 (Y701) levels peaked at 1 h, decreased by 6 h, and remained at low levels for up to 48 h. Cells treated with IFN-? showed a biphasic phospho-STAT1 response with an early peak at 1-2 h and a second peak at 15-24 h. Gene expression microarray following IFN-? treatment for 24 h indicated an induction of antiviral genes that are induced by IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 and associated with a type I IFN response. Induction of these genes by autocrine type I and type III IFN signaling was ruled out using neutralizing Abs to these IFNs in biological assays and by quantitative RT-PCR. Despite the absence of autocrine IFNs, IFN-? treatment induced formation of ISGF3(II). This novel transcription factor complex binds to IFN-stimulated response element promoter sequences, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the protein kinase R promoter. STAT2 and IFN regulatory factor 9 knockdown in A549 cells reversed IFN-?-mediated IFN-stimulated response element induction and antiviral activity, implicating ISGF3(II) formation as a significant component of the cellular response and biological activity of IFN-?. PMID:21178011

  13. Cloning and Characterization of the Lipooligosaccharide Galactosyltransferase II Gene of Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuhua; Schilling, Birgit; Tarantino, Laurie; Tullius, Michael V.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Munson, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is considered to be a major virulence determinant and has been implicated in the adherence of H. ducreyi to keratinocytes. Strain A77, an isolate from the Paris collection, is serum sensitive, poorly adherent to fibroblasts, and deficient in microcolony formation. Structural analysis indicates that the LOS of strain A77 lacks the galactose residue found in the N-acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP LOS as well as the sialic acid substitution. From an H. ducreyi 35000HP genomic DNA library, a clone complementing the defect in A77 was identified by immunologic screening with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F11, a MAb which recognizes the N-acetyllactosamine portion of strain 35000HP LOS. The clone contained a 4-kb insert that was sequenced. One open reading frame which encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 33,400 was identified. This protein has homology to glycosyltransferases of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus somnus, Neisseria species, and Pasteurella haemolytica. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene was insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant of strain 35000HP was constructed. The most complex LOS glycoform produced by the mutant has a mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel identical to that of the LOS of strain A77 and lacks the 3F11-binding epitope. Structural studies confirm that the most complex glycoform of the LOS isolated from the mutant lacks the galactose residue found in the N-acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP LOS. Although previously published data suggested that the serum-sensitive phenotype of A77 was due to the LOS mutation, we observed that the complemented A77 strain retained its serum-sensitive phenotype and that the galactosyltransferase mutant retained its serum-resistant phenotype. Thus, the serum sensitivity of strain A77 cannot be attributed to the galactosyltransferase mutation in strain A77. PMID:10735874

  14. Identification of InuR, a new Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian; Roubos, Johannes A; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Ram, Arthur F J

    2008-01-01

    The expression of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger is co-regulated and induced by inulin and sucrose. We have identified a positive acting transcription factor InuR, which is required for the induced expression of inulinolytic genes. InuR is a member of the fungal specific class of transcription factors of the Zn(II)2Cys6 type. Involvement of InuR in inulin and sucrose metabolism was suspected because of the clustering of inuR gene with sucB, which encodes an intracellular invertase with transfructosylation activity and a putative sugar transporter encoding gene (An15g00310). Deletion of the inuR gene resulted in a strain displaying a severe reduction in growth on inulin and sucrose medium. Northern analysis revealed that expression of inulinolytic and sucrolytic genes, e.g., inuE, inuA, sucA, as well as the putative sugar transporter gene (An15g00310) is dependent on InuR. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed, three additional putative sugar transporters encoding genes (An15g04060, An15g03940 and An17g01710), which were strongly induced by sucrose in an InuR dependent way. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of strongly InuR regulated genes suggests that InuR might bind as dimer to two CGG triplets, which are separated by eight nucleotides. PMID:17917744

  15. Bacteriophage P22 virion protein which performs an essential early function. II. Characterization of the gene 16 function.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, B; Levine, M

    1975-01-01

    P16 is a virion protein and, as such, is incorporated into the phage head as a step in morphogenesis. The role of P16 in assembly is not essential since particles are formed without this protein which appear normal by electron microscopy. P16 is essential when the particle infects a cell in the following cycle of infection. In the absence of functional P16, the infection does not appear to proceed beyond release of phage DNA from the capsid. No known genes are expressed, no DNA is transcribed, and the host cell survives the infection, continuing to grow and divide normally. The P16 function is required only during infection for the expression of phage functions. Induction in the absence of P16 proceeds with the expression of early and late genes and results in particle formation. P16 must be incorporated during morphogenesis into progeny particles after both infection and induction for the progeny to be infectious. The P16 function is necessary for transduction as well as for infection. Its activity is independent of new protein synthesis and it is not under immunity control. P16 can act in trans, but appears to act preferentially on the phage or phage DNA with which it is packaged. The data from complementation studies are compatible with P16 release from the capsid with the phage DNA. In the absence of P16 the infection is blocked, but the phage genome is not degraded. The various roles which have been ruled out for P16 are: (i) an early regulatory function, (ii) an enzymatic activity necessary for phage production, (iii) protection of phage DNA from host degradation enzymes, (iv) any generalized alteration of the host cell, (v) binding parental DNA to the replication complex, and (vi) any direct involvement in the replication of P22 DNA. P16 can be responsible for: (i) complete release of the DNA and disengagement from the capsid, (ii) bringing the released DNA to some necessary cell site or compartment such as the cytoplasm, (iii) removal of other virion proteins from the injected DNA, and (iv) alterations of the structure of the injected DNA. PMID:1104894

  16. Estrogen-responsive genes encoding egg yolk proteins vitellogenin and apolipoprotein II in chicken are differentially regulated by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Ratna, Warren N; Bhatt, Vrushank D; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Ariff, Ammar Bin; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Ratna, Haran N

    2016-02-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins, apolipoprotein II (apo-II) and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo-II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo-II messenger RNA (mRNA) is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA-stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo-II, VG, and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin, and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver was stimulated by estrogen and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo-II and VG from the aforementioned treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays, and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo-II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo-II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the aforementioned genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  17. The expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Seiichi . E-mail: katayama@ankaken.co.jp; Ashizawa, Koji; Gohma, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Tadahiro; Narumi, Kazunori; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Tatemoto, Hideki; Nakada, Tadashi; Nagai, Kenji

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and an ER antagonist on the expression of Hedgehog genes (Indian hedgehog: Ihh; Desert hedgehog: Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Patched 1: Ptc1; glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1: Gli1; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II: Coup-TfII) in the rat uterus. Immature female rats were administered once with 17{alpha}-ethynyl estradiol (EE, an ER agonist), propyl pyrazole triole (PPT, an ER{alpha}-selective agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an ER{beta}-selective agonist), or ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist). Expression of mRNA for Ihh, Dhh, and Ptc1 was dose-dependently downregulated by EE in the uterus of immature rats, mediated by ER as confirmed by coadministration of ICI 182,780. The mRNA expression levels of Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII were simultaneously downregulated during the period in which the mRNA expression levels of Ihh and Dhh were downregulated in the uterus after administration of EE. PPT downregulated the transcription of Ihh, Dhh, Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII, indicating that expression of these genes was regulated by the ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. DPN also downregulated the transcription of Ihh and Dhh, although the effect was weaker than that of PPT, indicating that the regulation of uterine Ihh and Dhh transcription was also affected by the ER{beta}-dependent pathway. These results suggest that the expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats.

  18. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanqin; Zhi, Hui; Hou, Xiuyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin II can differentially modulate inflammatory gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells through influencing ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk, which may contribute to angiotensin II-induced inflammatory disorders related to cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Generation and analysis of knock-in mice carrying pseudohypoaldosteronism type II-causing mutations in the cullin 3 gene.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yuya; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sohara, Eisei; Mori, Takayasu; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Eriko; Ohta, Akihito; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary hypertensive disease caused by mutations in four different genes: with-no-lysine kinases (WNK) 1 and 4, Kelch-like family member 3 (KLHL3), and cullin 3 (Cul3). Cul3 and KLHL3 form an E3 ligase complex that ubiquitinates and reduces the expression level of WNK4. PHAII-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 impair WNK4 ubiquitination. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PHAII caused by Cul3 mutations is unclear. In cultured cells and human leukocytes, PHAII-causing Cul3 mutations result in the skipping of exon 9, producing mutant Cul3 protein lacking 57 amino acids. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in the kidneys and is responsible for the pathogenesis of PHAII in vivo is unknown. We generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation in the C-terminus of intron 8 of Cul3, c.1207-1G>A, which corresponds to a PHAII-causing mutation in the human Cul3 gene. Heterozygous Cul3(G(-1)A/+) knock-in mice did not exhibit PHAII phenotypes, and the skipping of exon 9 was not evident in their kidneys. However, the level of Cul3 mRNA expression in the kidneys of heterozygous knock-in mice was approximately half that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, homozygous knock-in mice were nonviable. It suggested that the mutant allele behaved like a knockout allele and did not produce Cul3 mRNA lacking exon 9. A reduction in Cul3 expression alone was not sufficient to develop PHAII in the knock-in mice. Our findings highlighted the pathogenic role of mutant Cul3 protein and provided insight to explain why PHAII-causing mutations in Cul3 cause kidney-predominant PHAII phenotypes. PMID:26490675

  20. Mutations in the VLGR1 Gene Implicate G-Protein Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michael D.; Luijendijk, Mirjam W. J.; Humphrey, Kurt D.; Mller, Claes; Kimberling, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with at least three genetic subtypes (USH2A, USH2B, and USH2C) and is classified phenotypically as congenital hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. The VLGR1 (MASS1) gene in the 5q14.3-q21.1 USH2C locus was considered a likely candidate on the basis of its protein motif structure and expressed-sequence-tag representation from both cochlear and retinal subtracted libraries. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing of polymerase-chain-reaction products amplified from 10 genetically independent patients with USH2C and 156 other patients with USH2 identified four isoform-specific VLGR1 mutations (Q2301X, I2906FS, M2931FS, and T6244X) from three families with USH2C, as well as two sporadic cases. All patients with VLGR1 mutations are female, a significant deviation from random expectations. The ligand(s) for the VLGR1 protein is unknown, but on the basis of its potential extracellular and intracellular protein-protein interaction domains and its wide mRNA expression profile, it is probable that VLGR1 serves diverse cellular and signaling processes. VLGR1 mutations have been previously identified in both humans and mice and are associated with a reflex-seizure phenotype in both species. The identification of additional VLGR1 mutations to test whether a phenotype/genotype correlation exists, akin to that shown for other Usher syndrome disease genes, is warranted. PMID:14740321

  1. Generation and analysis of knock-in mice carrying pseudohypoaldosteronism type II-causing mutations in the cullin 3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Yuya; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sohara, Eisei; Mori, Takayasu; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Eriko; Ohta, Akihito; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary hypertensive disease caused by mutations in four different genes: with-no-lysine kinases (WNK) 1 and 4, Kelch-like family member 3 (KLHL3), and cullin 3 (Cul3). Cul3 and KLHL3 form an E3 ligase complex that ubiquitinates and reduces the expression level of WNK4. PHAII-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 impair WNK4 ubiquitination. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PHAII caused by Cul3 mutations is unclear. In cultured cells and human leukocytes, PHAII-causing Cul3 mutations result in the skipping of exon 9, producing mutant Cul3 protein lacking 57 amino acids. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in the kidneys and is responsible for the pathogenesis of PHAII in vivo is unknown. We generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation in the C-terminus of intron 8 of Cul3, c.1207?1G>A, which corresponds to a PHAII-causing mutation in the human Cul3 gene. Heterozygous Cul3G(?1)A/+ knock-in mice did not exhibit PHAII phenotypes, and the skipping of exon 9 was not evident in their kidneys. However, the level of Cul3 mRNA expression in the kidneys of heterozygous knock-in mice was approximately half that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, homozygous knock-in mice were nonviable. It suggested that the mutant allele behaved like a knockout allele and did not produce Cul3 mRNA lacking exon 9. A reduction in Cul3 expression alone was not sufficient to develop PHAII in the knock-in mice. Our findings highlighted the pathogenic role of mutant Cul3 protein and provided insight to explain why PHAII-causing mutations in Cul3 cause kidney-predominant PHAII phenotypes. PMID:26490675

  2. Sp1-like activity mediates angiotensin-II-induced plasminogen-activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene expression in mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Motojima, M; Ando, T; Yoshioka, T

    2000-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulates plasminogen-activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) expression in mesangial cells to enhance extracellular matrix formation. The proximal promoter region (bp -87 to -45) of the human PAI-1 gene contains several potent binding sites for transcription factors [two phorbol-ester-response-element (TRE)-like sequences; D-box (-82 to -76) and P-box (-61 to 54), and one Sp1 binding site-like sequence, Sp1-box 1 (-72 to -67)]. We studied this region to determine the transcription factor(s) that mediates Ang-II-induced transcriptional activation of the PAI-1 gene. Various double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) corresponding to various sequences in the proximal promoter region were transfected to mesangial cells to examine the effects on Ang-II-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. Transfection with the full-length decoy (bp -87 to -45, D-P-ODN) markedly attenuated Ang-II-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression by up to 70%. Transfection with D-ODN (-87 to -71) and P-ODN (-66 to -45), which correspond to each of the two TRE-like sequences, did not attenuate the expression. Gel-shift assays using nuclear extracts prepared from Ang-II-treated mesangial cells and D-P-ODN showed three specific complexes. The major complex was supershifted by anti-Sp1 antibody. The methylation-interference experiment demonstrated that human recombinant Sp1 bound to the so-called GT box (TGGGTGGGGCT, -78 to -69), which contains the Sp1-box 1. The complex that migrated with anti-Sp1 antibody was enhanced in the cells treated with Ang II. Further, D-Sp1-ODN (-85 to -63) containing the GT box attenuated up-regulation of PAI-1 mRNA expression induced by Ang II to a level (68+/-9% inhibition) comparable to D-P-ODN, whereas ODN with four mutations in the GT box had no effect. Our findings suggest that binding of Sp1 or an Sp1-like transcription factor to the GT box in the PAI-1 promoter up-regulates PAI-1 gene transcription in mesangial cells stimulated with Ang II. This transcription-factor binding site may be targeted to control Ang-II-dependent extracellular matrix formation by mesangial cells. PMID:10880342

  3. Sequence Analysis of Inducible Prophage phIS3501 Integrated into the Haemolysin II Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646

    PubMed Central

    Moumen, Bouziane; Nguen-The, Christophe; Sorokin, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Diarrheic food poisoning by bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group is mostly due to several toxins encoded in the genomes. One of them, cytotoxin K, was recently identified as responsible for severe necrotic syndromes. Cytotoxin K is similar to a class of proteins encoded by genes usually annotated as haemolysin II (hlyII) in the majority of genomes of the B. cereus group. The partially sequenced genome of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646 contains several potentially induced prophages, one of them integrated into the hlyII gene. We determined the complete sequence and established the genomic organization of this prophage-designated phIS3501. During induction of excision of this prophage with mitomycin C, intact hlyII gene is formed, thus providing to cells a genetic ability to synthesize the active toxin. Therefore, this prophage, upon its excision, can be implicated in the regulation of synthesis of the active toxin and thus in the virulence of bacterial host. A generality of selection for such systems in bacterial pathogens is indicated by the similarity of this genetic arrangement to that of Staphylococcus aureus  β-haemolysin. PMID:22567391

  4. Swine leukocyte antigen class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) polymorphism and genotyping in Guizhou minipigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Z; Xia, J H; Xin, L L; Wang, Z G; Qian, L; Wu, S G; Yang, S L; Li, K

    2015-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex harbors highly polymorphic gene clusters encoding glycoproteins that are involved in responses to vaccines, infectious disease, and production performance. Pigs with well-defined SLA class II genes are useful for the study of disease, immunology, and vaccines. In this study, we analyzed four SLA class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) in 22 founder Guizhou minipigs using a sequence-based typing method. Twelve alleles were detected, compared with the SLA class II allele sequences in the GenBank, and one of twelve alleles was found to be novel in Guizhou minipigs. There are four SLA II haplotypes, and one of them has been previously reported in Meishan pigs. Furthermore, based on sequence information of these alleles, we developed a simple SLA typing method implemented to SLA-typing for unknown offspring of Guizhou minipigs, relying on designed twelve sequence specific primers that could discriminate between each other. According to the combination of sequence-based typing and PCR-SSP, we were able to rapidly check SLA typing of Guizhou breeding stock and identified four SLA haplotypes in the herd. Therefore, SLA-defined Guizhou minipigs will be useful as animal models for xenotransplantation and immunological research. PMID:26634489

  5. Mitochondrial complex II has a key role in mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species influence on plant stress gene regulation and defense

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Cynthia; Huang, Shaobai; Thatcher, Louise F.; Foley, Rhonda C.; Anderson, Carol R.; Carroll, Adam J.; Millar, A. Harvey; Singh, Karam B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are both a source of ATP and a site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, there is little information on the sites of mitochondrial ROS (mROS) production or the biological role of such mROS in plants. We provide genetic proof that mitochondrial complex II (Complex II) of the electron transport chain contributes to localized mROS that regulates plant stress and defense responses. We identify an Arabidopsis mutant in the Complex II subunit, SDH1-1, through a screen for mutants lacking GSTF8 gene expression in response to salicylic acid (SA). GSTF8 is an early stress-responsive gene whose transcription is induced by biotic and abiotic stresses, and its expression is commonly used as a marker of early stress and defense responses. Transcriptional analysis of this mutant, disrupted in stress responses 1 (dsr1), showed that it had altered SA-mediated gene expression for specific downstream stress and defense genes, and it exhibited increased susceptibility to specific fungal and bacterial pathogens. The dsr1 mutant also showed significantly reduced succinate dehydrogenase activity. Using in vivo fluorescence assays, we demonstrated that root cell ROS production occurred primarily from mitochondria and was lower in the mutant in response to SA. In addition, leaf ROS production was lower in the mutant after avirulent bacterial infection. This mutation, in a conserved region of SDH1-1, is a unique plant mitochondrial mutant that exhibits phenotypes associated with lowered mROS production. It provides critical insights into Complex II function with implications for understanding Complex II's role in mitochondrial diseases across eukaryotes. PMID:21670306

  6. Mitochondrial complex II has a key role in mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species influence on plant stress gene regulation and defense.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Cynthia; Huang, Shaobai; Thatcher, Louise F; Foley, Rhonda C; Anderson, Carol R; Carroll, Adam J; Millar, A Harvey; Singh, Karam B

    2011-06-28

    Mitochondria are both a source of ATP and a site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, there is little information on the sites of mitochondrial ROS (mROS) production or the biological role of such mROS in plants. We provide genetic proof that mitochondrial complex II (Complex II) of the electron transport chain contributes to localized mROS that regulates plant stress and defense responses. We identify an Arabidopsis mutant in the Complex II subunit, SDH1-1, through a screen for mutants lacking GSTF8 gene expression in response to salicylic acid (SA). GSTF8 is an early stress-responsive gene whose transcription is induced by biotic and abiotic stresses, and its expression is commonly used as a marker of early stress and defense responses. Transcriptional analysis of this mutant, disrupted in stress responses 1 (dsr1), showed that it had altered SA-mediated gene expression for specific downstream stress and defense genes, and it exhibited increased susceptibility to specific fungal and bacterial pathogens. The dsr1 mutant also showed significantly reduced succinate dehydrogenase activity. Using in vivo fluorescence assays, we demonstrated that root cell ROS production occurred primarily from mitochondria and was lower in the mutant in response to SA. In addition, leaf ROS production was lower in the mutant after avirulent bacterial infection. This mutation, in a conserved region of SDH1-1, is a unique plant mitochondrial mutant that exhibits phenotypes associated with lowered mROS production. It provides critical insights into Complex II function with implications for understanding Complex II's role in mitochondrial diseases across eukaryotes. PMID:21670306

  7. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Geisler, J.G. |

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Cloning and sequencing of LlaDCHI [corrected] restriction/modification genes from Lactococcus lactis and relatedness of this system to the Streptococcus pneumoniae DpnII system.

    PubMed Central

    Moineau, S; Walker, S A; Vedamuthu, E R; Vandenbergh, P A

    1995-01-01

    The natural 7.8-kb plasmid pSRQ700 was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris DCH-4. It encodes a restriction/modification system named LlaDCHI [corrected]. When introduced into a phage-sensitive L. lactis strain, pSRQ700 confers strong phage resistance against the three most common lactococcal phage species, namely, 936, c2, and P335. The LlaDCHI [corrected] endonuclease was purified and found to cleave the palindromic sequence 5'-GATC-3'. It is an isoschizomer of Streptococcus pneumoniae DpnII. The plasmid pSRQ700 was mapped, and the genetic organization of LlaDCHI [corrected] was localized. Cloning and sequencing of the entire LlaDCHI [corrected] system allowed the identification of three open reading frames. The three genes (llaIIA, llaIIB, and llaIIC) overlapped and are under one putative promoter. A putative terminator was found at the end of llaIIC. The genes llaIIA and llaIIB coded for m6A methyltransferases, and llaIIC coded for an endonuclease. The LlaDCHI [corrected] system shares strong genetic similarities with the DpnII system. The deduced amino acid sequence of M.LlaIIA was 75% identical with that of M.DpnII, whereas M.LlaIIB was 88% identical with M.DpnA. However, R.LlalII shared only 31% identity with R.DpnII. PMID:7793939

  9. Knockdown of mineralocorticoid or angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus prevents angiotensin II hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aidong; Huang, Bing S; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2014-01-01

    Circulating Ang II activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) angiotensin II (Ang II) angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway in the hypothalamus. To obtain insights into the actual neuronal projections involved, adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either AT1aR (AAV-AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) were infused into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Wistar rats. Intra-PVN infusion of AAV-AT1aR-siRNA or AAV-MR-siRNA decreased AT1R or MR expression in the PVN but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) or supraoptic nucleus (SON). Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II at 500ngkg?1min?1 for 2weeks increased mean arterial pressure by 6070mmHg, and increased AT1R and MR expression in the SFO, SON and PVN. Intra-PVN AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R but not MR expression in the PVN, and MR-siRNA prevented MR but not AT1R expression in the PVN. The increases in AT1R and MR expression in both the SFO and the SON were not changed by the two AAV-siRNAs. Specific knockdown of AT1R or MR in the PVN by AAV-siRNA each prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. Prevention of the subcutaneous Ang II-induced increase in MR but not the increase in AT1R by knockdown of MR and vice versa suggests an independent regulation of MR and AT1R expression in the PVN. Both AT1R and MR activation in the PVN play a critical role in Ang II-induced hypertension in rats. PMID:24973408

  10. Knockdown of mineralocorticoid or angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus prevents angiotensin II hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aidong; Huang, Bing S; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2014-08-15

    Circulating Ang II activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) - angiotensin II (Ang II) - angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway in the hypothalamus. To obtain insights into the actual neuronal projections involved, adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either AT1aR (AAV-AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) were infused into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Wistar rats. Intra-PVN infusion of AAV-AT1aR-siRNA or AAV-MR-siRNA decreased AT1R or MR expression in the PVN but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) or supraoptic nucleus (SON). Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II at 500 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for 2 weeks increased mean arterial pressure by 60-70 mmHg, and increased AT1R and MR expression in the SFO, SON and PVN. Intra-PVN AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R but not MR expression in the PVN, and MR-siRNA prevented MR but not AT1R expression in the PVN. The increases in AT1R and MR expression in both the SFO and the SON were not changed by the two AAV-siRNAs. Specific knockdown of AT1R or MR in the PVN by AAV-siRNA each prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. Prevention of the subcutaneous Ang II-induced increase in MR but not the increase in AT1R by knockdown of MR and vice versa suggests an independent regulation of MR and AT1R expression in the PVN. Both AT1R and MR activation in the PVN play a critical role in Ang II-induced hypertension in rats. PMID:24973408

  11. Clustering of the YNA1 gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional factor in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha with the nitrate assimilation genes YNT1, YNI1 and YNR1, and its involvement in their transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J; Gonzlez, C; Brito, N; Siverio, J M

    1998-01-01

    The genes encoding the nitrate transporter (YNT1), nitrite reductase (YNI1) and nitrate reductase (YNR1) are clustered in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. In addition, DNA sequencing of the region containing these genes demonstrated that a new open reading frame called YNA1 (yeast nitrate assimilation) was located between YNR1 and YNI1. The YNA1 gene encodes a protein of 529 residues belonging to the family of Zn(II)2Cys6 fungal transcriptional factors, and has the highest similarity to the transcriptional factors encoded by nirA, and to a smaller extent to nit-4, involved in the nitrate induction of the gene involved in the assimilation of this compound in filamentous fungi. Northern blot analysis showed the presence of the YNA1 transcript in cells incubated in nitrate, nitrate plus ammonium, ammonium, and nitrogen-free media, with a decrease in its levels in those cells incubated in ammonium. In nitrate the strain Deltayna1::URA3, with a disrupted YNA1 gene, neither grew nor expressed the genes YNT1, YNI1 and YNR1. In the gene cluster YNT1-YNI1-YNA1-YNR1, the four genes were transcribed independently in the YNT1-->YNR1 direction and the transcription start sites were determined by primer extension. PMID:9794807

  12. Structural analysis of the regulatory elements of the type-II procollagen gene. Conservation of promoter and first intron sequences between human and mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Vikkula, M; Metsranta, M; Syvnen, A C; Ala-Kokko, L; Vuorio, E; Peltonen, L

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of the type-II procollagen gene (COL2A1) is very specifically restricted to a limited number of tissues, particularly cartilages. In order to identify transcription-control motifs we have sequenced the promoter region and the first intron of the human and mouse COL2A1 genes. With the assumption that these motifs should be well conserved during evolution, we have searched for potential elements important for the tissue-specific transcription of the COL2A1 gene by aligning the two sequences with each other and with the available rat type-II procollagen sequence for the promoter. With this approach we could identify specific evolutionarily well-conserved motifs in the promoter area. On the other hand, several suggested regulatory elements in the promoter region did not show evolutionary conservation. In the middle of the first intron we found a cluster of well-conserved transcription-control elements and we conclude that these conserved motifs most probably possess a significant function in the control of the tissue-specific transcription of the COL2A1 gene. We also describe locations of additional, highly conserved nucleotide stretches, which are good candidate regions in the search for binding sites of yet-uncharacterized cartilage-specific transcription regulators of the COL2A1 gene. PMID:1637314

  13. Mutations in the MGAT2 gene controlling complex N-glycan synthesis cause carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II, an autosomal recessive disease with defective brain development

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, J.; Schachter, H.; Dunn, J.

    1996-10-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS) type II is a multisystemic congenital disease with severe involvement of the nervous system. Two unrelated CDGS type II patients are shown to have point mutations (one patient having Ser{r_arrow}Phe and the other having His{r_arrow}Arg) in the catalytic domain of the gene MGAT2, encoding UDP-GlcNAc:{alpha}-6-D-mannoside {Beta}-1,2-N-ace-tylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnT II), an enzyme essential for biosynthesis of complex Asn-linked glycans. Both mutations caused both decreased expression of enzyme protein in a baculovirus/insect cell system and inactivation of enzyme activity. Restriction-endonuclease analysis of DNA from 23 blood relatives of one of these patients showed that 13 donors were heterozygotes; the other relatives and 21 unrelated donors were normal homozygotes. All heterozygotes showed a significant reduction (33%-68%) in mononuclear-cell GnT II activity. The data indicate that CDGS type II is an autosomal recessive disease and that complex Asn-linked glycans are essential for normal neurological development. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A 29-mer site regulates transcription of the initiator gene as well as function of the replication origin of Vibrio cholerae chromosome II

    PubMed Central

    Venkova-Canova, Tatiana; Saha, Anik; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2012-01-01

    The region responsible for replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome II (chrII) resembles those of plasmids that have repeated initiator binding sites (iterons) and an autorepressed initiator gene. ChrII has additional features: Its iterons require full methylation for initiator (RctB) binding, which makes them inactive for a part of the cell cycle when they are hemi-methylated. RctB also binds to a second kind of site, called 39-mers, in a methylation independent manner. This binding is inhibitory to chrII replication. The site that RctB uses for autorepression has not been identified. Here we show that a 29-mer sequence, similar to the 39-mers, serves as that site, as we find that it binds RctB in vitro and suffices to repress the rctB promoter in vivo. The site is not subject to methylation and is likely to be active throughout the cell cycle. The 29-mer, like the 39-mers, could inhibit RctB-dependent mini-chrII replication in Escherichia coli, possibly by coupling with iterons via RctB bridges, as was seen in vitro. The 29-mer thus appears to play a dual role in regulating chrII replication: one independent of the cell cycle, the other dependent upon iteron methylation, hence responsive to the cell cycle. PMID:22248922

  15. From GC-rich DNA binding to the repression of survivin gene for quercetin nickel (II) complex: implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai; Wang, Bochu

    2010-12-01

    The DNA binding and cleavage properties of quercetin nickel (II) complex have been studied, but little attention has been devoted to the relationship between antitumor activity of this complex and DNA-binding properties. In the present study, we report that quercetin nickel (II) complex showed significant cytotoxicity against three tumor cell lines (HepG2, SMMC7721 and A549). Hoechst33258 and AO/EB staining showed HepG2 cells underwent the typical morphologic changes of apoptosis characterized by nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation, or fragmentation after exposure to quercetin nickel (II) complex. We also demonstrate that the levels of survivin and bcl-2 protein expression in HepG2 cells decreased concurrently, and the levels of p53 protein increased significantly after treatment with quercetin nickel (II) complex by immunocytochemistry analysis. The relative activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased significantly after treatment with the complex. Furthermore, fluorescence measurements and molecular modeling were performed to learn that the complex could be preferentially bound to DNA in GC region. These results imply that quercetin nickel (II) complex may intercalate into the GC-rich core promoter region of survivin, down-regulating survivin gene expression and promoting tumor cells apoptosis. So our results suggest that antitumor activity of quercetin nickel (II) complex might be related to its intercalation into DNA and DNA-binding selectivity, and that the complex may be a promising agent for cancer therapy. PMID:20577783

  16. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and fluid obtained from metal implant sites. PMID:25594566

  17. A potentially critical Hpa II site of the X chromosome-linked PGK1 gene is unmethylated prior to the onset of meiosis of human oogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singer-Sam, J.; Dai, A.; Riggs, A.D. ); Goldstein, L.; Gartler, S.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Hpa II site H8 is in the CpG-rich 5{prime} untranslated region of the human X chromosome-linked gene for phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). It is the only Hpa II site in the CpG island' whose methylation pattern is perfectly correlated with transcriptional silence of this gene. The authors measured DNA methylation at site H8 in fetal oogonia and oocytes and found, using a quantitative assay based on the polymerase chain reaction, that purified germ cells isolated by micromanipulation were unmethylated in 47-day to 110-day fetuses, whereas ovaries depleted of germ cells and non-ovary tissues were methylated. They conclude that site H8 is the unmethylated in germ cells prior to the onset of meiosis and reactivation of the X chromosome.

  18. Autoregulation of Adenovirus Type 5 Early Gene Expression II. Effect of Temperature-Sensitive Early Mutations on Virus RNA Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, T. H.; Blanton, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of early virus RNA in the cytoplasm of KB cells infected at 40.5C by wild-type (WT) adenovirus type 5 and a temperature-sensitive early mutant, H5ts125 (ts125), were compared by hybridization of unlabeled RNA in solution to the 3H-labeled l strand of Ad5 DNA HindIII restriction endonuclease fragment A. In the presence of 1-?-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, Al RNA accumulated in WT-infected cells for 9 h and then decreased in concentration to 6% of the 9-h concentration by 18 h. In ts125-infected cells, Al RNA accumulated for 12 h and then remained at the same concentration for at least 6 h thereafter. The concentrations of virus RNA from the four early transcription regions of the genome were measured at 15 h in cells infected at 40.5C in the presence of 1-?-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine by: (i) ts125 and WT; (ii) two other ts early mutants, ts107 and ts149; and (iii) a revertant of ts125. The revertant and ts149, a mutant from a different complementation group than ts125, both accumulated all early virus cytoplasmic RNA species in amounts similar to, or less than, WT. However, both ts125 and ts107, independently isolated mutations in the 72,000-molecular-weight (72K) DNA-binding protein gene, accumulated cytoplasmic early RNA in excess of that found in WT infection. This pattern of RNA accumulation with the mutants and WT virus was the same in the nuclei as in the cytoplasm at 40.5C. At 32C, however, the abundance of nuclear virus RNA from all four early regions was the same in cells infected by either ts125 or WT. Differences in the relative abundance of nuclear RNA from the four early regions were observed in cells infected at 40.5 and 32C, but were not dependent upon the infecting virus genotype. These results are consistent with autoregulation of early gene expression by the 72K protein and support the hypothesis that the 72K protein either decreases the rate of early virus transcription or increases the rate of virus RNA degradation in the nucleus. PMID:214573

  19. Sequence polymorphism of two major histocompatibility (MH) class II B genes and their association with Vibrio anguillarum infection in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Quanqi; Yu, Yan; Li, Shuo; Zhong, Qiwang; Sun, Yeying; Wang, Zhigang; Qi, Jie; Zhai, Jieming; Wang, Xubo

    2011-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B molecules play an important role in the adaptive immune response in fish. Previous study has reported that two highly polymorphic class II B genes, Cyse-DAB and Cyse-DBB exist in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). In this study, the polymorphism within exon 2 of the class II B genes following bacterial challenge was evaluated. Two hundred C. semilaevis individuals were injected intraperitoneally with Vibrio anguillarum. Muscle tissue from the first 20 dead and 20 of the survivors was collected for genotyping. Sixty alleles from the 40 individuals were isolated, of which 32 belonged to Cyse-DAB and 28 belonged to Cyse-DBB. The rate of d N (non-synonymous substitution) was higher than that of d S (synonymous substitution) in the PBRs (peptide binding residues) of both class II B genes. Conversely, the rate of d S was higher than d N in the non-PBRs and the complete exon 2 sequence. Thus, the results suggest that positive selection has occurred in the PBRs and purifying selection in the non-PBRs and exon 2. Thirteen class II B alleles were used to study the association between alleles and resistance to infection. Though not significant, alleles Cyse-DAB*0601, Cyse-DAB*0706, and Cyse-DBB*0101, Cyse-DBB*1301 were only found in surviving individuals and may represent alleles that have resistance against V. anguillarum infection. Alleles Cyse-DAB*0701 and Cyse-DAB*1301 were significantly more prevalent in dead individuals than in surviving ones and may represent alleles that are associated with increased susceptibility to V. anguillarum infection.

  20. Identification of two major histocompatibility (MH) class II A genes and their association to Vibrio anguillarum infection in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Zhigang; Qi, Jie; Yi, Qilin; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Yanan; Yu, Haiyang

    2012-03-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are important in vertebrate immune system. In the present study, the full cDNA sequence of class II A gene was synthesized by RACE-PCR from half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis), and its open reading frame (ORF) polymorphism was studied. The whole cDNA sequence was 992 bp in length, including the ORF with 717 bp. Twenty-five alleles were identified and clustered into two distinct groups according to the specific nucleotides/ amino acids in specific positions. Eleven alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA while fourteen alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Four Cyse-DAA alleles were observed in one individual, and three to five Cyse-DBA alleles were observed in each of the three detected individuals, which indicated that at least two loci existed in each gene. Moreover, in order to study the function of the alleles in resistance to infection, 200 individuals were intraperitoneally injected with Vibrio anguillarum and the first 20 dead individuals and 20 surviving ones were selected for genotype analysis. Fifty-six alleles were identified among the 40 individuals. Twenty-nine alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA and the other 27 alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Eighteen alleles were selected for studying their function in resistance to infection. Alleles Cyse-DAA*0201, Cyse-DAA*1101, Cyse-DBA*0401, Cyse-DBA*1102, Cyse-DBA*1801 and Cyse-DBA*2201 were identified only in surviving individuals, while alleles Cyse- DAA*0901, Cyse-DBA*1101 and Cyse-DBA*1401 occurred more frequently in dead individuals. This study confirmed the existence and polymorphism of two class II A genes as well as the relationship between alleles of class II A genes and disease susceptibility/ resistance in half-smooth tongue sole.

  1. Disruption of the cytochrome P-450 1B1 gene exacerbates renal dysfunction and damage associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in female mice.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brett L; Moore, Joseph A; Pingili, Ajeeth K; Estes, Anne M; Fang, Xiao R; Kanu, Alie; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in female mice that protection against ANG II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes depend on cytochrome P-450 (CYP)1B1. The present study was conducted to determine if Cyp1b1 gene disruption ameliorates renal dysfunction and organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension in female mice. ANG II (700 ngkg(-1)min(-1)) infused by miniosmotic pumps for 2 wk in female Cyp1b1(+/+) mice did not alter water consumption, urine output, Na(+) excretion, osmolality, or protein excretion. However, in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice, ANG II infusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) water intake (5.50 0.42 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 8.80 0.60 ml/24 h with ANG II), urine output (1.44 0.37 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 4.30 0.37 ml/24 h with ANG II), and urinary Na(+) excretion (0.031 0.016 mmol/24 h with vehicle vs. 0.099 0.010 mmol/24 h with ANG II), decreased osmolality (2,630 79 mosM/kg with vehicle vs. 1,280 205 mosM/kg with ANG II), and caused proteinuria (2.60 0.30 mg/24 h with vehicle vs. 6.96 0.55 mg/24 h with ANG II). Infusion of ANG II caused renal fibrosis, as indicated by an accumulation of renal interstitial ?-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and transforming growth factor-? in Cyp1b1(-/-) but not Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. ANG II also increased renal production of ROS and urinary excretion of thiobarburic acid-reactive substances and reduced the activity of antioxidants and urinary excretion of nitrite/nitrate and the 17?-estradiol metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol in Cyp1b1(-/-) but not Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. These data suggest that Cyp1b1 plays a critical role in female mice in protecting against renal dysfunction and end-organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension, in preventing oxidative stress, and in increasing activity of antioxidant systems, most likely via generation of 2-methoxyestradiol from 17?-estradiol. PMID:25694484

  2. Affinity-purified CCAAT-box-binding protein (YEBP) functionally regulates expression of a human class II major histocompatibility complex gene and the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik-Le, N.J.; Azizkhan, J.C.; Ting, J.P.Y. )

    1991-03-01

    Efficient major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression requires conseved protein-binding promoter elements, including X and Y elements. The authors affinity purified an HLA-DRA Y-element (CCAAT)-binding protein (YEBP) and used it to reconstitute Y-depleted HLA-DRA in vitro transcription. This directly demonstrates a positive functional role for YEBP in HLA-DRA transcription. The ability of YEBP to regulate divergent CCAAT elements was also assessed; YEBP was found to partially activate the thymidine kinase promoter. This functional analysis of YEBP shows that this protein plays an important role in the regulation of multiple genes.

  3. Light-Intensity-Dependent Expression of Lhc Gene Family Encoding Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll-a/b Proteins of Photosystem II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Haruhiko; Nakamori, Akira; Minagawa, Jun; Ono, Taka-aki

    2002-01-01

    Excessive light conditions repressed the levels of mRNAs accumulation of multiple Lhc genes encoding light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b (LHC) proteins of photosystem (PS)II in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The light intensity required for the repression tended to decrease with lowering temperature or CO2 concentration. The responses of six LhcII genes encoding the major LHC (LHCII) proteins and two genes (Lhcb4 and Lhcb5) encoding the minor LHC proteins of PSII (CP29 and CP26) were similar. The results indicate that the expression of these Lhc genes is coordinately repressed when the energy input through the antenna systems exceeds the requirement for CO2 assimilation. The Lhc mRNA level repressed under high-light conditions was partially recovered by adding the electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, suggesting that redox signaling via photosynthetic electron carriers is involved in the gene regulation. However, the mRNA level was still considerably lower under high-light than under low-light conditions even in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Repression of the Lhc genes by high light was prominent even in the mutants deficient in the reaction center(s) of PSII or both PSI and PSII. The results indicate that two alternative processes are involved in the repression of Lhc genes under high-light conditions, one of which is independent of the photosynthetic reaction centers and electron transport events. PMID:12226512

  4. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy, and Inflammatory Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu V; Cicha, Michael Z; Meyerholz, David K; Chapleau, Mark W; Abboud, Franois M

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors are key determinants of the immunologic outcome through their proinflammatory response. Toll-like receptor-activated signaling pathways use several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) and toll-interleukin receptor domain-containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) define 2 major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4, and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. However, in mice with nonfunctional TRIF (Trif(mut) mice), Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and proinflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a proinflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  5. Association of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (A1166C) Gene Polymorphism and Its Increased Expression in Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sudhir; Narang, Rajiv; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman; Srivastava, Kamna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is one of the major cardiovascular diseases. It affects nearly 1.56 billion people worldwide. The present study is about a particular genetic polymorphism (A1166C), gene expression and protein expression of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) (SNP ID: rs5186) and its association with essential hypertension in a Northern Indian population. Methods We analyzed the A1166C polymorphism and expression of AT1R gene in 250 patients with essential hypertension and 250 normal healthy controls. Results A significant association was found in the AT1R genotypes (AC+CC) with essential hypertension (?2?=?22.48, p?=?0.0001). Individuals with CC genotypes were at 2.4 times higher odds (p?=?0.0001) to develop essential hypertension than individuals with AC and AA genotypes. The statistically significant intergenotypic variation in the systolic blood pressure was found higher in the patients with CC (169.436.3 mmHg) as compared to that of AA (143.528.1 mmHg) and AC (153.930.5 mmHg) genotypes (p?=?0.0001). We found a significant difference in the average delta-CT value (p?=?0.0001) wherein an upregulated gene expression (approximately 16 fold) was observed in case of patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, higher expression of AT1R gene was observed in patients with CC genotype than with AC and AA genotypes. A significant difference (p?=?0.0001) in the protein expression of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor was also observed in the plasma of patients (1.490.27) as compared to controls (0.800.24). Conclusion Our findings suggest that C allele of A1166C polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with essential hypertension and its upregulation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:24992666

  6. Gastric carcinomas with microsatellite instability: clinical features and mutations to the TGF-beta type II receptor, IGFII receptor, and BAX genes.

    PubMed

    Iacopetta, B J; Soong, R; House, A K; Hamelin, R

    1999-03-01

    The replication error phenotype (RER+) represents an important new form of genetic alteration characterized by widespread instability in repetitive nucleotide sequences. The aim of this study was to compare the features of RER+ gastric tumours with those of RER+ colonic tumours. RER status was determined by analysis of size alterations in the BAT-26 mononucleotide repeat microsatellite. Twelve of 121 (10 per cent) gastric carcinomas from a low-incidence region were found to be RER+. BAT-26 instability was associated with tumours showing an absence of nodal invasion ( p=0.009) and with a trend for improved prognosis. These tumours were more frequent in older, female patients. Frameshift mutations in mononucleotide repeat sequences within the transforming growth factor-beta receptor II (RII), insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGFIIR), and BAX genes were observed in 83, 33, and 25 per cent, respectively, of RER+ tumours. Only 1/12 (8 per cent) RER+ tumours contained a p53 gene mutation compared with 29/109 (27 per cent) RER- tumours. RER+ gastric carcinomas therefore share several important features with RER+ colonic tumours, including less frequent nodal invasion, improved prognosis, a similar frequency of mutation in growth control genes containing repetitive nucleotide sequences, and a low frequency of mutation of the p53 tumour suppressor gene. PMID:10398102

  7. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  8. The human gene (CSNK2A1) coding for the casein kinase II subunit [alpha] is located on chromosome 20 and contains tandemly arranged Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Wirkner, U.; Lichter, P.; Pyerin, W. ); Voss, H.; Ansorge, W. )

    1994-01-15

    The authors have isolated and characterized an 18.9-kb genomic clone representing a central portion of the human casein kinase II (CKII) subunit [alpha] gene (CSNK2A1). Using the whole clone as a probe, the gene was localized on chromosome 20p13. The clone contains eight exons whose sequences comprise bases 102 to 824 of the coding region of the human CKII[alpha]. The exon/intron splice junctions conform to the gt/ag rule. Three of the nine introns are located at positions corresponding to those in the CKII[alpha] gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The introns contain eight complete and eight incomplete Alu repeats. Some of the Alu sequences are arranged in tandems of two or three, which seem to originate from insertions of younger Alu sequences into the poly(A) region of previously integrated Alu sequences, as indicated by flanking direct repeats. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Terminal oxidase diversity and function in "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis": gene expression and protein modeling suggest mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation in the sulfolobales.

    PubMed

    Kozubal, M A; Dlakic, M; Macur, R E; Inskeep, W P

    2011-03-01

    "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis" is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b(558/566), several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic ores. PMID:21239558

  10. Biologic Determinants of Tumor Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer: Validation Study of the 12-Gene Recurrence Score in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581

    PubMed Central

    Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N.; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M.; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Warren, Robert S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. Patients and Methods CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. Conclusion The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients. PMID:23530100

  11. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100M CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3h till 72h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35% decrease to 72h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess. PMID:25361533

  12. Effects of alien and intraspecies cytoplasms on manifestation of nuclear genes for wheat resistance to brown rust: II. Specificity of cytoplasm influence on different Lr genes

    SciTech Connect

    Voluevich, E.A.; Buloichik, A.A.; Palilova, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Specificity of expression of the major nuclear genes Lr to two brown rust clones in hybrids with the same maternal cytoplasm was analyzed. It was evaluated by a resistant: susceptible ratio in the F{sub 2}. Reciprocal hybrids were obtained from the cross between the progeny of homozygous susceptible plants of the cultivar Penjamo 62 and its alloplasmatic lines carrying cytoplasms of Triticum dicoccoides var. fulvovillosum, Aegilops squarrosa var. typical, Agropyron trichophorum, and isogenic lines of the cultivar Thatcher (Th) with the Lr1, Lr9, Lr15, and Lr19 genes. It was shown that the effect of the Lr1 gene in the cytoplasm of cultivar Thatcher and in eu-, and alloplasmatic forms of Penjamo 62 was less expressed than that of other Lr genes. Cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (dicoccoides)-Penjamo 62 was the only exception: in the F{sub 2}, hybrids with Th (Lr1) had a higher yield of resistant forms than those with Th (Lr15). In the hybrid combinations studied, expression and/or transmission of the Lr19 gene was more significant than that of other genes. This gene had no advantages over Lr15 and Lr19 only in cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (squarrosa)-Penjamo 62. In certain hybrid cytoplasms, the display of the Lr1, Lr15, and Lr19 genes, in contrast to Lr9, varied with the virulence of the pathogen clones. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Characterization of angiotensin II receptors in cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. Coupling to signaling systems and gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Crabos, M; Roth, M; Hahn, A W; Erne, P

    1994-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is largely due to cardiac fibroblast growth and increased synthesis of extracellular matrix. This study has investigated the contribution of the vasoactive hormone, angiotensin II, toward this hypertrophic process. We have demonstrated that cultures of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts express AT1 but not AT2 receptors for angiotensin II. The ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phosphoinositide catabolism and to elevate intracellular calcium concentrations in these cells was blocked by losartan, a specific AT1 receptor antagonist, but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist CGP 42112. Exposure of adult cardiac fibroblasts to angiotensin II resulted in the induction of several growth-related metabolic events including c-fos protooncogene expression and increased synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Angiotensin II was also found to induce collagen type I, alpha 1 chain transcript expression in cardiac fibroblasts as well as the synthesis and secretion of collagen by these cells. The data demonstrate that angiotensin II, via AT1 receptors, can stimulate cardiac fibroblast growth and increase collagen synthesis in cardiac tissue. Thus, angiotensin II may contribute toward the development of cardiac hypertrophy in conditions of hypertension that are associated with elevated concentrations of angiotensin II. Images PMID:8200970

  14. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding programmes aiming at improving yield and water use efficiency in Shijiazhuang located in China Zone II. PMID:25846875

  15. Association between Estrogen Receptor-α Gene XbaI and PvuII Polymorphisms and Periodontitis Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Zuo, Hong-Xia; Yan, Jin-Zhu; Niu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. Certain studies have previously explored the association between the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) gene polymorphisms and periodontitis susceptibility, although the current results are controversial. The present study, using meta-analysis, aimed to investigate the nature of the genetic susceptibility of the ER-α for developing periodontitis. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases was conducted up to January 8, 2015. Statistical manipulation was performed using Stata version 13.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confident intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association in five genetic models. Results. A total of 17 eligible case-control studies from seven identified publications consisting of nine studies for the XbaI polymorphism and eight studies for the PvuII polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. We found elevated risk of periodontitis in XbaI XX genotype carriers. Moreover, subgroup analyses demonstrated increased risk for chronic periodontitis of XbaI XX genotype carriers, specifically in the Chinese Han female population. No significant association was observed between PvuII polymorphism and periodontitis. Conclusion. Current evidence indicated that the homozygote (XX) genotype of ER-α gene XbaI polymorphism, but not PvuII mutation, may increase the risk of chronic periodontitis, specifically in the Chinese Han female population. PMID:26688601

  16. Genes encoding the same three subunits of respiratory complex II are present in the mitochondrial DNA of two phylogenetically distant eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, G; Lang, B F; Reith, M; Gray, M W

    1996-01-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA is known to encode a limited number (<20) of the polypeptide components of respiratory complexes I, III, IV, and V, genes for components of complex II [succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone); succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.5.1] are conspicuously lacking in mitochondrial genomes so far characterized. Here we show that the same three subunits of complex II are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of two phylogenetically distant eukaryotes, Porphyra purpurea (a photosynthetic red alga) and Reclinomonas americana (a heterotrophic zooflagellate). These complex II genes, sdh2, sdh3, and sdh4, are homologs, respectively, of Escherichia coli sdhB, sdhC, and sdhD. In E. coli, sdhB encodes the iron-sulfur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), whereas sdhC and sdhD specify, respectively, apocytochrome b558 and a hydrophobic 13-kDa polypeptide, which together anchor SDH to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Amino acid sequence similarities indicate that sdh2, sdh3, and sdh4 were originally encoded in the protomitochondrial genome and have subsequently been transferred to the nuclear genome in most eukaryotes. The data presented here are consistent with the view that mitochondria constitute a monophyletic lineage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8637872

  17. Genes encoding the same three subunits of respiratory complex II are present in the mitochondrial DNA of two phylogenetically distant eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Burger, G; Lang, B F; Reith, M; Gray, M W

    1996-03-19

    Although mitochondrial DNA is known to encode a limited number (<20) of the polypeptide components of respiratory complexes I, III, IV, and V, genes for components of complex II [succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone); succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.5.1] are conspicuously lacking in mitochondrial genomes so far characterized. Here we show that the same three subunits of complex II are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of two phylogenetically distant eukaryotes, Porphyra purpurea (a photosynthetic red alga) and Reclinomonas americana (a heterotrophic zooflagellate). These complex II genes, sdh2, sdh3, and sdh4, are homologs, respectively, of Escherichia coli sdhB, sdhC, and sdhD. In E. coli, sdhB encodes the iron-sulfur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), whereas sdhC and sdhD specify, respectively, apocytochrome b558 and a hydrophobic 13-kDa polypeptide, which together anchor SDH to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Amino acid sequence similarities indicate that sdh2, sdh3, and sdh4 were originally encoded in the protomitochondrial genome and have subsequently been transferred to the nuclear genome in most eukaryotes. The data presented here are consistent with the view that mitochondria constitute a monophyletic lineage. PMID:8637872

  18. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2p) in mice

    PubMed Central

    SHOJI, Haruka; KINIWA, Yukiko; OKUYAMA, Ryuhei; YANG, Mu; HIGUCHI, Keiichi; MORI, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2p); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2p allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2p allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2p allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:25736709

  19. A dominant negative mutant of an IFN regulatory factor family protein inhibits both type I and type II IFN-stimulated gene expression and antiproliferative activity of IFNs.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A M; Ogryzko, V V; Dent, A; Sharf, R; Levi, B Z; Kanno, Y; Staudt, L M; Howard, B H; Ozato, K

    1996-12-01

    Type I (alpha,beta) and type II (gamma) IFNs elicit antiproliferative and antiviral activities through two distinct transcription pathways involving 1) IRF family proteins and ISGF3, and 2) STAT1. We have employed a dominant negative strategy to study the role of IRF family proteins in eliciting the biologic activities of IFN. A truncated IRF protein retaining the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of ICSBP (a member of the IRF family) was stably transfected into U937 monocytic cells. Clones expressing DBD had markedly reduced ISRE-binding activity and were defective in expressing several type I IFN-inducible genes. STAT1 was one such type I IFN-inducible gene whose expression was also inhibited in DBD clones. As a result, the expression of several IFN-gamma-inducible genes was also inhibited in these clones, indicating functional coupling of the type I and type II IFN transcription pathways. Furthermore, DBD clones grew more slowly than control clones and were refractory to antiproliferative effects of both types of IFNs. We found that IFN treatment of U937 cells leads to a G1 arrest and an increase in underphosphorylated retinoblastoma gene product. However, IFN treatment did not change the cell cycle profile, nor retinoblastoma gene product phosphorylation state in DBD clones. These data indicate that expression of DBD disrupts cell cycle regulatory mechanisms. Combined with the previously noted failure of DBD clones to elicit antiviral activity, the present work shows that IRF family proteins play an integral part in growth control activities of IFNs. PMID:8943426

  20. No association between variants in the ACE and angiotensin II receptor 1 genes and acute mountain sickness in Nepalese pilgrims to the Janai Purnima Festival at 4380 m.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Wang, Pei; Guenette, Jordan A; Rupert, Jim L

    2006-01-01

    Koehle, Michael S., Pei Wang, Jordan A. Guenette, and Jim L. Rupert. No association between variants in the ACE and angiotensin II receptor 1 genes and acute mountain sickness in Nepalese pilgrims to the Janai Purnima Festival at 4380 m. High Alt. Med. Biol. 7:281-289, 2006.--Acute mountain sickness (AMS) causes significant morbidity among visitors to altitude. The primary contributors to developing AMS are altitude and rate of ascent; however, the substantial variation in susceptibility between individuals has led a number of investigators to propose that there may be genetic predilection to the disease. The ACE I/D polymorphism has been shown to predict performance among elite mountaineers. This study compares genotype and allele frequencies at the ACE I/D locus, two other loci in the ACE gene, and one locus in the angiotensin-2 receptor gene between individuals who did, or did not, express signs of AMS while attending a high altitude religious festival in Nepal (4380 m). Subjects (80 males, 23 females) were recruited and genotyped. All subjects were Nepalese. Forty-four of the subjects had been diagnosed with AMS by physicians at a high altitude health camp; the rest were free from altitude illness. All subjects were genotyped at polymorphic loci in the genes encoding angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (AGTR1). The polymorphisms examined were two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACE (ACE(A-240T), dbSNP rs4291; and ACE(A2350G), dbSNP rs4343), the intronic Alu insertion in ACE (ACE I/D), and the SNP ATR(A1166C), (dbSNP rs17231380) in AGTR1d. All polymorphisms in ACE were found to be in linkage disequilibrium. No significant associations were found between AMS incidence and any of the alleles, suggesting that variants at these loci do not contribute to susceptibility to AMS in this population. PMID:17173513

  1. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning at least 10 cM in 1q41, the critical region of Usher II gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.Y.; Zhen, D.K.; Li, B.F.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder causing congenital hearing loss, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. The Usher syndrome is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. At least three genetic types of Usher syndrome are know to exist. The Usher II (USH2) syndrome has originally been linked to 1q41 between D1S70 and D1S81. more recently its location was refined and placed between D1S217 and D1S229. We have constructed a YAC contig containing 23 clones and a minimum of 10 Mbp of human DNA. A total of three NotI linking clones, fourteen polymorphic microsatelite markers, eight YAC end clones and twenty lambda and cosmid subclones have been used to order the YACs and assess their integrity. The YAC subclones were used to reassess the location of the USH2 gene. Seven CpG islands have already been identified in the region. Several potential exons have been identified by exon amplification in the cosmid subclones. This map of overlapping clones, the set of densely spaced physical markers and potential exons will promote our understanding of the 1q1 region, its associated genes and eventually the gene mutated in Usher syndrome type II.

  2. Atelosteogenesis type II is caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST): Evidence for a phenotypic series involving three chondrodysplasias

    SciTech Connect

    Haestbacka, J.; Lander, E.S.; Superti-Furga, A.

    1996-02-01

    Atelosteogenesis type II (AO II) is a neonatally lethal chondrodysplasia whose clinical and histological characteristics resemble those of another chondrodysplasia, the much less severe diastrophic dysplasia (DTD). The similarity suggests a shared pathogenesis involving lesions in the same biochemical pathway and perhaps the same gene. DTD is caused by mutations in the recently identified diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST). Here, we report that AOII patients also have DTDST mutations, which lead to defective uptake of inorganic sulfate and insufficient sulfation of macromolecules by patient mesenchymal cells in vitro. Together with our recent observation that a third even more severe chondrodysplasia, achondrogenesis type IB, is also caused by mutations in DTDST, these results demonstrate a phenotypic series of three chondrodysplasias of increasing severity caused by lesions in a single sulfate-transporter gene. The severity of the phenotype appears to be correlated with the predicted effect of the mutations on the residual activity of the DTDST protein. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. RELATIONSHIPS OF HG(II) VOLATILIZATION FROM A FRESHWATER POND TO ABUNDANCE OF MER GENES IN THE GENE POOL OF THE INDIGENOUS MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of biological activities in the reduction and volatilization of Hg(II) from a polluted pond was investigated. lemental mercury was evolved from pond water immediately following spiking with 203 Hg(NO3)2, whereas a lag period of 36 hr was required in control samples colle...

  4. Localization of the human tripeptidyl peptidase II gene (TPP2) to 13q32-q33 by nonradioactive in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsson, T.; Vujic, M. ); Tomkinson, B. )

    1993-08-01

    The authors have assigned the human tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) gene to chromosome region 13q32-q33 using two different methods. First, a full-length TPP2 cDNA was used as a probe on Southern blots of DNA from a panel of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. The TPP2 sequences were found to segregate with the human chromosome 13. Second, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was performed with the same probe. This analysis supported the chromosome 13 localization and further refined it to region 13q32-q33. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Genomic organization of the human osteopontin gene: Exclusion of the locus from a causative role in the pathogenesis of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, A.H.; Edwards, S.J.; Murray, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is the principal phosphorylated glycoprotein of bone that is also expressed in a limited number of other tissues including dentine. In the current investigation the authors report the genomic organization of the SPP1 gene, which comprises seven exons, six of which contain coding sequence. The splice sites for exon donor and acceptor positions are in close agreement with previously published consensus sequences. Comparison of the human gene with its murine and bovine counterparts revealed a highly homologous organization. A highly informative short tandem repeat polymorphism isolated at the SPP1 locus showed no recombination with the autosomal dominant disorder dentinogenesis imperfecta type II. Nevertheless, sequencing of each exon in individuals affected by this disorder failed to reveal any disease-specific mutations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Data in support of a functional analysis of splicing mutations in the IDS gene and the use of antisense oligonucleotides to exploit an alternative therapy for MPS II.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gonalves, Vnia; Pinto, Eugnia; Laranjeira, Francisco; Prata, Maria Joo; Jordan, Peter; Desviat, Lourdes R; Prez, Beln; Alves, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains insights into the methodology used for the analysis of three exonic mutations altering the splicing of the IDS gene: c.241C>T, c.257C>T and c.1122C>T. We have performed splicing assays for the wild-type and mutant minigenes corresponding to these substitutions. In addition, bioinformatic predictions of splicing regulatory sequence elements as well as RNA interference and overexpression experiments were conducted. The interpretation of these data and further extensive experiments into the analysis of these three mutations and also into the methodology applied to correct one of them can be found in "Functional analysis of splicing mutations in the IDS gene and the use of antisense oligonucleotides to exploit an alternative therapy for MPS II" Matos et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26693516

  7. The QTL within the H2 Complex Involved in the Control of Tuberculosis Infection in Mice Is the Classical Class II H2-Ab1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Logunova, Nadezhda; Korotetskaya, Maria; Polshakov, Vladimir; Apt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The level of susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection depends upon allelic variations in numerous interacting genes. In our mouse model system, the whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTLs) scan revealed three QTLs involved in TB control on chromosomes 3, 9, and in the vicinity of the H2 complex on chromosome 17. For the present study, we have established a panel of new congenic, MHC-recombinant mouse strains bearing differential small segments of chromosome 17 transferred from the TB-susceptible I/St (H2j) strain onto the genetic background of TB-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice (H2b). This allowed narrowing the QTL interval to 17Ch: 33, 77–34, 34 Mb, containing 36 protein-encoding genes. Cloning and sequencing of the H2j allelic variants of these genes demonstrated profound polymorphic variations compare to the H2b haplotype. In two recombinant strains, B6.I-249.1.15.100 and B6.I-249.1.15.139, recombination breakpoints occurred in different sites of the H2-Aβ 1 gene (beta-chain of the Class II heterodimer H2-A), providing polymorphic variations in the domain β1 of the Aβ-chain. These variations were sufficient to produce different TB-relevant phenotypes: the more susceptible B6.I-249.1.15.100 strain demonstrated shorter survival time, more rapid body weight loss, higher mycobacterial loads in the lungs and more severe lung histopathology compared to the more resistant B6.I-249.1.15.139 strain. CD4+ T cells recognized mycobacterial antigens exclusively in the context of the H2-A Class II molecule, and the level of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in the lungs was significantly higher in the resistant strain. Thus, we directly demonstrated for the first time that the classical H2- Ab1 Class II gene is involved in TB control. Molecular modeling of the H2-Aj product predicts that amino acid (AA) substitutions in the Aβ-chain modify the motif of the peptide–MHC binding groove. Moreover, unique AA substitutions in both α- and β-chains of the H2-Aj molecule might affect its interactions with the T-cell receptor (TCR). PMID:26618355

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I gene promoter polymorphism, collagen type II α1 (COL2A1) gene, and the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis: the Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, G; Rivadeneira, F; Houwing-Duisterma..., J; Meulenbelt, I; Bijkerk, C; Hofman, A; van Meurs, J B J; Uitterlinden, A; Pols, H; Slagboom, P; van Duijn, C M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of an IGF-I gene promoter polymorphism in the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), and study its interaction with the COL2A1 gene. Methods: Individuals genotyped for IGF-I (n = 1546) and COL2A1 gene polymorphisms (n = 808) were selected from a random sample (n = 1583) derived from the Rotterdam study. The presence of ROA was defined as a Kellgren score of 2 or more in at least one of four joints (knee, hip, hand, and spine). Genotype specific odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and bone mineral density using logistic regression. Interaction with the COL2A1 genotype was tested. Results: Overall, no association was found between the IGF-I polymorphism and ROA. In subjects aged 65 years or younger (n = 971), the prevalence of ROA increased with the absence of the 192 base pair (bp) allele (p for trend = 0.03). Compared with homozygotes for the 192 bp allele, the prevalence of ROA was 1.4 times higher in heterozygotes (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.8) and 1.9 times higher in non-carriers (1.1 to 3.3). There was evidence of interaction between the IGF-I and COL2A1 genes. Individuals with the risk genotype of both genes had an increased prevalence of ROA (OR 3.4 (1.1 to 10.7)). No effect was observed in subjects older than 65 years. Conclusions: Subjects with genetically determined low IGF-I expression (non-carriers of the 192 bp allele) may be at increased risk of ROA before the age of 65 years. Furthermore, an interaction between the IGF-I and COL2A1 genes is suggested. PMID:15082485

  9. Microarray Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes Encoding CYP450 and Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Psoriasis and Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sumantran, Venil N; Mishra, Pratik; Bera, Rakesh; Sudhakar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are implicated in personalized medicine for two main reasons. First, inter-individual variability in CYP3A4 expression is a confounding factor during cancer treatment. Second, inhibition or induction of CYP3A4 can trigger adverse drug-drug interactions. However, inflammation can downregulate CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing enzymes and lead to altered metabolism of drugs and essential vitamins and lipids. Little is known about effects of inflammation on expression of CYP450 genes controlling drug metabolism in the skin. Therefore, we analyzed seven published microarray datasets, and identified differentially-expressed genes in two inflammatory skin diseases (melanoma and psoriasis). We observed opposite patterns of expression of genes regulating metabolism of specific vitamins and lipids in psoriasis and melanoma samples. Thus, genes controlling the turnover of vitamin D (CYP27B1, CYP24A1), vitamin A (ALDH1A3, AKR1B10), and cholesterol (CYP7B1), were up-regulated in psoriasis, whereas melanomas showed downregulation of genes regulating turnover of vitamin A (AKR1C3), and cholesterol (CYP39A1). Genes controlling abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function (CYP4F22, SULT2B1) were up-regulated in psoriasis. The up-regulated CYP24A1, CYP4F22, SULT2B1, and CYP7B1 genes are potential drug targets in psoriatic skin. Both disease samples showed diminished drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP1B1 and CYP3A5 genes. However, melanomas showed greater loss of drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP3A4 gene. PMID:26901218

  10. The rnb Gene of Synechocystis PCC6803 Encodes a RNA Hydrolase Displaying RNase II and Not RNase R Enzymatic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Rute G.; Fialho, Arsnio M.; Giloh, Mordechai; Schuster, Gadi; Arraiano, Ceclia M.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that share characteristics with bacteria and chloroplasts regarding mRNA degradation. Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is a model organism for cyanobacteria, but not much is known about the mechanism of RNA degradation. Only one member of the RNase II-family is present in the genome of Synechocystis sp PCC6803. This protein was shown to be essential for its viability, which indicates that it may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Synechocystis RNA. The aim of this work was to characterize the activity of the RNase II/R homologue present in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The results showed that as expected, it displayed hydrolytic activity and released nucleoside monophosphates. When compared to two E. coli counterparts, the activity assays showed that the Synechocystis protein displays RNase II, and not RNase R characteristics. This is the first reported case where when only one member of the RNase II/R family exists it displays RNase II and not RNase R characteristics. PMID:22403697

  11. The rnb gene of Synechocystis PCC6803 encodes a RNA hydrolase displaying RNase II and not RNase R enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Matos, Rute G; Fialho, Arsnio M; Giloh, Mordechai; Schuster, Gadi; Arraiano, Ceclia M

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that share characteristics with bacteria and chloroplasts regarding mRNA degradation. Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is a model organism for cyanobacteria, but not much is known about the mechanism of RNA degradation. Only one member of the RNase II-family is present in the genome of Synechocystis sp PCC6803. This protein was shown to be essential for its viability, which indicates that it may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Synechocystis RNA. The aim of this work was to characterize the activity of the RNase II/R homologue present in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The results showed that as expected, it displayed hydrolytic activity and released nucleoside monophosphates. When compared to two E. coli counterparts, the activity assays showed that the Synechocystis protein displays RNase II, and not RNase R characteristics. This is the first reported case where when only one member of the RNase II/R family exists it displays RNase II and not RNase R characteristics. PMID:22403697

  12. Extensive polymorphism and evidence of selection pressure on major histocompatibility complex DLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 class II genes in Croatian grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Arbanasi?, H; Huber, ?; Kusak, J; Gomer?i?, T; Hrenovi?, J; Galov, A

    2013-01-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the mammalian immune system and have become important molecular markers for measuring fitness-related genetic variation in wildlife populations. Because of human persecution and habitat fragmentation, the grey wolf has become extinct from a large part of Western and Central Europe, and remaining populations have become isolated. In Croatia, the grey wolf population, part of the Dinaric-Balkan population, shrank nearly to extinction during the 20th century, and is now legally protected. Using the cloning-sequencing method, we investigated the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of exon 2 of MHC class II DLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 genes in 77 individuals. We identified 13 DRB1, 7 DQA1 and 11 DQB1 highly divergent alleles, and 13 DLA-DRB1/DQA1/DQB1 haplotypes. Selection analysis comparing the relative rates of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (d(N)/d(S)) showed evidence of positive selection pressure acting on all three loci. Trans-species polymorphism was found, suggesting the existence of balancing selection. Evolutionary codon models detected considerable difference between alpha and beta chain gene selection patterns: DRB1 and DQB1 appeared to be under stronger selection pressure, while DQA1 showed signs of moderate selection. Our results suggest that, despite the recent contraction of the Croatian wolf population, genetic variability in selectively maintained immune genes has been preserved. PMID:23134500

  13. Genetic variation of the MHC class II DRB genes in the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi, endemic to Japan, compared with the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Y; Abramov, A V; Kosintsev, P A; Lin, L-K; Watanabe, S; Yamazaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a critical role in vertebrate immune system and are highly polymorphic. To further understand the molecular evolution of the MHC genes, we compared MHC class II DRB genes between the Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi), a species endemic to Japan, and the Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), a closely related species on the continent. We sequenced a 242-bp region of DRB exon 2, which encodes antigen-binding sites (ABS), and found 24 alleles from 31 M. itatsi individuals and 17 alleles from 21 M. sibirica individuals, including broadly distributed, species-specific and/or geographically restricted alleles. Our results suggest that pathogen-driven balancing selection have acted to maintain the diversity in the DRB genes. For predicted ABS, nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded synonymous substitutions, also indicating positive selection, which was not seen at non-ABS. In a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, two M. sibirica DRB alleles were basal to the rest of the sequences from mustelid species and may represent ancestral alleles. Trans-species polymorphism was evident between many mustelid DRB alleles, especially between M. itatsi and M. sibirica. These two Mustela species divided about 1.7 million years ago, but still share many MHC alleles, indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26593752

  14. Activation of the retinoid X receptor modulates angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle gene expression and inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Allison M B; Montford, John R; Horita, Henrick; Ostriker, Allison C; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Furgeson, Seth B

    2014-11-01

    The retinoid X receptor (RXR) partners with numerous nuclear receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) family, liver X receptors (LXRs), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Although each heterodimer can be activated by specific ligands, a subset of these receptors, defined as permissive nuclear receptors, can also be activated by RXR agonists known as rexinoids. Many individual RXR heterodimers have beneficial effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because rexinoids can potently activate multiple RXR pathways, we hypothesized that treating SMCs with rexinoids would more effectively reverse the pathophysiologic effects of angiotensin II than an individual heterodimer agonist. Cultured rat aortic SMCs were pretreated with either an RXR agonist (bexarotene or 9-cis retinoic acid) or vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide) for 24 hours before stimulation with angiotensin II. Compared with dimethylsulfoxide, bexarotene blocked angiotensin II-induced SM contractile gene induction (calponin and smooth muscle-?-actin) and protein synthesis ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Bexarotene also decreased angiotensin II-mediated inflammation, as measured by decreased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase but not extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) or protein kinase B (Akt) was also blunted by bexarotene. We compared bexarotene to five agonists of nuclear receptors (PPAR?, PPAR?, PPAR?, LXR, and FXR). Bexarotene had a greater effect on calponin reduction, MCP-1 inhibition, and p38 MAP kinase inhibition than any individual agonist. PPAR? knockout cells demonstrated blunted responses to bexarotene, indicating that PPAR? is necessary for the effects of bexarotene. These data demonstrate that RXR is a potent modulator of angiotensin II-mediated responses in the vasculature, partially through inhibition of p38. PMID:25169989

  15. Two founder mutations in the SEC23B gene account for the relatively high frequency of CDA II in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberta; Gambale, Antonella; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Serra, Maria Luisa; Troiano, Annaelena; De Maggio, Ilaria; Capasso, Mario; Luzzatto, Lucio; Delaunay, Jean; Tamary, Hannah; Iolascon, Achille

    2011-09-01

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by unique abnormalities in the differentiation of cells of the erythroid lineage. The vast majority of CDA II cases result from mutations in the SEC23B gene. To date, 53 different causative mutations have been reported in 86 unrelated cases (from the CDA II European Registry), 47 of them Italian. We have now identified SEC23B mutations in 23 additional patients, 17 Italians and 6 non-Italian Europeans. The relative allelic frequency of the mutations was then reassessed in a total of 64 Italian and 45 non-Italian unrelated patients. Two mutations, E109K and R14W, account for over one-half of the cases of CDA II in Italy. Whereas the relative frequency of E109K is similar in Italy and in the rest of Europe (and is also prevalent in Moroccan Jews), the relative frequency of R14W is significantly higher in Italy (26.3% vs. 10.7%). By haplotype analysis we demonstrated that both are founder mutations in the Italian population. By using the DMLE+ program our estimate for the age of the E109K mutation in Italian population is ?2,200 years; whereas for the R14W mutation it is ?3,000 years. We hypothesize that E109K may have originated in the Middle East and may have spread in the heyday of the Roman Empire. Instead, R14W may have originated in Southern Italy. The relatively high frequency of the R14W mutation may account for the known increased prevalence of CDA II in Italy. PMID:21850656

  16. The Fusarium verticillioides FUM gene cluster encodes a Zn(II)2Cys6 protein that affects FUM gene expression and fumonisin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species and can contaminate maize or maize products. Ingestion of fumonisins is associated with diseases, including cancer and neural tube defects, in humans and animals. In fungi, genes involved in synthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary met...

  17. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells: implications for mechanisms regulating metallothionein gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.; Griffith, B.B.; Griffith, J.K.; Hanners, J.L.; Longmire, J.L.; Munk, A.C.; Stallings, R.L.; Tesmer, J.G.; Walters, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe here the derivation, characterization, and use of clonal cadmium-resistance (Cd/sup r) strains of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO which differ in their metallothionein (MT) induction capacity. By nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel electrophoresis, the authors showed that the stable Cd/sup r/ phenotype is correlated with the augmented expression of both isometallothioneins (MTI and MTII). In cells resistant to concentrations of CdCl2 exceeding 20 M, coordinate amplifications of genes encoding both isometallothioneins was demonstrated by using cDNA MT-coding sequence probes and probes specific for 3'-noncoding regions of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes. Molecular and in situ hybridization analyses supported close linkage of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes, which the authors have mapped previously to Chinese hamster chromosome 3. This suggests the existence of a functionally related MT gene cluster in this species. Amplified Cd/sup r/ variants expressing abundant MT and their corresponding Cd/sup s/ parental CHO cells should be useful for future studies directed toward elucidating the mechanisms that regulate expressions of the isometallothioneins. 59 references, 8 figures.

  18. Impaired growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae on potato plants overexpressing the oryzacystatin II gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. Oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate ...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Glycopeptides Belong to Accessory Gene Regulator Group I or II

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Isabelle; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Etienne, Jerome; Lina, Grard; Bes, Michle; Vandenesch, Franois

    2004-01-01

    We used multiplex PCR to determine the agr group membership of 18 European glycopeptide heterointermediate and intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Of the 15 agr group I strains, 13 were resistant and 2 were susceptible to methicillin. The remaining three strains, like the United States and Japanese control strains, belonged to agr group II. PMID:14982800

  20. THE GLUTAMATE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE GENE II (C>T) POLYMORPHISM DOES NOT AFFECT FOLATE STATUS IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING COHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring folates are comprised mostly of reduced polyglutamyl derivatives and require hydrolysis to monoglutamyl derivatives before they are absorbed by the small intestine. This hydrolysis is catalyzed by glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). Recently, a 1561 C>T polymorphism in the GCP...

  1. Assignment of the gene for the core protein II (UQCRC2) subunit of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc[sub 1] complex to human chromosome 16p12

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.M.V. Kingston General Hospital ); Ozawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi ); Rozen, R. Montreal Children's Hospital )

    1993-11-01

    The mammalian cytochrome be[sub 1] complex (complex III) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain catalyzes electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome c. The complex consists of 10-11 subunits: Core proteins I and II, cytochromes b and c[sub 1], the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, the ubiquinone-binding protein, the hinge protein, and 3-4 subunits of low molecular weight. Cytochrome b is encoded by the mitochondrial genome; the other subunits are encoded by nuclear genes. Both the human cytochrome c[sub 1] and the human ubiquinone-binding protein subunits have been assigned to chromosome 8 by somatic cell hybrid mapping. In this study, the authors used in situ hybridization to map core protein II. In situ hybridization to BrdU-synchronized peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed using the method of Harper and Saunders. Chromosomes were stained with a modified fluorescence, 0.25% Wright's stain procedure. The positions of silver grains directly over or touching well-banded metaphase chromosomes were mapped to an ISCN idiogram. The analysis of the distribution of 200 silver grams following in situ hybridization revealed a significant clustering of grains in the p12 region of chromosome 16. The assignment of the core II subunit to human chromosome 16p12 confirms that it is encoded by the nuclear, rather than the mitochondrial, genome. The identification of a single strong hybridization signal is indicative of one locus with no pseudogenes. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Biotechnological applications of mobile group II introns and their reverse transcriptases: gene targeting, RNA-seq, and non-coding RNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mobile group II introns are bacterial retrotransposons that combine the activities of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a ribozyme) and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase to insert site-specifically into DNA. They recognize DNA target sites largely by base pairing of sequences within the intron RNA and achieve high DNA target specificity by using the ribozyme active site to couple correct base pairing to RNA-catalyzed intron integration. Algorithms have been developed to program the DNA target site specificity of several mobile group II introns, allowing them to be made into ‘targetrons.’ Targetrons function for gene targeting in a wide variety of bacteria and typically integrate at efficiencies high enough to be screened easily by colony PCR, without the need for selectable markers. Targetrons have found wide application in microbiological research, enabling gene targeting and genetic engineering of bacteria that had been intractable to other methods. Recently, a thermostable targetron has been developed for use in bacterial thermophiles, and new methods have been developed for using targetrons to position recombinase recognition sites, enabling large-scale genome-editing operations, such as deletions, inversions, insertions, and ‘cut-and-pastes’ (that is, translocation of large DNA segments), in a wide range of bacteria at high efficiency. Using targetrons in eukaryotes presents challenges due to the difficulties of nuclear localization and sub-optimal magnesium concentrations, although supplementation with magnesium can increase integration efficiency, and directed evolution is being employed to overcome these barriers. Finally, spurred by new methods for expressing group II intron reverse transcriptases that yield large amounts of highly active protein, thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases from bacterial thermophiles are being used as research tools for a variety of applications, including qRT-PCR and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The high processivity and fidelity of group II intron reverse transcriptases along with their novel template-switching activity, which can directly link RNA-seq adaptor sequences to cDNAs during reverse transcription, open new approaches for RNA-seq and the identification and profiling of non-coding RNAs, with potentially wide applications in research and biotechnology. PMID:24410776

  3. Auxin Levels Regulate the Expression of a Wound-Inducible Proteinase Inhibitor II-Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Gene Fusion in Vitro and in Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Kernan, Andrea; Thornburg, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor genes are expressed in solanaceous and leguminous plants following wounding of the foliage by mechanical methods. Previous studies have shown that a cloned proteinase inhibitor II-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (pin2-CAT) chimeric gene is regulated in a wound-inducible manner in transgenic plants. In this study, we analyzed transgenic plant tissues for expression of the pin2-CAT gene in response to various plant hormones. We found that CAT activity was induced in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus incubated in the absence of any plant growth regulators. Addition of growth regulators to the medium thus permitted us to measure the effects of these substances on the activity of the pin2-CAT gene construction. Cytokinin (BAP) and ethylene (ethophon) even at low concentrations stimulated the expression of CAT activity by 25 to 50%. Abscisic acid at concentrations up to 4.4 10?5 molar had no effect upon CAT activity, but increasing auxin (naphthalene acetic acid) levels completely inhibited the synthesis of CAT protein. Gibberellic acid had little effect except at very high concentration (2.9 105 molar). The kinetics of activation of the pin2-CAT gene were quite long (5 to 7 days) when unwounded calli were plated on media lacking auxin. This effect was documented for calli derived from several transformed plants, containing the full, chimeric pin2-CAT (pRT45) gene. In addition, calli from tissues transformed with wild-type vectors or from several plants transformed with pRT50 (a noninducible derivative of pRT45) were not induced by plating on media lacking auxin. Other naturally occurring and synthetic auxins had similar effects to naphthalene acetic acid in inhibiting the induction of the chimeric gene fusion. Finally, leaf discs from transformed plants were induced by incubation in MS liquid medium in the presence and absence of naphthalene acetic acid. NAA was also effective in down regulating the chimeric gene in whole plant tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667046

  4. Analysis of P gene mutations in patients with type II (tyrosinase-positive) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.T.; Nicholls, R.D.; Schnur, R. ||

    1994-09-01

    OCA2 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. Recently, we showed that OCA2 results from mutations of the P gene, in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. In addition to OCA2, mutations of P account for OCA associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome and some cases of {open_quotes}autosomal recessive ocular albinism{close_quotes} (AROA). We have now studied 38 unrelated patients with various forms of OCA2 or AROA from a variety of different ethnic groups. None of these patients had detectable abnormalities of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. Among 8 African-American patients with OCA2 we observed apparent locus homogeneity. We detected abnormalities of the P gene in all 8 patients, including 12 different mutations and deletions, most of which are unique to this group and none of which is predominant. In contrast, OCA2 in other populations appears to be genetically heterogeneous. Among 21 Caucasian patients we detected abnormalities of the P gene in only 8, comprising 9 different point mutations and deletions, some of which also occurred among the African-American patients. Among 3 Middle-Eastern, 3 Indo-Pakistani, and 3 Asian patients we detected mutations of the P gene in only one from each group. In a large Indo-Pakistani kindred with OCA2 we have excluded both the TYR and P genes on the basis of genetic linkage. The prevalence of mutations of the P gene thus appears to be much higher among African-Americans with OCA2 than among patients from other ethnic groups. The incidence of OCA2 in some parts of equatorial Africa is extremely high, as frequent as 1 per 1100, and the disease has been linked to P in South African Bantu. The eventual characterization of P gene mutations in Africans will be informative with regard to the origins of P gene mutations in African-American patients.

  5. Natural Variation in the Pto Disease Resistance Gene Within Species of Wild Tomato (Lycopersicon). II. Population Genetics of Pto

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Laura E.; Michelmore, Richard W.; Langley, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    Disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in the host species Lycopersicon esculentum, the cultivated tomato, and the closely related L. pimpinellifolium is triggered by the physical interaction between the protein products of the host resistance (R) gene Pto and the pathogen avirulence genes AvrPto and AvrPtoB. Sequence variation at the Pto locus was surveyed in natural populations of seven species of Lycopersicon to test hypotheses of host–parasite coevolution and functional adaptation of the Pto gene. Pto shows significantly higher nonsynonymous polymorphism than 14 other non-R-gene loci in the same samples of Lycopersicon species, while showing no difference in synonymous polymorphism, suggesting that the maintenance of amino acid polymorphism at this locus is mediated by pathogen selection. Also, a larger proportion of ancestral variation is maintained at Pto as compared to these non-R-gene loci. The frequency spectrum of amino acid polymorphisms known to negatively affect Pto function is skewed toward low frequency compared to amino acid polymorphisms that do not affect function or silent polymorphisms. Therefore, the evolution of Pto appears to be influenced by a mixture of both purifying and balancing selection. PMID:17179076

  6. Retroviral Gene Therapy for X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Results From Phase I/II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyoung Jin; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Paruzynski, Anna; Arens, Anne; Kim, Sujeong; Yu, Seung Shin; Hong, Youngtae; Joo, Chang-Wan; Yoon, Nam-Kyung; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joong Gon; Von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Kim, Sunyoung; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2011-01-01

    X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the gp91phox gene. In an effort to treat X-CGD, we investigated the safety and efficacy of gene therapy using a retroviral vector, MT-gp91. Two X-CGD patients received autologous CD34+ cells transduced with MT-gp91 after a conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine and busulfan. The level of gene-marked cells was highest at day 21 (8.3 and 11.7% in peripheral blood cells) but decreased to 0.08 and 0.5%, respectively, 3 years after gene transfer. The level of functionally corrected cells, as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase assay, reached a peak at day 17 (6.5% patient 1 (P1) and 14.3% patient 2 (P2) of total granulocytes) and declined to 0.05% (P1) and 0.21% (P2), 3 years later. Some retroviral vectors were found to have integrated within or close to the proto-oncogenes MDS1-EVI1, PRDM16, and CCND2; however, no abnormal cell expansion or related hematological malignancy was observed. Overall, the gene transfer procedure did not produce any serious adverse effects and was able to convert a significant fraction of blood cells to biologically functional cells, albeit for a short period of time. PMID:21878903

  7. Fine-Structure Genetics of Ama-1, an Essential Gene Encoding the Amanitin-Binding Subunit of RNA Polymerase II in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bullerjahn, AME.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A fine-structure genetic map has been constructed for ama-1 IV, an essential gene in Caenorhabditis elegans encoding the amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II. Sixteen EMS-induced recessive-lethal mutations have been positioned in the gene by determining their intragenic recombination frequencies with m118, a mutation that confers dominant resistance to α-amanitin. The 16 mutants, all isolated in the ama-1(m118) background, include 13 that are early larval lethals, and three that are mid-larval lethals, at 25°. Six of the mutants exhibit temperature-dependence in the severity of their phenotype. Intragenic recombination between the lethal site and the parental resistance mutation was detected by means of resistance to amanitin. Recombinants were detected at frequencies as low as 2 X 10(-6). The segregation of the closely linked flanking markers, unc-17 and unc-5, revealed whether the lethal mutation was to the left or the right of m118. By adding the distances between the extreme left and right mutations, the ama-1 gene is estimated to be 0.011 map unit long, with m118 positioned 0.004 map unit from the left-most lethal mutation. To order the lethal mutations with respect to each other, viable heteroallelic strains were constructed using the free duplication, mDp1[unc-17(e113) dpy-13(+) ama-1(+)]. The heteroallelic strains were sensitive to amanitin, and recombination events between the lethal mutations were specifically selected by means of the dominant amanitin resistance encoded on the recombinant chromosome. The segregation of outside markers revealed the left-right order of the lethal mutations. The position of mutations within the gene is nonrandom. Functional domains of the ama-1 gene indicated by the various lethal phenotypes are discussed. PMID:3197955

  8. Identification of three new mutations in the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene responsible for recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II

    SciTech Connect

    Mota-Vieira, L.; Kaplan, J.C.; Kahn, A.; Leroux, A.

    1994-09-01

    Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM; McKusick N{degrees}25800) due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) deficiency leads to two different types of diseases: in type I form, cyanosis is the only symptom and the enzyme is only defective in red blood cells; in type II form, cyanosis is associated with severe mental retardation and neurological impairment and the enzyme defect is systemic. We have identified three new molecular defects in two unrelated patients with type II RCM. A homozygous C{r_arrow}T transition in codon 218 (Arg) was detected in the cDNA of one patient, resulting in a premature stop codon (TGA) in exon 8. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the homozygosity of the propositus and heterozygosity for an identical defect in both parents. The second patient was found to be a compound heterozygote, carrying two different mutant alleles in the cyb5r gene. One allele presented a missense mutation (T{r_arrow}C) with substitution of Cys-203 (TGC) by Arg (CGC) in exon 7. The second allele showed a 3 bp deletion of nucleotides 815-817 of the cDNA. The CTG ATG sequence at position 814-819 in exon 9 coding for Leu-271 and Met-272 was replaced by the CTG triplet, with conservation of the Leu-271 and loss of the Met-272. To our knowledge, these are the first examples of a homozygous nonsense mutation and of a compound heterozygous mutation detected in the cytb5r gene. This finding supports the diversity of genetic defects in the cytb5r gene leading to the severe form of the disease.

  9. Exceptional hyperthyroidism and a role for both major histocompatibility class I and class II genes in a murine model of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly A; Chen, Chun-Rong; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, can be induced by immunizing susceptible strains of mice with adenovirus encoding the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) or its A-subunit. Studies in two small families of recombinant inbred strains showed that susceptibility to developing TSHR antibodies (measured by TSH binding inhibition, TBI) was linked to the MHC region whereas genes on different chromosomes contributed to hyperthyroidism. We have now investigated TSHR antibody production and hyperthyroidism induced by TSHR A-subunit adenovirus immunization of a larger family of strains (26 of the AXB and BXA strains). Analysis of the combined AXB and BXA families provided unexpected insight into several aspects of Graves' disease. First, extreme thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism in one remarkable strain, BXA13, reflected an inability to generate non-functional TSHR antibodies measured by ELISA. Although neutral TSHR antibodies have been detected in Graves' sera, pathogenic, functional TSHR antibodies in Graves' patients are undetectable by ELISA. Therefore, this strain immunized with A-subunit-adenovirus that generates only functional TSHR antibodies may provide an improved model for studies of induced Graves' disease. Second, our combined analysis of linkage data from this and previous work strengthens the evidence that gene variants in the immunoglobulin heavy chain V region contribute to generating thyroid stimulating antibodies. Third, a broad region that encompasses the MHC region on mouse chromosome 17 is linked to the development of TSHR antibodies (measured by TBI). Most importantly, unlike other strains, TBI linkage in the AXB and BXA families to MHC class I and class II genes provides an explanation for the unresolved class I/class II difference in humans. PMID:21738647

  10. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes.

    PubMed

    Biala, Agnieszka; Tauriainen, Eveliina; Siltanen, Antti; Shi, Jin; Merasto, Saara; Louhelainen, Marjut; Martonen, Essi; Finckenberg, Piet; Muller, Dominik N; Mervaala, Eero

    2010-06-01

    There is compelling evidence to indicate an important role for increased local renin-angiotensin system activity in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that activates SIRT1, a novel cardioprotective and longevity factor having NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity. We tested the hypothesis whether resveratrol could prevent from angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiovascular damage. Four-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) were treated for 4 weeks either with SIRT1 activator resveratrol or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Untreated dTGR and their normotensive Sprague-Dawley control rats (SD) received vehicle. Untreated dTGR developed severe hypertension as well as cardiac hypertrophy, and showed pronounced cardiovascular mortality compared with normotensive SD rats. Resveratrol slightly but significantly decreased blood pressure, ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and prevented completely Ang II-induced mortality, whereas nicotinamide increased blood pressure without significantly influencing cardiac hypertrophy or survival. Resveratrol decreased cardiac ANP mRNA expression and induced cardiac mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha), mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (cox4). Resveratrol dose-dependently increased SIRT1 activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of SIRT1 activator resveratrol on Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling are mediated by blood pressure-dependent pathways and are linked to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20429690

  11. Attenuation of corneal myofibroblast development through nanoparticle-mediated soluble transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay; Rodier, Jason T.; Tandon, Ashish; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into human corneal fibroblasts, and (ii) whether the nanoparticle-mediated soluble extracellular domain of the transforming growth factor–β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene therapy could be used to reduce myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the cornea using an in vitro model. Methods PEI-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at a nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 30 by mixing linear PEI and a plasmid encoding sTGFβRII conjugated to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of human immunoglobulin. The PEI-DNA polyplex formation was confirmed through gel retardation assay. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were generated from donor corneas; myofibroblasts and fibrosis were induced with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) stimulation employing serum-free conditions. The sTGFβRII conjugated to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin gene was introduced into HCF using either PEI-DNA nanoparticles or Lipofectamine. Suitable negative and positive controls to compare selected nanoparticle and therapeutic gene efficiency were included. Delivered gene copies and mRNA (mRNA) expression were quantified with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and protein with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Cytotoxicity was determined using cellular viability, proliferation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results PEI readily bound to plasmids to form nanoparticular polyplexes and exhibited much greater transfection efficiency (p<0.01) than the commercial reagent Lipofectamine. The PEI-DNA-treated cultures showed 4.5×104 plasmid copies/µg DNA in real-time qPCR and 7,030±87 pg/ml sTGFβRII protein in ELISA analyses, whereas Lipofectamine-transfected cultures demonstrated 1.9×103 gene copies/µg DNA and 1,640±100 pg/ml sTGFβRII protein during these assays. The PEI-mediated sTGFβRII delivery remarkably attenuated TGFβ1-induced transdifferentiation of corneal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts in cultures, as indicated by threefold lower levels of SMA mRNA (p<0.01) and significant inhibition of SMA protein (up to 96±3%; p<0.001 compared to no-gene-delivered cultures) in immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting. The nanoparticle-mediated delivery of sTGFβRII showed significantly better antifibrotic effects than the Lipofectamine under similar experimental conditions. However, the inhibition of myofibroblast in HCF cultures by sTGFβRII overexpression by either method was significantly higher than the naked vector transfection. Furthermore, PEI- or Lipofectamine-mediated sTGFβRII delivery into HCF did not alter cellular proliferation or phenotype at 12 and 24 h post-treatment. Nanoparticles treated with HCF showed more than 90% cellular viability and very low cell death (2–6 TUNEL+ cells), suggesting that the tested doses of PEI-nanoparticles do not induce significant cell death. Conclusions This study demonstrated that PEI-DNA nanoparticles are an attractive vector for the development of nonviral corneal gene therapy approaches and that the sTGFβRII gene delivery into keratocytes could be used to control corneal fibrosis in vivo. PMID:23112572

  12. Tissue-specific imprinting of the mouse insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene correlates with differential allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Hu, J F; Oruganti, H; Vu, T H; Hoffman, A R

    1998-02-01

    Imprinted genes may be expressed uniparentally in a tissue- and development-specific manner. The insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene (Igf2r), one of the first imprinted genes to be identified, is an attractive candidate for studying the molecular mechanism of genomic imprinting because it is transcribed monoallelically in the mouse but biallelically in humans. To identify the factors that control genomic imprinting, we examined allelic expression of Igf2r at different ages in interspecific mice. We found that Igf2r is not always monoallelically expressed. Paternal imprinting of Igf2r is maintained in peripheral tissues, including liver, kidney, heart, spleen, intestine, bladder, skin, bone, and skeletal muscle. However, in central nervous system (CNS), Igf2r is expressed from both parental alleles. Southern analysis of the Igf2r promoter (region 1) revealed that, outside of the CNS where Igf2r is monoallelically expressed, the suppressed paternal allele is fully methylated while the expressed maternal allele is completely unmethylated. In CNS, however, both parental alleles are unmethylated in region 1. The importance of DNA methylation in the maintenance of the genomic imprint was also confirmed by the finding that Igf2r imprinting was relaxed by 5-azacytidine treatment. The correlation between genomic imprinting and allelic Igf2r methylation in CNS and other tissues thus suggests that the epigenetic modification in the promoter region may function as one of the major factors in maintaining the monoallelic expression of Igf2r. PMID:9482664

  13. Production of dammarane-type sapogenins in rice by expressing the dammarenediol-II synthase gene from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiwei; Lin, Juncheng; Cheng, Zuxin; Xu, Ming; Huang, Xinying; Yang, Zhijian; Zheng, Jingui

    2015-10-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active ingredients in Chinese medicinal ginseng; 2,3-oxidosqualene is a precursor metabolite to ginsenosides that is present in rice. Because rice lacks a key rate-limiting enzyme (dammarenediol-II synthase, DS), rice cannot synthesize dammarane-type ginsenosides. In this study, the ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Mey.) DS gene (GenBank: AB265170.1) was transformed into rice using agrobacterium, and 64 rice transgenic plants were produced. The Transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertion sites in homozygous lines of the T2 generation were determined by using high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) and differed in all tested lines. One to two copies of the T-DNA were present in each transformant, and real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the transformed DS gene could be transcribed and highly expressed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) content was 0.35-0.59 mg/g dw and the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) content was 0.23-0.43 mg/g dw in the transgenic rice. LC/MS analysis confirmed production of PPD and PPT. These results indicate that a new "ginseng rice" germplasm containing dammarane-type sapogenins has been successfully developed by transforming the ginseng DS gene into rice. PMID:26398795

  14. The Largest Subunit of RNA Polymerase II as a New Marker Gene to Study Assemblages of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Herbert; Peyret-Guzzon, Marine; Koegel, Sally; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Redecker, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) to improve plant growth and soil quality, the influence of agricultural practice on their diversity continues to be an important research question. Up to now studies of community diversity in AMF have exclusively been based on nuclear ribosomal gene regions, which in AMF show high intra-organism polymorphism, seriously complicating interpretation of these data. We designed specific PCR primers for 454 sequencing of a region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene, and established a new reference dataset comprising all major AMF lineages. This gene is known to be monomorphic within fungal isolates but shows an excellent barcode gap between species. We designed a primer set to amplify all known lineages of AMF and demonstrated its applicability in combination with high-throughput sequencing in a long-term tillage experiment. The PCR primers showed a specificity of 99.94% for glomeromycotan sequences. We found evidence of significant shifts of the AMF communities caused by soil management and showed that tillage effects on different AMF taxa are clearly more complex than previously thought. The high resolving power of high-throughput sequencing highlights the need for quantitative measurements to efficiently detect these effects. PMID:25275381

  15. Cis-acting elements reinforcing the activity of the estrogen-response element in the very-low-density apolipoprotein II gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Schippers, I J; Kloppenburg, M; van Waardenburg, R; Ab, G

    1994-04-01

    The gene coding for chicken very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) is expressed exclusively in liver in response to estrogen. Previous work in our laboratory identified several protein binding sites, identified by the letters A to F, and their cognate factors within the first 300 bp flanking the gene. Here we present an extensive functional analysis of the apoVLDLII promoter by gene transfer experiments using a chicken hepatoma cell line and cultured non-hepatic cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the -301 to -163-bp promoter region, comprising elements E1, E2 and F, is sufficient for strong estrogen-dependent expression. Mutation analysis demonstrated that efficient transcription requires the interplay of the major estrogen response element E1 with several other cis-acting elements. Analysis of individual protein binding sites showed that element E1 is sufficient by itself to confer weak estrogen-induced transcription from the apoVLDLII promoter, and that additional promoter elements are required for full estrogen-responsiveness. Elements F and B1 were capable of strongly potentiating the activity of element E1. In general, the activity of certain cis-acting elements appeared to be strongly promoter-context dependent. Cultured non-liver cells expressed transfected VLDL-CAT reporter plasmids in the presence of cotransfected estrogen receptor expression vector in a hormone-dependent way, indicating that for the control of tissue specificity the 5'-proximal promoter region is not sufficient. PMID:8168531

  16. [Production of transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants resistant to the herbicide pursuit].

    PubMed

    Nifantova, S N; Simonenko, Iu V; Komarnitski?, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants containing mutant ahas/als gene were obtained using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transformation has been carried out using cocultivation of pea explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lBA4404 carrying genetic vectors pCB004, pCB006 and pCB007 containing ahas/als and nptII genes. The presence of transferred genes in the genomes of transgenic plants has been confirmed by PCR analysis. PMID:16161408

  17. Gene conversion in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS is associated with, but does not cause, the syndrome of corticosterone methyloxidase II deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fardella, C.E.; Hum, D.W.; Rodriguez, H.

    1996-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) has 11{beta}hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, and 18-oxidase activities and is expressed solely in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Corticosterone methyloxidase II (CMOII) deficiency denotes a rare disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis in which only the 18-oxidase activity of P450c11AS is disrupted, while the 11{beta}-hydroxylase and 18-hydroxylase activities persist. Such patients have elevated serum concentrations of corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone and very low or unmeasurable concentrations of aldosterone, often resulting in a clinical salt-losing crisis in infancy. We have sought mutations causing CMOII deficiency in outbred populations. In three of four unrelated P450c11AS alleles from two unrelated patients with CMOII deficiency, we found a gene conversion event in which exons 3 and 4 of the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS were changed to the sequence of the nearby CYP11B1 gene, which encodes the related enzyme P450c11{beta}. This conversion resulted in a mutant P450c11AS protein carrying three changes. We built seven vectors expressing P450c11AS carrying each mutation singly, each of the three possible pairs of mutations, and the triple mutation as found in the proband. The activities in steroidogenic MA-10 and JEG-3 cells were 10- to 20-fold higher. In these systems all of the mutants retained normal 18-oxidase activity, indicating that the detected gene conversion event is associated with but does not cause CMOII deficiency. None of the four CPY11B2 alleles in these two patients bore other identifiable mutations. These patients might have mutations in the promoters or other noncoding regions, or mutations in genes other than CYP11B2 may cause the syndrome of CMOII deficiency. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. An Atypical psbA Gene Encodes a Sentinel D1 Protein to Form a Physiologically Relevant Inactive Photosystem II Complex in Cyanobacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Nagarajan, Aparna; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II, a large membrane-bound enzyme complex in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, mediates light-induced oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. The D1 protein of PSII, encoded by the psbA gene, provides multiple ligands for cofactors crucial to this enzymatic reaction. Cyanobacteria contain multiple psbA genes that respond to various physiological cues and environmental factors. Certain unicellular cyanobacterial cells, such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, are capable of nitrogen fixation, a highly oxygen-sensitive process, by separating oxygen evolution from nitrogen fixation using a day-night cycle. We have shown that c-psbA4, one of the five psbA orthologs in this cyanobacterium, is exclusively expressed during nighttime. Remarkably, the corresponding D1 isoform has replacements of a number of amino acids that are essential ligands for the catalytic Mn4CaO5 metal center for water oxidation by PSII. At least 30 cyanobacterial strains, most of which are known to have nitrogen fixing abilities, have similar psbA orthologs. We expressed the c-psbA4 gene from Cyanothece 51142 in a 4E-3 mutant strain of the model non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which lacks any psbA gene. The resultant strain could not grow photoautotrophically. Moreover, these Synechocystis 6803 cells were incapable of PSII-mediated oxygen evolution. Based on our findings, we have named this physiologically relevant, unusual D1 isoform sentinel D1. Sentinel D1 represents a new class of D1 protein that, when incorporated in a PSII complex, ensures that PSII cannot mediate water oxidation, thus allowing oxygen-sensitive processes such as nitrogen fixation to occur in cyanobacterial cells. PMID:25525275

  19. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone via Nongenomic Pathway Activates Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II to Regulate Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yu-Pu; Liu, Wen; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) triggers calcium signaling pathway to regulate 20E response gene expression, but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. We propose that the 20E-induced phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) serves an important function in 20E response gene transcription in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. CaMKII showed increased expression and phosphorylation during metamorphosis. 20E elevated CaMKII phosphorylation. However, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and ryanodine receptor inhibitor suramin, the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor inhibitor xestospongin C suppressed 20E-induced CaMKII phosphorylation. Two ecdysone-responsible GPCRs and Gαq protein were involved in 20E-induced CaMKII phosphorylation by RNA interference analysis. 20E regulated CaMKII threonine phosphorylation at amino acid 290, thereby inducing CaMKII nuclear translocation. CaMKII knockdown by dsCaMKII injection into the larvae prevented the occurrence of larval-pupal transition and suppressed 20E response gene expression. CaMKII phosphorylation and nuclear translocation maintained USP1 lysine acetylation at amino acid 303 by inducing histone deacetylase 3 phosphorylation and nuclear export. The lysine acetylation of USP1 was necessary for the interaction of USP1 with EcRB1 and their binding to the ecdysone response element. Results suggest that 20E (via GPCR activation and calcium signaling) activates CaMKII phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, which regulate USP1 lysine acetylation to form an EcRB1-USP1 complex for 20E response gene transcription. PMID:25670853

  20. Sequence Analysis of the Capsid Gene during a Genotype II.4 Dominated Norovirus Season in One University Hospital: Identification of Possible Transmission Routes

    PubMed Central

    Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Böttiger, Blenda; Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Fonager, Jannik

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.4 (GII.4) is responsible for the majority of nosocomial NoV infections. Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible transmission routes. All NoV positive samples submitted from one university hospital during the 2007/8 season were selected. Genotyping of selected samples by partial polymerase gene sequencing had shown that the majority belonged to the GII.4 variant Den Haag 2006b and had identical polymerase sequences. Sequences of the capsid gene (1412 nucleotides) were obtained from the first available sample from 55 patients. From six immunocompromised patients with persistent infections a second sample was also included. As a control for a point-source outbreak, five samples from a foodborne outbreak caused by the same GII.4 variant were analyzed. Forty-seven of the inpatients (85%) were infected with the GII.4 variant Den Haag 2006b. Phylogenetic analysis of the Den Haag 2006b sequences identified four distinct outbreaks in different departments and a fifth outbreak with possible inter-department spread. In addition, a more heterogeneous cluster with evidence of repeated introductions from the community, but also possible inter-department spread was observed. In all six patients with paired sequences, evidence for in vivo evolution of the virus was found. Capsid gene sequencing showed substantial sequence variation among NoV GII.4 variant Den Haag 2006b strains from one single institution during a nine months’ period. This method proved useful to understand the local epidemiology and, when used promptly, has the potential to make infection control measures more targeted. PMID:25590635

  1. Genetic Variation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Class II B Gene) in the Threatened Hume’s Pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weicai; Bei, Yongjian; Li, Hanhua

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB) exon 2 in a wild population of Hume’s pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume’s pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume’s pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume’s pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume’s pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume’s pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation. PMID:25629763

  2. Genetic variants within obesity-related genes are associated with tumor recurrence in patients with stages II/III colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sebio, Ana; Gerger, Armin; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Yang, Dongyun; Zhang, Wu; Stremitzer, Stefan; Stintizing, Sebastian; Sunakawa, Yu; Yamauchi, Shinichi; Ning, Yan; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Ueno, Masashi; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and it is also linked to CRC recurrence and survival. Polymorphisms located in obesity-related genes are associated with increased risk of developing several cancer types including colorectal cancer. We evaluated whether SNPs in obesity-related genes may predict tumor recurrence in colon cancer patients. Methods Genotypes were obtained from germline DNA from 207 patients with stage II or III colon cancer at the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. Nine polymorphisms in eight obesity-related genes (PPAR, LEP, NFKB, CD36, DRG1, NGAL, REGIA and DSCR1) were evaluated. The primary endpoint of the study was 3-year recurrence rate. Positive associations were also tested in an independent Japanese cohort of 350 stage III CRC patients. Results In univariate analysis, for PPAR rs1801282, patients with a CC genotype had significantly lower recurrence probability (29± 4% standard error, SE) compared to patients with a CG genotype (48% ± 8% SE), HR: 1.77; 95%CI, 1.01-3.10; p=0.040. For DSCR1 rs6517239, patients with an AA genotype had higher recurrence probability than patients carrying at least one allele G (37% ± 4% SE vs 15% ± 6% SE), HR: 0.51, 95% CI, 0.27-0.94; p=0.027. This association was stronger in the patients bearing a left-sided tumor (HR: 0.34; 95%CI, 0.13-0.88; p=0.018). In the Japanese cohort no associations were found. Conclusion This hypothesis generating study suggests a potential influence of polymorphisms within obesity-related genes in the recurrence probability of colon cancer. These interesting results should be further evaluated. PMID:25379721

  3. Polymorphism in exons CpG rich regions of the cyp17-II gene affecting its mRNA expression and reproductive endocrine levels in female Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Qian, Kun; Chi, MeiLi; Ni, Meng; Yin, XiangHan; Bu, Yan; Zhao, YiJie; Zhang, DongQian

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II) gene is an important factor affecting the growth, gonad differentiation and development, and other reproductive traits of fish. There are three CpG rich regions in the coding region of cyp17-II gene in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The aim of this study was to understand whether mutations in exons of the cyp17-II gene occured at CpG sites, and mutations and methylation status of those CpG sites were involved in regulation of the expression level of cyp17-II gene and the reproductive endocrine of Japanese flounder. The results showed that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. SNP1 [(c. G594A (p.Gly 188Arg)] located in exon 4 of L1 locus, and SNP2 (c.A939G) and SNP3 (c.C975T) of L2 locus located in CpG rich region of the exon 6 of cyp17-II gene. Furthermore, the A to G transition at 939bp position added a new methylation site to the cyp17-II coding region. According to multiple-comparison analysis, two loci (L1 and L2) were significantly associated with serum testosterone (T) level (P<0.05) and the expression of cyp17-II in ovary (P<0.01). Intriguingly, individuals with GG genotype of L2 locus containing eight CpG methylation sites had significantly lower serum testosterone level and cyp17-II mRNA expression than those with AA genotype containing seven CpG methylation sites. Moreover, the CpG site was highly methylated (?77.8%) at 938 bp position of individuals with GG genotype of L2 locus. These implied that the mutation and methylation status of the coding region of cyp17-II could influence the gene expression and the reproductive endocrine levels in female Japanese flounder and L2 locus could be regarded as a candidate genetic or epigenetic marker for Japanese flounder breeding programs. PMID:22906424

  4. Selective pressures on MHC class II genes in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as inferred by hierarchical analysis of population structure.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, M; Babik, W; Radwan, J

    2014-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex, which are the most polymorphic of all vertebrate genes, are a pre-eminent system for the study of selective pressures that arise from host-pathogen interactions. Balancing selection capable of maintaining high polymorphism should lead to the homogenization of MHC allele frequencies among populations, but there is some evidence to suggest that diversifying selection also operates on the MHC. However, the pattern of population structure observed at MHC loci is likely to depend on the spatial and/or temporal scale examined. Here, we investigated selection acting on MHC genes at different geographic scales using Venezuelan guppy populations inhabiting four regions. We found a significant correlation between MHC and microsatellite allelic richness across populations, which suggests the role of genetic drift in shaping MHC diversity. However, compared to microsatellites, more MHC variation was explained by differences between populations within larger geographic regions and less by the differences between the regions. Furthermore, among proximate populations, variation in MHC allele frequencies was significantly higher compared to microsatellites, indicating that selection acting on MHC may increase population structure at small spatial scales. However, in populations that have significantly diverged at neutral markers, the population-genetic signature of diversifying selection may be eradicated in the long term by that of balancing selection, which acts to preserve rare alleles and thus maintain a common pool of MHC alleles. PMID:25244157

  5. A comparison of batch effect removal methods for enhancement of prediction performance using MAQC-II microarray gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Schumacher, M; Scherer, A; Sanoudou, D; Megherbi, D; Davison, T; Shi, T; Tong, W; Shi, L; Hong, H; Zhao, C; Elloumi, F; Shi, W; Thomas, R; Lin, S; Tillinghast, G; Liu, G; Zhou, Y; Herman, D; Li, Y; Deng, Y; Fang, H; Bushel, P; Woods, M; Zhang, J

    2010-01-01

    Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction performance, which is one of the most important goals in microarray-based applications, has not been addressed. This paper uses a broad selection of data sets from the Microarray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) effort, generated on three microarray platforms with different causes of batch effects to assess the efficacy of their removal. Two data sets from cross-tissue and cross-platform experiments are also included. Of the 120 cases studied using Support vector machines (SVM) and K nearest neighbors (KNN) as classifiers and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) as performance metric, we find that Ratio-G, Ratio-A, EJLR, mean-centering and standardization methods perform better or equivalent to no batch effect removal in 89, 85, 83, 79 and 75% of the cases, respectively, suggesting that the application of these methods is generally advisable and ratio-based methods are preferred. PMID:20676067

  6. A comparison of batch effect removal methods for enhancement of prediction performance using MAQC-II microarray gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Schumacher, M; Scherer, A; Sanoudou, D; Megherbi, D; Davison, T; Shi, T; Tong, W; Shi, L; Hong, H; Zhao, C; Elloumi, F; Shi, W; Thomas, R; Lin, S; Tillinghast, G; Liu, G; Zhou, Y; Herman, D; Li, Y; Deng, Y; Fang, H; Bushel, P; Woods, M; Zhang, J

    2010-08-01

    Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction performance, which is one of the most important goals in microarray-based applications, has not been addressed. This paper uses a broad selection of data sets from the Microarray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) effort, generated on three microarray platforms with different causes of batch effects to assess the efficacy of their removal. Two data sets from cross-tissue and cross-platform experiments are also included. Of the 120 cases studied using Support vector machines (SVM) and K nearest neighbors (KNN) as classifiers and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) as performance metric, we find that Ratio-G, Ratio-A, EJLR, mean-centering and standardization methods perform better or equivalent to no batch effect removal in 89, 85, 83, 79 and 75% of the cases, respectively, suggesting that the application of these methods is generally advisable and ratio-based methods are preferred. PMID:20676067

  7. A Novel Bat Herpesvirus Encodes Homologues of Major Histocompatibility Complex Classes I and II, C-Type Lectin, and a Unique Family of Immune-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajun; Todd, Shawn; Tachedjian, Mary; Barr, Jennifer A.; Luo, Minhua; Yu, Meng; Marsh, Glenn A.; Crameri, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Herpesviruses or herpesviral sequences have been identified in various bat species. Here, we report the isolation, cell tropism, and complete genome sequence of a novel betaherpesvirus from the bat Miniopterus schreibersii (MsHV). In primary cell culture, MsHV causes cytopathic effects (CPE) and reaches peak virus production 2 weeks after infection. MsHV was found to infect and replicate less efficiently in a feline kidney cell, CRFK, and failed to replicate in 13 other cell lines tested. Sequencing of the MsHV genome using the 454 system, with a 224-fold coverage, revealed a genome size of 222,870 bp. The genome was extensively analyzed in comparison to those of related viruses. Of the 190 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 40 were identified as herpesvirus core genes. Among 93 proteins with identifiable homologues in tree shrew herpesvirus (THV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), or rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), most had highest sequence identities with THV counterparts. However, the MsHV genome organization is colinear with that of RCMV rather than that of THV. The following unique features were discovered in the MsHV genome. One predicted protein, B125, is similar to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) U94, a homologue of the parvovirus Rep protein. For the unique ORFs, 7 are predicted to encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related proteins, 2 to encode MHC class I homologues, and 3 to encode MHC class II homologues; 4 encode the homologues of C-type lectin- or natural killer cell lectin-like receptors;, and the products of a unique gene family, the b149 family, of 16 members, have no significant sequence identity with known proteins but exhibit immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich domains revealed by three-dimensional (3D) structural prediction. To our knowledge, MsHV is the first virus genome known to encode MHC class II homologues. PMID:22623774

  8. A standardised challenge model with an enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli strain in piglets assessing clinical traits and faecal shedding of fae and est-II toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Franz; Vahjen, Wilfried; Pieper, Robert; Martinez-Vallespin, Beatriz; Zentek, Jrgen

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five feed additives on post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets challenged 3 d after weaning with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (ETEC). In three experimental runs, a total of 84 piglets was weaned at 21 days of age and randomly assigned to seven treatments. As dietary treatment, piglets were fed a basal diet or diets with addition of bovine colostrum (0.2%), pineapple stem extract containing bromelain (0.2%), an autolysed yeast preparation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (0.1%), a combination of organic acids (0.7%) and a phytogenic product with thyme essential oil (0.015%). A porcine ETEC, serotype O149:K91:K88ac was given twice via oral infection on day 3 after weaning at 10(10) colony forming units/animal. One group of piglets was fed the basal diet without ETEC challenge. Traits included clinical sores, body temperature, faecal scoring and determination of faecal dry matter and the shedding of fae and est-II ETEC toxin genes. After weaning, non-challenged control piglets did not show signs of diarrhoea or impaired health, while the majority of infected piglets had a drop in body temperature, signs of diarrhoea and impaired general health. Mortality, the decrease of faecal dry matter and shedding of the toxin genes fae and est-II were not affected by the different additives. In conclusion, the ETEC challenge model induced distinct clinical signs of PWD in piglets, but the tested feed additives had no preventive effect under these conditions. PMID:25313936

  9. A mechanism for repression of class II gene transcription through specific binding of NC2 to TBP-promoter complexes via heterodimeric histone fold domains.

    PubMed Central

    Goppelt, A; Stelzer, G; Lottspeich, F; Meisterernst, M

    1996-01-01

    Negative co-factor 2 (NC2) regulates transcription of the class II genes through binding to TFIID and inhibition of pre-initiation complex formation. We have isolated and cloned NC2, and investigated the molecular mechanism underlying repression of transcription. NC2 consists of two subunits, termed NC2alpha and NC2beta, the latter of which is identical to Dr1. The NC2 subunits dimerize and bind to TATA binding protein (TBP)-promoter complexes via histone fold domains of the H2A-H2B type. Repression of basal transcription requires the histone fold and carboxy-terminal domains of the NC2 subunits. Several mechanisms probably contribute to transcriptional repression. Binding of NC2 inhibits association of TFIIB with TBP-promoter complexes. NC2 binds directly to DNA, and binding of NC2 to TBP-promoter complexes affects the conformation of DNA, which could be one cause for the inhibition of TFIIB. In addition, multimerization of repressor-TBP complexes on DNA might inhibit the assembly of the pre-initiation complex. We suggest that binding of the repressor to TRP-promoter complexes establishes a mechanism that controls the rate of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:8670811

  10. Essential role of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity revealed by conditional gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Bardoux, Pascale; Zhang, Pili; Flamez, Daisy; Perilhou, Anaïs; Lavin, Tiphaine Aguirre; Tanti, Jean-François; Hellemans, Karine; Gomas, Emmanuel; Godard, Cécile; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Kahn, Axel; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Burcelin, Rémy; Schuit, Frans; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2005-05-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) has been implicated in the control of blood glucose by its potent effect on expression and signaling of various nuclear receptors. To understand the role of COUP-TFII in glucose homeostasis, conditional COUP-TFII-deficient mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing Cre under the control of rat insulin II gene promoter, resulting in deletion of COUP-TFII in pancreatic beta-cells. Homozygous mutants died before birth for yet undetermined reasons. Heterozygous mice appeared healthy at birth and showed normal growth and fertility. When challenged intraperitoneally, the animals had glucose intolerance associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, these heterozygous mice presented a mild increase in fasting and random-fed circulating insulin levels. In accordance, islets isolated from these animals exhibited higher insulin secretion in low glucose conditions and markedly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Their pancreata presented normal microscopic architecture and insulin content up to 16 weeks of study. Altered insulin secretion was associated with peripheral insulin resistance in whole animals. It can be concluded that COUP-TFII is a new, important regulator of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. PMID:15855320

  11. Changes in protein and gene expression of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in aorta of diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, R; Rodriguez, J E; Resndiz-Albor, A A; Snchez-Muoz, F; Ruiz-Hernandz, A; Huang, F; Hong, E; Villafaa, S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hypertension have been associated with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Some reports have related the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes with increase in the risk of developing vascular complications. Recently some studies have shown results suggesting that in the early stages of diabetes and hypertension exist a reduced functional response to vasopressor agents like angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays an important role in blood pressure regulation mechanism through the activation of its AT1 and AT2 receptors. For that reason, the aim of this work was to study the gene and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in aorta of diabetic SHR and WKY rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (60?mg/kg i.p.). After 4 weeks of the onset of diabetes, the protein expression was obtained by western blot and the mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Our results showed that the hypertensive rats have a higher mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptors than normotensive rats while the AT2 expression remained unchanged. On the other hand, the combination of diabetes and hypertension increased the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors significantly. In conclusion, our results suggest that diabetes with hypertension modifies the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. However, the overexpression of AT2 could be associated with the reduction in the response to Ang II in the early stage of diabetes. PMID:26268856

  12. Structure and evolution of a new avian MHC class II B gene in a sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Procellariiformes: Pachyptila belcheri).

    PubMed

    Silva, Mnica C; Edwards, Scott V

    2009-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex encodes molecules that present foreign peptides to T cells of the immune system. The peptide binding region (PBR) of these molecules is among the most polymorphic regions found in vertebrate taxa. Genomic cloning approaches are improving our understanding of the evolution of this multigene family in nonmodel avian groups. By building a cosmid library, a new MHC class II B gene, Pabe-DAB1, was isolated and characterized at the genomic level in a sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri). Pabe-DAB1 exhibits the hallmark structural features of functional MHC class II loci. Direct sequencing of the PBR encoding exon in a panel of prions revealed significantly higher levels of genetic diversity compared to two noncoding neutral loci, with most alleles differing by at least one replacement substitution in the peptide binding codons. We estimated evolutionary dynamics for Pabe-DAB1 using a variety of Bayesian and other approaches. Evidence for balancing selection comes from a spatially variable ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions (mean d (N)/d (S) = 2.87) in the PBR, with sites predicted to be functionally relevant exhibiting the highest omega values. We estimate the population recombination rate to be approximately 0.3 per site per generation, indicating an important role for recombination in generating polymorphism at this locus. Pabe-DAB1 is among the few avian class II loci characterized at the genomic level and with a known intron-exon structure, a feature that greatly facilitated the amplification and sequencing of a single MHC locus in this species. PMID:19209378

  13. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Molee, A.; Kongroi, K.; Kuadsantia, P.; Poompramun, C.; Likitdecharote, B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study. PMID:26732325

  14. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glutamine synthetase (GS) is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII) are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from ?-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria) to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae), and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae) and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta) sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB) and eukaryotic (GSIIE) GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the ?-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida). However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting a cytosolic function. GSIIB sequences were absent in vascular plants where the duplication of GSIIE replaced the function of GSIIB. Conclusions Phylogenetic evidence suggests GSIIB in Chloroplastida evolved by HGT, possibly after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Thus while multiple GS isoenzymes are common among members of the Chloroplastida, the isoenzymes may have evolved via different evolutionary processes. The acquisition of essential enzymes by HGT may provide rapid changes in biochemical capacity and therefore be favored by natural selection. PMID:20579371

  15. Leaky splicing mutation in the acid maltase gene is associated with delayed onset of glycogenosis type II

    SciTech Connect

    Boerkoel, C.F.; Exelbert, R.; Nicastri, C.; Nichols, R.C.; Plotz, P.H.; Raben, N.; Miller, F.W.

    1995-04-01

    An autosomal recessive deficiency of acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA), type II glycogenosis, is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. The discovery of an enzyme-inactivating genomic deletion of exon 18 in three unrelated genetic compound patients - two infants and and adult - provided a rare opportunity to analyze the effect of the second mutation in patients who displayed dramatically different phenotypes. A deletion of Lys-903 in one patient and a substitution of Arg for Leu-299 in another resulted in the fatal infantile form. In the adult, a T-to-G base change at position-13 of intron 1 resulted in alternatively spliced transcripts with deletion of exon 2, the location of the start codon. The low level of active enzyme (12% of normal) generated from the leakage of normally spliced mRNA sustained the patient to adult life. 61 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Molecular characterization of a gene POLR2H encoded an essential subunit for RNA polymerase II from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-Jie; Hou, Yi-Ling; Hou, Wan-Ru

    2013-02-01

    The Giant Panda is an endangered and valuable gene pool in genetic, its important functional gene POLR2H encodes an essential shared peptide H of RNA polymerases. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) adopting touchdown-PCR and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The length of the genomic sequence of the Giant Panda is 3,285bp, including five exons and four introns. The cDNA fragment cloned is 509bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 453bp encoding 150 amino acids. Alignment analysis indicated that both the cDNA and its deduced amino acid sequence were highly conserved. Protein structure prediction showed that there was one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and one amidation site in the POLR2H protein, further shaping advanced protein structure. The cDNA cloned was expressed in Escherichia coli, which indicated that POLR2H fusion with the N-terminally His-tagged form brought about the accumulation of an expected 20.5kDa polypeptide in line with the predicted protein. On the basis of what has already been achieved in this study, further deep-in research will be conducted, which has great value in theory and practical significance. PMID:23070920

  18. Cancer Stem Cell Gene Profile as Predictor of Relapse in High Risk Stage II and Stage III, Radically Resected Colon Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Giampieri, Riccardo; Scartozzi, Mario; Loretelli, Cristian; Piva, Francesco; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Lezoche, Giovanni; Prete, Michela Del; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Cecchini, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data indicate that prognostic stratification of radically resected colorectal cancer based on disease stage only may not be always be adequate. Preclinical findings suggest that cancer stem cells may influence the biological behaviour of colorectal cancer independently from stage: objective of the study was to assess whether a panel of stemness markers were correlated with clinical outcome in resected stage II and III colon cancer patients. A panel of 66 markers of stemness were analysed and thus patients were divided into two groups (A and B) with most patients clustering in a manner consistent with different time to relapse by using a statistical algorithm. A total of 62 patients were analysed. Thirty-six (58%) relapsed during the follow-up period (range 1.6386.5 months). Twelve (19%) and 50 (81%) patients were allocated into group A and B, respectively. A significantly different median relapse-free survival was observed between the 2 groups (22.18 vs 42.85 months, p?=?0.0296). Among of all genes tested, those with the higher weight in determining different prognosis were CD44, ALCAM, DTX2, HSPA9, CCNA2, PDX1, MYST1, COL1A1 and ABCG2. This analysis supports the idea that, other than stage, biological variables, such as expression levels of colon cancer stem cell genes, may be relevant in determining an increased risk of relapse in resected colorectal cancer patients. PMID:24023782

  19. ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Joseph D.; Nedungadi, T. Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ΔFosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

  20. ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Walch, Joseph D; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ΔFosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

  1. Variants of the type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene in children with premature pubic hair and hyperandrogenic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S; Lee, P A; Witchel, S F

    1998-07-01

    To ascertain the potential role of heterozygosity for 3beta-hydroxysteroid (3beta-HSD) deficiency in children with premature pubic hair and adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism, we performed single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3beta-HSD2) gene in 34 hyperandrogenic patients. Three sequence variants, two missense mutations and a 3'-UTR sequence variant, were detected among seven patients and in none of 100 healthy control subjects. One of these seven patients carried Leu236 --> Ser on one 3beta-HSD2 allele and Glu318 --> STOP on one 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) allele. ACTH stimulation tests were performed in 5/7 patients with sequence variants and were compatible with decreased 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in three. Thus, 7 of 34 (20.6%) mildly hyperandrogenic patients carry heterozygous sequence variants of the 3beta-HSD2 gene. Since obligate heterozygotic carriers for congenital adrenal hyperplasia are typically asymptomatic, other genetic or environmental influences may contribute to the expression of hyperandrogenic symptoms in our patients. PMID:9719627

  2. Analysis of Gln223Agr polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Gene in type II diabetic mellitus subjects among Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Heidari, Farzad; Aziz, Ahmad Fazli Abdul; Yusof, Ahmad Khairuddin Mohamed; Pei, Chong Pei; Ismail, Patimah

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is known as the adipose peptide hormone. It plays an important role in the regulation of body fat and inhibits food intake by its action. Moreover, it is believed that leptin level deductions might be the cause of obesity and may play an important role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), as well as in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The Leptin Receptor (LEPR) gene and its polymorphisms have not been extensively studied in relation to the T2DM and its complications in various populations. In this study, we have determined the association of Gln223Agr loci of LEPR gene in three ethnic groups of Malaysia, namely: Malays, Chinese and Indians. A total of 284 T2DM subjects and 281 healthy individuals were recruited based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal specimens of the subjects. The commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was carried out by proper restriction enzyme MSP I to both amplify and digest the Gln223Agr polymorphism. The p-value among the three studied races was 0.057, 0.011 and 0.095, respectively. The values such as age, WHR, FPG, HbA1C, LDL, HDL, Chol and Family History were significantly different among the subjects with Gln223Agr polymorphism of LEPR (p < 0.05). PMID:24051404

  3. HSV-1-Based Vectors for Gene Therapy of Neurological Diseases and Brain Tumors: Part II. Vector Systems and Applications1

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Andreas; Breakefield, Xandra O; Fraefel, Cornel

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Many properties of HSV-1 are especially suitable for using this virus as a vector to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS), such as Parkinson's disease or malignant gliomas. These advantageous properties include natural neurotropism, high transduction efficiency, large transgene capacity, and the ability of entering a latent state in neurons. Selective oncolysis in combination with modulation of the immune response mediated by replication-conditional HSV-1 vectors appears to be a highly promising approach in the battle against malignant glioma. Helper virus-free HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors have great promise in mediating long-term gene expression in the PNS and CNS for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders or chronic pain. Current research focuses on the design of HSV-1-derived vectors which are targeted to certain cell types and support transcriptionally regulatable transgene expression. Here, we review the recent developments on HSV-1-based vector systems and their applications in experimental and clinical gene therapy protocols. PMID:10933055

  4. Association of atrial fibrillation with gene polymorphisms of connexin 40 and angiotensin II receptor type 1 in Chongming adults of Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shuxin; Lu, Yingmin; Huang, Damin; Luo, Xiaohan; Yue, Dongmei; Zhang, Jinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterized the gene polymorphisms of connexin 40 (cx40) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) in Chongming adults with atrial fibrillation (AF) and to explore their relationships with AF. Methods: 82 patients with AF, and 82 subjects without AF were enrolled. Polymorphisms of cx40 G-44A and AT1 A1166C were detected. Moreover, several samples were randomly selected to validate the gene polymorphisms of cx40 and AT1. Results: Genotypes AA, AG and GG of cx40 G-44A were found in both AF patients and controls. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AG and GG were 39%, 29% and 32%, respectively, in AF patients and 31%, 35% and 34%, respectively in controls. The frequencies of alleles A and G were 54% and 46%, respectively in AF patients and 48% and 52%, respectively, in controls (P < 0.05). The risk for AF in patients with allele A increased 1.31 times (OR = 1.31, P < 0.05). The frequencies of genotypes AA, AC and CC were 88%, 8% and 4%, respectively in AF patients and 93%, 6% and 1%, respectively in controls. The frequencies of alleles A and C were 92% and 8%, respectively in AF patients and 96% and 4%, respectively in controls (P < 0.05). More AF patients had allele C as compared to controls. The risk for AF increased by 1.43 times in patients with allele C (OR = 1.43, P < 0.05). Conclusion: There were relationships between gene polymorphisms of cx40 and AT1 and AF in Chongming adults. Allele A of cx40 G-44A and allele C of AT1 A1166C significantly increase the risk for AF. PMID:26380021

  5. The Type II Secretion Pathway in Vibrio cholerae Is Characterized by Growth Phase-Dependent Expression of Exoprotein Genes and Is Positively Regulated by σE

    PubMed Central

    Zielke, Ryszard A.; Simmons, Ryan S.; Park, Bo R.; Nonogaki, Mariko; Emerson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, an etiological agent of cholera, circulates between aquatic reservoirs and the human gastrointestinal tract. The type II secretion (T2S) system plays a pivotal role in both stages of the lifestyle by exporting multiple proteins, including cholera toxin. Here, we studied the kinetics of expression of genes encoding the T2S system and its cargo proteins. We have found that under laboratory growth conditions, the T2S complex was continuously expressed throughout V. cholerae growth, whereas there was growth phase-dependent transcriptional activity of genes encoding different cargo proteins. Moreover, exposure of V. cholerae to different environmental cues encountered by the bacterium in its life cycle induced transcriptional expression of T2S. Subsequent screening of a V. cholerae genomic library suggested that σE stress response, phosphate metabolism, and the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) are involved in regulating transcriptional expression of T2S. Focusing on σE, we discovered that the upstream region of the T2S operon possesses both the consensus σE and σ70 signatures, and deletion of the σE binding sequence prevented transcriptional activation of T2S by RpoE. Ectopic overexpression of σE stimulated transcription of T2S in wild-type and isogenic ΔrpoE strains of V. cholerae, providing additional support for the idea that the T2S complex belongs to the σE regulon. Together, our results suggest that the T2S pathway is characterized by the growth phase-dependent expression of genes encoding cargo proteins and requires a multifactorial regulatory network to ensure appropriate kinetics of the secretory traffic and the fitness of V. cholerae in different ecological niches. PMID:24733097

  6. Rho-kinase inhibition alleviates pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tadashi; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; West, James

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sustained elevation in the pulmonary artery pressure and subsequent right heart failure. The activation of Rho/Rho-kinase activity and the beneficial effect of Rho-kinase inhibition have been demonstrated in several experimental models of pulmonary hypertension. However, it remains unclear whether Rho-kinase inhibitors can also be used against pulmonary hypertension associated with mutations in the type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPRII) gene. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative BMPRII gene (with an arginine to termination mutation at amino acid 899) in smooth muscle by a tetracycline-gene switch system (SM22-tet-BMPR2R899X mice) were examined. They developed an elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, muscularization of small pulmonary arteries, and an associated disturbed blood flow in their lungs. The Rho/Rho-kinase activity and Smad activity were determined by a Western blot analysis by detecting GTP-RhoA and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, Smad1, and Smad2. In the lungs of SM22-tet-BMPR2R899X mice, the Rho/Rho-kinase activity was elevated significantly, whereas the Smad activity was almost unchanged. Fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, significantly decreased RVSP, alleviated RV hypertrophy and muscularization of small pulmonary arteries, and improved blood flow in SM22-tet-BMPR2R899X mice, although it did not alter Smad signaling. Our study demonstrates that Rho/Rho-kinase signaling is activated via a Smad-independent pathway in an animal model of pulmonary hypertension with a BMPRII mutation in the cytoplasmic tail domain. Rho-kinase inhibition is therefore a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of PAH associated with genetic mutation. PMID:21856816

  7. Development of a Gene Knockout System Using Mobile Group II Introns (Targetron) and Genetic Disruption of Acid Production Pathways in Clostridium beijerinckii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Li, Xiangzhen; Milne, Caroline B.; Janssen, Holger; Lin, Weiyin; Phan, Gloria; Hu, Huiying; Jin, Yong-Su; Price, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium beijerinckii is a well-known solvent-producing microorganism with great potential for biofuel and biochemical production. To better understand and improve the biochemical pathway to solvents, the development of genetic tools for engineering C. beijerinckii is highly desired. Based on mobile group II intron technology, a targetron gene knockout system was developed for C. beijerinckii in this study. This system was successfully employed to disrupt acid production pathways in C. beijerinckii, leading to pta (encoding phosphotransacetylase)- and buk (encoding butyrate kinase)-negative mutants. In addition to experimental characterization, the mutant phenotypes were analyzed in the context of our C. beijerinckii genome-scale model. Compared to those of the parental strain (C. beijerinckii 8052), acetate production in the pta mutant was substantially reduced and butyrate production was remarkably increased, while solvent production was dependent on the growth medium. The pta mutant also produced much higher levels of lactate, suggesting that disrupting pta influenced the energy generation and electron flow pathways. In contrast, acetate and butyrate production in the buk mutant was generally similar to that of the wild type, but solvent production was consistently 20 to 30% higher and glucose consumption was more rapid and complete. Our results suggest that the acid and solvent production of C. beijerinckii can be effectively altered by disrupting the acid production pathways. As the gene disruption method developed in this study does not leave any antibiotic marker in a disrupted allele, multiple and high-throughput gene disruption is feasible for elucidating genotype and phenotype relationships in C. beijerinckii. PMID:23872562

  8. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II triggers cell membrane injury by inducing complement factor B gene expression in the mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhu V.; Kapoun, Ann; Higgins, Linda; Kutschke, William; Thurman, Joshua M.; Zhang, Rong; Singh, Minati; Yang, Jinying; Guan, Xiaoqun; Lowe, John S.; Weiss, Robert M.; Zimmermann, Kathy; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Mohler, Peter J.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI), but the CaMKII-dependent pathways that participate in myocardial stress responses are incompletely understood. To address this issue, we sought to determine the transcriptional consequences of myocardial CaMKII inhibition after MI. We performed gene expression profiling in mouse hearts with cardiomyocyte-delimited transgenic expression of either a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) or a scrambled control peptide (AC3-C) following MI. Of the 8,600 mRNAs examined, 156 were substantially modulated by MI, and nearly half of these showed markedly altered responses to MI with CaMKII inhibition. CaMKII inhibition substantially reduced the MI-triggered upregulation of a constellation of proinflammatory genes. We studied 1 of these proinflammatory genes, complement factor B (Cfb), in detail, because complement proteins secreted by cells other than cardiomyocytes can induce sarcolemmal injury during MI. CFB protein expression in cardiomyocytes was triggered by CaMKII activation of the NF-κB pathway during both MI and exposure to bacterial endotoxin. CaMKII inhibition suppressed NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo and reduced Cfb expression and sarcolemmal injury. The Cfb–/– mice were partially protected from the adverse consequences of MI. Our findings demonstrate what we believe is a novel target for CaMKII in myocardial injury and suggest that CaMKII is broadly important for the genetic effects of MI in cardiomyocytes. PMID:19273909

  9. Purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution in the class II hydrophobin gene families of the ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi. Their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air or during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and solubility characteristics, hydrophobins are divided into two classes (I and II), the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Results We have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three draft sequenced genomes (H. jecorina = T. reesei, H. atroviridis = T. atroviride; H. virens = T. virens) an additional 14,000 ESTs from six other Trichoderma spp. (T. asperellum, H. lixii = T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, respectively. Ten is the highest number found in any ascomycete so far. All the hydrophobins we examined had the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these hydrophobins (HFBs)contained an extended N-terminus rich in either proline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades containing duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (24) from each species, and most were from Sordariomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other Sordariomycetes occurred in shared clades. Conclusion Our study shows that the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea has a proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobins which arose by birth-and-death evolution followed by purifying selection. PMID:18186925

  10. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    SciTech Connect

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows that the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea has a proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobins which arose by purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution.

  11. Deletions induced in the white and vermilion genes of Drosophila melanogaster by the antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II).

    PubMed

    Cizeau, J; Decoville, M; Leng, M; Locker, D

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the analysis of cisplatin induced mutations at the white (w) and vermilion (v) loci located on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Twenty-eight w and eight v mutants have been found in a male genetic context and 42 w mutants in a female genetic context. In these latter experiments, genetic analysis showed the presence of multi-locus deficiencies in 18 out of 42 w mutants. Eighteen w and three v intragenic mutations were analyzed at the molecular level. Seventeen w and three v mutants carry deletions within the gene, ranging in size from 4 to 109 base pairs. Sequence analysis of the mutants indicates that most of them were produced by non-homologous recombinational events occurring between short (2-5 bp) sequence repeats on both sides of the deletion, one repeat being retained at the new junction. These results differ largely from those obtained in prokaryotic and other eukaryotic cells. PMID:7526172

  12. Cre/lox system to develop selectable marker free transgenic tobacco plants conferring resistance against sap sucking homopteran insect.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sarkar, Anindya; Mondal, Hossain A; Schuermann, David; Hohn, Barbara; Sarmah, Bidyut K; Das, Sampa

    2008-10-01

    A binary expression vector was constructed containing the insecticidal gene Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL), and a selectable nptII marker gene cassette, flanked by lox sites. Similarly, another binary vector was developed with the chimeric cre gene construct. Transformed tobacco plants were generated with these two independent vectors. Each of the T(0) lox plants was crossed with T(0) Cre plants. PCR analyses followed by the sequencing of the target T-DNA part of the hybrid T(1) plants demonstrated the excision of the nptII gene in highly precised manner in certain percentage of the T(1) hybrid lines. The frequency of such marker gene excision was calculated to be 19.2% in the hybrids. Marker free plants were able to express ASAL efficiently and reduce the survivability of Myzus persiceae, the deadly pest of tobacco significantly, compared to the control tobacco plants. Results of PCR and Southern blot analyses of some of the T(2) plants detected the absence of cre as well as nptII genes. Thus, the crossing strategy involving Cre/lox system for the excision of marker genes appears to be very effective and easy to execute. Documentation of such marker excision phenomenon in the transgenic plants expressing the important insecticidal protein for the first time has a great significance from agricultural and biotechnological points of view. PMID:18663453

  13. The role of HLA class II genes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Molecular analysis of 180 Caucasian, multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, J.A.; Cook, M.; Erlich, H.A. |

    1996-11-01

    We report here our analysis of HLA class II alleles in 180 Caucasian nuclear families with at least two children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 genotypes were determined with PCR/sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe typing methods. The data allowed unambiguous determination of four-locus haplotypes in all but three of the families. Consistent with other studies, our data indicate an increase in DR3/DR4, DR3/DR3, and DR4/DR4 genotypes in patients compared to controls. In addition, we found an increase in DR1/DR4, DR1/DR3, and DR4/DR8 genotypes. While the frequency of DQB1*0302 on DR4 haplotypes is dramatically increased in DR3/DR4 patients, DR4 haplotypes in DR1/DR4 patients exhibit frequencies of DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0301 more closely resembling those in control populations. The protective effect of DR2 is evident in this data set and is limited to the common DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype. Most DR2{sup +} patients carry the less common DR2 haplotype DRB1*1601-DQB1*0502, which is not decreased in patients relative to controls. DPB1 also appears to play a role in disease susceptibility. DPB1*0301 is increased in patients (P < .001) and may contribute to the disease risk of a number of different DR-DQ haplotypes. DPB1*0101, found almost exclusively on DR3 haplotypes in patients, is slightly increased, and maternal transmissions of DRB1*0301-DPB1*0101 haplotypes to affected children occur twice as frequently as do paternal transmissions. Transmissions of DR3 haplotypes carrying other DPB1 alleles occur at approximately equal maternal and paternal frequencies. The complex, multigenic nature of HLA class II-associated IDDM susceptibility is evident from these data. 76 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  14. The Arabidopsis Mediator Complex Subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 Regulate Mediator and RNA Polymerase II Recruitment to CBF-Responsive Cold-Regulated Genes[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Piers A.; Hurst, Charlotte H.; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R.; De Cothi, Elizabeth A.; Steele, John F.; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimationinduced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperatureinduced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  15. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of a human ATPase II gene, member of the third subfamily of P-type ATPases and orthologous to the presumed bovine and murine aminophospholipid translocase.

    PubMed

    Mouro, I; Halleck, M S; Schlegel, R A; Mattei, M G; Williamson, P; Zachowski, A; Devaux, P; Cartron, J P; Colin, Y

    1999-04-13

    Recently, a P-type ATPase was cloned from bovine chromaffin granules (b-ATPase II) and a mouse teratocarcinoma cell line (m-ATPase II) and was shown to be homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DRS2 gene, the inactivation of which resulted in defective transport of phosphatidylserine. Here, we report the cloning from a human skeletal muscle cDNA library of a human ATPase II (h-ATPase II), orthologous to the presumed bovine and mouse aminophospholipid translocase (95.3 and 95.9% amino acid identity, respectively). Compared with the bovine and mouse counterparts, the cloned h-ATPase II polypeptide exhibits a similar membrane topology, but contains 15 additional amino acids (1163 vs 1148) located in the second intracytoplasmic loop, near the DKTGTLT-phosphorylation site. However, RT-PCR analysis performed with RNA from different human tissues and cell lines revealed that the coding sequence for these 15 residues is sometimes present and sometimes absent, most likely as a result of a tissue-specific alternative splicing event. The h-ATPase II gene, which was mapped to chromosome 4p14-p12, is expressed as a 9.5-kb RNA species in a large variety of tissues, but was not detected in liver, testis, and placenta, nor in the erythroleukemic cell line K562. PMID:10198212

  16. A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Rutishauser, J.; Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Froesch, E.R.; Wichmann, W.; Huisman, T.

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal high resolution T1-weighted images of the pituitary were obtained from affected and healthy family members. PCR was used to amplify the AVP-NP II precursor gene, and PCR products were directly sequenced. Under maximal osmotic stimulation, AVP serum levels were close to or below the detection limit in affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed the characteristic hyperintense ({open_quotes}bright spot{close_quotes}) appearance of the posterior pituitary in two healthy family members. This signal was absent in all four ADNDI patients examined. The coding sequences of AVP and its carrier protein, neurophysin II, were normal in all family members examined. Affected individuals showed a novel single base deletion (G 227) in the translation initiation codon of the AVP-NP II signal peptide on one allele. The mutation in the AVP-NP II leader sequence appears to be responsible for the disease in this kindred, possibly by interfering with protein translocation. The absence of the hyperintense posterior pituitary signal in affected individuals could reflect deficient posterior pituitary function. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Involvement of Nurr-1/Nur77 in corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin1-induced tyrosinase-related protein 1 gene transcription in human melanoma HMV-II cells.

    PubMed

    Watanuki, Yutaka; Takayasu, Shinobu; Kageyama, Kazunori; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Sakihara, Satoru; Terui, Ken; Nigawara, Takeshi; Suda, Toshihiro

    2013-05-01

    Recent molecular and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin (Ucn), together with their corresponding receptors in mammalian skin. The melanosomal enzyme tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) is involved in modulation of pigment production in response to stressors. Although CRF and Ucn are thought to have potent effects on the skin system, their possible roles and regulation have yet to be fully determined. This study aimed to explore the effects of CRF and Ucn on TRP1 gene expression using human melanoma HMV-II cells. The mRNA of CRF, Ucn1, Ucn2, and CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1 receptor) was detected in HMV-II cells. CRF and Ucn1 stimulated TRP1 gene transcription via the CRF1 receptor, and increased both Nurr-1 and Nur77 mRNA expression levels. Both CRF- and Ucn1-induced Nurr-1/Nur77 acted via a NGFI-B response element on the TRP1 promoter. The combination of Nurr-1/Nur77 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a melanocyte-specific transcription factor gene induced by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, had additive effects on activation of TRP1 gene transcription. The findings suggest that in human melanoma HMV-II cells both CRF and Ucn1 regulate TRP1 gene expression via Nurr-1/Nur77 production, independent of pro-opiomelanocortin or α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone stimulation. PMID:23416839

  18. Topoisomerase II alpha gene amplification is a favorable prognostic factor in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The vast majority of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated with trastuzumab eventually develop resistance to this agent. There is an unmet need therefore, for identifying biological markers with possible prognostic/predictive value in such patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of topoisomerase II alpha gene (TOP2A) amplification and protein (TopoIIa) expression in patients treated with trastuzumab-containing regimens. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were retrospectively collected from 225 eligible patients treated with trastuzumab. Protein expression of ER, PgR, Ki67, PTEN, HER2 and TopoIIa were centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. HER2 and TOP2A gene amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PIK3CA mutations were identified by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Survival was evaluated from the initiation of trastuzumab as 1st line treatment to the date of last follow-up or death. Results Among the 225 samples analyzed, only 137 (61%) were found to be HER2-positive. TOP2A was amplified in 41% and deleted in 16% of such tumors. TOP2A gene amplification was more frequent in ER-negative tumors. TopoIIa protein expression was observed in the majority (65%) of the samples and was associated with ER-positive status, high Ki67 expression, presence of PTEN protein and PIK3CA mutations. Median follow-up for patients treated in the 1st line was 51 months. Survival was more prolonged with trastuzumab-containing treatment in HER2-positive patients (50 months, log-rank, p=0.007). TOP2A non-amplified or deleted tumors were associated with increased risk for death compared to TOP2A amplified tumors (HR=2.16, Walds p=0.010 and HR=2.67, p=0.009, respectively). In multivariate analysis, a significant interaction of TOP2A with anthracycline treatment (either in the adjuvant or the 1st line setting) was observed for survival (Walds p=0.015). Among the TOP2A amplified subgroup, anthracycline-treated patients were associated with decreased risk for death. Conclusions TOP2A gene amplification was shown to be a favorable prognostic marker in HER2-positive MBC patients treated with trastuzumab, such an effect however, appears to rather be related to treatment with anthracyclines (predictive marker for benefit from anthracyclines). The results of the present retrospective study warrant validation in larger cohorts of patients treated in the context of randomized trials. PMID:23092535

  19. Genetic Variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Genes Are Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Johnson, Victor J.; Lummus, Zana L.; Kashon, Michael L.; Rao, Marepalli; Bannerman-Thompson, Hansen; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Gautrin, Denyse; Cartier, Andr; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Sastre, Joaquin; Quirce, Santiago; Tarlo, Susan M.; Germolec, Dori R.; Luster, Michael I.; Bernstein, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). Methods The study population consisted of 140 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina GoldenGate major histocompatibility complex panels. Results The HLA-E rs1573294 and HLA-DPB1 rs928976 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of DA under dominant (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37 to 16.6; OR, 2.79, 95% CI, 0.99 to 7.81, respectively) and recessive genetic models (OR, 6.27, 95% CI, 1.63 to 24.13; OR, 10.10, 95% CI, 3.16 to 32.33, respectively). The HLA-B rs1811197, HLA-DOA rs3128935, and HLA-DQA2 rs7773955 SNPs conferred an increased risk of DA in a dominant model (OR, 7.64, 95% CI, 2.25 to 26.00; OR, 19.69, 95% CI, 2.89 to 135.25; OR, 8.43, 95% CI, 3.03 to 23.48, respectively). Conclusion These results suggest that genetic variations within HLA genes play a role in DA risk. PMID:24709764

  20. Frequent de novo mutations of the ANK1 gene mimic a recessive mode of transmission in hereditary spherocytosis: three new ANK1 variants: ankyrins Bari, Napoli II and Anzio.

    PubMed

    Randon, J; Miraglia del Giudice, E; Bozon, M; Perrotta, S; De Vivo, M; Iolascon, A; Delaunay, J; Morle, L

    1997-03-01

    A subset of spherocytosis cases associated with mutations of the ANK1 gene present an apparently recessive inheritance pattern on a clinical and haematological basis. We identified three novel out-of-frame deletions in the ANK1 gene: allele Bari (1361delG), Napoli II (2883delC) and Anzio (3032delCA) in three Italian patients, two of whom have been splenectomized. Analysis of the cDNA showed small or trace amounts of ankyrin mRNAs in Bari, Napoli II and Anzio. The parents were normal clinically and haematologically and did not carry the mutations exhibited by their children. We confirmed the de novo character of the HS mutations based on paternity testing. Recessive HS associated with the ANK1 gene is probably rarer than initially thought, and spherocytosis may often be due to de novo mutations. PMID:9054656

  1. Expressing an RbcS Antisense Gene in Transgenic Flaveria bidentis Leads to an Increased Quantum Requirement for CO2 Fixed in Photosystems I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Siebke, K.; Von Caemmerer, S.; Badger, M.; Furbank, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    It was previously shown with concurrent measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination that the reduction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by an antisense gene construct in transgenic Flaveria bidentis (a C4 species) leads to reduced CO2 assimilation rates, increased bundle-sheath CO2 concentration, and leakiness (defined as the ratio of CO2 leakage to the rate of C4 acid decarboxylation; S. von Caemmerer, A. Millegate, G.D. Farquhar, R.T. Furbank [1997] Plant Physiol 113: 469-477). Increased leakiness in the transformants should result in an increased ATP requirement per mole of CO2 fixed and a change in the ATP-to-NADPH demand. To investigate this, we compared measurements of the quantum yield of photosystem I and II ([phi]PSI and [phi]PSII) with the quantum yield of CO2 fixation ([phi]CO2) in control and transgenic F. bidentis plants in various conditions. Both [phi]PSI/[phi]CO2 and [phi]PSII/[phi]CO2 increased with a decrease in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content, confirming an increase in leakiness. In the wild type the ratio of [phi]PSI to [phi]PSII was constant at different irradiances but increased with irradiance in the transformants, suggesting that cyclic electron transport may be higher in the transformants. To evaluate the relative contribution of cyclic or linear electron transport to extra ATP generation, we developed a model that links leakiness, ATP/NADP requirements, and quantum yields. Despite some uncertainties in the light distribution between photosystem I and II, we conclude from the increase of [phi]PSII/[phi]CO2 in the transformants that cyclic electron transport is not solely responsible for ATP generation without NADPH production. PMID:12223865

  2. Associations of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion, Angiotensin II Receptor A1166C, and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase 4b/a Gene Polymorphisms With Pregnancy Hypertensive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Feng-Feng; Hu, Cai-Yun; Lu, Shan-Shan; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-12-01

    There have been numerous studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) gene A1166C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene 4b/a polymorphisms with risk of pregnancy hypertensive disorders (PHDs). However, the results are inconsistent. A total of 83 eligible studies (10,354/18,446 cases/controls) were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to calculate these associations. The effects of ethnicity and types of PHDs were also considered. Results showed significant associations between the ACE gene polymorphism and PHDs in all of the populations except that in Africa. The associations also existed in AT1R, eNOS gene polymorphism and PHDs in part of the gene models in the overall population. These results indicated the ACE gene polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of PHDs, whereas the eNOS and AT1R gene polymorphism only have increased susceptibility to PHDs in part of thegene models. PMID:26119526

  3. Generation of Trichoderma atroviride mutants with constitutively activated G protein signaling by using geneticin resistance as selection marker

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are important industrial producers of cellulases and hemicellulases, but also widely used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) in agriculture. In the latter function Trichoderma species stimulate plant growth, induce plant defense and directly antagonize plant pathogenic fungi through their mycoparasitic capabilities. The recent release of the genome sequences of four mycoparasitic Trichoderma species now forms the basis for large-scale genetic manipulations of these important BCAs. Thus far, only a limited number of dominant selection markers, including Hygromycin B resistance (hph) and the acetamidase-encoding amdS gene, have been available for transformation of Trichoderma spp. For more extensive functional genomics studies the utilization of additional dominant markers will be essential. Results We established the Escherichia coli neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene as a novel selectable marker for the transformation of Trichoderma atroviride conferring geneticin resistance. The nptII marker cassette was stably integrated into the fungal genome and transformants exhibited unaltered phenotypes compared to the wild-type. Co-transformation of T. atroviride with nptII and a constitutively activated version of the Gα subunit-encoding tga3 gene (tga3Q207L) resulted in a high number of mitotically stable, geneticin-resistant transformants. Further analyses revealed a co-transformation frequency of 68% with 15 transformants having additionally integrated tga3Q207L into their genome. Constitutive activation of the Tga3-mediated signaling pathway resulted in increased vegetative growth and an enhanced ability to antagonize plant pathogenic host fungi. Conclusion The neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene from Escherichia coli proved to be a valuable tool for conferring geneticin resistance to the filamentous fungus T. atroviride thereby contributing to an enhanced genetic tractability of these important BCAs. PMID:23158850

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Phase II Drug Metabolizing/Antioxidant Enzymes Gene Response by Anti-cancer Agent Sulforaphane in Rat Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of Phase II drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (i.v.) administration of an anti-cancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN) METHODS SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted, converted to cDNA, and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Juskos indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus and Bootstrap Method. RESULTS SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-?B, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5 folds) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increase (> 5 folds) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus and Bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. CONCLUSION Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after i.v. administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is valuable for quantitating Nrf2 mediated effects of SFN. This study may provide a conceptual framework for future clinical PK-PD studies of dietary cancer chemopreventive agents in human. PMID:22931102

  5. Generation of BAC transgenic tadpoles enabling live imaging of motoneurons by using the urotensin II-related peptide (ust2b) gene as a driver.

    PubMed

    Bougerol, Marion; Aurad, Frdric; Lambert, Franois M; Le Ray, Didier; Combes, Denis; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Relaix, Frdric; Pollet, Nicolas; Tostivint, Herv

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus is an excellent tetrapod model for studying normal and pathological motoneuron ontogeny due to its developmental morpho-physiological advantages. In mammals, the urotensin II-related peptide (UTS2B) gene is primarily expressed in motoneurons of the brainstem and the spinal cord. Here, we show that this expression pattern was conserved in Xenopus and established during the early embryonic development, starting at the early tailbud stage. In late tadpole stage, uts2b mRNA was detected both in the hindbrain and in the spinal cord. Spinal uts2b+ cells were identified as axial motoneurons. In adult, however, the uts2b expression was only detected in the hindbrain. We assessed the ability of the uts2b promoter to drive the expression of a fluorescent reporter in motoneurons by recombineering a green fluorescent protein (GFP) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the entire X. tropicalis uts2b locus. After injection of this construction in one-cell stage embryos, a transient GFP expression was observed in the spinal cord of about a quarter of the resulting animals from the early tailbud stage and up to juveniles. The GFP expression pattern was globally consistent with that of the endogenous uts2b in the spinal cord but no fluorescence was observed in the brainstem. A combination of histological and electrophysiological approaches was employed to further characterize the GFP+ cells in the larvae. More than 98% of the GFP+ cells expressed choline acetyltransferase, while their projections were co-localized with ?-bungarotoxin labeling. When tail myotomes were injected with rhodamine dextran amine crystals, numerous double-stained GFP+ cells were observed. In addition, intracellular electrophysiological recordings of GFP+ neurons revealed locomotion-related rhythmic discharge patterns during fictive swimming. Taken together our results provide evidence that uts2b is an appropriate driver to express reporter genes in larval motoneurons of the Xenopus spinal cord. PMID:25658845

  6. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) in the phase II detoxification genes, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, on colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Angstadt, Andrea Y.; Berg, Arthur; Zhu, Junjia; Miller, Paige; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms in combination with the Western-style diet, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity have been hypothesized to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Metabolizers of environmental carcinogenic and endogenous compounds affecting CRC risk include phase II detoxification enzymes, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, which are two of the most commonly deleted genes in the genome. Methods To study the effect of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 copy number variation (CNV) on CRC risk we genotyped 665 Caucasian CRC cases and 621 Caucasian controls that had completed extensive demographics and lifestyle questionnaires. Results A significant association between the UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) and decreased CRC risk was found when analyzing the entire population (p = 0.044). Stratification by sex yielded a decreased risk (p = 0.020) in men with the UGT2B17 (0/0), but no association was observed in women (p = 0.724). A significant association between UGT2B17 (0/0) and decreased risk for rectal (p = 0.0065) but not colon cancer was found. No significant association was found between UGT2B28 CNV and CRC risk. Conclusions The UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) was associated with a decreased CRC risk in a Caucasian population. After sex stratification, the association was observed in men not women, which is consistent with previous findings that men have higher UGT2B17 expression and activity than women. As UGT2B17 metabolizes certain NSAIDs and flavonoids with antioxidative properties, individuals with a gene deletion may have higher levels of these protective dietary components. PMID:23575887

  7. Functional analysis of splicing mutations in the IDS gene and the use of antisense oligonucleotides to exploit an alternative therapy for MPS II.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gonçalves, Vânia; Pinto, Eugénia; Laranjeira, Francisco; Prata, Maria João; Jordan, Peter; Desviat, Lourdes R; Pérez, Belén; Alves, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis II is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the IDS gene, including exonic alterations associated with aberrant splicing. In the present work, cell-based splicing assays were performed to study the effects of two splicing mutations in exon 3 of IDS, i.e., c.241C>T and c.257C>T, whose presence activates a cryptic splice site in exon 3 and one in exon 8, i.e., c.1122C>T that despite being a synonymous mutation is responsible for the creation of a new splice site in exon 8 leading to a transcript shorter than usual. Mutant minigene analysis and overexpression assays revealed that SRSF2 and hnRNP E1 might be involved in the use and repression of the constitutive 3' splice site of exon 3 respectively. For the c.1122C>T the use of antisense therapy to correct the splicing defect was explored, but transfection of patient fibroblasts with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (n=3) and a locked nucleic acid failed to abolish the abnormal transcript; indeed, it resulted in the appearance of yet another aberrant splicing product. Interestingly, the oligonucleotides transfection in control fibroblasts led to the appearance of the aberrant transcript observed in patients' cells after treatment, which shows that the oligonucleotides are masking an important cis-acting element for 5' splice site regulation of exon 8. These results highlight the importance of functional studies for understanding the pathogenic consequences of mis-splicing and highlight the difficulty in developing antisense therapies involving gene regions under complex splicing regulation. PMID:26407519

  8. Non-coding RNA derived from the region adjacent to the human HO-1 E2 enhancer selectively regulates HO-1 gene induction by modulating Pol II binding

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Mimura, Junsei; Itoh, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the function of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which are long non-coding RNAs transcribed from gene enhancer regions, in transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unclear whether eRNAs are involved in the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene (HO-1) induction. Here, we report that multiple nuclear-enriched eRNAs are transcribed from the regions adjacent to two human HO-1 enhancers (i.e. the distal E2 and proximal E1 enhancers), and some of these eRNAs are induced by the oxidative stress-causing reagent diethyl maleate (DEM). We demonstrated that the expression of one forward direction (5′ to 3′) eRNA transcribed from the human HO-1 E2 enhancer region (named human HO-1enhancer RNA E2-3; hereafter called eRNA E2-3) was induced by DEM in an NRF2-dependent manner in HeLa cells. Conversely, knockdown of BACH1, a repressor of HO-1 transcription, further increased DEM-inducible eRNA E2-3 transcription as well as HO-1 expression. In addition, we showed that knockdown of eRNA E2-3 selectively down-regulated DEM-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, eRNA E2-3 knockdown attenuated DEM-induced Pol II binding to the promoter and E2 enhancer regions of HO-1 without affecting NRF2 recruitment to the E2 enhancer. These findings indicate that eRNAE2-3 is functional and is required for HO-1 induction. PMID:25404134

  9. Rescue of Aspergillus nidulans severely debilitating null mutations in ESCRT-0, I, II and III genes by inactivation of a salt-tolerance pathway allows examination of ESCRT gene roles in pH signalling

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana M.; Hervs-Aguilar, Amrica; Galindo, Antonio; Abenza, Juan F.; Pealva, Miguel A.; Arst, Herbert N.

    2011-01-01

    The Aspergillus pal pathway hijacks ESCRT proteins into ambient pH signalling com