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Sample records for ii transient response

  1. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  2. Transient Response in LMFBR System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-26

    SSC-L (the Super System Code) calculates the thermohydraulic response of loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) systems during operational, incidental, and accidental transients, especially natural circulation events. Modules simulated and parameters calculated include: core flow rates and temperatures, loop flow rates and temperatures, pump performance, and heat exchanger operation. Additionally, SSC-L accounts for all plant protection and plant control systems. Although the primary emphasis is on transients for safety analysis, SSC-L can be usedmore » for many other applications, such as scoping analysis for plant design and specification of various components. Any number of user-specified loops, pipes, and nodes are permitted. Both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulics are used in a multi-channel core representation. Inter-assembly flow redistribution is accounted for using a detailed fuel pin model. The heat transport system geometry is user-specified. SSC-L provides steady-state and transient options and a restart capability. Input is free format in a modular structure that makes use of abstract data management techniques.« less

  3. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part II: Spatial and temporal structure of response

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.; Mitchell, J.F.B.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution (2.75{degrees} lat x 3.75{degrees} long) coupled ocean-atmosphere model has been used to simulate the transient response of climate to a gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the radiative forcing increases linearly, there is a delay of about 30 yr before the ocean warms appreciably. This {open_quotes}cold start{close_quotes} is, at least partly, an artifact of the experimental design. At the time of doubling (after 70 yr), the patterns of change are similar to those found in comparable studies of the equilibrium response, except in the high latitudes of the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic, where the warming is considerably reduced. The mechanisms leading to this reduction are discussed. After two to three decades, the pattern of warming is well established. The warming over land is substantially larger than that over the sea, with a consequent lowering of surface pressure over the northern continents in summer. The patterns of changes in precipitation and soil moisture take longer to establish themselves, although locally there are consistent changes after the third decade. 55 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Discovery and Classification of Transients from CRTS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Graham, M. J.; Stern, D.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Larson, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Following on from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS), the CRTS-II project has begun to search for transients and highly variable sources. As with CRTS, all detections will be made public immediately following discovery.

  5. Polarimeter provides transient response in nanosecond range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1967-01-01

    Conventional polarimeter with a Senarmont compensator improves transient response and eliminates manual manipulation. A sampled photomultiplier output is fed to a low pass filter, resulting in a signal representing the optical state existing at the instant of sampling. With this technique, an unknown transient-induced retardation can be measured.

  6. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

    2006-08-04

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

  7. The effect of coupled mass transport and internal reforming on modeling of solid oxide fuel cells part II: Benchmarking transient response and dynamic model fidelity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Kevin J.; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    One- and 'quasi' two-dimensional (2-D) dynamic, interface charge transport models of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) developed previously in a companion paper, are benchmarked against other models and simulated to evaluate the effects of coupled transport and chemistry. Because the reforming reaction can distort the concentration profiles of the species within the anode, a 'quasi' 2-D model that captures porous media mass transport and electrochemistry is required. The impact of a change in concentration at the triple-phase boundary is twofold wherein the local Nernst potential and anode exchange current densities are influenced, thereby altering the current density and temperature distributions of the cell. Thus, the dynamic response of the cell models are compared, and benchmarked against previous channel-level models to gauge the relative importance of capturing in-situ reforming phenomena on cell performance. Simulation results indicate differences in the transient electrochemical response for a step in current density where the 'quasi' 2-D model predicts a slower rise and fall in cell potential due to the additional volume of the porous media and mass transport dynamics. Delays in fuel flow rate are shown to increase the difference observed in the electrochemical response of the cells.

  8. Heat pipe transient response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper. .

  9. Role of type II pneumocytes in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis: dose response of radiation-induced lung changes in the transient high vascular permeability period.

    PubMed

    Osterreicher, Jan; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Skopek, Jirí; Mokrỳ, Jaroslav; Vilasová, Zdena; Psutka, Jan; Vávrová, Jirina; Mazurová, Yvona

    2004-12-01

    We studied the dose response of pulmonary changes at 3 weeks after 1-25 Gy irradiation and we investigated the effects of an anti-inflammatory drug. Wistar rats were given a single dose of 1-25Gy irradiation to the thorax. Group one was treated with saline only, while group two was administered subcutaneously a combination of pentoxifylline (35 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) twice per week. Lungs were examined histochemically and number of neutrophile granulocytes, alveolar septal thickness, air/tissue ratio, number of alveoli per field, number of type II pneumocytes per alveolus, and occludin 1 expression were measured. A significant dose-dependent depletion of type II pneumocytes was found after irradiation with a dose of 1 Gy and higher. Alveolar neutrophils increased after 1 Gy with a dose dependency noted after 10-25Gy and alveolar septa thickening followed 5-25 Gy. A lower occludin 1 expression was observed in animals irradiated with the doses of 5 20 Gy, indicating an effect on vascular permeability. Anti-inflammatory therapy partially inhibited the increase of neutrophils at all radiation doses and the depletion of type II pneumocytes after doses of 1, 10, and 15 Gy. Occludin 1 did not decrease in the lungs of rats treated with the anti-inflammatory drugs as it did in most rats treated only with saline. Our results suggest that pneumocytes depletion is a major factor responsible for radiation pneumonitis development and that these changes may be compensated for provided radiation doses are below the threshold. PMID:15625787

  10. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part II: Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, Gianfranco; Raffray, A. René

    1997-04-01

    The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the variuos ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness.

  11. A transient overpower experiment in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, J.P.; Tsai, H.; Dean, E.M.; Aoyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1994-03-01

    The TOPI-IE test was a transient overpower test on irradiate mixed-oxide fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The test, the fifth in a series, was part of a cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan to conduct operational transient testing on mixed-oxide fuel pins in the metal-fueled EBR-II. The principle objective of the TOPI-1E test was to assess breaching margins for irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins over the Plant Protection System (PPS) thresholds during a slow, extended overpower transient. This paper describes the effect of the TOPI-1E experiment on reactor components and the impact of the experiment on the long-term operability of the reactor. The paper discusses the role that SASSYS played in the pre-test safety analysis of the experiment. The ability of SASSYS to model transient overpower events is detailed by comparisons of data from the experiment with computed reactor variables from a SASSYS post-test simulation of the experiment.

  12. Transient response of coaxial pulse coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, S.; Mongeau, P.

    1984-03-01

    Of central importance in designing coaxial launcher systems is understanding the mechanical response and structural limits of the magnetic pulse coils. In normal operation the driving frequency can vary from static conditions through the lowest natural modes to well beyond the highest frequencies. By using a lumped parameter model the transient behavior of a magnetic pulse coil can be readily characterized. In an effort to understand the failure mechanism of coaxial pulse coils the results of this model are compared to the experimental performance of several thin build coils.

  13. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs Part II. Analysis of transient temperature responses observed during a heat slug propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert; Malinowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    A heat slug propagation experiment in the final design dual channel ITER TF CICC was performed in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP in Villigen PSI. We analyzed the data resulting from this experiment to determine the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient hBC between the bundle and the central channel of this cable. In the data analysis we used methods based on the analytical solutions of a problem of transient heat transfer in a dual-channel cable, similar to Renard et al. (2006) and Bottura et al. (2006). The observed experimental and other limits related to these methods are identified and possible modifications proposed. One result from our analysis is that the hBC values obtained with different methods differ by up to a factor of 2. We have also observed that the uncertainties of hBC in both methods considered are much larger than those reported earlier.

  14. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Anpalakan; Garibaldi, Luigi; Murphy, Robyn; Ibrahim, Jennifer

    2006-06-01

    The phenotype of mucolipidosis type II (ML II), a disorder of lysosomal enzyme transport, includes mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome)-like features and dysostosis multiplex, usually apparent after 6 months of age. We describe here the natural history of neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a recently described presentation of ML II. A female neonate presented with multiple fractures and radiological features of osteopenia and 'rickets-like' changes. Longitudinal evaluation, while the patient was treated with vitamin D 800-3,000 IU/day orally, indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism which resolved, biochemically and radiologically, by age 4 months. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism in ML II is severe, transient, and probably secondary to impaired placental calcium transport, simulating a condition observed in the offspring of chronically hypocalcemic mothers. PMID:16886594

  15. Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, M. A.; Mahajan, A. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.

  16. Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time-marching Full-Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient method, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response method, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers using both flat plates and actual airfoils.

  17. Transient impact response of three polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. N.; Dick, J. J.; Hixson, R. S.

    1998-09-01

    Experimental data are presented for the transient response of three polymers, Estane, Estane with a nitro-plasticizer, and adiprene, subject to flat-plate impact. These data are analyzed in terms of a generalized Maxwell model and the theory of characteristics for the dynamical motion. Comparison of theory and experiment quantifies the high-frequency component in the Maxwell description; for Adiprene the high-frequency shear modulus and relaxation time are 300 MPa and approximately 50 ns, respectively. For estane the corresponding quantities are 300 MPa and approximately 200 ns. Low-pressure Hugoniot data are also presented for estane. An estimate of the low-pressure Hugoniot is given for Adiprene. Some experimental data are also presented for the Estane/nitro-plasticizer combination; this material is used as a binder in plastic-bonded explosives. Theory is presented for a thermodynamically consistent calculation of temperature in high-rate loading of polymers whose mechanical properties are represented by a generalized Maxwell model.

  18. Transient response characteristics in a biomolecular integral controller.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shaunak

    2016-04-01

    The cellular behaviour of perfect adaptation is achieved through the use of an integral control element in the underlying biomolecular circuit. It is generally unclear how integral action affects the important aspect of transient response in these biomolecular systems, especially in light of the fact that it typically deteriorates the transient response in engineering contexts. To address this issue, the authors investigated the transient response in a computational model of a simple biomolecular integral control system involved in bacterial signalling. They find that the transient response can actually speed up as the integral gain parameter increases. On further analysis, they find that the underlying dynamics are composed of slow and fast modes and the speed-up of the transient response is because of the speed-up of the slow-mode dynamics. Finally, they note how an increase in the integral gain parameter also leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the transient response, consistent with the overall improvement in the transient response. These results should be useful in understanding the overall effect of integral action on system dynamics, particularly for biomolecular systems. PMID:26997660

  19. The transient response of finite open circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftimiu, C.; Huddleston, P. L.

    1984-04-01

    An eigenmode expansion formulation of the singularity expansion method based on the electric field integral equation is developed for the transient response of conducting finite open cylinders. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the impedance operator are calculated by the Galerkin method using entire domain expansion functions. The transient surface current density and backscattered far field in response to an incident electromagnetic pulse are calculated for cylinders of various aspect ratios.

  20. EBR-II transient operation and test capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Cutforth, D.C.; Lentz, G.L.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental fuel pins intended for eventual use in LMFBR's have been irradiated for many years in fast test reactors. A wealth of data have been obtained on their performance under steady-state conditions, and fuel-pin performance codes have been developed to predict their behavior. In parallel, safety tests of fuel pins to explore behavior under accident conditions have been performed in transient reactors like TREAT in the US, and CABRI in France. These two types of testing generally have had different aims and have tended to produce results which are not reconcilable with a common modeling code, such as a LIFE or COMETHE, in the middle ground between normal and off-normal conditions. But as the licensing and commercialization of LMFBR's approaches, the attention and needs of the fuel-pin designer and licenser have focused on this middle ground between steady-state and accident testing of fuel pins and subassemblies. Preparations and now capability for operational reliability testing at EBR-II have been the subject of papers at recent conferences. This paper updates the status of those preparations to the present time when the ORT program is about to begin.

  1. Transient response of sap flow to wind speed.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia R; Hsieh, Cheng-I; Wu, Shen-Yuang; Phillips, Nathan G

    2009-01-01

    Transient responses of sap flow to step changes in wind speed were experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. A Granier-type sap flow sensor was calibrated and tested in a cylindrical tube for analysis of its transient time response. Then the sensor was used to measure the transient response of a well-watered Pachira macrocarpa plant to wind speed variations. The transient response of sap flow was described using the resistance-capacitance model. The steady sap flow rate increased as the wind speed increased at low wind speeds. Once the wind speed exceeded 8.0 m s(-1), the steady sap flow rate did not increase further. The transpiration rate, measured gravimetrically, showed a similar trend. The response of nocturnal sap flow to wind speed variation was also measured and compared with the results in the daytime. Under the same wind speed, the steady sap flow rate was smaller than that in the daytime, indicating differences between diurnal and nocturnal hydraulic function, and incomplete stomatal closure at night. In addition, it was found that the temporal response of the Granier sensor is fast enough to resolve the transient behaviour of water flux in plant tissue. PMID:19022910

  2. The transient response above an evaporation duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Seliem, Adel A. S.

    1998-11-01

    The transient electromagnetic field generated by a vertical electric dipole above an evaporation duct is investigated theoretically. The evaporation duct model used is that previously described by Kahan and Eckart. A vertical electric dipole, above the surface layer, is taken as the source of the electromagnetic field. We determine the electrical field strength exactly at some fixed point above the duct layer, having chosen a certain polarization of the primary source whose moment is allowed to vary arbitrarily with time. A series expansion with respect to the images of the primary source permits us to apply the method first reported by Cagniard and later extended by de Hoop and Frankena to the case where the source is positioned in a medium of lesser permittivity. Hence, we can give a physically intuitive description of the polarization dependence of the time history of the electrical field strength. The distinction of different cases where the distances between the receiving and transmitting ends are greater or lesser than the total reflection distance is studied. The electrical field strength is evaluated for different excitation functions at some fixed but arbitrary positions of the point of observation in the half-space.

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  4. Computing Response Of A Structure To Random Transient Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepcenko, Valentin; Margasahayam, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    Improved method of computing vibrational response of structure to transient random acoustic excitation at predominantly low frequencies devised, called "deterministic". Motivated by need to analyze more accurately vibro/acoustic responses of structures at spacecraft-launching facilities and determine whether need for reinforcement or redesign to withstand launch environment. Also used to study such phenomena as earthquake motions, ocean waves, aircraft pressure gusts, responses of bridges to winds, and effects to jet-engine noise on aircraft structures.

  5. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970`s. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed.

  6. Rotor response for transient unbalance changes in a nonlinear simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hine, M. J.; Landis, C. E.; Beatty, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transient unbalance shifts were determined not to excite a rotor instability in the high pressure turbomachinery of the Space Shuttle Main Engine using the current rotor dynamic models. Sudden unbalance changes of relatively small magnitudes during fast-speed ramps showed stable nonsynchronous motion depending on the resultant unbalance distribution at subsequent high speed dwells. Transient moment unbalance may initiate a limit cycle subsynchronous response that shortly decays, but a persistent subsynchronous with large amplitudes was never achieved. These limit cycle subsynchronous amplitudes appear to be minimized with lower unbalance magnitudes, which indicates improved rotor balancing would sustain synchronous motion only. The transient unbalance phenomenon was determined to be an explanation for synchronous response shifts often observed during engine tests.

  7. Transient unbalance response of four multilobe journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Li, D. F.; Choy, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    This work carries out an analysis of the transient response of four multilobe journal bearings (elliptical, offset, three-lobe, and four-lobe) subject to unbalance both below and above the linearized stability thresholds for the bearings. It extends the work of a previous paper on a balanced rotor in the same four bearing types. Transient orbits, bearing forces, and a numerical fast Fourier transform analysis of the orbits are presented. A comparison of bearing forces above the stability threshold for each bearing indicates that the elliptical bearing has the most violent whirl vibration amplitudes, while the offset bearing exhibits the least amount of subsynchronous vibration.

  8. Transient ischemic attack: Part II. Risk factor modification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Simmons, B Brent; Gadegbeku, Annette B; Cirignano, Barbara

    2012-09-15

    Interventions following a transient ischemic attack are aimed at preventing a future episode or stroke. Hypertension, current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are all well-known risk factors, and controlling these factors can have dramatic effects on transient ischemic attack and stroke risk. For patients presenting within 48 hours of resolution of transient ischemic attack symptoms, advantages of hospital admission include rapid diagnostic evaluation and early intervention to reduce the risk of stroke. For long-term prevention of future stroke, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends antiplatelet agents, statins, and carotid artery intervention for advanced stenosis. Aspirin, extended-release dipyridamole/aspirin, and clopidogrel are acceptable first-line antiplatelet agents. Statins have also been shown to reduce the risk of stroke following transient ischemic attack, with maximal benefit occurring with at least a 50 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or a target of less than 70 mg per dL (1.81 mmol per L). For those with transient ischemic attack and carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy is recommended if stenosis is 70 to 99 percent, and perioperative morbidity and mortality are estimated to be less than 6 percent. PMID:23062044

  9. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Conductive Cylindrical Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fangwei; Bowler, J. R.

    2007-03-01

    Transient eddy current test systems have been developed for the inspection of aircraft structures and for oil and gas pipelines. This work is supported by theoretical developments in which transient fields and time domain signals are determined for the geometry of interest. However most of the models to date have been aimed at structures that are planar, relatively little attention being paid to the corresponding problems in cylindrical geometries. In order to rectify this deficiency, we have examined theoretically the transient probe signal response due to a cylindrical conductive rod excited by an encircling coil. The transient fields can be calculated from a Fourier transform of the frequency domain solutions for infinite rods or tubes but, as with planar structures, we have found that it is better to use series solutions in the time domain since these provide more accurate and flexible representations of transient fields. Two types of series are used; one which converges faster at short times and one which converges faster at longer times. Calculations using these series show that they are in mutual agreement and agree with results computed using the fast Fourier transform.

  10. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804

  11. Remarks on Muscle Contraction Mechanism II. Isometric Tension Transient and Isotonic Velocity Transient

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Toshio; Takai, Nobukatsu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Mitsui and Ohshima (2008) criticized the power-stroke model for muscle contraction and proposed a new model. In the new model, about 41% of the myosin heads are bound to actin filaments, and each bound head forms a complex MA3 with three actin molecules A1, A2 and A3 forming the crossbridge. The complex translates along the actin filament cooperating with each other. The new model well explained the experimental data on the steady filament sliding. As an extension of the study, the isometric tension transient and isotonic velocity transient are investigated. Statistical ensemble of crossbridges is introduced, and variation of the binding probability of myosin head to A1 is considered. When the binding probability to A1 is zero, the Hill-type force-velocity relation is resulted in. When the binding probability to A1 becomes finite, the deviation from the Hill-type force-velocity relation takes place, as observed by Edman (1988). The characteristics of the isometric tension transient observed by Ford, Huxley and Simmons (1977) and of the isotonic velocity transient observed by Civan and Podolsky (1966) are theoretically reproduced. Ratios of the extensibility are estimated as 0.22 for the crossbridge, 0.26 for the myosin filament and 0.52 for the actin filament, in consistency with the values determined by X-ray diffraction by Wakabayashi et al. (1994). PMID:21673917

  12. Response of traveling waves to transient inputs in neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the effects of transient stimulation on traveling waves in neural field equations. Neural fields are modeled as integro-differential equations whose convolution term represents the synaptic connections of a spatially extended neuronal network. The adjoint of the linearized wave equation can be used to identify how a particular input will shift the location of a traveling wave. This wave response function is analogous to the phase response curve of limit cycle oscillators. For traveling fronts in an excitatory network, the sign of the shift depends solely on the sign of the transient input. A complementary estimate of the effective shift is derived using an equation for the time-dependent speed of the perturbed front. Traveling pulses are analyzed in an asymmetric lateral inhibitory network and they can be advanced or delayed, depending on the position of spatially localized transient inputs. We also develop bounds on the amplitude of transient input necessary to terminate traveling pulses, based on the global bifurcation structure of the neural field.

  13. Laser-Induced Transient Grating Analysis of Dynamics of Interaction between Sensory Rhodopsin II D75N and the HtrII Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Keiichi; Sasaki, Jun; Spudich, John L.; Terazima, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) and its transducer HtrII was studied by the time-resolved laser-induced transient grating method using the D75N mutant of SRII, which exhibits minimal visible light absorption changes during its photocycle, but mediates normal phototaxis responses. Flash-induced transient absorption spectra of transducer-free D75N and D75N joined to 120 amino-acid residues of the N-terminal part of the SRII transducer protein HtrII (ΔHtrII) showed only one spectrally distinct K-like intermediate in their photocycles, but the transient grating method resolved four intermediates (K1–K4) distinct in their volumes. D75N bound to HtrII exhibited one additional slower kinetic species, which persists after complete recovery of the initial state as assessed by absorption changes in the UV-visible region. The kinetics indicate a conformationally changed form of the transducer portion (designated Tr*), which persists after the photoreceptor returns to the unphotolyzed state. The largest conformational change in the ΔHtrII portion was found to cause a ΔHtrII-dependent increase in volume rising in 8 μs in the K4 state and a drastic decrease in the diffusion coefficient (D) of K4 relatively to those of the unphotolyzed state and Tr*. The magnitude of the decrease in D indicates a large structural change, presumably in the solvent-exposed HAMP domain of ΔHtrII, where rearrangement of interacting molecules in the solvent would substantially change friction between the protein and the solvent. PMID:17189313

  14. Transient hot-film sensor response in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ortgies, K. R.; Gartenberg, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed to determine the response of a hot-film sensor, mounted flush on the side wall of a shock tube, to unsteady flow behind a normal shock wave. The present experiments attempt to isolate the response of the anemometer due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface. The experiments, performed at low supersonic shock speeds in air, are described along with the data acquisition procedure. The change in convective heat transfer is deduced from the data and the results are compared with those from transient boundary layer theory and another set of experimental results. Finally, a transient local heat transfer coefficient is formulated for use as the forcing function in a hot-film sensor instrument model simulation.

  15. Laboratory studies of spacecraft response to transient discharge pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The in-orbit measurement of spacecraft discharge properties was investigated. The experiments include design and fabrication of appropriate sensors and effects of spacecraft electromagnetic responses on the interpretation of the discharge data. Electric field sensors especially designed to response to high-speed transient signals were installed on a mock-up of a satellite. The simple mock-up was basically a sheet of aluminum rolled to form a cylinder. A movable spark-discharge noise source designed to be electromagnetically isolated from its power supply system was used to induce transient signals at various locations on the spacecraft's outer surface. The measurements and their implications are described. It is concluded that practical orbital measurements to define discharge noise source properties should be possible, and that simple mock-ups of the type described below are useful in sensor system design and data interpretation.

  16. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  17. Nonstationary Transient Vibroacoustic Response of a Beam Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, R. E.; Margasahayam, R. N.; Nayfeh, Jamal F.

    1997-01-01

    This study consists of an investigation into the nonstationary transient response of the Verification Test Article (VETA) when subjected to random acoustic excitation. The goal is to assess excitation models that can be used in the design of structures and equipment when knowledge of the structure and the excitation is limited. The VETA is an instrumented cantilever beam that was exposed to acoustic loading during five Space Shuttle launches. The VETA analytical structural model response is estimated using the direct averaged power spectral density and the normalized pressure spectra methods. The estimated responses are compared to the measured response of the VETA. These comparisons are discussed with a focus on prediction conservatism and current design practice.

  18. The transient responses of magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Peng-Fei; Leung, Andrew Y. T.

    2004-08-01

    By virtue of the separation of variables and orthogonal expansion technique, the plane strain dynamic problem of a magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinder is reduced to two integral equations of two time functions. Then, by means of the interpolation method, the integral equations are solved successfully. As a result, all the transient responses of displacements, stresses, electric potentials, electric displacements, magnetic potentials and magnetic inductions are completely obtained. The present method is suitable for the analysis of hollow cylinders with arbitrary thickness and subjected to arbitrary mechanical and electromagnetic loads. Numerical results are also presented.

  19. Curve fitting of aeroelastic transient response data with exponential functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.; Desmarais, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of frequency, damping, amplitude, and phase information from unforced transient response data is considered. These quantities are obtained from the parameters determined by fitting the digitized time-history data in a least-squares sense with complex exponential functions. The highlights of the method are described, and the results of several test cases are presented. The effects of noise are considered both by using analytical examples with random noise and by estimating the standard deviation of the parameters from maximum-likelihood theory.

  20. Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeq, Zaheen S.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-02-21

    The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal “toy” model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.

  1. Angular response calibration of the burst and transient source experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1988-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory includes four experiments designed to observe the gamma-ray universe. Laboratory measurements to test the response the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) modules to gamma-ray sources that are non-axial were recently completed. The results of these observations are necessary for the correct interpretation of BATSE data obtained after it is put in Earth orbit. The launch is planned for March, 1900. Preliminary analyses of these test data show the presence of a radial dependence to the detector's light collection efficiency. It is proposed to evaluate the importance of this radial response, analyze future experimental data to derive the actual functional dependence on radius, and calculate the net effect on the output spectrum as a function of the angle of incidence.

  2. Transient heat transfer in helium II due to a sudden vacuum break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosque, Ernesto S.; Dhuley, Ram C.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure future cryogenic devices meet safety and operational specifications, significant value is gained from a developed understanding of the transient heat fluxes that result from failure of an insulating vacuum jacket around a helium II (He II)-cooled device. A novel, one-dimensional experiment is successfully performed examining the phenomena immediately following a vacuum rupture onto a cryosurface. In the experiment, a fast-opening (˜10 ms) valve isolates a rigid container of ultra high purity nitrogen (N2) gas kept at room temperature and adjustable pressure from a vertically oriented, highly evacuated (˜10-3 Pa) tube roughly 1 m in length. The bottom of the evacuated tube is sealed via a 2.54 mm thick copper disk, whose bottom surface is in intimate contact with an open column of He II (˜1.8 K). The evacuated tube, disk, and He II column share a diameter of 24 mm. Opening the valve results in a vacuum rupture. N2 gas is immediately drawn into the evacuated space and cryopumped onto the disk as a growing layer of solid cryodeposit. Various coupled transient heat transfer processes proceed as the internal energy of the warm gas is transferred through the growing layer of solid N2, through the copper disk, and into the He II column. This work examines the qualitative nature of these transient phenomena and the magnitude of the heat fluxes present through each of the series of thermal resistances.

  3. Transient heat transfer in helium II due to a sudden vacuum break

    SciTech Connect

    Bosque, Ernesto S.; Dhuley, Ram C.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-29

    To ensure future cryogenic devices meet safety and operational specifications, significant value is gained from a developed understanding of the transient heat fluxes that result from failure of an insulating vacuum jacket around a helium II (He II)-cooled device. A novel, one-dimensional experiment is successfully performed examining the phenomena immediately following a vacuum rupture onto a cryosurface. In the experiment, a fast-opening (∼10 ms) valve isolates a rigid container of ultra high purity nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas kept at room temperature and adjustable pressure from a vertically oriented, highly evacuated (∼10{sup −3} Pa) tube roughly 1 m in length. The bottom of the evacuated tube is sealed via a 2.54 mm thick copper disk, whose bottom surface is in intimate contact with an open column of He II (∼1.8 K). The evacuated tube, disk, and He II column share a diameter of 24 mm. Opening the valve results in a vacuum rupture. N{sub 2} gas is immediately drawn into the evacuated space and cryopumped onto the disk as a growing layer of solid cryodeposit. Various coupled transient heat transfer processes proceed as the internal energy of the warm gas is transferred through the growing layer of solid N{sub 2}, through the copper disk, and into the He II column. This work examines the qualitative nature of these transient phenomena and the magnitude of the heat fluxes present through each of the series of thermal resistances.

  4. Aldosterone response to angiotensin II during hypoxemia

    SciTech Connect

    Colice, G.L.; Ramirez, G.

    1986-07-01

    Exercise stimulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). However, increases in plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) are suppressed when exercise is performed at high altitude or under hypoxemic conditions. As the angiotensin-II response to high-altitude exercise is normal, it is speculated that an inhibitor, discharged during hypoxemia, acted to suppress angiotensin-II-mediated aldosterone release. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis, taking into account the measurement of the aldosterone response to exogenous angiotensin II during normoxemia and hypoxemia. It was found that the dose-response curve of PAC to angiotensin II was not significantly inhibited by the considered model of hypoxemia. The hypoxemia-mediated release of an angiotensin II inhibitor does, therefore, not explain the previous observations of PAC suppression during hypoxemic exercise. 28 references.

  5. Transient response of a circular cylinder to an electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ciric, I. R.

    1992-10-01

    The transient response of a perfectly conducting circular cylinder to an electromagnetic pulse of a double exponential type has been investigated, and a new analytical expression has been derived for the induced current density on the cylinder surface. The analysis performed in this paper is based on the frequency domain eigenfunction solution of the surface current density and yields an analytical expression which is theoretically valid for both the shadow and illuminated regions and for all the time ranges. Numerical calculations show that results for the entire time range after the instant the initial incident wave front has passed the cylinder axis can easily be obtained from this single analytical expression. For very large time values, only the first few terms in the expression are needed to give a satisfactory accuracy.

  6. Exact methods for modal transient response analysis including feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melvin S.; Belvin, W. Keith

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a modal method for the analysis of controlled structural systems that retains the uncoupled nature of the classical transient response analysis of a structure subjected to a prescribed time-varying load. The control force is expanded as a Taylor series that remains on the right side of the equations, and it does not lead to a computational approach that requires coupling between modes on the left side. Retaining a sufficient number of terms in the series produces a solution to the modal equations that is accurate to machine precision. The approach is particularly attractive for large problems in which standard matrix exponential methods become computationally prohibitive. Numerical results are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach for dynamic feedback compensation of a truss structure with local member modes in the controller bandwidth.

  7. A nonlinear energy sink with an energy harvester: Transient responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Daniel; Liu, Kefu

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates energy harvesting using nonlinear energy sink. First a novel apparatus is described in detail outlining how the essential nonlinearity and energy harvesting are achieved. Then the system modeling is addressed, including the equations of motion for the mechanical system and the electromechanical system, and a formula for the transduction factor. The experimental identification is conducted to determine several key parameters and relationships. Using the established models, a computer simulation is carried out to investigate the apparatuss performance under transient responses in terms of vibration absorption and energy harvesting. Finally experiments are conducted to validate the simulation results. It is shown that the system performs well, being capable of energy localization as well as broad band vibration absorption. The system is also shown to be capable of harvesting energy.

  8. The Multiscale Material Point Method for Simulating Transient Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Su, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Hetao; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    To effectively simulate multiscale transient responses such as impact and penetration without invoking master/slave treatment, the multiscale material point method (Multi-MPM) is being developed in which molecular dynamics at nanoscale and dissipative particle dynamics at mesoscale might be concurrently handled within the framework of the original MPM at microscale (continuum level). The proposed numerical scheme for concurrently linking different scales is described in this paper with simple examples for demonstration. It is shown from the preliminary study that the mapping and re-mapping procedure used in the original MPM could coarse-grain the information at fine scale and that the proposed interfacial scheme could provide a smooth link between different scales. Since the original MPM is an extension from computational fluid dynamics to solid dynamics, the proposed Multi-MPM might also become robust for dealing with multiphase interactions involving failure evolution. This work is supported in part by DTRA and NSFC.

  9. Expression of endogenous and transfected apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin II genes in an estrogen responsive chicken liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Binder, R; MacDonald, C C; Burch, J B; Lazier, C B; Williams, D L

    1990-02-01

    A recently described chicken liver cell line, LMH, was characterized to evaluate responsiveness to estrogen. Expression of the endogenous apolipoprotein (apo) II gene was induced by 17 beta-estradiol when LMH cells were cultured with chicken serum. The response was low and yielded apoll mRNA at only 0.3% of the level seen in estrogenized rooster liver. Higher levels of apoll mRNA were achieved when LMH cells were transiently transfected with an expression plasmid for estrogen receptor. A transfected apoll gene was strongly expressed only when cotransfected with receptor. Expression of the endogenous vitellogenin (VTG) II gene was not detected. However, when cotransfected with a receptor expression plasmid, VTG II reporter plasmids were expressed in LMH cells in response to 17 beta-estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen responsiveness of LMH cells is limited by the availability of functional receptor. Low levels of estrogen receptor mRNA were detected in LMH cells, and receptor binding sites and mRNA were greatly increased following transient transfection with a receptor expression plasmid. Using this transient transfection protocol, several VTG II reporter plasmids were compared in LMH cells and chick embryo fibroblasts. A plasmid containing VTG II estrogen response elements linked to a heterologous promoter was regulated by estrogen in both cell types. In contrast, reporter plasmids containing the VTG II promoter were regulated by estrogen in LMH cells but were not expressed at all in chick embryo fibroblasts. These results suggest that regulation of the VTG II gene involves cell type-specific elements in addition to estrogen response elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2330000

  10. Transient response of Salix cuttings to changing water level regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable water management requires an understanding of the effects of flow regulation on riparian ecomorphological processes. We investigated the transient response of Salix viminalis by examining the effect of water-level regimes on its above-ground and below-ground biomass. Four sets of Salix cuttings, three juveniles (in the first growing season) and one mature (1 year old), were planted and initially grown under the same water-level regime for 1 month. We imposed three different water-level regime treatments representing natural variability, a seasonal trend with no peaks, and minimal flow (characteristic of hydropower) consisting of a constant water level and natural flood peaks. We measured sap flux, stem water potential, photosynthesis, growth parameters, and final root architecture. The mature cuttings were not affected by water table dynamics, but the juveniles displayed causal relationships between the changing water regime, plant growth, and root distribution during a 2 month transient period. For example, a 50% drop in mean sap flux corresponded with a -1.5 Mpa decrease in leaf water potential during the first day after the water regime was changed. In agreement with published field observations, the cuttings concentrated their roots close to the mean water table of the corresponding treatment, allowing survival under altered conditions and resilience to successive stress events. Juvenile development was strongly impacted by the minimum flow regime, leading to more than 60% reduction of both above-ground and below-ground biomass, with respect to the other treatments. Hence, we suggest avoiding minimum flow regimes where Salix restoration is prioritized.

  11. Spinal mechanisms underlying potentiation of hindpaw responses observed after transient hindpaw ischemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Sasaki, Mika; Komagata, Seiji; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Hishida, Ryuichi; Kohno, Tatsuro; Baba, Hiroshi; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2015-01-01

    Transient ischemia produces postischemic tingling sensation. Ischemia also produces nerve conduction block that may modulate spinal neural circuits. In the present study, reduced mechanical thresholds for hindpaw-withdrawal reflex were found in mice after transient hindpaw ischemia, which was produced by a high pressure applied around the hindpaw for 30 min. The reduction in the threshold was blocked by spinal application of LY354740, a specific agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neural activities in the spinal cord and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were investigated using activity-dependent changes in endogenous fluorescence derived from mitochondrial flavoproteins. Ischemic treatment induced potentiation of the ipsilateral spinal and contralateral S1 responses to hindpaw stimulation. Both types of potentiation were blocked by spinal application of LY354740. The contralateral S1 responses, abolished by lesioning the ipsilateral dorsal column, reappeared after ischemic treatment, indicating that postischemic tingling sensation reflects a sensory modality shift from tactile sensation to nociception in the spinal cord. Changes in neural responses were investigated during ischemic treatment in the contralateral spinal cord and the ipsilateral S1. Potentiation already appeared during ischemic treatment for 30 min. The present findings suggest that the postischemic potentiation shares spinal mechanisms, at least in part, with neuropathic pain. PMID:26165560

  12. Radial response of the burst and transient source experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) includes four experiments designed for observe the gamma-ray universe, one of which is the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). During the first summer with the BATSE team in 1988, laboratory measurements were completed which test the response of the BATSE modules to gamma-ray sources that are non-axial. The results of these observations are necessary for the correct interpretation of BATSE data obtained after it is put in earth orbit. Subsequent analysis of the data revealed a shift in the centroids of the full-energy photopeaks for angles of incidence between about 70 and 110 degrees. This effect was diagnosed as being due to a radial dependence of the light collecting efficiency of the large-area detector (LAD). Energy-depositing events that occur near the perimeter of the 10-inch radius NaI disc are not as efficiently collected as those events that occur near the disc's center. This radial response is analyzed and in so doing the non-Gaussian shape of the photopeaks seen in the spectra taken at all angles is explained.

  13. Validation of the transient Structural Response of a Threaded Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Doebling, S. W.; Hemez, F. M.; Schultze, J. F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate the application of model validation techniques to a transient structural dynamics problem. The problem of interest is the propagation of an explosive shock through a complex threaded joint that is a surrogate model of a system assembly. The objective is to validate the computational modeling of the key mechanical phenomena in the assembly, so that the component can be represented with adequate fidelity in the system-level model. A set of experiments was conducted on the threaded assembly where the acceleration and strain responses to an explosive load were measured on mass-simulators representing payloads. A significantly detailed computational model of the threaded assembly was also created. Numerical features that represent the important characteristics of the response were defined and calculated for both the experimental and computational data. Each step of the model validation process will be described as applied to this problem. Fundamental issues regarding the nature of model validation and the role of model validation in the engineering analysis process will also be discussed.

  14. Unstable transient response of gyroscopic systems with stable eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, O.

    2016-06-01

    Gyroscopic conservative dynamical systems may exhibit flutter instability that leads to a pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues, one of which has a positive real part and thus leads to a divergent free response of the system. When dealing with non-conservative systems, the pitch fork bifurcation shifts toward the negative real part of the root locus, presenting a pair of eigenvalues with equal imaginary parts, while the real parts may or may not be negative. Several works study the stability of these systems for relevant engineering applications such as the flutter in airplane wings or suspended bridges, brake squeal, etc. and a common approach to detect the stability is the complex eigenvalue analysis that considers systems with all negative real part eigenvalues as stable systems. This paper studies analytically and numerically the cases where the free response of these systems exhibits a transient divergent time history even if all the eigenvalues have negative real part thus usually considered as stable, and relates such a behaviour to the non orthogonality of the eigenvectors. Finally, a numerical method to evaluate the presence of such instability is proposed.

  15. Transient elastic impact response of slender graphite rods

    SciTech Connect

    Erdem, I.

    2007-12-15

    Graphite rods are manufactured by extruding the mixture of calcined petroleum coke and coal tar pitch into the desired shape and baking the cooled specimens at about 800{sup o}C. Cracking can occur in rods during the manufacturing process. It is useful to be able to detect the presence of such cracks in the rods prior to their being machined and put into use as electrodes or cathodes or thermal insulator. In an effort to develop a nondestructive testing approach to evaluation of the rods, transient elastic impact was determined for slender rods. Theory for solid, slender rods provided an important starting point for this work. Subsequently, numerical models were developed and simulation was used to determine the response of rods containing cracks. Experiments on graphite rods with and without cracks were conducted and the internal condition determined from the recorded signals. The rods were then cut lengthwise to reveal the internal condition and verify the predicted results. In all cases the knowledge gained from simulation allowed for the presence of cracks to be detected.

  16. Transient response of a thermal buffer: a study for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider. W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Operation of the superconducting magnets in ISABELLE may necessitate rapid cooldown and warmup from ambient (300K) to liquid helium temperature (3K) to meet the requirements of the experimental program. Similarly, unprogrammed temperature excursions can also occur due to operator error or equipment malfunction. The coal bore tube of the magnets has a small mass relative to the more massive iron laminations and the stainless steel support tube. In addition the magnet coil, in thermal contact with the cold bore tube, has excellent heat transfer to the helium flowing through it compared to the iron mass. These two factors, mass and heat transfer, dictate that the cold bore tube will follow the temperature of the coolant more closely than the iron and hence substantial temperature gradients can exist. If the temperature difference between the coolant and the iron in the magnet exceeds 44K stress failure may occur to either the cold bore tube or the magnet dewar end cap. To preclude such failures from occuring at least two options are available. One method is to modify the magnet design by introducing flexibility between the bore tube and the end plate. Another is to introduce an insensitive thermal mass or buffer as has been suggested by Shutt, at the inlet of a sextant ahead of the first magnets. This paper describes the latter method, the design and transient response of a buffer during cooldown.

  17. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  18. Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Almine, Jessica F.; Wise, Steven G.; Hiob, Matti; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Tiwari, Krishna Kumar; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    of elastin as a result of dermal damage leads to rapid chemokine up-regulation by fibroblasts that is quenched when exposed elastin is removed by MMP-12.—Almine, J. F., Wise, S. G., Hiob, M., Kumar Singh, N. K., Tiwari, K. K., Vali, S., Abbasi, T., and Weiss, A. S. Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23671273

  19. Transient response for interaction of two dynamic bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakar, A.; Palermo, L. G.

    1987-01-01

    During the launch sequence of any space vehicle complicated boundary interactions occur between the vehicle and the launch stand. At the start of the sequence large forces exist between the two; contact is then broken in a short but finite time which depends on the release mechanism. The resulting vehicle response produces loads which are very high and often form the design case. It is known that the treatment of the launch pad as a second dynamic body is significant for an accurate prediction of launch response. A technique was developed for obtaining loads generated by the launch transient with the effect of pad dynamics included. The method solves uncoupled vehicle and pad equations of motion. The use of uncoupled models allows the simulation of vehicle launch in a single computer run. Modal formulation allows a closed-form solution to be written, eliminating any need for a numerical integration algorithm. When the vehicle is on the pad the uncoupled pad and vehicle equations have to be modified to account for the constraints they impose on each other. This necessitates the use of an iterative procedure to converge to a solution, using Lagrange multipliers to apply the required constraints. As the vehicle lifts off the pad the coupling between the vehicle and the pad is eliminated point by point until the vehicle flies free. Results obtained by this method were shown to be in good agreement with observed loads and other analysis methods. The resulting computer program is general, and was used without modification to solve a variety of contact problems.

  20. A theory of post-stall transients in axial compression systems. II - Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Moore, F. K.

    1985-01-01

    Using the theory developed in Part I, calculations have been carried out to show the evolution of the mass flow, pressure rise, and rotating-stall cell amplitude during compression system post-stall transients. In particular, it is shown that the unsteady growth or decay of the stall cell can have a significant effect on the instantaneous compressor pumping characteristic and hence on the overall system behavior. A limited parametric study is carried out to illustrate the impact of different system features on transient behavior. It is shown, for example, that the ultimate mode of system response, surge or stable rotating stall, depends not only on the B parameter, but also on the compressor length-to-radius ratio. Small values of this latter quantity tend to favor the occurrence of surge, as do large values of B. Based on the analytical and numerical results, several specific topics are suggested for future research on post-stall transients.

  1. SAYP and Brahma are important for 'repressive' and 'transient' Pol II pausing.

    PubMed

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E; Nikolenko, Julia V; Nabirochkina, Elena N; Krasnov, Alexey N; Shidlovskii, Yulii V; Georgieva, Sofia G

    2012-08-01

    Drosophila SAYP, a homologue of human PHF10/BAF45a, is a metazoan coactivator associated with Brahma and essential for its recruitment on the promoter. The role of SAYP in DHR3 activator-driven transcription of the ftz-f1 gene, a member of the ecdysone cascade was studied. In the repressed state of ftz-f1 in the presence of DHR3, the Pol II complex is pre-recruited on the promoter; Pol II starts transcription but is paused 1.5 kb downstream of the promoter, with SAYP and Brahma forming a 'nucleosomal barrier' (a region of high nucleosome density) ahead of paused Pol II. SAYP depletion leads to the removal of Brahma, thereby eliminating the nucleosomal barrier. During active transcription, Pol II pausing at the same point correlates with Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation. SAYP is essential for Ser2 phosphorylation and transcription elongation. Thus, SAYP as part of the Brahma complex participates in both 'repressive' and 'transient' Pol II pausing. PMID:22638575

  2. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  3. The High Energy Transient Explorer II [HETE - II] : an International Multiwavelength Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, George R.

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) is an international mission planned for re-flight in 1999. The first HETE satellite was lost due to a Pegasus XL rocket mishap on November 4, 1996. The prime objective of HETE is to carry out the first multiwavelength study of gamma-ray bursts with UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray instruments mounted on a single, compact spacecraft. A unique feature of the HETE mission is its potential for localizing GRBs with ~ 10 arc minute accuracy (X-ray emission) to ~ 20 arc second accuracy (UV emission), in real time aboard the spacecraft, and for transmitting these positions within ~4 seconds directly to a worldwide network of automated receivers, enabling rapid, sensitive follow-up studies in the radio, IR, and optical bands. Rapid (<0.5 sec) re-broadcast of HETE ``burst alerts'' over the Internet will permit access to HETE positions worldwide.

  4. Surface radiation governs precipitation responses in transient and equilibrium climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Moyer, Elisabeth

    2014-05-01

    Changes in radiative forcing are important not only for their impact on the Earth's temperature but also for their impact on the hydrological cycle. We show that model predictions of an amplified hydrological cycle under higher-CO2 conditions are well explained by changes in the surface energy budget: increased latent heat export largely balances increased downwelling longwave radiation, primarily due to increased humidity in a warmer atmosphere (see also Wild and Liepert 2010). We demonstrate that similar fundamental radiative adjustments govern global precipitation evolution across models, using twenty different GCMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), purpose-run simulations with a fully-coupled GCM (CCSM3), and a simple one-column climate model (CliMT) with no cloud feedbacks but full representations of radiation, convection, turbulence, and surface ocean-atmosphere interaction. Physically understandable surface energy balance changes explain precipitation evolution in both equilibrium and transient climates (the well-documented 'fast' and 'slow' responses), in cases with different forcing agents (solar insolation and CO2), and in geo-engineering simulations where reduced shortwave forcing compensates for increased longwave opacity. We show that the enhancement in precipitation after an increase in radiative forcing is primarily due to the radiative effects of increased water vapor, which in turn produces the similarity in precipitation evolution in solar- and CO2-forced climates. We also show that differences in precipitation evolution between GCMs are due largely to differences in model shortwave feedbacks. The results of this study suggest that changes in the Earth's hydrological cycle under climate change can best be monitored and understood with surface measurements of longwave and shortwave fluxes, especially in the tropics and subtropics that account for the majority of the global moisture supply. References Wild, M. and B

  5. Transient river response, captured by channel steepness and its concavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacker, Veerle; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Govers, Gerard; Molina, Armando; Campforts, Benjamin; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain rivers draining tropical regions are known to be great conveyor belts carrying efficiently more than half of the global sediment flux to the oceans. Many tropical mountain areas are located in tectonically active belts where the hillslope and stream channel morphology are rapidly evolving in response to changes in base level. Here, we report basin-wide denudation rates for an east-west transect through the tropical Andes. Hillslope and channel morphology vary systematically from east to west, reflecting the transition from high relief, strongly dissected topography in the escarpment zones into relatively low relief topography in the inter-Andean valley. The spatial pattern of differential denudation rates reflects the transient adjustment of the landscape to rapid river incision following tectonic uplift and river diversion. In the inter-Andean valley, upstream of the wave of incision, slopes and river channels display a relatively smooth, concave-up morphology and denudation rates (time scale of 104-105 a) are consistently low (3 to 200 mm/ka). In contrast, slopes and river channels of rejuvenated basins draining the eastern cordillera are steep to very steep; and the studied drainage basins show a wide range of denudation rate values (60 to 400 mm/ka) that increase systematically with increasing basin mean slope gradient, channel steepness, and channel convexity. Drainage basins that are characterised by strong convexities in their river longitudinal profiles systematically have higher denudation rates. As such, this is one of the first studies that provides field-based evidence of a correlation between channel concavity and basin mean denudation rates, consistent with process-based fluvial incision models.

  6. Numerical Analyses on Transient Thermal Process of Gas - Cooled Current Leads in BEPC II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Yao, Z. L.; Wang, L.; Jia, L. X.

    2004-06-01

    A pair of high current leads will be used for the superconducting detector solenoid magnet and six pairs of low current leads will be used for the superconducting interaction quadruple magnets in the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Upgrade (BEPC II). This paper reports the numerical analyses on the thermal processes in the current leads, including the power charging process and overloaded current case as well as the transient characteristic of the leads once the helium cooling is interrupted. The design parameters of the current leads are studied for the stable and unstable conditions.

  7. The unique sound of the uni-vibe pedal: Part II. Transient behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius F.; Rothe, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The Uni-Vibe is an effect pedal mostly used by electric guitar players. It is based on an opto-electronically controlled all-pass chain. In last year's paper on the subject an idealized system model was derived, which lead to deeper discussion of the musical consequences of the effect in terms of harmonic analysis of single tones and chords in clean and distorted mode. As a direct continuation the present paper deals with the transient behaviour of the device. The transient response is essential for understanding the special sound character, the reaction on picking techniques and the interaction with certain instruments. Therefore the system model is expanded and the pulse response of the idealized time invariant system is derived.

  8. Improving the transient response of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer using a parallel resistor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo Tsi

    2003-08-01

    This paper suggests a parallel resistor to reduce DC time constant and DC response time of the transient response, induced immediately after an AC voltage connected to a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) is switched off. An equivalent circuit is first expressed. Then, an open-circuit transient response at the terminals induced by initial states is derived and measured, and thus parameters for losses of the BLT device are estimated by DC and AC time constants of the transient response. Moreover, a driving and measuring system is designed to determine transient response and steady-state responses of the BLT device, and a parallel resistor is connected to the BLT device to reduce the DC time constant. Experimental results indicate that the DC time constant greatly exceeds the AC time constant without the parallel resistor, and greatly decreases from 42 to 1 ms by a 100-kOmega parallel resistor. PMID:12853079

  9. Constraining model transient climate response using independent observations of solar-cycle forcing and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ka Kit; Zhou, Jiansong; Camp, Charles D.

    2008-09-01

    The phenomenon of 11-year solar cycles has a well-measured forcing, and the response in surface temperature is confirmed using multiple datasets, including reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40) and blended in situ land-ocean data (GISS and HadCRUT3). Missing coverage in the historical in situ station data reduces the amplitude of the response compared to the geographically complete reanalysis data, but all extracted signals are statistically robust. A transient climate sensitivity parameter can be defined once forcing and response are known. The coupled atmosphere-ocean models participating in the 4th Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) span a large range in their transient climate response (TCR). Using observational results on the response to the 11-year solar variation, we derive a constraint for the TCR. It is seen that, compared with our derived constraint, most models assessed by IPCC AR4 have too low a TCR, even lower than that derived from the station data.

  10. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  11. Long-rising Type II supernovae from Palomar Transient Factory and Caltech Core-Collapse Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Migotto, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Armen, S.; Duggan, G.; Ergon, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fransson, C.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Leloudas, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Silverman, J. M.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Supernova (SN) 1987A was a peculiar hydrogen-rich event with a long-rising (~84 d) light curve, stemming from the explosion of a compact blue supergiant star. Only a few similar events have been presented in the literature in recent decades. Aims: We present new data for a sample of six long-rising Type II SNe (SNe II), three of which were discovered and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). Our aim is to enlarge this small family of long-rising SNe II, characterizing their differences in terms of progenitor and explosion parameters. We also study the metallicity of their environments. Methods: Optical light curves, spectra, and host-galaxy properties of these SNe are presented and analyzed. Detailed comparisons with known SN 1987A-like events in the literature are shown, with particular emphasis on the absolute magnitudes, colors, expansion velocities, and host-galaxy metallicities. Bolometric properties are derived from the multiband light curves. By modeling the early-time emission with scaling relations derived from the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) models of MESA progenitor stars, we estimate the progenitor radii of these transients. The modeling of the bolometric light curves also allows us to estimate other progenitor and explosion parameters, such as the ejected 56Ni mass, the explosion energy, and the ejecta mass. Results: We present PTF12kso, a long-rising SN II that is estimated to have the largest amount of ejected 56Ni mass measured for this class. PTF09gpn and PTF12kso are found at the lowest host metallicities observed for this SN group. The variety of early light-curve luminosities depends on the wide range of progenitor radii of these SNe, from a few tens of R⊙ (SN 2005ci) up to thousands (SN 2004ek) with some intermediate cases between 100 R⊙ (PTF09gpn) and 300 R⊙ (SN 2004em). Conclusions: We confirm that long-rising SNe II with light-curve shapes closely

  12. Primary photoinduced protein response in bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin II.

    PubMed

    Gross, Ruth; Wolf, Matthias M N; Schumann, Christian; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai; Li, Lin; Engelhard, Martin; Trentmann, Oliver; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Diller, Rolf

    2009-10-21

    Essential for the biological function of the light-driven proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), and the light sensor, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), is the coupling of the activated retinal chromophore to the hosting protein moiety. In order to explore the dynamics of this process we have performed ultrafast transient mid-infrared spectroscopy on isotopically labeled BR and SRII samples. These include SRII in D(2)O buffer, BR in H(2)(18)O medium, SRII with (15)N-labeled protein, and BR with (13)C(14)(13)C(15)-labeled retinal chromophore. Via observed shifts of infrared difference bands after photoexcitation and their kinetics we provide evidence for nonchromophore bands in the amide I and the amide II region of BR and SRII. A band around 1550 cm(-1) is very likely due to an amide II vibration. In the amide I region, contributions of modes involving exchangeable protons and modes not involving exchangeable protons can be discerned. Observed bands in the amide I region of BR are not due to bending vibrations of protein-bound water molecules. The observed protein bands appear in the amide I region within the system response of ca. 0.3 ps and in the amide II region within 3 ps, and decay partially in both regions on a slower time scale of 9-18 ps. Similar observations have been presented earlier for BR5.12, containing a nonisomerizable chromophore (R. Gross et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 7851-7860). Thus, the results suggest a common mechanism for ultrafast protein response in the artificial and the native system besides isomerization, which could be induced by initial chromophore polarization. PMID:19778046

  13. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  14. Transient response of high temperature PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Shin, J. Y.; Song, T. W.

    A transient three-dimensional, single-phase and non-isothermal numerical model of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with high operating temperature has been developed and implemented in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for transient convective and diffusive transport, and allows prediction of species concentration. Electrochemical charge double-layer effect is considered. Heat generation according to electrochemical reaction and ohmic loss are involved. Water transportation across membrane is ignored due to low water electro-osmosis drag force of polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The prediction shows transient in current density which overshoots (undershoots) the stabilized state value when cell voltage is abruptly decreased (increased). The result shows that the peak of overshoot (undershoot) is related with cathode air stoichiometric mass flow rate instead of anode hydrogen stoichiometric mass flow rate. Current is moved smoothly and there are no overshoot or undershoot with the influence of charge double-layer effect. The maximum temperature is located in cathode catalyst layer and both fuel cell average temperature and temperature deviation are increased with increasing of current load.

  15. The Coda of the Transient Response in a Sensitive Cochlea: A Computational Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In a sensitive cochlea, the basilar membrane response to transient excitation of any kind–normal acoustic or artificial intracochlear excitation–consists of not only a primary impulse but also a coda of delayed secondary responses with varying amplitudes but similar spectral content around the characteristic frequency of the measurement location. The coda, sometimes referred to as echoes or ringing, has been described as a form of local, short term memory which may influence the ability of the auditory system to detect gaps in an acoustic stimulus such as speech. Depending on the individual cochlea, the temporal gap between the primary impulse and the following coda ranges from once to thrice the group delay of the primary impulse (the group delay of the primary impulse is on the order of a few hundred microseconds). The coda is physiologically vulnerable, disappearing when the cochlea is compromised even slightly. The multicomponent sensitive response is not yet completely understood. We use a physiologically-based, mathematical model to investigate (i) the generation of the primary impulse response and the dependence of the group delay on the various stimulation methods, (ii) the effect of spatial perturbations in the properties of mechanically sensitive ion channels on the generation and separation of delayed secondary responses. The model suggests that the presence of the secondary responses depends on the wavenumber content of a perturbation and the activity level of the cochlea. In addition, the model shows that the varying temporal gaps between adjacent coda seen in experiments depend on the individual profiles of perturbations. Implications for non-invasive cochlear diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:27380177

  16. A transient laboratory method for determining the hydraulic properties of 'tight' rocks-II. Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.; Cooley, C.; Silliman, S.E.; Bredehoeft, J.D.; Hsieh, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In Part I a general analytical solution for the transient pulse test was presented. Part II presents a graphical method for analyzing data from a test to obtain the hydraulic properties of the sample. The general solution depends on both hydraulic conductivity and specific storage and, in theory, analysis of the data can provide values for both of these hydraulic properties. However, in practice, one of two limiting cases may apply in which case it is possible to calculate only hydraulic conductivity or the product of hydraulic conductivity times specific storage. In this paper we examine the conditions when both hydraulic parameters can be calculated. The analyses of data from two tests are presented. In Appendix I the general solution presented in Part I is compared with an earlier analysis, in which compressive storage in the sample is assumed negligible, and the error in calculated hydraulic conductivity due to this simplifying assumption is examined. ?? 1981.

  17. REAL-TIME DETECTION AND RAPID MULTIWAVELENGTH FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF A HIGHLY SUBLUMINOUS TYPE II-P SUPERNOVA FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Green, Yoav; Yaron, Ofer; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Xu Dong; Sternberg, Assaf; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Walters, Richard; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Walker, Emma S.

    2011-08-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is an optical wide-field variability survey carried out using a camera with a 7.8 deg{sup 2} field of view mounted on the 48 inch Oschin Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory. One of the key goals of this survey is to conduct high-cadence monitoring of the sky in order to detect optical transient sources shortly after they occur. Here, we describe the real-time capabilities of the PTF and our related rapid multiwavelength follow-up programs, extending from the radio to the {gamma}-ray bands. We present as a case study observations of the optical transient PTF10vdl (SN 2010id), revealed to be a very young core-collapse (Type II-P) supernova having a remarkably low luminosity. Our results demonstrate that the PTF now provides for optical transients the real-time discovery and rapid-response follow-up capabilities previously reserved only for high-energy transients like gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Transient analyses for HEU and LEU designs of the FRM-II.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-10-14

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}-s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-4. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. In this paper, two typical design basis transients are analyzed: control rod withdrawal at different power levels and loss of primary flow. The results show that the HEU and the LEU cores behave in a similar manner and both have excellent safety margins. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility.

  19. Scanning electrochemical microscopy: theory and application of the transient (chronoamperometric) SECM response.

    PubMed

    Bard, A J; Denuault, G; Friesner, R A; Dornblaser, B C; Tuckerman, L S

    1991-07-01

    A study of the transient (chronoamperometric) response of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) is presented. SECM transients were simulated digitally with a novel integrator based on a Krylov algorithm. The transients observed with planar electrodes (PE), microdisks (MD), and thin-layer cells (TLC) are shown to be limiting cases that fit the simulated SECM transients at very short, intermediate, and long times, respectively. A procedure is established that, provided the tip radius is known, allows the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the species in solution independent of its concentration and the number of electrons transferred in the electrode reaction. Experimental SECM transients are reported for the electrochemical oxidation of Fe(CN)6(4-) in KCl; the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)6(4-) was found to agree very well with the literature value. PMID:1897720

  20. Transient coaxial helicity injection for solenoid-free plasma startup in HIT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R; Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.

    2007-02-15

    The favorable properties of the spherical torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. Methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. In steady state tokamaks, the central solenoid can be dispensed with if suitable methods for initiating the plasma current are on hand. Coaxial helicity injection (CHI) is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma current startup in STs and tokamaks. Experiments on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) machine at the University of Washington [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Technol. 15, 7 (1989)] have demonstrated the capability of a new method, referred to as transient CHI, to produce a high quality closed-flux equilibrium that has been successfully coupled to induction demonstrating that this new plasma current startup method is compatible with the conventional inductive method. This paper presents physics requirements for implementing this method in STs and tokamaks and supporting experimental results from the HIT-II device.

  1. Simulation of LMFBR pump transients and comparison to LOF that occurred at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, F.F.; Dean, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    In a large LMFBR plant design, a number of pumps in parallel will feed the core. It must be demonstrated that the plant can continue to operate with the loss of one of the primary pumps. It is desirable not to have check valves in the loop from a reliability and economic standpoint. Simulations have been made to determine the consequences of a loss of one pump in a four-loop pool plant in which no plant protection action is taken. This analysis would be used to determine the required power rundown that would accompany pump loss. The two primary centrifugal pumps in EBR-II feed the core and blanket plenums in two parallel flow paths. The loss of one pump will result in decrease core flow and reverse flow through the down pump since no check valves are present in the system. For a large pool plant with four primary pumps, the loss of one pump will also result in reverse flow through the down pump if check valves of flow diodes are not included. The resulting flow transient has been modeled for EBR-II and the large plant using the DNSP program.

  2. Excited-state dynamics of a ruthenium(II) catalyst studied by transient photofragmentation in gas phase and transient absorption in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanbaew, D.; Nosenko, Y.; Kerner, C.; Chevalier, K.; Rupp, F.; Riehn, C.; Thiel, W. R.; Diller, R.

    2014-10-01

    We report studies on the excited state dynamics of new ruthenium(II) complexes [(η6-cymene)RuCl(apypm)]PF6 (apypmdbnd 2-NR2-4-(pyridine-2-yl)-pyrimidine, Rdbnd CH3 (1)/H (2)) which, in their active form [1+-HCl] and [2+-HCl], catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of arylalkyl ketones in the absence of a base. The investigations encompass femtosecond pump-probe transient mass spectrometry under isolated conditions and transient absorption spectroscopy in acetonitrile solution, both on the cations [(η6-cymene)RuCl(apypm)]+ (1+, 2+). Gas phase studies on mass selected ions were performed in an ESI ion trap mass spectrometer by transient photofragmentation, unambiguously proving the formation of the activated catalyst species [1+-HCl] or [2+-HCl] after photoexcitation being the only fragmentation channel. The primary excited state dynamics in the gas phase could be fitted to a biexponential decay, yielding time constants of <100 fs and 1-3 ps. Transient absorption spectroscopy performed in acetonitrile solution using femtosecond UV/Vis and IR probe laser pulses revealed additional deactivation processes on longer time scales (∼7-12 ps). However, the formation of the active catalyst species after photoexcitation could not be observed in solution. The results from both studies are compared to former CID investigations and DFT calculations concerning the activation mechanism.

  3. A transient molecular probe for characterizing the surface properties of TiO II nanoparticle in colloidal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Du, Lu-Chao; Zhang, Qing-Li

    2006-08-01

    A transient molecular probe for characterization of the surface properties of TiO II nanoparticles in colloidal solution has been developed recently in our laboratory. The probe molecule is all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface. After photoexcitation, the photoinduced interfacial charge recombination would generate ATRA triplet state (ATRA T) with a substantial quantum yield. While the quantum yield of triplet ATRA generated in the solution phase is substantially low, which renders the interfacial-charge-recombination generated triplet ATRA being a transient probe molecule specific only to the interface. It is found that the triplet-triplet absorption spectrum of ATRA adsorbed molecule is sensitive to its binding form with the surface Ti atom through the carboxylic group, as well as to the polarity of the medium. Especially the apparent lifetime of ATRA T at the TiO II surface changes substantially when the local polarity around the TiO II nanoparticle changes. We found that the ATRAT monolayer adsorbed at the TiO II surface can be used as a transient molecular probe for the surface binding forms, coordination state of the surface Ti atoms and the light-induced wettability change of the TiO II nanoparticle. TiO II nanoparticle, all-trans-retinoic acid, molecular probe, interfacial charge recombination, surface binding form, light-induced wettability change.

  4. Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Joanne M; Elfervig-Wall, Michelle K; Tsuzaki, Mari; Herzog, Walter; Banes, Albert J

    2002-03-01

    Forces applied to tendon during movement cause cellular deformation, as well as fluid movement. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that rabbit tendon fibroblasts detect and respond to fluid-induced shear stress. Cells were isolated from the paratenon of the rabbit Achilles tendon and then subjected to fluid flow at 1 dyn/cm(2) for 6h in a specially designed multi-slide flow device. The application of fluid flow led to an increased expression of the collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) genes. The release of proMMP-3 into the medium exhibited a dose-response with the level of fluid shear stress. However, not all cells aligned in the direction of flow. In other experiments, the same cells were incubated with the calcium-reactive dye FURA-2 AM, then subjected to laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate flow chamber. The cells did not significantly increase intracellular calcium concentration when exposed to fluid shear stress levels of up to 25 dyn/cm(2). These results show that gene expression in rabbit tendon cells is sensitive to fluid flow, but that signal transduction is not dependent on intracellular calcium transients. The upregulation of the MMP-1, MMP-3 and COX-2 genes shows that fluid flow could be an important mechanical stimulus for tendon remodelling or injury. PMID:11858805

  5. Transient response of sand bedforms to changes in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Lowland rivers commonly experience discharge variability spanning more than an order of magnitude, producing correspondingly large changes in bed morphology. However, field and lab studies indicate that bedform geometries lag changes in flow, producing hysteretic relationships between bed morphology, roughness, and water discharge. The ability of bedforms to maintain equilibrium with hydrodynamic flow variability thus depends on the timescale of transient bedform adjustment to flow. Here, we present results of flume experiments carried out at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, in which we continuously tracked adjustment of sand bedform morphologies to abrupt changes in water discharge. We show how the timescale of bedform adjustment is driven by three primary factors: 1. directionality of adjustment, 2. preexisting bedform geometry, and 3. sediment flux. Directionality of adjustment (rising versus falling water discharge) determines whether bedforms grow quickly by irreversible merger (rising flows) or shrink slowly through secondary bedform cannibalization of relict larger bedforms (falling flows). Preexisting bedform geometry (height and length) determines the amount of bed deformation required for adjustment to new equilibrium, and sediment flux determines the rate at which this change is affected. These three factors all favor faster adjustment of bedforms to rising flows. We experimentally demonstrate this bedform adjustment hysteresis through a variety of increasing and decreasing discharge changes, across both sand ripple and dune regimes. Finally, we propose and validate a simple conceptual model for estimating the adjustment timescale based on sediment flux and equilibrium bedform geometry.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.

  7. Minimizing the transient vibroacoustic response of a window to sonic booms by using stiffeners.

    PubMed

    Ou, Dayi; Ming Mak, Cheuk

    2014-04-01

    A stiffened-window strategy is proposed for reducing the window's transient responses to sonic booms. Additional movable and controllable stiffeners are used, which can improve the window's transient vibration and noise isolation performance without significantly reducing transparency. A simple prediction model is proposed as a design tool for implementing the stiffened-window structure, which allows for the computation of a plate with arbitrary elastic boundary conditions and arbitrarily located stiffeners. The predicted results agree well with experimental data. Also, the feasibility and validity of the stiffened-window strategy for improving the window's performance in response to sonic booms is demonstrated by parametric studies. PMID:25234966

  8. A numerical and experimental investigation of premixed methane-air flame transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Habib N. Najm; Phillip H. Paul; Omar M. Knio; Andrew McIlroy

    2000-01-06

    The authors report the results of a numerical and experimental investigation of the response of premixed methane-air flames to transient strain-rate disturbances induced by a two-dimensional counter-rotating vortex-pair. The numerical and experimental time histories of flow and flame evolution are matched over a 10 ms interaction time. Measurements and computations of CH and OH peak data evolution are reported, and found to indicate mis-prediction of the flame time scales in the numerical model. Qualitative transient features of OH at rich conditions are not predicted in the computations. On the other hand, evolution of computed and measured normalized HCO fractions are in agreement. The computed CH{sub 3}O response exhibits a strong transient driven by changes to internal flame structure, namely temperature profile steepening, induced by the flow field. Steady state experimental PLIF CH{sub 3}O data is reported, but experimental transient CH{sub 3}O data is not available. The present analysis indicates that the flame responds at time scales that are quite distinct from ``propagation'' time scale derived from flame thickness and burning speed. Evidently, these propagation time scales are not adequate for characterizing the transient flame response.

  9. Transient response of tapping scanning force microscopy in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.Y.; Warmack, R.J. |; Oden, P.I.; Thundat, T.

    1996-03-01

    Tapping-mode scanning force microscopy in liquids is usually accomplished by acoustic excitation of the cantilever because of the strong viscous damping. Contact of the tip with the sample surface results in a damping of the cantilever amplitude with an anharmonic response. This interaction is modeled as a viscous-damped, one-dimensional harmonic oscillator periodically perturbed by an exponential surface potential. Experimental results verify the validity of the model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  10. Transient response of a static VAR shunt compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.A.; Zelaya-De La Parra, H.

    1996-05-01

    A typical static VAR shunt compensator has been analyzed so that the step response and steady-state errors can be identified. The results show that the steady-state error is dependent upon the error in the measurement of the currents` phase alone. They also show that an unstable condition can occur, though it should rarely arise in practice. All the theory was verified on a low power (240 V, 3 A) system.

  11. The transient response of strained laminar-premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, C.A.; Ghoniem, A.F.

    1995-08-01

    Modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion in premixed gases, for relatively large-scale and low-intensity turbulence, have traditionally been based on the assumption that the flame response to strain is instantaneous. In this paper, the authors revisit the validity of this assumption by examining the time-dependent response of a premixed laminar flame when subjected to a sudden change in strain and a periodic strain. They find that at unity Lewis number and for a stepwise increase in strain, the settling time of the flame varies between the chemical time, the flame time and the flow time as the Karlovitz number changes from low to intermediate to high values, respectively, over the entire range of flame temperatures. At nonunity Lewis numbers, the settling time changes from the flame time to the flow time as the strain jump increases from intermediate to high Karlovitz numbers and over the entire range of flame temperatures. For given Lewis and Karlovitz numbers, the settling time decreases as these flame temperature increases. Thus, in a flamelet or thin flame modeling, and over the entire range of Lewis number, the response of a premixed flame can be considered instantaneous only for high flame temperatures. The same is found to be true for intermediate flame temperatures when the Lewis number is unity. Otherwise, for low and intermediate flame tempera tues, and nonunity Lewis number, corrections reflecting the lag between the flow an the flame should be considered. The response of the flame to oscillating strain whose maximum value is below unity Karlovitz number is also investigated for two values of the flame temperatures.

  12. Transient electromagnetic responses during the transmitter on-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Miller, Jonathan S.; Song, Lin-Ping; Pasion, Leonard

    2010-04-01

    Current time-domain electromagnetic induction instruments generally only utilize data acquired after the cessation of the transmitted field. During this "off time", signals are dominated by induced eddy currents and magnetic surface modes, but do not fully capture the magnetostatic response of permeable and conductive metallic ordnance. In this paper, we investigate the response of EMI systems that measure signals during excitation of the primary magnetic field (the so-called "on-time"). Our analysis shows that on-time signals have great potential to yield useful information that is not often exploited in current EMI systems. We compare analytical models to data from state-of-the-art time-domain EM sensors that have the capability to sample receivers during the on-time. We present modeling results that represent the responses from different current ramps and on-time waveforms for objects and ground. We consider target and clutter objects and grounds having a range of material properties, shapes and sizes, and configurations and investigate signal processing and inversion methods for target detection and discrimination. Specifically, correlations between on-time and off-time signals are shown to be a powerful tool for discriminating ferrous and non-ferrous metallic objects.

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Regulates Myocardial Response to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Naticchioni, Mindi; Karani, Rajiv; Smith, Margaret A.; Onusko, Evan; Robbins, Nathan; Jiang, Min; Radzyukevich, Tatiana; Fulford, Logan; Gao, Xu; Apel, Ryan; Heiny, Judith; Rubinstein, Jack; Koch, Sheryl E.

    2015-01-01

    The myocardial response to exercise is an adaptive mechanism that permits the heart to maintain cardiac output via improved cardiac function and development of hypertrophy. There are many overlapping mechanisms via which this occurs with calcium handling being a crucial component of this process. Our laboratory has previously found that the stretch sensitive TRPV2 channels are active regulators of calcium handling and cardiac function under baseline conditions based on our observations that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac function at baseline. The focus of this study was to determine the cardiac function of TRPV2-KO mice under exercise conditions. We measured skeletal muscle at baseline in WT and TRPV2-KO mice and subjected them to various exercise protocols and measured the cardiac response using echocardiography and molecular markers. Our results demonstrate that the TRPV2-KO mouse did not tolerate forced exercise although they became increasingly exercise tolerant with voluntary exercise. This occurs as the cardiac function deteriorates further with exercise. Thus, our conclusion is that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac functional response to exercise. PMID:26356305

  14. Distinguishing cells by their first-order transient motion response under an optically induced dielectrophoretic force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Liang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Guanglie; Mai, John D.; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Li, Wen J.

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports our characterization of the transient motion of cells under an optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) force field. Different types of human cells repeatably undergo a first-order transient motion response when subjected to a specific ODEP force field. A kernel function is derived to describe this transient motion. This function can be generally matched to experimental data for Raji cells and red blood cells by measuring two parameters: the initial velocity and the transient time-constant. They are uniquely different for Raji cells and RBCs. Support vector machine is used to distinguish between them based on their transient response characteristics.

  15. From transient landscape to transient stratigraphy: Characterising the response of sediment routing systems to tectonic and climatic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, A. C.; Armitage, J. J.; Duller, R.; Allen, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The sedimentary record is a unique archive of past erosional responses to tectonic or climatic change. However, the inversion of stratigraphy for these forcing mechanisms remains non-trivial. A problem to date is that geomorphic studies of landscape response to tectonic or climatic perturbation are rarely linked to concomitant changes in basin deposition. Conversely, stratigraphers often focus on the role of accommodation in generating stratal architecture, and neglect the geomorphic controls on the volume, caliber and locus of sediment supplied from eroding landscapes to neighbouring basins. Here, we bridge this key research problem by integrating field observations of catchments responding to a well-constrained increase in fault slip rate in the Central Apennines, Italy, with a simple landscape-to-basin model that describes a footwall to hanging wall sediment routing system crossing a normal fault. Erosion within the modelled catchment is driven by the concentrative effects of the flux of rainfall through the catchment and by hillslope diffusion, acting on a tectonic displacement field associated with cumulative co-seismic slip on a single fault. We solve for erosion using a continuum approach, and we predict the volume and grain-size of sediment released from the catchment at steady-state and during a transient perturbation, using pdfs of grain-size based on observations from catchments in the Apennines. Sediment is deposited in the hanging wall basin by filling tectonically generated accommodation and we predict the down-system variation in grain-size using a self-similarity-based model that drives grain-size fining by selective deposition. Using this simple approach we explore the effects of long-term changes in fault slip rate and rainfall on the catchment and within the basin. We find that variations in both rainfall and tectonic uplift produce diagnostic, but complex, responses in sediment supply, downstream grain-size trends and stratigraphic geometry. In

  16. Estimation of a transient response from steady-state responses by deconvolution with built-in constraints.

    PubMed

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that the steady-state response (SSR) elicited by a periodic train of auditory stimuli can largely be understood as a superposition of transient responses. This study is devoted to the problem of how to estimate that transient response from measured SSRs. The proposed method differs from previous approaches in that the solution can be constrained to be consistent with physiology-based prior knowledge or educated guesses. To achieve this goal, the transient response is not represented by a time series, but by a linear combination of auxiliary functions, called components. Constraints are introduced by assigning certain properties to the components. Only few parameters are required for that purpose, because the individual components are derived from a suitably designed mother component. After adjusting the components to the problem at hand, the component amplitudes are determined by optimizing the match between predicted and measured SSRs. This requires solving a linear inverse problem. A model simulation as well as an analysis of exemplary experimental data (auditory SSRs elicited by periodically presented clicks) prove the workability of the method. Since part of the theory is quite general, it would be relatively easy to refine and extend the method. Not only could responses other than SSRs be dealt with, it could also be realized that certain key parameters of the transient response, such as amplitude and delay, depend on stimulus repetition rate. PMID:27234643

  17. Transient growth responses of the primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    List, A

    1969-03-01

    1. The technique of streak photography was modified to use seven parallel cameras, each focused on an individual root in a guide holding flowing nutrient. Streak photographs representing displacement of points on the longitudinal axis of the root were projected on the table of an image plane digitizer. The displacement data are collected on cards by an IBM 526 key punch and processed by an IBM 360-65 computer. All graphic data were plotted by an EAI line plotter having a resolution of 600 lines per inch. 2. Roots of corn held at a temperature of 25°, a pH of 5.6, with constant oxygen concentration and basic nutrient composition, were subjected to step changes in oxygen and auxin (3-indoleacetic acid, IAA) concentrations. When O2 was lowered the response of the root consisted of a large reduction in growth rate followed by a series of oscillations with a period of about 30-50 min. Step changes in IAA from 0-10(-8)M (or less) resulted in heavily dampened oscillatory responses as well as reduction in growth rate. 10(-7) M IAA, however, elicited the initial inhibition followed by full recovery of growth rate after a few hours. PMID:24504710

  18. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989.

  19. Transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured Frania

    SciTech Connect

    Silvester, W.B.; Winship, L.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). Gymnostoma papuanum (S.Moore) L. Johnson. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. Myrica gale L. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by a slower return to peak or near-peak activity. We call these effects acetylene-induced transients. Rapid increases in oxygen tension also caused dramatic transient decreases in nitrogenase activity in all species. The magnitude of the transient decrease was related to the size of the O{sub 2} partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) rise, to the proximity of the starting and ending oxygen tensions to the pO{sub 2} optimum, and to the time for which the plant was exposed to the lower pO{sub 2}. Oxygen-induced transients, induced both by step jumps in pO{sub 2} and by O{sub 2} pulses, were also observed in cultures of Frankia. The effects seen in nodules are purely a response by the bacterium and not a nodule effect per se. Oxygen-induced nitrogenase transients in actinorhizal nodules from the plant genera tested here do not appear to be a result of changes in nodule diffusion resistance.

  20. Ritz method for transient response in systems having unsymmetric stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1989-01-01

    The DMAP coding was automated to such an extent by using the device of bubble vectors, that it is useable for analyses in its present form. This feasibility study demonstrates that the Ritz Method is so compelling as to warrant coding its modules in FORTRAN and organizing the resulting coding into a new Rigid Format. Even though this Ritz technique was developed for unsymmetric stiffness matrices, it offers advantages to problems with symmetric stiffnesses. If used for the symmetric case the solution would be simplified to one set of modes, because the adjoint would be the same as the primary. Its advantage in either type of symmetry over a classical eigenvalue modal expansion is that information density per Ritz mode is far richer than per eigenvalue mode; thus far fewer modes would be needed for the same accuracy and every mode would actively participate in the response. Considerable economy can be realized in adapting Ritz vectors for modal solutions. This new Ritz capability now makes NASTRAN even more powerful than before.

  1. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  2. Identification of laser generated acoustic waves in the two-dimensional transient response of cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Rossignol, C.; Audoin, B.

    2005-06-01

    The published model [Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4379-4381 (2003)] for the two-dimensional transient wave propagation in a cylinder is modified to avoid the inherited integration of the numerical inverse scheme. The Fourier series expansion is introduced for one spatial coordinate to resolve the transient response problem: theoretical radial displacements in either the ablation or the thermoelastic regime are obtained with little numerical noise and short computation time. The normal mode expansion method fails to deliver results with the same accuracy. Acoustic waves are fully identified by the ray trajectory analysis. These identified waves are further verified on the experimental results observed with the laser ultrasonic technique. .

  3. Radiation-induced response of operational amplifiers in low-level transient radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Paulos, J.J.; Bishop, R.J.; Turflinger, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    Extensive computer simulations have been performed on CMOS and bipolar operational amplifiers in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of low-level transient radiation response mechanisms. The simulation methodology has been confirmed using flash X-ray data for the amplifiers studied. Variations in circuit response to loading and feedback configuration have been explored, and several generalizations can be made which may provide a useful basis for a specification methodology.

  4. Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) was a large, collaborative, multi-agency program to simulate and understand ecosystem dynamics for the continental U.S. The project involved the development of common data sets for model input including a high-resolution topographically-adjusted climate history of the U.S. from 1895-1993 on a 0.5? grid, with soils and vegetation cover. The vegetation cover data set includes a detailed agricultural data base based on USDA statistics and remote sensing, as well as natural vegetation (also derived from satellite imagery). Two principal model experiments were run. First, a series of ecosystem models were run from 1895 to 1993 to simulate current ecosystem biogeochemistry. Second, these same models were integrated forward using the output from two climate system models (CCC (Canadian Climate Centre) and Hadley Centre models) using climate results translated into the VEMAP grid and re-adjusted for high-resolution topography for the simulated period 1994-2100.[Quoted from http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/findings.html] The VEMAP Data Portal is a central collection of files maintained and serviced by the NCAR Data Group. These files (the VEMAP Community Datasets) represent a complete and current collection of VEMAP data files. All data files available through the Data Portal have undergone extensive quality assurance.[Taken from http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html] Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

  5. Angiotensin II modulates respiratory and acid-base responses to prolonged hypoxia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Heitman, S J; Jennings, D B

    1998-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to ventilatory and acid-base adaptations during 3-4 h of hypoxia (partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood approximately 43 Torr) in the conscious dog. Three protocols were carried out over 3-4 h in five dogs: 1) air control, 2) 12% O2 breathing, and 3) 12% O2 breathing with ANG II receptors blocked by infusion of saralasin (0. 5 microg . kg-1 . min-1). After 2 h of hypoxia, expired ventilation and alveolar ventilation progressively increased, and the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood and the difference between the arterial concentrations of strong cations and strong anions ([SID]) decreased. When the hypoxic chemoreceptor drive to breathe was abolished transiently for 30 s with 100% O2, the resultant central apneic time decreased between 0.5 and 2.5 h of hypoxia. All these adaptive responses to hypoxia were abolished by ANG II receptor block. Because plasma ANG II levels were lower during hypoxia and hypoxic release of arginine vasopressin from the pituitary into the plasma was prevented by ANG II receptor block, the brain renin-angiotensin system was likely involved. It is possible that ANG II mediates ventilatory and acid-base adaptive responses to prolonged hypoxia via alterations in ion transport to decrease [SID] in brain extracellular fluid rather than acting by a direct neural mechanism. PMID:9688673

  6. Constraints on the transient climate response from observed global temperature and ocean heat uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutti, Reto; Tomassini, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Projections of future transient global temperature increase in climate models for a known forcing depend on the strength of the atmospheric feedbacks and the rate of transient ocean heat uptake. A Bayesian framework and an intermediate complexity climate model are used to calculate a probability density function (PDF) of the transient climate response (TCR), constrained by observations of global surface warming and ocean heat uptake. The PDF constrained by observations is wider than the TCR range of current climate models, and has a slightly lower mean. Uncertainties in the observed ocean warming are shown to potentially affect the TCR. It is proposed, however, that even if models were found to overestimate ocean heat uptake, correcting that bias would lead to revisions in surface temperature projections over the twenty-first century that are smaller than the uncertainties introduced by poorly quantified atmospheric feedbacks.

  7. Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.

  8. Computer experiments on periodic systems identification using rotor blade transient flapping-torsion responses at high advance ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Prelewicz, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Systems identification methods have recently been applied to rotorcraft to estimate stability derivatives from transient flight control response data. While these applications assumed a linear constant coefficient representation of the rotorcraft, the computer experiments described in this paper used transient responses in flap-bending and torsion of a rotor blade at high advance ratio which is a rapidly time varying periodic system.

  9. The TOPAZ II space reactor response under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, S.S.

    1993-12-31

    The TOPAZ II is a single-cell thermionic space reactor power system developed by the Russians during the period of time from {approximately}1969 to 1989. The TOPAZ II has never been flight demonstrated, but the system was extensively tested on the ground. As part of the development and test program, the response of the TOPAZ II under accident conditions was analyzed and characterized. The US TOPAZ II team has been working closely with the Russian specialists to understand the TOPAZ II system, its operational characteristics, and its response under potential accident conditions. The purpose of the technical exchange is to enable a potential launch of a TOPAZ II by the US. The information is required to integrate the system with a US spacecraft and to support the safety review process. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the system and its response under actual and postulated accident conditions.

  10. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Subsurface Crack in a Conductive Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Fangwei Fu

    2006-08-09

    Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is usually carried out by exciting a time harmonic field using an inductive probe. However, a viable alternative is to use transient eddy current NDE in which a current pulse in a driver coil produces a transient .eld in a conductor that decays at a rate dependent on the conductivity and the permeability of the material and the coil configuration. By using transient eddy current, it is possible to estimate the properties of the conductive medium and to locate and size potential .aws from the measured probe response. The fundamental study described in this dissertation seeks to establish a theoretical understanding of the transient eddy current NDE. Compared with the Fourier transform method, the derived analytical formulations are more convenient when the transient eddy current response within a narrow time range is evaluated. The theoretical analysis provides a valuable tool to study the effect of layer thickness, location of defect, crack opening as well as the optimization of probe design. Analytical expressions have been developed to evaluate the transient response due to eddy currents in a conductive plate based on two asymptotic series. One series converges rapidly for a short time regime and the other for a long time regime and both of them agree with the results calculated by fast Fourier transform over all the times considered. The idea of asymptotic expansion is further applied to determine the induced electromotive force (EMF) in a pick-up coil due to eddy currents in a cylindrical rod. Starting from frequency domain representation, a quasi-static time domain dyadic Green's function for an electric source in a conductive plate has been derived. The resulting expression has three parts; a free space term, multiple image terms and partial reflection terms. The dyadic Green's function serves as the kernel of an electric field integral equation which defines the interaction of an ideal crack with the transient

  11. Response of standard and high-capacity HEPA filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the response of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients. Most of the tests were directed toward evaluating the structural response of high-capacity filters to explosive transients. Selected tests were performed to evaluate the effects of particulate loading on filtration efficiencies. Also, several of the high-capacity filters were subjected to simulated toronado transients. The results indicate that the upper structural limits of high-capacity filters for explosive loading is 6.89-kPa (1-psi) peak pressure and 100-kPa-ms (14.51-psi-ms) impulse. These limits are below the approximately 13.78-kPa (2-psi) peak pressure loadings found for standard HEPA filters. Tests of high-capacity filters preloaded with aerosol indicated that the structural limits were further degraded by approximately 40%. The filtration efficiencies were degraded to approximately 70% when the filters were subjected to aerosol entrained within the shock pulse. The effect of simulated tornado transients on high-capacity filters resulted in an upper structural limit of 11.02 kPa (1.6 psi) for peak pressure.

  12. Transient response in a dendritic neuron model for current injected at one branch.

    PubMed

    Rinzel, J; Rall, W

    1974-10-01

    Mathematical expressions are obtained for the response function corresponding to an instantaneous pulse of current injected to a single dendritic branch in a branched dendritic neuron model. The theoretical model assumes passive membrane properties and the equivalent cylinder constraint on branch diameters. The response function when used in a convolution formula enables one to compute the voltage transient at any specified point in the dendritic tree for an arbitrary current injection at a given input location. A particular numerical example, for a brief current injection at a branch terminal, illustrates the attenuation and delay characteristics of the depolarization peak as it spreads throughout the neuron model. In contrast to the severe attenuation of voltage transients from branch input sites to the soma, the fraction of total input charge actually delivered to the soma and other trees is calculated to be about one-half. This fraction is independent of the input time course. Other numerical examples, which compare a branch terminal input site with a soma input site, demonstrate that, for a given transient current injection, the peak depolarization is not proportional to the input resistance at the injection site and, for a given synaptic conductance transient, the effective synaptic driving potential can be significantly reduced, resulting in less synaptic current flow and charge, for a branch input site. Also, for the synaptic case, the two inputs are compared on the basis of the excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) seen at the soma and the total charge delivered to the soma. PMID:4424185

  13. Babcock and Wilcox Owners' Group program: Trip reduction and transient response improvement

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.T.; Mercado, A.L.; Ganthner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the average trip frequency for the industry was 4.3 trips per plant per year while Babcock Wilcox (B W)-designed plants had 4.5 trips. In early 1986, the B W Owners' Group (B WOG) established goals to reduce trip frequency and improve posttrip transient response. Through the recommendations of the B WOG Trip Reduction and Transient Response Improvement Program (TR/TRIP) and other utility initiatives, the trip frequency for the B WOG plants has been on a progressive downward trend and has been consistently below the industry average since 1986. The successful results in trip reduction for the B WOG plants are shown. The B WOG has implemented several programs that have resulted in fewer trips per plant. This success can be attributed to the following: (1) a comprehensive program to evaluate each trip and transient for root-cause determination, define corrective actions, share information, and peer reviews; (2) a broad program to review systems and components that contribute to trips and transients, identify specific recommendations to correct deficiencies, utility commitment to implementation, conduct internal monitoring and indirectly exert peer pressure; (3) an awareness of the goals at all levels in the organization coupled with strong executive-level involvement; and (4) timely implementation of recommendations.

  14. Transient responses of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and computerized study of the steady state and transient response of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was completed. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of the PAFC system's operation were accomplished. Four non-linear dynamic models of the fuel cell stack, reformer, shift converters, and heat exchangers were developed based on nonhomogeneous non-linear partial differential equations, which include the material, component, energy balance, and electrochemical kinetic features. Due to a lack of experimental data for the dynamic response of the components only the steady state results were compared with data from other sources, indicating reasonably good agreement. A steady state simulation of the entire system was developed using, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The finite difference method and trial-and-error procedures were used to obtain a solution. Using the model, a PAFC system, that was developed under NASA Grant, NCC3-17, was improved through the optimization of the heat exchanger network. Three types of cooling configurations for cell plates were evaluated to obtain the best current density and temperature distributions. The steady state solutions were used as the initial conditions in the dynamic model. The transient response of a simplified PAFC system, which included all of the major components, subjected to a load change was obtained. Due to the length of the computation time for the transient response calculations, analysis on a real-time computer was not possible. A simulation of the real-time calculations was developed on a batch type computer. The transient response characteristics are needed for the optimization of the design and control of the whole PAFC system. All of the models, procedures and simulations were programmed in Fortran and run on IBM 370 computers at Cleveland State University and the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Model of the transient neurovascular response based on prompt arterial dilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Khan, Reswanul; Thompson, Jeffrey K; Ress, David

    2013-09-01

    Brief neural stimulation results in a stereotypical pattern of vascular and metabolic response that is the basis for popular brain-imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imagine. However, the mechanisms of transient oxygen transport and its coupling to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) are poorly understood. Recent experiments show that brief stimulation produces prompt arterial vasodilation rather than venous vasodilation. This work provides a neurovascular response model for brief stimulation based on transient arterial effects using one-dimensional convection-diffusion transport. Hemoglobin oxygen dissociation is included to enable predictions of absolute oxygen concentrations. Arterial CBF response is modeled using a lumped linear flow model, and CMRO2 response is modeled using a gamma function. Using six parameters, the model successfully fit 161/166 measured extravascular oxygen time courses obtained for brief visual stimulation in cat cerebral cortex. Results show how CBF and CMRO2 responses compete to produce the observed features of the hemodynamic response: initial dip, hyperoxic peak, undershoot, and ringing. Predicted CBF and CMRO2 response amplitudes are consistent with experimental measurements. This model provides a powerful framework to quantitatively interpret oxygen transport in the brain; in particular, its intravascular oxygen concentration predictions provide a new model for fMRI responses. PMID:23756690

  16. Permeability-thickness determination from transient production response at the southeast geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Fetkovich production decline curve analysis method was extended for application to vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs for the purpose of estimating the permeability-thickness product (kh) from the transient production response. The analytic dimensionless terms for pressure, production rate, decline rate, and decline time were derived for saturated steam using the real gas potential and customary geothermal production units of pounds-mass per hour. The derived terms were numerically validating using ``Geysers-line`` reservoir properties at initial water saturation of 0 and at permeabilities of 1, 10, and 100 mD. The production data for 48 wells in the Southeast Geysers were analyzed and the permeability-thickness products determined from the transient production response using the Fetkovich production decline type curve. The kh results were in very good agreement with the published range at the Southeast Geysers and show regions of high permeability-thickness.

  17. Groundwater response to changing water-use practices in sloping aquifers using convolution of transient response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.; Yang, Xiaoying; Chacon, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the impact of a sloping base on the movement of transients through groundwater systems. Dimensionless variables and regression of model results are employed to develop functions relating the transient change in saturated thickness to the distance upgradient and downgradient from recharge or withdrawal. Convolution of these transient response functions (made possible due to linearity of partial differential equations in the model) enables computation of changes in saturated thickness over recharge/withdrawal that varies over space and time. Establishing the criteria and form of these functions led to the discovery of fundamental underlying properties: upgradient and downgradient responses may be scaled to achieve a symmetrical relationship, expressions are developed to compute change in saturated thickness at the location of water use, and downgradient response at large times form a S-shaped curve that effectively adds a diffusive component to the average velocity of the kinematic wave approximation, where the hydraulic gradient is equal to the bed slope. Hydrogeologic data for three study regions in the High Plains Aquifer are summarized, and model results are presented for changes in saturated thickness. The transient response functions are used to reconstruct and interpret groundwater response to historical water-use practices and to predict future changes in saturated thickness for a series of hypothetical alternative water-use scenarios. Depressions in groundwater elevation are observed both upgradient and downgradient from areas of high water use; however, these depressions preferentially move downgradient over time and may continue to spread downgradient far into the future. This approach quantifies and provides understanding of the impacts of changes in natural and anthropogenic hydrologic forcings on aquifer systems.

  18. Imaging the cellular response to transient shear stress using time-resolved digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Antkowiak, Maciej; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-02-01

    Shear stress has been recognized as one of the biophysical methods by which to permeabilize plasma membranes of cells. In particular, high pressure transient hydrodynamic flows created by laser-induced cavitation have been shown to lead to the uptake of fluorophores and plasmid DNA. While the mechanism and dynamics of cavitation have been extensively studied using a variety of time-resolved imaging techniques, the cellular response to the cavitation bubble and cavitation induced transient hydrodynamic flows has never been shown in detail. We use time-resolved quantitative phase microscopy to study cellular response to laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped polystyrene nanoparticle (500nm in diameter) irradiated with a single nanosecond laser pulse at 532nm creates transient shear stress to surrounding cells without causing cell lysis. A bi-directional transient displacement of cytoplasm is observed during expansion and collapse of the cavitation bubble. In some cases, cell deformation is only observable at the microsecond time scale without any permanent change in cell shape or optical thickness. On a time scale of seconds, the cellular response to shear stress and cytoplasm deformation typically leads to retraction of the cellular edge most exposed to the flow, rounding of the cell body and, in some cases, loss of cellular dry mass. These results give a new insight into the cellular response to laser-induced shear stress and related plasma membrane permeabilization. This study also demonstrates that laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped nanoparticle offers localized cavitation (70 μm in diameter), which interacts with a single cell.

  19. Liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems: A method for determining frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Englund, D. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    An equation is given and experimentally verified for computing the resonant frequency of liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems. Resonant frequencies of 100 to 1000 Hz are typical of those systems tested. The effect of noncondensable gas bubbles on system response is described. A method for determining transducer volumetric compliance is presented. An example system is described and analyzed to demonstrate the use of the theory.

  20. The auditory transient 40-Hz response is insensitive to changes in stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Tiitinen, H; Sinkkonen, J; May, P; Näätänen, R

    1994-12-30

    Ten subjects were presented with tone pips occasionally interspersed with deviant tone pips of a higher frequency. The transient 40-Hz response was insensitive to change in qualitative stimulus features. In contrast, stimulus changes elicited a later and slower event-related potential, the mismatch negativity (MMN). As a response to changes in stimulus features implies the existence of a memory system, and because changes in qualitative stimulus aspects do not activate the generator mechanisms underlying the 40-Hz response, the 40-Hz response can be dissociated from memory mechanisms. Furthermore, the analysis of phase-locked (synchronous) and non-phase-locked (asynchronous) responses revealed that the 40-Hz response might be caused by the synchronization of already active oscillators. PMID:7703412

  1. Transient response of an electrorheological fluid under square-wave electric field excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Li, Cuihong; Zhang, Minliang; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

    2005-08-01

    The transient process of an electrorheological (ER) fluid based on zeolite and silicone oil sheared between two parallel plates to which a square-wave electric field is applied has been experimentally studied. The transient shear stress response to the strain or time is tested. The characteristic constants of time under different applied electric fields and shear rates have been determined. The response time is found to be proportional to shear rate with an exponent of about -0.75 in the tested shear rate range, which agrees with the theoretical predictions made by others. But it only shows a small dependence on the strength of the applied electric field. The results show that the transient process of ER fluids is related to the structure formation in the shearing. When the required shear strain is reached, the shear stress rises to a stable value under constant electric field. Although the electric field strength greatly affects the yield strength, it shows little effect on the stress response time. Also, experiments showed the electric field-induced shear stress decreased with an increase of shear rate. PMID:15927589

  2. Analysis and control of the transient aeroelastic response of rotors during shipboard engagement and disengagement operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jonathan Allen

    2001-11-01

    An analysis has been developed to predict the transient aeroelastic response of a helicopter rotor system during shipboard engagement and disengagement operations. The coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion were developed using Hamilton's Principle and discretized spatially using the finite element method. Aerodynamics were simulated using nonlinear quasi-steady or time domain nonlinear unsteady models. The ship airwake environment was simulated with simple deterministic airwake distributions, results from experimental measurements or numerical predictions. The transient aeroelastic response of the rotor blades was then time-integrated along a specified rotor speed profile. The control of the rotor response for an analytic model of the H-46 Sea Knight rotor system was investigated with three different passive control techniques. Collective pitch scheduling was only successful in reducing the blade flapping response in a few isolated cases. In the majority of cases, the blade transient response was increased. The use of a discrete flap damper in the very low rotor speed region was also investigated. Only by raising the flap stop setting and using a flap damper four times the strength of the lag damper could the downward flap deflections be reduced. However, because the flap stop setting was raised the upward flap deflections were often increased. The use of extendable/retractable, gated leading-edge spoilers in the low rotor speed region was also investigated. Spoilers covering the outer 15% R of the rotor blade were shown to significantly reduce both the upward and downward flap response without increasing rotor torque. Previous aeroelastic analyses developed at the University of Southampton and at Penn State University were completed with flap-torsion degrees of freedom only. The addition of the lag degree of freedom was shown to significantly influence the blade response. A comparison of the two aerodynamic models showed that the nonlinear quasi

  3. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. II - Transient baroclinic eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Zurek, R. W.; Lee, H.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-02-01

    A large set of experiments performed with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model is analyzed to determine the properties, structure, and dynamics of the simulated transient baroclinic eddies. There is strong transient baroclinic eddy activity in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere during the northern autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The eddy activity remains strong for very large dust loadings, though it shifts northward. The eastward propagating eddies are characterized by zonal wavenumbers of 1-4 and periods of about 2-10 days. The properties of the GCM baroclinic eddies in the northern extratropics are compared in detail with analogous properties inferred from Viking Lander meteorology observations.

  4. Evidence that venoconstriction reverses the phase II sympathoinhibitory and bradycardic response to haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Potas, J R; Dampney, R A L

    2004-03-31

    Severe hypotensive haemorrhage results in a biphasic response, characterized by an initial increase in heart rate and sympathetic vasomotor activity (phase I) followed by a life-threatening hypotension, accompanied by profound sympathoinhibition and bradycardia (phase II). The phase II response is believed to be dependent on inputs from cardiopulmonary receptors, and may be triggered by the reduction in venous return and cardiac filling associated with severe haemorrhage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the phase II response could be reversed by venoconstriction, which is known to enhance venous return and cardiac filling, by comparing the effects of phenylephrine (which constricts veins as well as arterioles) with that of vasopressin (which constricts arterioles but not veins). In sodium pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats, haemorrhage evoked an initial increase in heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic activity (RSNA) followed by a large decrease in both variables to levels below the pre-haemorrhage baseline levels (phase II response). During the phase II response, an intravenous injection of phenylephrine, sufficient to restore mean arterial pressure to the pre-haemorrhage level, resulted in a gradually developing increase (over 3-4 min) in HR and RSNA back to the baseline levels. In contrast, intravenous injection of an equipressor dose of vasopressin did not result in any increase in RSNA and only a transient increase in HR. Injection of phenylephrine, but not vasopressin, also increased the pulsatile component of central venous pressure, indicative of reduced venous capacitance. The findings indicate that venoconstriction reverses the phase II sympathoinhibition and bradycardia. PMID:15109933

  5. Transient photocurrent response of three-color detectors based on amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannowski, B.; Stiebig, H.; Knipp, D.; Wagner, H.

    1999-04-01

    Color detectors based on multilayers of amorphous-silicon alloys facilitate the detection of the three fundamental components of visible light in one single pixel of a sensor array. In order to achieve sensitivity for the blue, green, and red components of light, three different bias voltages are applied to the device. By switching them sequentially the detector is read out. n-i-p-i-i-n structures with a controlled band gap and mobility-lifetime product exhibit excellent stationary properties, namely: good color separation and have dynamic behaviors above 95 dB. Besides the stationary behavior the transient response of a color detector is a further optimization criterion. The experimentally found transient photocurrent response after switching on monochromatic light at different applied bias voltages showed reasonable delay times in the range of tens of milliseconds before reaching steady state. Numerical simulations have been carried out which reproduce this characteristic behavior and facilitate a study of time dependent processes within the device, such as charge transport and storage in localized states. The delay times can be explained by the recharging of electrical defect states in the amorphous material. Consequently, the electrical potential within the device changes, which remarkably affects the carrier transport. Based on these results optimization criteria for the transient behavior of the color detectors are discussed.

  6. Sustained Inhibition of Proliferative Response After Transient FGF Stimulation Is Mediated by Interleukin 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Poole, Ashleigh; Kacer, Doreen; Cooper, Emily; Tarantini, Francesca; Prudovsky, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Transient FGF stimulation of various cell types results in FGF memory--a sustained blockage of efficient proliferative response to FGF and other growth factors. FGF memory establishment requires HDAC activity, indicating its epigenetic character. FGF treatment stimulates proinflammatory NFκB signaling, which is also critical for FGF memory formation. The search for FGF-induced mediators of FGF memory revealed that FGF stimulates HDAC-dependent expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL1α. Similarly to FGF, transient cell treatment with recombinant IL1α inhibits the proliferative response to further FGF and EGF stimulation, but does not prevent FGF receptor-mediated signaling. Interestingly, like cells pretreated with FGF1, cells pretreated with IL1α exhibit enhanced restructuring of actin cytoskeleton and increased migration in response to FGF stimulation. IRAP, a specific inhibitor of IL 1 receptor, and a neutralizing anti-IL1α antibody prevent the formation of FGF memory and rescue an efficient proliferative response to FGF restimulation. A similar effect results following treatment with the anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and dexamethasone. Thus, FGF memory is mediated by proinflammatory IL1 signaling. It may play a role in the limitation of proliferative response to tissue damage and prevention of wound-induced hyperplasia. PMID:26218437

  7. ORIENTATION CLASSES FOR IN-MIGRANT TRANSIENT CHILDREN. A FIRST REPORT, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PONDER, EDDIE G.; AND OTHERS

    A 3-YEAR STUDY OF THE ORIENTATION OF IMMIGRANT TRANSIENT CHILDREN WAS INITIATED IN SEPTEMBER, 1960. PART ONE GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR 1961-61. IT REVIEWS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ORIENTATION CLASSES, THE INSERVICE PROGRAM, COMMUNITY ORIENTATION, AND REPORTS OF SPECIAL SERVICES GIVEN TO THE PROJECT CLASSES. PART TWO…

  8. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part I: Theory and description of model capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffray, A. René; Federici, Gianfranco

    1997-04-01

    RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case.

  9. Response-coefficient method for heat-conduction transients with time-dependent inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceylan, Tamer

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical overview of the response coefficient method for heat conduction transients with time-dependent input forcing functions is presented with a number of illustrative applications. The method may be the most convenient and economical if the same problem is to be solved many times with different input-time histories or if the solution time is relatively long. The method is applicable to a wide variety of problems, including irregular geometries, position-dependent boundary conditions, position-dependent physical properties, and nonperiodic irregular input histories. Nonuniform internal energy generation rates within the structure can also be handled by the method. The area of interest is long-time solutions, in which initial condition is unimportant, and not the early transient period. The method can be applied to one dimensional problems in cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates as well as to two dimensional problems in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates.

  10. The transient roll moment response due to forebody tangential blowing at high angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Jonathan Kwokching

    The sustained ability for controlled flight at high angles of attack is desirable for future aircraft. For combat aircraft, enhancing maneuverability is important to increasing its survivability. For future supersonic commercial aircraft, an increase in lift at high angles of attack leads to improved performance during take-offs and landing, and a reduction in noise pollution. However, nonlinear and unsteady phenomena, such as flow separation and vortex shedding dominate the aerodynamics in the high angle of attack regime. These phenomena cause the onset of lateral loads and decrease the effectiveness of conventional control surfaces. For conventional aircraft, controlled flight at high angle of attack is difficult or unfeasible without augmented means of control and a good understanding of their impact on vehicle characteristics and dynamics. The injection of thin sheets of air tangentially to the forebody of the vehicle has been found to be an extremely promising method for augmenting the control of a flight vehicle at high angles of attack. Forebody Tangential Blowing (FTB) allows the flow structure to be altered in a rational manner and increase the controllability of the vehicle under these flight conditions. The feasibility of using FTB to control the roll-yaw motion of flight vehicles has been demonstrated. Existing knowledge of FTB's nonlinear impact on the aerodynamic moment responses is limited. Currently available dynamic models predict the general trends in the behavior but do not capture important transient effects that dominate the responses when small amounts of blowing is used. These transients can be large in comparison to the steady-state values. This thesis summarizes the experimental and theoretical results of an investigation into the transient effects of Forebody Tangential Blowing. The relationship between the aerodynamic roll moment, vortical flowfield, and blowing strength is examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the physics of

  11. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  12. New automatic ball balancer design to reduce transient-response in rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekil; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-05-01

    Ball-type automatic balancers are used to reduce vibrations in rotating machines due to the rotor's inherent imbalance. An automatic ball balancer, consisting of several balls moving freely in a circular race containing a viscous fluid, is used in various rotating machines to reduce rotor vibrations. A properly designed automatic ball balancer can effectively reduce vibrations at steady state. However, it increases vibrations at transient state compared with rotors without an automatic ball balancer. High vibration response at the transient state may shorten the machine's life and produce unpleasant feelings in humans. In this regard, this paper provides a new automatic ball balancer design that prevents increasing vibrations at the transient state. To analyze the present design's motion properties in comparison with the traditional design, a theoretical model with a five-ball automatic balancer is constructed. Governing equations of this theoretical model are derived using Lagrange's equations, and a simulation is conducted using Matlab. The theoretical model's stability is determined with various values of design parameters at the steady state. Consequentially, this paper provides engineering guidelines for designing reliable ball balancers.

  13. Abnormal autonomic cardiac response to transient hypoxia in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Sangkatumvong, S; Coates, T D; Khoo, M C K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to non-invasively assess cardiac autonomic control in subjects with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxic stimulus. Five African–American SCA patients and seven healthy control subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each subject was exposed to a controlled hypoxic stimulus consisting of five breaths of nitrogen. Time-varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The confounding effects of changes in respiration on the HRV spectral indices were reduced by using a computational model. A significant decrease in the parameters related to parasympathetic control was detected in the post-hypoxic responses of the SCA subjects relative to normal controls. The spectral index related to sympathetic activity, on the other hand, showed a tendency to increase the following hypoxic stimulation, but the change was not significant. This study suggests that there is some degree of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in SCA that is revealed by the response to transient hypoxia. PMID:18460753

  14. Scalnig of transient lift response to actuation in a 3D separated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonius, Tim; Williams, David; Tadmor, Gilead; Kerstens, Wes; Quach, Vien; Buntain, Seth

    2009-11-01

    The transient lift response of a separated flow to short duration (pulsed) blowing is studied on a low Reynolds number, semicircular-planform, flat-plate wing. Actuators were distributed along the leading edge of the wing. The pulse duration, amplitude (supply pressure), and freestream speed were varied in the experiments. We identify two non-dimensional parameters governing the response, and use the data to find functional forms for the lift coefficient increment. We show that the lift coefficient increment is nearly independent of the pulse duration and increases (solely) with the square root of the supply-pressure coefficient up to a saturation. We also find that the shape of the lift response curve is similar to that produced in other experiments with different airfoils and actuators.

  15. Transient Response of Shells of Revolution by Direct Integration and Modal Superposition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, W. B.; Adelman, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an analytical effort to obtain and evaluate transient response data for a cylindrical and a conical shell by use of two different approaches: direct integration and modal superposition are described. The inclusion of nonlinear terms is more important than the inclusion of secondary linear effects (transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia) although there are thin-shell structures where these secondary effects are important. The advantages of the direct integration approach are that geometric nonlinear and secondary effects are easy to include and high-frequency response may be calculated. In comparison to the modal superposition technique the computer storage requirements are smaller. The advantages of the modal superposition approach are that the solution is independent of the previous time history and that once the modal data are obtained, the response for repeated cases may be efficiently computed. Also, any admissible set of initial conditions can be applied.

  16. Finite-element simulation of transient heat response in ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Ando, E; Kagawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    The application of the finite-element method to a transient heat response problem in electrostrictive ultrasonic transducers during their pulsed operation is described. The temperature and thermal stress distribution are of practical importance for the design of the ultrasonic transducers when they are operated at intense levels. Mechanical vibratory loss is responsible for heat in the elastic parts, while dielectric loss is responsible in the ferroelectric parts. A finite-element computer model is proposed for the temperature change evaluation in the transducers with time. Natural and forced cooling convection and heat radiation from the transducers' boundaries are included. Simulation is made for Langevin-type transducer models, for which comparison is made with experimental data. PMID:18267653

  17. Transient response of structures with uncertain properties to nonlinear shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresta, Mauro; Langley, Robin S.; Woodhouse, Jim

    2013-10-01

    A method is presented to predict the transient response of a structure at the driving point following an impact or a shock loading. The displacement and the contact force are calculated solving the discrete convolution between the impulse response and the contact force itself, expressed in terms of a nonlinear Hertzian contact stiffness. Application of random point process theory allows the calculation of the impulse response function from knowledge of the modal density and the geometric characteristics of the structure only. The theory is applied to a wide range of structures and results are experimentally verified for the case of a rigid object hitting a beam, a plate, a thin and a thick cylinder and for the impact between two cylinders. The modal density of the flexural modes for a thick slender cylinder is derived analytically. Good agreement is found between experimental, simulated and published results, showing the reliability of the method for a wide range of situations including impacts and pyroshock applications.

  18. Transient response of nonlinear magneto-optic rotation in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeen, M. Ummal; Rangarajan, G.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2010-01-01

    We study resonant nonlinear magneto-optic rotation (NMOR) in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell as the magnetic field is swept. At low sweep rates, the nonlinear rotation appears as a narrow resonance signal with a linewidth of about “300 μG” (2π×420 Hz). At high sweep rates, the signal shows transient response with an oscillatory decay. The decay time constant is of order 100 ms. The behavior is different for transitions starting from the lower or the upper hyperfine level of the ground state because of optical pumping effects.

  19. Numerical analysis of the transient response of an axisymmetric ablative char layer considering internal flow effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    The differential equations governing the transient response of the char layer of an ablating axisymmetric body, internal pyrolysis gas flow effects being considered, have been derived. These equations have been expanded into finite difference form and programed for numerical solution on a digital computer. Numerical results compare favorably with simplified exact solutions. The complete numerical analysis was used to obtain solutions for two representative body shapes subjected to a typical entry heating environment. Pronounced effects of the lateral flow of pyrolysis gases on the mass flow field within the char layer and the associated surface and pyrolysis interface recession rates are shown.

  20. NGC1300 dynamics - II. The response models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, C.; Patsis, P. A.; Grosbøl, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study the stellar response in a spectrum of potentials describing the barred spiral galaxy NGC1300. These potentials have been presented in a previous paper and correspond to three different assumptions as regards the geometry of the galaxy. For each potential we consider a wide range of Ωp pattern speed values. Our goal is to discover the geometries and the Ωp supporting specific morphological features of NGC1300. For this purpose we use the method of response models. In order to compare the images of NGC1300 with the density maps of our models, we define a new index which is a generalization of the Hausdorff distance. This index helps us to find out quantitatively which cases reproduce specific features of NGC1300 in an objective way. Furthermore, we construct alternative models following a Schwarzschild-type technique. By this method we vary the weights of the various energy levels, and thus the orbital contribution of each energy, in order to minimize the differences between the response density and that deduced from the surface density of the galaxy, under certain assumptions. We find that the models corresponding to Ωp ~ 16 and 22 kms-1kpc-1 are able to reproduce efficiently certain morphological features of NGC1300, with each one having its advantages and drawbacks. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile: programme ESO 69.A-0021. E-mail: ckalapot@phys.uoa.gr (CK); patsis@academyofathens.gr (PAP); pgrosbol@eso.org (PG)

  1. Application of Autoregressive Models to In-Service Estimation of Transient Response for LMFBR Process Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Masashi; Tomobe, Katsuma; Setoguchi, Keiichi; Endou, Akira

    2002-02-15

    The response of a sensor depends on its operating conditions, and thus it is desirable to develop an in-service method for response time estimation. The applicability of the autoregressive (AR) model for this purpose was examined in the case of the fuel subassembly outlet coolant thermocouples and the primary circuit electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) of Monju, the prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan.The use of an AR model with exogenous input (ARX model) is possible when the physical variable to be sensed can be observed by an alternative means with a faster response time than that of the sensor in question. In the case of the subassembly outlet thermocouple, the temperature output from an eddy-current sensor, during pseudorandom reactor power variation, served as the exogenous input.In respect to the thermocouple response, AR and ARX modeling were shown to be applicable, and the transient responses thus derived agreed well with each other and with the results measured by means of a step change in sodium temperature. However, the primary circuit EMF response time, estimated using the AR model, decreased with increasing flow rate even when approaching the rated flow, demonstrating that the method was not completely applicable. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that the response is faster than that estimated in the rated condition.

  2. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

    2014-08-27

    Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

  3. Active landsliding and landscape denudation in response to transient tectonic uplift, Northern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. L.; Roering, J. J.; Miller, S. R.; Kirby, E.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Californian Coast ranges present a unique area to study landscape response to transient tectonic uplift. Studies have shown that an increase in uplift may be balanced by the rate of landsliding in settings of steady uplift. However, the landsliding response to transient tectonic uplift remains to be elucidated. The Californian Coast ranges are shaped by the northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ), which geodynamic modeling suggests produces a transient double-humped uplift field. A major research question is whether we can detect a signature of this transient tectonic uplift in landslide activity and document how the channel network communicates this signal to hillslopes. Using air photos and Worldview imagery, we manually mapped more than 2000 earthflows and debris slides in the Eel and surrounding catchments that span the ~400 km-long region. The velocities of active earthflows were estimated by visually tracking features between images spanning 1993 to 2013. We mapped channel steepness from 10m NED DEMs in Topotoolbox 2 and developed a new tool to automatically define knickpoints along the channel network. Earthflows occur almost exclusively in a band of Franciscan mélange oriented along the MTJ transect whilst debris slides are more evenly distributed by lithology. Both earthflows and debris slides are clustered in the Eel catchment around the proposed uplift peaks and are largely absent outside of these zones. Within these areas of high landslide densities, we observe peaks in active earthflows adjacent to peaks in dormant earthflows to the south, suggesting that the signature of earthflow activity remains for a period of time once the uplift peak has passed. Landslide density, mean landslide area, and earthflow velocity all increase rapidly above threshold values of channel steepness and local relief. In the Eel catchment, where the zone of rapid uplift is commencing, landslides, particularly earth flows, are concentrated

  4. The acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium involves transient synthesis of key acid shock proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J W

    1993-01-01

    Although Salmonella typhimurium prefers neutral-pH environments, it can adapt to survive conditions of severe low-pH stress (pH 3.3). The process, termed the acid tolerance response (ATR), includes two distinct stages. The first stage, called pre-acid shock, is induced at pH 5.8 and involves the production of an inducible pH homeostasis system functional at external pH values below 4.0. The second stage occurs following an acid shock shift to pH 4.5 or below and is called the post-acid shock stage. During this stage of the ATR, 43 acid shock proteins (ASPs) are synthesized. The present data reveal that several ASPs important for pH 3.3 acid tolerance are only transiently produced. Their disappearance after 30 to 40 min of pH 4.4 acid shock coincides with an inability to survive subsequent pH 3.3 acid challenge. Clearly, an essential feature of inducible acid tolerance is an ability to synthesize these key ASPs. The pre-acid shock stage, with its inducible pH homeostasis system, offers the cell an enhanced ability to synthesize ASPs following rapid shifts to conditions below pH 4.0, an external pH that normally prevents ASP synthesis. The data also address possible signals for ASP synthesis. The inducing signal for 22 ASPs appears to be internal acidification, while external pH serves to induce 13 others. Of the 14 transient ASPs, 10 are induced in response to changes in internal pH. Mutations in the fur (ferric uptake regulator) locus that produce an Atr- acid-sensitive phenotype also eliminate induction of six transiently induced ASPs. Images PMID:8458840

  5. Transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis investigated in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo

    2014-10-01

    We found that the transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis is a good indicator of the metabolic status of the cells. The transient blue light photophobic responses of E. gracilis cells were investigated on-chip using a new measurement, 'trace momentum' (TM), to evaluate their swimming activity quantitatively in real time. When blue light of intensity >30 mW cm(-2) was repeatedly switched on and off, a large negative spike in the TM was observed at the onset of the 'blue-light-off' phase. Single-cell trace analysis at a blue light intensity of 40 mW cm(-2) showed that 48% (on average, n = 15) of tumbling Euglena cells ceased activity ('freezing') for 2-30 s at the onset of blue-light-off before commencing forward motion in a straight line (termed 'straightforward swimming'), while 45% smoothly commenced straightforward swimming without delay. The proportion of freezing Euglena cells depended on the blue light intensity (only 20% at 20 mW cm(-2)). When the cells were stimulated by four blue light pulses at the higher intensity, without pre-exposure, the transient freezing behavior was more prominent but, on repeating the stimuli after an 80 min interval in red light, the same cells did not freeze. This shows that the metabolism of the cells had changed to anti-freezing during the interval. The relationship between the interval time with/without light irradiation and the blue light adaptation was elucidated experimentally. The origin of the freezing behavior is considered to be a shortage of a metabolic substance that promotes smooth switching of flagellum movement from in situ rotation mode to a straightforward swimming mode. PMID:25074906

  6. Thermal-hydraulic-structural behavior of the EBR-II IHX for overpower transients

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.; Feldman, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the effects of the Operational Reliability Testing (ORT) program on major plant components of the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II (EBR-II). This paper describes the integrated thermal-hydraulic-structural analyses conducted for the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with the aid of the NATDEMO, THTB, and ANSYS codes. An extensive analysis revealed the stress limiting area to be the junction between the upper head and upper tube sheet. The analyses indicate, however, that the EBR-II IHX, the major plant component most affected by the ORT program, will be able to withstand the thermal stress and accumulated fatigue damage during the lifetime of the plant including the ORT program.

  7. The Transient Dermal Exposure II: Post-Exposure Absorption and Evaporation of Volatile Compounds

    PubMed Central

    FRASCH, H. FREDERICK; BUNGE, ANNETTE L.

    2016-01-01

    The transient dermal exposure is one where the skin is exposed to chemical for a finite duration, after which the chemical is removed and no residue remains on the skin’s surface. Chemical within the skin at the end of the exposure period can still enter the systemic circulation. If it has some volatility, a portion of it will evaporate from the surface before it has a chance to be absorbed by the body. The fate of this post-exposure “skin depot” is the focus of this theoretical study. Laplace domain solutions for concentration distribution, flux, and cumulative mass absorption and evaporation are presented, and time domain results are obtained through numerical inversion. The Final Value Theorem is applied to obtain the analytical solutions for the total fractional absorption by the body and evaporation from skin at infinite time following a transient exposure. The solutions depend on two dimensionless variables: χ, the ratio of evaporation rate to steady-state dermal permeation rate; and the ratio of exposure time to membrane lag time. Simple closed form algebraic equations are presented that closely approximate the complete analytical solutions. Applications of the theory to the dermal risk assessment of pharmaceutical, occupational, and environmental exposures are presented for four example chemicals. PMID:25611182

  8. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: II: Too Observations of Transient LMXBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9045 provided funds for the research project 'TOO Observations of Transient LMxBs' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposal was Dr. M. Mendez (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/1/2000. The original proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. William S. Pauesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. The proposal was intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by making RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of two transient LMXBs, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, if the sources became sufficiently bright.

  9. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  10. ONE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT THERMAL RESPONSE OF MULTILAYER INSULATIVE SYSTEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    This program performs a one-dimensional numerical analysis of the transient thermal response of multi-layer insulative systems. The analysis can determine the temperature distribution through a system consisting of from one to four layers, one of which can be an air gap. Concentrated heat sinks at any interface can be included. The computer program based on the analysis will determine the thickness of a specified layer that will satisfy a temperature limit criterion at any point in the insulative system. The program will also automatically calculate the thickness at several points on a system and determine the total system mass. This program was developed as a tool for designing thermal protection systems for high-speed aerospace vehicles but could be adapted to many areas of industry involved in thermal insulation systems. In this package, the equations describing the transient thermal response of a system are developed. The governing differential equation for each layer and boundary condition are put in finite-difference form using a Taylor's series expansion. These equations yield an essentially tridiagonal matrix of unknown temperatures. A procedure based on Gauss' elimination method is used to solve the matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for the CDC RUN compiler and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series machine operating under SCOPE 3.0. This program requires a minimum of 44K (octal) of 60 bit words of memory.

  11. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  12. Thermomechanical Response of a Gas to Spatially Resolved Power Deposition Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassoy, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) instability is characterized by growing pressure oscillations that affect the integrity and performance of the system. Modeling and prediction have been topics of intense interest to designers for more than 60 years. LPRE combustion provides a wonderful opportunity to employ thermomechanical concepts and mathematical methodologies to quantify the response of combustion chamber gases to spatially distributed, transient thermal energy deposition. Nondimensional Euler equations, including a power deposition term in the energy equation are used to identify crucial parameters, time and length scales, as well as levels of energy deposition, relevant to LPRE performance. The objective is to provide first principles explanations of physical phenomena responsible for mechanical disturbances observed in operating LPRE's.

  13. Cortical Modulation of the Transient Visual Response at Thalamic Level: A TMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Nelson; Mariño, Jorge; de Labra, Carmen; Cudeiro, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The transient visual response of feline dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) cells was studied under control conditions and during the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1 Hz (rTMS@1Hz) on the primary visual cortex (V1). The results show that rTMS@1Hz modulates the firing mode of Y cells, inducing an increase in burst spikes and a decrease in tonic firing. On the other hand, rTMS@1Hz modifies the spatiotemporal characteristics of receptive fields of X cells, inducing a delay and a decrease of the peak response, and a change of the surround/center amplitude ratio of RF profiles. These results indicate that V1 controls the activity of the visual thalamus in a different way in the X and Y pathways, and that this feedback control is consistent with functional roles associated with each cell type. PMID:21347322

  14. Finite-element simulation of transient heat response in ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Ei'ichi; Kagawa, Yukio

    1992-05-01

    The application of the finite-element method to a transient heat response problem in electrostrictive ultrasonic transducers during their pulsed operation is described. The temperature and thermal stress distribution are of practical importance for the design of the ultrasonic transducers when they are operated at intense levels. Mechanical vibratory loss is responsible for heat in the elastic parts while dielectric loss in the ferroelectric parts. A finite-element computer model is proposed for the temperature change evaluation in the transducers with time. Natural and forced cooling convection and heat radiation from the transducers' boundaries are included. Simulation is made for Langevin-type transducer models, for which comparison is made with experimental data.

  15. An Analytical Solution for Transient Thermal Response of an Insulated Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated aerospace vehicle structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. This simplified problem approximates the thermal response of a thermal protection system of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The exact analytical solution is solely a function of two non-dimensional parameters. A simpler function of these two parameters was developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Using these techniques, the maximum structural temperature rise was calculated using the analytical solutions and shown to typically agree with finite element simulations within 10 to 20 percent over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  16. Two Analyte Calibration From The Transient Response Of Potentiometric Sensors Employed With The SIA Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    Calibration models for multi-analyte electronic tongues have been commonly built using a set of sensors, at least one per analyte under study. Complex signals recorded with these systems are formed by the sensors' responses to the analytes of interest plus interferents, from which a multivariate response model is then developed. This work describes a data treatment method for the simultaneous quantification of two species in solution employing the signal from a single sensor. The approach used here takes advantage of the complex information recorded with one electrode's transient after insertion of sample for building the calibration models for both analytes. The departure information from the electrode was firstly processed by discrete wavelet for transforming the signals to extract useful information and reduce its length, and then by artificial neural networks for fitting a model. Two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case for simultaneously corroborating the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Analysis of the Transient Response of a Dual-Fed RC Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Dorraki, Mohsen; Cambrell, Gregory K.; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The transient analysis of a uniform transmission line of finite length is considered in this paper. For the first time this paper provides an analytical expression for the time-domain response of an RC transmission line, which is stimulated by a step function that is fed into both ends of the transmission line. In particular, we find an analytical expression for the step response at the center of the transmission line, in order to determine the worst-case rise time. This is of interest, for example, in large charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays, where long polysilicon lines are dual-fed in order to mitigate degradation in rise time. The analytical expressions for the RC transmission line are supported by computer-simulated lumped RC models. PMID:25679379

  18. Structure of Psb27 in solution: implications for transient binding to photosystem II during biogenesis and repair.

    PubMed

    Cormann, Kai U; Bangert, Jan-Amadé; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Rögner, Matthias; Stoll, Raphael; Nowaczyk, Marc M

    2009-09-22

    Psb27 is a membrane-extrinsic subunit of photosystem II (PSII) where it is involved in the assembly and maintenance of this large membrane protein complex that catalyzes one of the key reactions in the biosphere, the light-induced oxidation of water. Here, we report for the first time the structure of Psb27 that was not observed in the previous crystal structures of PSII due to its transient binding mode. The Psb27 structure shows that the core of the protein is a right-handed four-helix bundle with an up-down-up-down topology. The electrostatic potential of the surface generated by the amphipathic helices shows a dipolar distribution which fits perfectly to the major PsbO binding site on the PSII complex. Moreover, the presented docking model could explain the function of Psb27, which prevents the binding of PsbO to facilitate the assembly of the Mn(4)Ca cluster. PMID:19697957

  19. Transient Response Characteristics of Polymer Stabilized Bend Alignment State of Nematic Liquid Crystal in Pi-Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Youichi; Takahashi, Taiju; Saito, Susumu

    2007-12-01

    It is shown that the transient response characteristics of the polymer stabilized bend (PSB) cell are deteriorated by the polymer stabilization treatment. The increase in rotational viscosity γ1 due to polymer stabilization is experimentally confirmed by the transient displacement current method proposed previously by Imai et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1994) L119] It is shown that the deterioration of the transient characteristics of the PSB cell is caused by the increase in rotational viscosity and the decrease in flow velocity due to the changes in Leslie viscosities resulting from the polymer stabilization treatment.

  20. Plasma Start-up in HIT-II and NSTX using Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Ono, M.

    2008-02-19

    The method of transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) has previously been used in the HITII experiment at the University of Washington to produce 100 kA of closed flux current. The generation of the plasma current by CHI involves the process of magnetic reconnection, which has been experimentally controlled in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to allow this potentially unstable phenomenon to reorganize the magnetic field lines to form closed, nested magnetic surfaces carrying a plasma current up to 160 kA. This is a world record for non-inductive closed-flux current generation, and demonstrates the high current capability of this method.

  1. Small-signal transient response and turn-on delay of polariton laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butté, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical description of the small-signal transient response of polariton laser diodes (pol-LDs) based on simplified coupled rate equations describing the exciton reservoir and the ground-state polariton populations. The analytic expressions derived for two pumping geometries, which are valid for all inorganic semiconductors suitable for the realization of pol-LDs, are compared to exact numerical calculations performed for the specific case of GaN-based devices. The two approaches show excellent agreement provided the current step transient remains within the small-signal limit. We report that the temporal attenuation of the envelopes of the oscillations matches half the value of the damping factor ({γ }{{d}}) of the pol-LDs, which is proportional to the square of the oscillation relaxation resonance frequency. An explicit expression for the dependence of {γ }{{d}} on both the exciton-photon detuning and the driving current (equivalently the optical pump power) is also obtained. In a further step, we derive the expression for the turn-on delay (t d) associated with the build-up of the exciton reservoir population up to its threshold value before coherent light emission occurs. We show that t d has the same functional form for the two pumping geometries. It is equal to the effective exciton lifetime ({τ }{x{eff}}) weighted by a logarithmic dependence on the initial and final driving currents. In addition, {τ }{x{eff}} is shown to be approximately equal to the exciton lifetime, which proves to be the main parameter governing the build-up of polariton lasing/condensation. Beyond electrically driven polariton lasers, we highlight that the temporal shape of the transients could also be easily tested by monitoring the time dependence of the output power of optically pumped polariton lasers subjected to a sudden increase in the continuous wave pump power within the small-signal limit.

  2. Regional estimates of the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Martin; Matthews, H. Damon; de Elía, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts.

  3. The KIVA-II computer program for transient multidimensional chemically reactive flows with sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since its public release in 1985, the KIVA computer program has been utilized for the time dependent analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays in two and three space dimensions. This paper describes some of the improvements to the original version that have been made since that time. The new code called KIVA-II is planned for public release in early 1988. KIVA-II improves the earlier version in the accuracy and efficiency of the computational procedure, the accuracy of the physics submodels, and in versatility and ease of use. Numerical improvements include the use of the ICE solution procedure in place of the acoustic subcycling method and the implementation of a quasi-second-order-accurate convection scheme. Major extensions to the physical submodels include the inclusion of an optional k-epsilon turbulence model, and several additions to the spray model. We illustrate some of the new capabilities by means of example solutions. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Measured responsivities of generation II and hybrid image intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.; Thomas, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    We have measured the absolute and coupled system responsivities of several image intensifier types at several wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Intensifiers characterized include microchannel plate (MCP) generation II proximity-focused and hybrid generation I/generation II electrostatic-focused designs. Configurations including single plate, double plate, nominal and high strip current MCPs, and standard S20 and super generation II enhanced S-20 photocathodes were evaluated. Absolute responsivity measurements were performed using NIST-traceable radiometry instrumentation. The normalized relative sensitivities and overall optical luminous gain performance provided by individual intensifiers when similarly coupled to either high resolution 10-bit RS-170 CCD or FPS cameras are presented along with their radiometric data.

  5. Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-17

    The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.

  6. A transient response analysis of the space shuttle vehicle during liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunty, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed transient response method is formulated for the liftoff analysis of the space shuttle vehicles. It uses a power series approximation with unknown coefficients for the interface forces between the space shuttle and mobile launch platform. This allows the equation of motion of the two structures to be solved separately with the unknown coefficients at the end of each step. These coefficients are obtained by enforcing the interface compatibility conditions between the two structures. Once the unknown coefficients are determined, the total response is computed for that time step. The method is validated by a numerical example of a cantilevered beam and by the liftoff analysis of the space shuttle vehicles. The proposed method is compared to an iterative transient response analysis method used by Martin Marietta for their space shuttle liftoff analysis. It is shown that the proposed method uses less computer time than the iterative method and does not require as small a time step for integration. The space shuttle vehicle model is reduced using two different types of component mode synthesis (CMS) methods, the Lanczos method and the Craig and Bampton CMS method. By varying the cutoff frequency in the Craig and Bampton method it was shown that the space shuttle interface loads can be computed with reasonable accuracy. Both the Lanczos CMS method and Craig and Bampton CMS method give similar results. A substantial amount of computer time is saved using the Lanczos CMS method over that of the Craig and Bampton method. However, when trying to compute a large number of Lanczos vectors, input/output computer time increased and increased the overall computer time. The application of several liftoff release mechanisms that can be adapted to the proposed method are discussed.

  7. Modeling the reversible sink effect in response to transient contaminant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Dongye; Little, John C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2001-02-01

    A physically based diffusion model is used to evaluate the sink effect of diffusion-controlled indoor materials and to predict the transient contaminant concentration in indoor air in response to several time-varying contaminant sources. For simplicity, it is assumed the predominant indoor material is a homogeneous slab, initially free of contaminant, and the air within the room is well mixed. The model enables transient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations to be predicted based on the material/air partition coefficient (K) and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D) of the sink. Model predictions are made for three scenarios, each mimicking a realistic situation in a building. Styrene, phenol, and naphthalene are used as representative VOCs. A styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) backed carpet, vinyl flooring (VF), and a polyurethane foam (PUF) carpet cushion are considered as typical indoor sinks. In scenarios involving a sinusoidal VOC input and a double exponential decaying input, the model predicts the sink has a modest impact for SBR/styrene, but the effect increases for VF/phenol and PUF/naphthalene. In contrast, for an episodic chemical spill, SBR is predicted to reduce the peak styrene concentration considerably. A parametric study reveals for systems involving a large equilibrium constant (K), the kinetic constant (D) will govern the shape of the resulting gas-phase concentration profile. On the other hand, for systems with a relaxed mass transfer resistance, K will dominate the profile.

  8. Modeling the reversible, diffusive sink effect in response to transient contaminant sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Little, J C; Hodgson, A T

    2002-09-01

    A physically based diffusion model is used to evaluate the sink effect of diffusion-controlled indoor materials and to predict the transient contaminant concentration in indoor air in response to several time-varying contaminant sources. For simplicity, it is assumed the predominant indoor material is a homogeneous slab, initially free of contaminant, and the air within the room is well mixed. The model enables transient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations to be predicted based on the material/air partition coefficient (K) and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D) of the sink. Model predictions are made for three scenarios, each mimicking a realistic situation in a building. Styrene, phenol, and naphthalene are used as representative VOCs. A styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) backed carpet, vinyl flooring (VF), and a polyurethane foam (PUF) carpet cushion are considered as typical indoor sinks. In scenarios involving a sinusoidal VOC input and a double exponential decaying input, the model predicts the sink has a modest impact for SBR/styrene, but the effect increases for VF/phenol and PUF/naphthalene. In contrast, for an episodic chemical spill, SBR is predicted to reduce the peak styrene concentration considerably. A parametric study reveals for systems involving a large equilibrium constant (K), the kinetic constant (D) will govern the shape of the resulting gasphase concentration profile. On the other hand, for systems with a relaxed mass transfer resistance, K will dominate the profile. PMID:12244748

  9. Source impedance, transient response, and noise characterization of the TOPAZ 2 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnierkiewicz, D.Y.

    1995-01-20

    Electrical measurements have been performed on the TOPAZ 2 V-71 and Ya-21 Reactors, in order to characterize the source impedance as a function of DC operating point and frequency. The response of the reactor to step changes in load current, as well as the frequency content of the electrical noise generated by the reactor have also been measured. These parameters are important to know in order to design power regulation circuitry which maintains a constant load on the reactor during spacecraft operations for any flight application of the TOPAZ 2 reactors. Voltage spikes at the reactor interface induced by load transients must be limited; the power regulation circuitry must have adequate bandwidth to compensate for spacecraft load dynamics. The methods used to make these measurements will be discussed. Results of the measurements on the Ya-21 reactor indicate the source impedance is dominated by a series resistance and inductance. The equivalent DC leakage resistance from the reactor output to structure was also measured. The self generated noise of the reactor is benign; load induced transients will be sufficiently controlled with capacitive filtering and active regulation circuitry external to the reactor/power distribution system. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  10. Experimental study of frost heaving force based on transient shock response using piezoceramic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruolin; Peng, Tongxiao; Wang, Ming L.

    2016-04-01

    In seasonally frozen soil regions, the frost heaving problem made it difficult to monitor or evaluate the pile safety for long term. So far, no mature tool can be utilized to monitor the frost heaving force, which was unevenly distributed along the pile. In this paper, a piezoceramic sensing based transient excitation response approach was proposed to monitor the frost heaving force in real time. Freeze-thaw cycles can result in great changes of soil engineering properties, including the frost heaving force. So, the freeze-thaw cycle was repeated fourth to study its effect. In the experiment, transient horizontal shock on the top of the pile will be detected by the 6 PZT sensors glued on the pile. The signal data received by the 6 PZT sensors can be used to illustrate the frost heaving force distribution along the pile. Moisture content effect is also one of the important reasons that cause the variation of soil mechanical properties. So three different moisture content (6%, 12%, 18%) testing soil were used in this experiment to detect the variance of the frost heaving force. An energy indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the frost heaving force applied on the pile. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective in monitoring the uneven distribution of frost heaving force along the pile.

  11. Transient autonomic responses during sustained attention in high and low fit young adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perakakis, Pandelis; Ciria, Luis F; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance over long periods of time is especially critical in performing fundamental everyday activities and highly responsible professional tasks (e.g., driving, performing surgery or piloting). Here, we investigated the role of aerobic fitness as a crucial factor related to the vigilance capacity. To this end, two groups of young adult participants (high-fit and low-fit) were compared in terms of reaction time (RT) performance and event-related heart rate responses in a 60' version of the psychomotor vigilance task. The results showed shorter RTs in high-fit participants, but only during the first 24' of the task. Crucially, this period of improved performance was accompanied by a decelerative cardiac response pattern present only in the high-fit group that also disappeared after the first 24'. In conclusion, high aerobic fitness was related to a pattern of transient autonomic responses suggestive of an attentive preparatory state that coincided with improved behavioural performance, and that was sustained for 24'. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the role of the autonomic nervous system reactivity in the relationship between fitness and cognition in general, and sustained attention in particular. PMID:27271980

  12. Transient autonomic responses during sustained attention in high and low fit young adults

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perakakis, Pandelis; Ciria, Luis F.; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance over long periods of time is especially critical in performing fundamental everyday activities and highly responsible professional tasks (e.g., driving, performing surgery or piloting). Here, we investigated the role of aerobic fitness as a crucial factor related to the vigilance capacity. To this end, two groups of young adult participants (high-fit and low-fit) were compared in terms of reaction time (RT) performance and event-related heart rate responses in a 60′ version of the psychomotor vigilance task. The results showed shorter RTs in high-fit participants, but only during the first 24′ of the task. Crucially, this period of improved performance was accompanied by a decelerative cardiac response pattern present only in the high-fit group that also disappeared after the first 24′. In conclusion, high aerobic fitness was related to a pattern of transient autonomic responses suggestive of an attentive preparatory state that coincided with improved behavioural performance, and that was sustained for 24′. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the role of the autonomic nervous system reactivity in the relationship between fitness and cognition in general, and sustained attention in particular. PMID:27271980

  13. Transient Response of Rotor on Rolling-Element Bearings with Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.; Murphy, Brian T.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Internal clearance in rolling element bearings is usually present to allow for radial and axial growth of the rotor-bearing system and to accommodate bearing fit-up. The presence of this clearance also introduces a "dead band" into the load-deflection behavior of the bearing. Previous studies demonstrated that the presence of dead band clearance might have a significant effect on synchronous rotor response. In this work, the authors investigate transient response of a rotor supported on rolling element bearings with internal clearance. In addition, the stiffness of the bearings varies nonlinearly with bearing deflection and with speed. Bearing properties were accurately calculated with a state of the art rolling bearing analysis code. The subsequent rotordynamics analysis shows that for rapid acceleration rates the maximum response amplitude may be less than predicted by steady-state analysis. The presence of clearance may shift the critical speed location to lower speed values. The rotor vibration response exhibits subharmonic components which are more prominent with bearing clearance.

  14. Energetic Particle Anisotropies at the Heliospheric Boundary. II. Transient Features and Rigidity Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, V.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; le Roux, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    In the preceding paper, we showed that large second-order anisotropies of heliospheric ions measured by the Voyager 1 space probe during the August 2012 boundary crossing event could be explained by a magnetic shear across the heliopause preventing particles streaming along the magnetic field from escaping the inner heliosheath. According to Stone et al., the penetration distance of heliospheric ions into the outer heliosheath had a strong dependence on the particle’s Larmor radius. By comparing hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions with the same energy per nucleon, these authors argued that this effect must be attributed to larger cyclotron radii of heavier species rather than differences in velocity. We propose that gradient drift in a nonuniform magnetic field was the cause of both the large second-order anisotropies and the spatial differentiation based on the ion’s rigidity. A latitudinal gradient of magnetic field strength of about 10% per AU between 2012.7 and 2012.9 could have provided drift motion sufficient to match both LECP and CRS Voyager 1 observations. We explain the transient intensity dropout observed prior to the heliocliff using flux tube structures embedded in the heliosheath and magnetically connected to interstellar space. Finally, this paper reports a new indirect measurement of the plasma radial velocity at the heliopause on the basis of the time difference between two cosmic-ray telescopes measuring the same intensity dropout.

  15. Response of a confined gas to volumetric heating in the absence of gravity. I - Slow transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herczynski, A.; Kassoy, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional model for bulk motion induced by a transient volumetric heat source in a confined gas at zero gravity is considered. Rational approximation methods are used to derive a quantitative theory for the gas response to a spatiallly distributed, time-dependent internal power deposition. The resulting low Mach number compressible flow equations are solved by using perturbation methods. Solutions are given for a conduction-free core and thin conductive boundary layers adjacent to the end walls. It is found that may any spatially nonuniform power deposition will cause fluid motion. Net mass transport in the closed container will occur for certain spatially distributed heating. The model mimics the thermal effects of an exothermic gas phase reaction in vapor transport experiments conducted in space. The solutions demonstrate that thermally induced mass transport can be as large as diffusive mass transport in a typical experiment.

  16. Development of advanced modal methods for calculating transient thermal and structural response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    Higher-order modal methods for predicting thermal and structural response are evaluated. More accurate methods or ones which can significantly reduce the size of complex, transient thermal and structural problems are desirable for analysis and are required for synthesis of real structures subjected to thermal and mechanical loading. A unified method is presented for deriving successively higher-order modal solutions related to previously-developed, lower-order methods such as the mode displacement and mode-acceleration methods. A new method, called the force-derivative method, is used to obtain higher-order modal solutions for both uncoupled (proportionally-damped) structural problems as well as thermal problems and coupled (non-proportionally damped) structural problems. The new method is called the force-derivative method because, analogous to the mode-acceleration method, it produces a term that depends on the forcing function and additional terms that depend on the time derivatives of the forcing function.

  17. Science and policy applicability of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative Carbon Emissions (TCRE) provides a quantification of the near-linear relationship between cumulative emissions of carbon and global-mean temperature increase. For its most recent report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change bases its assessment on a large body of literature which encompasses multiple lines of evidence. In this session I will look at the literature basis that was available for TCRE at the time of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, providing an easy-to-access introduction into the TCRE concept. Building on this basis and summarizing my own recent work on this, I will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the use of TCRE for climate policy. While the TCRE concept provides a clear long-term view of what is required to stabilize global-mean temperature increase, I will explore how TCRE uncertainties might pose problems for using TCRE as the only policy guidance in near-term policy decisions.

  18. Vibrational response of free standing single copper nanowire through transient reflectivity microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W.; Perrin, Bernard; Kacemi, Nazim; Becerra, Loïc; Thomas, Olivier; Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Maria; Cassinelli, Marco

    2013-11-01

    We report on the ultrafast vibrational response of single copper nanowires investigated by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The oscillations of the sample reflectivity are correlated with individual modes of resonance for wires with a diameter ranging from 100 to 500 nm and are compared with 2D finite element simulation. Fluctuation of the sample-substrate coupling is illustrated through its effect on the damping rate. We demonstrate elastic confinement in free standing wires which allowed the detection of up to the third harmonic of the breathing mode. By removing the energy relaxation channel towards the substrate, we obtained nano-oscillators with quality factors up to 130. Finally, taking advantage of the very high spectral resolution achieved on free standing wires, we could observe the elastic coupling between two close wires via their polymer cladding.

  19. The $10 trillion value of better information about the transient climate response.

    PubMed

    Hope, Chris

    2015-11-13

    How much is better information about climate change worth? Here, I use PAGE09, a probabilistic integrated assessment model, to find the optimal paths of CO(2) emissions over time and to calculate the value of better information about one aspect of climate change, the transient climate response (TCR). Approximately halving the uncertainty range for TCR has a net present value of about $10.3 trillion (year 2005 US$) if accomplished in time for emissions to be adjusted in 2020, falling to $9.7 trillion if accomplished by 2030. Probabilistic integrated assessment modelling is the only method we have for making estimates like these for the value of better information about the science and impacts of climate change. PMID:26438286

  20. Transient response of multidegree-of-freedom linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.

  1. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced gravel supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael Bliss

    2010-09-01

    The first extensive dataset on subaqueous bed material grain size in a large river subject to reduced sediment supply is investigated alongside bathymetry, modeled flow, and sediment flux. Results suggest that following sediment supply decline and a shift to a finer sediment supply, the gravel-sand transition (GST) in fluvial systems extends and subsequently migrates upstream. The non-abrupt (˜125 km) GST in the Sacramento River corresponds with a hump in the long profile, indicating recent downstream redistribution of sediment that impacts grain sizes. The hump is composed of sediments winnowed from upstream gravel beds that accumulate downstream where slope declines. This increases local sorting values and coarse sediment flux rates in the GST, leading to further gravel loss by burial and net efflux. Thus, in a transient response to sediment supply changes, whether anthropogenic or natural, the GST extends upstream as a longitudinally patchy bed modulated by bedload sheet transport that favors the loss of gravel.

  2. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced gravel supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The first extensive dataset on subaqueous bed material grain size in a large river subject to reduced sediment supply is investigated alongside bathymetry, modeled flow, and sediment flux. Results suggest that following sediment supply decline and a shift to a finer sediment supply, the gravel-sand transition (GST) in fluvial systems extends and subsequently migrates upstream. The non-abrupt (~125 km) GST in the Sacramento River corresponds with a hump in the long profile, indicating recent downstream redistribution of sediment that impacts grain sizes. The hump is composed of sediments winnowed from upstream gravel beds that accumulate downstream where slope declines. This increases local sorting values and coarse sediment flux rates in the GST, leading to further gravel loss by burial and net efflux. Thus, in a transient response to sediment supply changes, whether anthropogenic or natural, the GST extends upstream as a longitudinally patchy bed modulated by bedload sheet transport that favors the loss of gravel.

  3. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a 10% load rejection transient from 75% steady state in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); A load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); A load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); A feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the load rejection from 75% to 65% transient simulation. This transient was one of the tests carried out in Vandellos II NPP during the startup tests.

  4. Transient Conformational Changes of Sensory Rhodopsin II Investigated by Vibrational Stark Effect Probes.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Hendrik; Kube, Ines; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Engelhard, Martin; Heberle, Joachim

    2016-05-19

    Sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) is the primary light sensor in the photophobic reaction of the halobacterium Natronomonas pharaonis. Photoactivation of SRII results in a movement of helices F and G of this seven-helical transmembrane protein. This conformational change is conveyed to the transducer protein (HtrII). Global changes in the protein backbone have been monitored by IR difference spectroscopy by recording frequency shifts in the amide bands. Here we investigate local structural changes by judiciously inserting thiocyanides at different locations of SRII. These vibrational Stark probes absorb in a frequency range devoid of any protein vibrations and respond to local changes in the dielectric, electrostatics, and hydrogen bonding. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate the use of Stark probes to test the conformational changes occurring in SRII 12 ms after photoexcitation and later. Thus, a methodology is provided to trace local conformational changes in membrane proteins by a minimal invasive probe at the high temporal resolution inherent to IR spectroscopy. PMID:27111635

  5. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification.

  6. Effects of background noise on the response of rat and cat motoneurones to excitatory current transients.

    PubMed Central

    Poliakov, A V; Powers, R K; Sawczuk, A; Binder, M D

    1996-01-01

    1. We studied the responses of rat hypoglossal motoneurones to excitatory current transients (ECTs) using a brainstem slice preparation. Steady, repetitive discharge at rates of 12-25 impulses s-1 was elicited from the motoneurones by injecting long (40 s) steps of constant current. Poisson trains of the ECTs were superimposed on these steps. The effects of additional synaptic noise was simulated by adding a zero-mean random process to the stimuli. 2. We measured the effects of the ECTs on motoneurone discharge probability by compiling peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) between the times of occurrence of the ECTs and the motoneurone spikes. The ECTs produced modulation of motoneurone discharge similar to that produced by excitatory postsynaptic currents. 3. The addition of noise altered the pattern of the motoneurone response to the current transients: both the amplitude and the area of the PSTH peaks decreased as the power of the superimposed noise was increased. Noise tended to reduce the efficacy of the ECTs, particularly when the motoneurones were firing at lower frequencies. Although noise also increased the firing frequency of the motoneurones slightly, the effects of noise on ECT efficacy did not simply result from noise-induced changes in mean firing rate. 4. A modified version of the experimental protocol was performed in lumbar motoneurones of intact, pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats. These recordings yielded results similar to those obtained in rat hypoglossal motoneurones in vitro. 5. Our results suggest that the presence of concurrent synaptic inputs reduces the efficacy of any one input. The implications of this change in efficacy and the possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:8866358

  7. Transient response and stability of the AGC-PI closed-loop controlled MEMS vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Chi, X. Z.; Ding, H. T.; Lin, L. T.; Yang, Z. C.; Yan, G. Z.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the transient response and stability of the automatic gain control (AGC) with a proportion-integral (PI) controller for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope, which constructs a closed-loop control system to make the gyroscope achieve a constant amplitude vibration at its resonant frequency. The nonlinear mathematical model for the control system is established by applying the averaging and linearization method, which is evaluated through numerical simulations. The stability and convergence characteristics of the whole loop are investigated by using the phase plane method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The analysis provides a quantitative methodology for selecting the system parameters to approach stability and an optimal transient response. The negative impact induced by drift of the resonant frequency and Q-factor is also discussed. Simulation results predicted by the model are shown to be in close agreement with the experimental results carried out on a doubly decoupled bulk micromachined gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the measured rising time is less than 100 ms without obvious overshoot. The setting time of the whole loop is less than 200 ms with the relative fluctuation of velocity amplitude within approximately 16 ppm for an hour. The resulting overall performance of the gyroscope is tested under atmospheric pressure. The resonant frequencies and the Q-factor of the drive mode and sense mode are 2.986 kHz, 213 and 3.199 kHz, 233, respectively. The gyroscope achieves a scale factor of 27.6 mV/deg/s with nonlinearity less than 120 ppm in the full-scale range of 800° s-1. The threshold of sensitivity is measured to be about 0.005° s-1 with noise equivalent angular rate evaluated to be 0.001°/s/Hz1/2.

  8. Simulations of the transient climate response to climate engineering in the form of cirrus cloud seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storelvmo, Trude; Boos, William R.

    2015-04-01

    We present a global modeling study of a so far understudied climate engineering mechanism (CEM), namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. Here, we contrast transient simulations of the 21st century, using a modified version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We simulate three future scenarios: (i) A simulation with the conventional high emission scenario RCP8.5, (ii) A simulation in which climate engineering in the form of high-latitude cirrus seeding is introduced in the middle of the century without any accompanying emission reductions, and (iii) The same as (ii), but with emissions that are reduced by 50% over the period 2050 to 2100. We consider the last scenario to be one in which climate engineering is used to buy time for mitigation efforts to become effective, while scenario (iii) is one in which high emissions are allowed to continue due to the naïve belief that climate engineering can be used to prevent global warming in perpetuity. Our analysis focuses on the contrasts between the regional and global climates of year 2100 produced by the three scenarios.

  9. Transient increase of ATP as a response to temperature up-shift in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soini, Jaakko; Falschlehner, Christina; Mayer, Christina; Böhm, Daniela; Weinel, Stefan; Panula, Johanna; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli induces the heat shock response to a temperature up-shift which is connected to the synthesis of a characteristic set of proteins, including ATP dependent chaperones and proteases. Therefore the balance of the nucleotide pool is important for the adaptation and continuous function of the cell. Whereas it has been observed in eukaryotic cells, that the ATP level immediately decreased after the temperature shift, no data are available for E. coli about the adenosine nucleotide levels during the narrow time range of minutes after a temperature up-shift. Results The current study shows that a temperature up-shift is followed by a very fast significant transient increase of the cellular ATP concentration within the first minutes. This increase is connected to a longer lasting elevation of the cellular respiration and glucose uptake. Also the mRNA level of typical heat shock genes increases within only one minute after the heat-shock. Conclusion The presented data prove the very fast response of E. coli to a heat-shock and that the initial response includes the increase of the ATP pool which is important to fulfil the need of the cell for new syntheses, as well as for the function of chaperones and proteases. PMID:15804347

  10. Heat exchanger temperature response for duty-cycle transients in the NGNP/HTE.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-12

    Control system studies were performed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) interfaced to the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) plant. Temperature change and associated thermal stresses are important factors in determining plant lifetime. In the NGNP the design objective of a 40 year lifetime for the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) in particular is seen as a challenge. A control system was designed to minimize temperature changes in the IHX and more generally at all high-temperature locations in the plant for duty-cycle transients. In the NGNP this includes structures at the reactor outlet and at the inlet to the turbine. This problem was approached by identifying those high-level factors that determine temperature rates of change. First are the set of duty cycle transients over which the control engineer has little control but which none-the-less must be addressed. Second is the partitioning of the temperature response into a quasi-static component and a transient component. These two components are largely independent of each other and when addressed as such greater understanding of temperature change mechanisms and how to deal with them is achieved. Third is the manner in which energy and mass flow rates are managed. Generally one aims for a temperature distribution that minimizes spatial non-uniformity of thermal expansion in a component with time. This is can be achieved by maintaining a fixed spatial temperature distribution in a component during transients. A general rule of thumb for heat exchangers is to maintain flow rate proportional to thermal power. Additionally the product of instantaneous flow rate and heat capacity should be maintained the same on both sides of the heat exchanger. Fourth inherent mechanisms for stable behavior should not be compromised by active controllers that can introduce new feedback paths and potentially create under-damped response. Applications of these principles to the development of a plant control strategy for

  11. Transcriptomics Modeling of the Late-Gestation Fetal Pituitary Response to Transient Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Charles E.; Chang, Eileen I.; Richards, Elaine M.; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background The late-gestation fetal sheep responds to hypoxia with physiological, neuroendocrine, and cellular responses that aid in fetal survival. The response of the fetus to hypoxia represents a coordinated effort to maximize oxygen transfer from the mother and minimize wasteful oxygen consumption by the fetus. While there have been many studies aimed at investigating the coordinated physiological and endocrine responses to hypoxia, and while immunohistochemical or in situ hybridization studies have revealed pathways supporting the endocrine function of the pituitary, there is little known about the coordinated cellular response of the pituitary to the hypoxia. Results Thirty min hypoxia (from 17.0±1.7 to 8.0±0.8 mm Hg, followed by 30 min normoxia) upregulated 595 and downregulated 790 genes in fetal pituitary (123–132 days’ gestation; term = 147 days). Network inference of up- and down- regulated genes revealed a high degree of functional relatedness amongst the gene sets. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of cellular metabolic processes (e.g., RNA synthesis, response to estrogens) and downregulation of protein phosphorylation, protein metabolism, and mitosis. Genes found to be at the center of the network of upregulated genes included genes important for purine binding and signaling. At the center of the downregulated network were genes involved in mRNA processing, DNA repair, sumoylation, and vesicular trafficking. Transcription factor analysis revealed that both up- and down-regulated gene sets are enriched for control by several transcription factors (e.g., SP1, MAZ, LEF1, NRF1, ELK1, NFAT, E12, PAX4) but not for HIF-1, which is known to be an important controller of genomic responses to hypoxia. Conclusions The multiple analytical approaches used in this study suggests that the acute response to 30 min of transient hypoxia in the late-gestation fetus results in reduced cellular metabolism and a pattern of gene expression that is

  12. Numerical conversion of transient to harmonic response functions for linear viscoelastic materials.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, M D

    1997-02-01

    Viscoelastic material behavior is often characterized using one of the three measurements: creep, stress-relaxation or dynamic sinusoidal tests. A two-stage numerical method was developed to allow representation of data from creep and stress-relaxation tests on the Fourier axis in the Laplace domain. The method assumes linear behavior and is theoretically applicable to any transient test which attains an equilibrium state. The first stage numerically resolves the Laplace integral to convert temporal stress and strain data, from creep or stress-relaxation, to the stiffness function, G(s), evaluated on the positive real axis in the Laplace domain. This numerical integration alone allows the direct comparison of data from transient experiments which attain a final equilibrium state, such as creep and stress relaxation, and allows such data to be fitted to models expressed in the Laplace domain. The second stage of this numerical procedure maps the stiffness function, G(s), from the positive real axis to the positive imaginary axis to reveal the harmonic response function, or dynamic stiffness, G(j omega). The mapping for each angular frequency, s, is accomplished by fitting a polynomial to a subset of G(s) centered around a particular value of s, substituting js for s and thereby evaluating G(j omega). This two-stage transformation circumvents previous numerical difficulties associated with obtaining Fourier transforms of the stress and strain time domain signals. The accuracy of these transforms is verified using model functions from poroelasticity, corresponding to uniaxial confined compression of an isotropic material and uniaxial unconfined compression of a transversely isotropic material. The addition of noise to the model data does not significantly deteriorate the transformed results and data points need not be equally spaced in time. To exemplify its potential utility, this two-stage transform is applied to experimental stress relaxation data to obtain the

  13. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  14. Transient magnetorheological response of magnetoactive elastomers to step and pyramid excitations.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Inna A; Kramarenko, Elena Yu; Stepanov, Gennady V; Sorokin, Vladislav V; Stadler, Dominik; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2016-03-21

    Transient rheological response of magnetoactive elastomers is experimentally studied using dynamic torsion at a fixed oscillation frequency in temporally stepwise changing magnetic fields and oscillation amplitudes. For step magnetic-field excitations, at least three exponential functions are required to reasonably describe the time behavior of the storage shear modulus over long time scales (>10(3) s). The deduced characteristic time constants of the corresponding rearrangement processes of the filler network differ approximately by one order of magnitude: τ1 ≲ 10(1) s, τ2 ∼ 10(2) s, and τ3 ∼ 10(3) s. The sudden imposition of the external magnetic field activates a very fast rearrangement process with the characteristic time under 10 s, which cannot be determined more precisely due to the measurement conditions. Even more peculiar transient behavior has been observed during pyramid excitations, when either the external magnetic field was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed strain amplitude γ or the strain amplitude γ was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed magnetic field. In particular, the so-called "cross-over effect" has been identified in both dynamical loading programs. This cross-over effect seems to be promoted by the application of the external magnetic field. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the specific rearrangement of the magnetic filler network under the simultaneous action of the external magnetic field and shear deformation. Striking similarities of the observed phenomena to the structural relaxation processes in glassy materials and to the jamming transition of granular materials are pointed out. The obtained results are important for fundamental understanding of material behavior in magnetic fields as well as for the development of devices on the basis of magnetoactive elastomeric materials. PMID:26882044

  15. Response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow during power operation

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow followed by a PPS-activated scram are presented. The experimental results clearly indicate a smooth transition to natural convective flow with a quite modest incore temperature transient. The accompanying calculations using the NATDEMO code agree quite well with the measured temperatures and flow rates throughout the primary system. The only region of the plant where a significant discrepancy between the measurements and calculations occurred was in the IHX. The reasons for this result could not be definitively determined, but it is speculated that the one-dimensional assumptions used in the modeling may not be valid in the IHX during buoyancy driver flows.

  16. Transient Stability and Frequency Response of the US Western Interconnection under conditions of High Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kara; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei; Pajic, Slobodan; D'Aquila, Robert

    2015-04-15

    Adding large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. Our paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrations of wind and solar generation. Moreover, the main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.

  17. Transient electrokinetic response of finely layered, fluid-filled porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, M.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Garambois, S.

    2012-04-01

    Transient electrokinetic coupling phenomena created at the microscopic scale by the passage of seismic waves through fluid-saturated porous media generate conversions between seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy which can be observed at the macroscopic scale. Far from being a mere scientific curiosity, transient seismoelectric or electroseismic phenomena are especially appealing to oil and gas exploration and hydrogeology as they open up the (fairly unique) possibility to characterize fluid-bearing geological formations with the resolution of seismic methods. Indeed, electrokinetic effects are likely to reconcile the sensitivity of electromagnetic exploration methods to fluids with the high resolving power of seismic prospecting techniques for structural imaging, thus naturally bridging the gap between these two important geophysical investigation means. Accounting for the electromagnetic dimension of the seismic wave propagation, or conversely, accounting for the seismic dimension of electromagnetic wave propagation gives new insights into the microstructure and physico-chemistry of fluid-filled porous or fractured media. We present full-waveform simulations of the coupled seismoelectromagnetic wave propagation in fluid-saturated, finely stratified porous media of interest to oil and gas exploration. Our simulation code uses the macroscopic governing equations derived by Pride [1994], which couple Biot's theory and Maxwell equations via flux/force transport equations. The synthetic seismoelectrograms and seismomagnetrograms are computed by extending the generalized reflection and transmission matrix method and by using a discrete wave number integration of the global reflectivity obtained in the frequency wave number domain. The theoretical signals clearly display the coseismic electric and magnetic fields travelling with the seismic disturbances as well as the seismic-to-electromagnetic conversions taking place at contrasts in solid and fluid properties. Our

  18. An evaluation of higher-order model methods for calculating transient structural response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Riley, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A higher-order modal method proposed by Leung for transient structural analysis entitled the force-derivative method is evaluated. This method repeatedly integrates by parts with respect to time the convolution-integral form of the structural response to produce successively better approximations to the contribution of the higher modes which are neglected in the modal summation. Comparisons are made of the force-derivative, the mode-displacement, and the mode-acceleration methods for several numerical example problems for various times, levels of damping, and forcing functions. The example problems include a tip-loaded cantilevered beam and a simply-supported multispan beam. The force-derivative method is shown to converge to an accurate solution in fewer modes than either the mode-displacement or the mode-acceleration methods. In addition, for problems in which there are a large number of closely-spaced frequencies whose mode shapes have a negligible contribution to the response, the force-derivative method is very effective in representing the effect of the important, but otherwise neglected, higher modes.

  19. Global electromagnetic induction in the moon and planets. [poloidal eddy current transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments and analyses concerning electromagnetic induction in the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies are summarized. The theory of classical electromagnetic induction in a sphere is first considered, and this treatment is extended to the case of the moon, where poloidal eddy-current response has been found experimentally to dominate other induction modes. Analysis of lunar poloidal induction yields lunar internal electrical conductivity and temperature profiles. Two poloidal-induction analytical techniques are discussed: a transient-response method applied to time-series magnetometer data, and a harmonic-analysis method applied to data numerically Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain, with emphasis on the former technique. Attention is given to complicating effects of the solar wind interaction with both induced poloidal fields and remanent steady fields. The static magnetization field induction mode is described, from which are calculated bulk magnetic permeability profiles. Magnetic field measurements obtained from the moon and from fly-bys of Venus and Mars are studied to determine the feasibility of extending theoretical and experimental induction techniques to other bodies in the solar system.

  20. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  2. Transient Dynamic Response and Failure of Sandwich Composite Structures under Impact Loading with Fluid Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. W.; Violette, M. A.; McCrillis, R. D.; Didoszak, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) effect on transient dynamic response and failure of sandwich composite structures under impact loading. The primary sandwich composite used in this study consisted of a 6.35 mm balsa core and a multi-ply symmetrical plain weave 6 oz E-glass skin. Both clamped sandwich composite plates and beams were studied using a uniquely designed vertical drop-weight testing machine. There were three impact conditions on which these experiments focused. The first of these conditions was completely dry (or air surrounded) testing. The second condition was completely water submerged. The final condition was also a water submerged test with air support at the backside of the plates. The tests were conducted sequentially, progressing from a low to high drop height to determine the onset and spread of damage to the sandwich composite when impacted with the test machine. The study showed the FSI effect on sandwich composite structures is very critical such that impact force, strain response, and damage size are generally much greater with FSI under the same impact condition. As a result, damage initiates at much lower impact energy conditions with the effect of FSI. Neglecting to account for FSI effects on sandwich composite structures results in very non-conservative analysis and design. Additionally, it was observed that the damage location changed for sandwich composite beams with the effect of FSI.

  3. Reactions of lignin peroxidase compounds I and II with veratryl alcohol. Transient-state kinetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wariishi, H; Huang, J; Dunford, H B; Gold, M H

    1991-11-01

    Stopped-flow techniques were utilized to investigate the kinetics of the reaction of lignin peroxidase compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) with veratryl alcohol (VA). All rate data were collected from single turnover experiments under pseudo first-order conditions. The reaction of LiPI with VA strictly obeys second-order kinetics over the pH range 2.72-5.25 as demonstrated by linear plots of the pseudo first-order rate constants versus concentrations of VA. The second-order rate constants are strongly dependent on pH and range from 2.62 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 (pH 2.72) to 1.45 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 (pH 5.25). The reaction of LiPII and VA exhibits saturation behavior when the observed pseudo first-order rate constants are plotted against VA concentrations. The saturation phenomenon is quantitatively explained by the formation of a 1:1 LiPII-substrate complex. Results of kinetic and rapid scan spectral analyses exclude the formation of a LiPII-VA cation radical complex. The first-order dissociation rate constant and the equilibrium dissociation constant for the LiPII reaction are also pH dependent. Binding of VA to LiPII is controlled by a heme-linked ionizable group of pKa approximately 4.2. The pH profiles of the second-order rate constants for the LiPI reaction and of the first-order dissociation constants for the LiPII reaction both demonstrate two pKa values at approximately 3.0 and approximately 4.2. Protonated oxidized enzyme intermediates are most active, suggesting that only electron transfer, not proton uptake from the reducing substrate, occurs at the enzyme active site. These results are consistent with the one-electron oxidation of VA to an aryl cation radical by LiPI and LiPII. PMID:1939119

  4. Dynamic Response in Transient Stress-Field Behavior Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Andrew

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique which is used to exploit geologic features and subsurface properties in an effort to increase production in low-permeability formations. The process of hydraulic fracturing provides a greater surface contact area between the producing formation and the wellbore and thus increases the amount of recoverable hydrocarbons from within the reservoir. The use of this stimulation technique has brought on massive applause from the industry due to its widespread success and effectiveness, however the dynamic processes that take part in the development of hydraulic fractures is a relatively new area of research with respect to the massive scale operations that are seen today. The process of hydraulic fracturing relies upon understanding and exploiting the in-situ stress distribution throughout the area of study. These in-situ stress conditions are responsible for directing fracture orientation and propagation paths throughout the period of injection. The relative magnitude of these principle stresses is key in developing a successful stimulation plan. In horizontal well plan development the interpretation of stress within the reservoir is required for determining the azimuth of the horizontal well path. These horizontal laterals are typically oriented in a manner such that the well path lies parallel to the minimum horizontal stress. This allows for vertical fractures to develop transversely to the wellbore, or normal to the least principle stress without the theoretical possibility of fractures overlapping, creating the most efficient use of the fluid energy during injection. The orientation and magnitude of these in-situ stress fields however can be dynamic, controlled by the subsequent fracture propagation and redistribution of the surrounding stresses. That is, that as the fracture propagates throughout the reservoir, the relative stress fields surrounding the fractures may see a shift and deviate from their original direction or

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

  6. The analysis of the transient pressure response of the shuttle EPS-ECS cryogenic tanks with external pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. E.; Patterson, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of transient pressures in externally pressurized cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen tanks was conducted and the effects of design variables on pressure response determined. The analysis was conducted with a computer program which solves the compressible viscous flow equations in two-dimensional regions representing the tank and external loop. The external loop volume, thermal mass, and heat leak were the dominant design variables affecting the system pressure response. No significant temperature stratification occurred in the fluid contained in the tank.

  7. Inferring the Mode of Selection from the Transient Response to Demographic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Daniel; Do, Ron; Reich, David; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Despite substantial recent progress in theoretical population genetics, most models work under the assumption of a constant population size. Deviations from fixed population sizes are ubiquitous in natural populations, many of which experience population bottlenecks and re-expansions. The non-equilibrium dynamics introduced by a large perturbation in population size are generally viewed as a confounding factor. In the present work, we take advantage of the transient response to a population bottleneck to infer features of the mode of selection and the distribution of selective effects. We develop an analytic framework and a corresponding statistical test that qualitatively differentiates between alleles under additive and those under recessive or more general epistatic selection. This statistic can be used to bound the joint distribution of selective effects and dominance effects in any diploid sexual organism. We apply this technique to human population genetic data, and severely restrict the space of allowed selective coefficients in humans. Additionally, one can test a set of functionally or medically relevant alleles for the primary mode of selection, or determine the local regional variation in dominance coefficients along the genome.

  8. Hearing status in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia by auditory brain stem evoked response and transient evoked otoacoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeid; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Rozita; Karimi, Ghasem; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Eslami, Zia; Baradarnfar, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia at neonatal period is one of the major deteriorating factors of the auditory system. If left untreated, it may cause certain cerebral damage. This study aims to evaluate the impact of hyperbilirubinemia on the hearing of neonate. This study was conducted on 35 newborn babies with jaundice (bilirubin more than 20 mg/dL). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) tests were performed, after treatment and one year after. ABR test results indicated that 26 children (74.3%) had normal hearing but 9 (25.7%) suffered from an impairment. As for TEOAE test, 30 children (85.7%) passed whereas the remaining (14.3%) seemed to be failures. The comparative results of the two tests pointed to autonomic neuropathy /autonomic dysreflexia symptoms in 5 babies. Due to the high incidence of autonomic neuropathy/autonomic dysreflexia among hyperbilirubinemic babies, screening in this regard seems reasonable. Our result emphasizes the necessity of more experiments on the afflicted areas. PMID:21598220

  9. A multi-signature brain-computer interface: use of transient and steady-state responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severens, Marianne; Farquhar, Jason; Duysens, Jacques; Desain, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper was to increase the information transfer in brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Therefore, a multi-signature BCI was developed and investigated. Stimuli were designed to simultaneously evoke transient somatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state somatosensory potentials (SSSEPs) and the ERPs and SSSEPs in isolation. Approach. Twelve subjects participated in two sessions. In the first session, the single and combined stimulation conditions were compared on these somatosensory responses and on the classification performance. In the second session the on-line performance with the combined stimulation was evaluated while subjects received feedback. Furthermore, in both sessions, the performance based on ERP and SSSEP features was compared. Main results. No difference was found in the ERPs and SSSEPs between stimulation conditions. The combination of ERP and SSSEP features did not perform better than with ERP features only. In both sessions, the classification performances based on ERP and combined features were higher than the classification based on SSSEP features. Significance. Although the multi-signature BCI did not increase performance, it also did not negatively impact it. Therefore, such stimuli could be used and the best performing feature set could then be chosen individually.

  10. Comparison of transient and stationary neutral pressure response in the DIII-D advanced divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C.C.; Hogan, J.T.; Owen, L.W.; Mioduszewski, P.K. ); Maingi, R. ); Hill, D.N. ); Buchenauer, D. ); Ali Mahdavi, M.; Schaffer, M.J.; Petrie, T.W.; Jackson, G.L.; Evans, T.E. (General Atomics,

    1992-05-01

    The DIII-D divertor baffle system was designed to facilitate density control in long pulse H-mode discharges by removing a particle flux equal to the neutral beam fueling rate ({approximately}20 Torr-1/s) with a {approximately}1mTorr neutral pressure under the baffle (p{sub 0}). Initial measurements of the baffle pressure indicated that p{sub 0}{approximately} 10 mTorr (without pumping or biasing), a value much in excess of that required for long pulse density control. Radial sweeps of the X-point position have been employed to determine the maximum p{sub 0}, as well as to establish the dependence of this pressure on geometry. An estimate of the particle equilibration time for the baffle system has been made by studying the baffle pressure response to giant'' ELM effects. Steady state'' experiments in which the X-point position was fixed for {approximately}2.5s have also been carried out and steady baffle pressures were observed. The scaling of baffle pressure with plasma parameters has been found to be similar under transient and steady state'' conditions. Detailed modeling of these experiments with the B2, DEGAS, and WDIFFUSE (wall model) codes has been made.

  11. Comparison of transient and stationary neutral pressure response in the DIII-D advanced divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C.C.; Hogan, J.T.; Owen, L.W.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Maingi, R.; Hill, D.N.; Buchenauer, D.; Ali Mahdavi, M.; Schaffer, M.J.; Petrie, T.W.; Jackson, G.L.; Evans, T.E.; Haas, G.

    1992-05-01

    The DIII-D divertor baffle system was designed to facilitate density control in long pulse H-mode discharges by removing a particle flux equal to the neutral beam fueling rate ({approximately}20 Torr-1/s) with a {approximately}1mTorr neutral pressure under the baffle (p{sub 0}). Initial measurements of the baffle pressure indicated that p{sub 0}{approximately} 10 mTorr (without pumping or biasing), a value much in excess of that required for long pulse density control. Radial sweeps of the X-point position have been employed to determine the maximum p{sub 0}, as well as to establish the dependence of this pressure on geometry. An estimate of the particle equilibration time for the baffle system has been made by studying the baffle pressure response to ``giant`` ELM effects. ``Steady state`` experiments in which the X-point position was fixed for {approximately}2.5s have also been carried out and steady baffle pressures were observed. The scaling of baffle pressure with plasma parameters has been found to be similar under transient and ``steady state`` conditions. Detailed modeling of these experiments with the B2, DEGAS, and WDIFFUSE (wall model) codes has been made.

  12. Declining uncertainty in transient climate response as CO2 forcing dominates future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, Gunnar; Boucher, Olivier; Bréon, François-Marie; Forster, Piers; Shindell, Drew

    2015-03-01

    Carbon dioxide has exerted the largest portion of radiative forcing and surface temperature change over the industrial era, but other anthropogenic influences have also contributed. However, large uncertainties in total forcing make it difficult to derive climate sensitivity from historical observations. Anthropogenic forcing has increased between the Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC; refs , ), although its relative uncertainty has decreased. Here we show, based on data from the two reports, that this evolution towards lower uncertainty can be expected to continue into the future. Because it is easier to reduce air pollution than carbon dioxide emissions and because of the long lifetime of carbon dioxide, the less uncertain carbon dioxide forcing is expected to become increasingly dominant. Using a statistical model, we estimate that the relative uncertainty in anthropogenic forcing of more than 40% quoted in the latest IPCC report for 2011 will be almost halved by 2030, even without better scientific understanding. Absolute forcing uncertainty will also decline for the first time, provided projected decreases in aerosols occur. Other factors being equal, this stronger constraint on forcing will bring a significant reduction in the uncertainty of observation-based estimates of the transient climate response, with a 50% reduction in its uncertainty range expected by 2030.

  13. Time-domain approach for the transient responses in stratified viscoelastic Earth models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanyk, L.; Moser, J.; Yuen, D. A.; Matyska, C.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed the numerical algorithm for the computation of transient viscoelastic responses in the time domain for a radially stratified Earth model. Stratifications in both the elastic parameters and the viscosity profile have been considered. The particular viscosity profile employed has a viscosity maximum with a constrast of O(100) in the mid lower mantle. The distribution of relaxation times reveals the presence of a continuous spectrum situated between O(100) and O(exp 4) years. The principal mode is embedded within this continuous spectrum. From this initial-value approach we have found that for the low degree harmonics the non-modal contributions are comparable to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode results are found to decrease strongly with increasing angular order. These calculations also show that a time-dependent effective relaxation time can be defined, which can be bounded by the relaxation times of the principal modes.

  14. Estimating transient climate response using consistent temperature reconstruction methods in models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; Cowtan, K.; Hawkins, E.; Stolpe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observational temperature records such as HadCRUT4 typically have incomplete geographical coverage and blend air temperature over land with sea surface temperatures over ocean, in contrast to model output which is commonly reported as global air temperature. This complicates estimation of properties such as the transient climate response (TCR). Observation-based estimates of TCR have been made using energy-budget constraints applied to time series of historical radiative forcing and surface temperature changes, while model TCR is formally derived from simulations where CO2 increases at 1% per year. We perform a like-with-like comparison using three published energy-budget methods to derive modelled TCR from historical CMIP5 temperature series sampled in a manner consistent with HadCRUT4. Observation-based TCR estimates agree to within 0.12 K of the multi-model mean in each case and for 2 of the 3 energy-budget methods the observation-based TCR is higher than the multi-model mean. For one energy-budget method, using the HadCRUT4 blending method leads to a TCR underestimate of 0.3±0.1 K, relative to that estimated using global near-surface air temperatures.

  15. Transient and Post-irradiation Response of Optoelectronic Devices to Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, F. A. A.; Chee, F. P.

    2015-01-01

    Space and ground level electronic equipment with semiconductor devices are subjected to the deleterious effects by radiation. This paper is attempted to present the transient and post-irradiation response of optoelectronic devices to gamma (γ) rays utilizing cobalt-60. In situ measurements were made on the devices under test (DUTs) up to a total dose of 60 krad followed by a post-irradiation not in-flux test for eight hours. Current transfer ratio (CTR) with is the vital merit of the optoelectronic system is found to decrease remarkably with the absorbed dose. This degradation is induced by the interaction of the energetic photons from gamma rays via two main mechanisms. The dominant effect is the mechanism by ionization while the secondary is by displacement. This radiation effect is found to arouse either a permanent or temporarily damage in the DUTs depending on their current drives and also the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) absorbed. The TID effects by gamma rays are cumulative and gradually take place throughout the lifecycle of the devices exposed to radiation. The full damage cascade phenomenon in the DUTs is calculated via the simulation.

  16. Transient response of two-level atoms to bichromatic optical field excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.

    1992-01-01

    The transient response of two-level atoms to bichromatic optical field excitation is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The bichromatic optical field consists of a strong pump frequency component and a relatively weak perturber frequency component. Both pump and perturber fields are near-resonant with the atomic transition. Theoretical investigation covers the atomic dynamics under wide-ranging bichromatic excitation conditions. It is shown that the atomic dynamics is very complex. Generally speaking, the strong pump field tends to stabilize the atoms against the influence of the perturber field. Exceptions occur when the perturber field is detuned from the pump field by the Rabi frequency of the pump or its subharmonics. In addition, it is found that the atomic evolution is sensitive to the initial relative phase of the pump and perturber field. An experiment has been performed using a [sup 174]Yb atomic beam. The bichromatic field is in the strong-pump-weak-perturber regime, where the pump field is always resonant with the [sup 174]Yb atomic transition. Optical mutation of a dressed-atom transition is observed for the first time. Also, dressed-state polarization of initially ground-state atoms is realized when the perturber field is detuned from the atomic transition by the Rabi frequency of the pump and the two excitation fields have some specific initial relative phase. In both cases, the experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of the theory.

  17. Comparison of electrical transients and corrosion responses of pulsed MP35N and 316LVM electrodes.

    PubMed

    Riedy, L W; Walter, J S

    1994-01-01

    Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) is often limited by electrode malfunctions such as corrosion and breakage, particularly for intramuscular and epimysial type electrodes. As a result, the electrochemical charge injection characteristics and corrosion responses of single strand 316LVM stainless steel and MP35N nickel-cobalt alloy electrodes were evaluated in vitro. For charge balance, capacitor coupled monophasic protocols with varying charge injections were employed. Electrodes were evaluated with either positive-first or negative-first pulses, 60 Hz, 100 microsec pulse duration, and stimulation periods from 100 to 240 hours. Charge injection densities ranged from 20 to 80 microC/cm2. For both anodic-first and cathodic-first pulsing, the potential transients for the MP35N electrodes were more extreme than for the 316LVM electrodes over the test period, and increased corrosion was apparent on the MP35N electrodes from both optical and scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, 316LVM, but not MP35N, may be suitable for FNS applications with charge injection densities less than 40 microC/cm2. PMID:8074331

  18. The inconstancy of the transient climate response parameter under increasing CO2

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, J. M.; Andrews, T.; Good, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the model-mean increase in global mean surface air temperature T under the 1pctCO2 scenario (atmospheric CO2 increasing at 1% yr−1) during the second doubling of CO2 is 40% larger than the transient climate response (TCR), i.e. the increase in T during the first doubling. We identify four possible contributory effects. First, the surface climate system loses heat less readily into the ocean beneath as the latter warms. The model spread in the thermal coupling between the upper and deep ocean largely explains the model spread in ocean heat uptake efficiency. Second, CO2 radiative forcing may rise more rapidly than logarithmically with CO2 concentration. Third, the climate feedback parameter may decline as the CO2 concentration rises. With CMIP5 data, we cannot distinguish the second and third possibilities. Fourth, the climate feedback parameter declines as time passes or T rises; in 1pctCO2, this effect is less important than the others. We find that T projected for the end of the twenty-first century correlates more highly with T at the time of quadrupled CO2 in 1pctCO2 than with the TCR, and we suggest that the TCR may be underestimated from observed climate change. PMID:26438279

  19. The inconstancy of the transient climate response parameter under increasing CO2.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J M; Andrews, T; Good, P

    2015-11-13

    In the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the model-mean increase in global mean surface air temperature T under the 1pctCO2 scenario (atmospheric CO(2) increasing at 1% yr(-1)) during the second doubling of CO(2) is 40% larger than the transient climate response (TCR), i.e. the increase in T during the first doubling. We identify four possible contributory effects. First, the surface climate system loses heat less readily into the ocean beneath as the latter warms. The model spread in the thermal coupling between the upper and deep ocean largely explains the model spread in ocean heat uptake efficiency. Second, CO(2) radiative forcing may rise more rapidly than logarithmically with CO(2) concentration. Third, the climate feedback parameter may decline as the CO(2) concentration rises. With CMIP5 data, we cannot distinguish the second and third possibilities. Fourth, the climate feedback parameter declines as time passes or T rises; in 1pctCO2, this effect is less important than the others. We find that T projected for the end of the twenty-first century correlates more highly with T at the time of quadrupled CO(2) in 1pctCO2 than with the TCR, and we suggest that the TCR may be underestimated from observed climate change. PMID:26438279

  20. Groundwater response to changing water-use practices in sloping aquifers using convolution of transient response functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the impact of a sloping base on the movement of transients through groundwater systems. Dimensionless variables and regression of model results are employed to develop functions relating the transient change in saturated thickness to the distance upgradient and downgradient from ...

  1. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  2. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced calcium transient in ovine large luteal cells: II. Modulation of the transient and resting cytosolic free calcium alters progesterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Wegner, J A; Martinez-Zaguilan, R; Gillies, R J; Hoyer, P B

    1991-02-01

    A previous study demonstrated that prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels [( Ca2+]i) in ovine large luteal cells. In the present study, the magnitude of the PGF2 alpha (0.5 microM)-induced calcium transient in Hanks' medium (87 +/- 2 nM increase above resting levels) was reduced (P less than 0.05) but not completely eliminated in fura-2 loaded large luteal cells incubated in Ca2(+)-free or phosphate- and carbonate-free medium (10 +/- 1 nM, 32 +/- 6 nM, above resting levels; respectively). Preincubation for 2 min with 1 mM LaCl3 (calcium antagonist) eliminated the PGF2 alpha-induced calcium transient. The inhibitory effect of PGF2 alpha on secretion of progesterone was reduced in Ca2(+)-free medium or medium plus LaCl3. Resting [Ca2+]i levels and basal secretion of progesterone were both reduced (P less than 0.05) in large cells incubated in Ca2(+)-free medium (27 +/- 4 nM; 70 +/- 6% control, respectively) or with 5 microM 5,5'-dimethyl bis-(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (40 +/- 2 nM; 49 +/- 1% control; respectively). In addition, secretion of progesterone was inhibited (P less than 0.05) by conditions that increased (P less than 0.05) [Ca2+]i; that is LaCl3 ([Ca2+]i, 120 +/- 17 nM; progesterone, 82 +/- 8% control) and PGF2 alpha ([Ca2+]i, 102 +/- 10 nM; progesterone, 82 +/- 3% control). In small luteal cells, resting [Ca2+]i levels and secretion of progesterone were reduced by incubation in Ca2(+)-free Hanks ([Ca2+]i, 28 +/- 2 nM; progesterone, 71 +/- 6% control), however, neither LaCl3 nor PGF2 alpha increased [Ca2+]i levels or inhibited secretion of progesterone. The findings presented here provide evidence that extracellular as well as intracellular calcium contribute to the PGF2 alpha-induced [Ca2+]i transient in large cells. Furthermore, whereas an adequate level of [Ca2+]i is required to support progesterone production in both small and large cells, optimal progesterone production in

  3. Reduced-order wavelet-Galerkin solution for the coupled, nonlinear stochastic response of slender buildings in transient winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thai-Hoa; Caracoglia, Luca

    2015-05-01

    A tall building is prone to wind-induced stochastic vibration, originating from complex fluid-structure interaction, dynamic coupling and nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena. The loading induced by extreme wind events, such as "downburst storms", hurricanes and tornadoes is naturally transient and nonstationary in comparison with the hypothesis of stationary wind loads, used in both structural engineering research and practice. Time-domain integration methods, widely applied for solving nonlinear differential equations, are hardly applicable to the analysis of coupled, nonlinear and stochastic response of tall buildings under transient winds. Therefore, the investigation of alternative and computationally-efficient simulation methods is important. This study employs the wavelet-Galerkin (WG) method to achieve this objective, by examining the stochastic dynamic response of two tall building models subject to stationary and transient wind loads. These are (1) a single-degree-of-freedom equivalent model of a tall structure and (2) a multi-degree-of-freedom reduced-order full building model. Compactly supported Daubechies wavelets are used as orthonormal basis functions in conjunction with the Galerkin projection scheme to decompose and transform the coupled, nonlinear differential equations of the two models into random algebraic equations in the wavelet domain. Methodology, feasibility and applicability of the WG method are investigated in some special cases of stiffness nonlinearity (Duffing type) and damping nonlinearity (Van-der-Pol type) for the single-degree-of-freedom model. For the reduced-order tall building model the WG method is used to solve for dynamic coupling, aerodynamics and transient wind load effects. Computation of "connection coefficients", effects of boundary conditions, wavelet resolution and wavelet order are examined in order to adequately replicate the dynamic response. Realizations of multivariate stationary and transient wind loads for the

  4. Analysis of fluorescence transients of DCMU-treated leaves of Triticum species to provide estimates of the densities of photosystem II reaction centres.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C L; Austin, R B

    1986-01-01

    The fluorescence of the chlorophyll associated with photosystem II was studied in seedling and flag leaves of Triticum species. Seedling leaves of the diploid species T. urartu had higher values of t (the normalised area over the fluorescence induction curve of DCMU treated leaves) than those of the other species studied which included hexaploid T. aestivum. However this difference was not evident when leaves were grown in a low light intensity (40 µmol quanta of photosynthetically active radiation m(-2) s(-1)). The smaller total number of chlorophyll molecules per photosystem II reaction centre (chl/RCII) in T. urartu (177) as compared with the other species (mean 234) was deduced from the observed differences in t. As a consequence of its lower chl/RCII, despite slightly lower chlorophyll content (mg m(-2)), T. urartu had a greater density of reaction centres than the other species (2880 cf 2230 nmol m(-2) of leaf). Consistent with the lower chl/RCII of T. urartu, it had a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio than the other genotypes. Seedling leaves of T. urartu had higher light saturated rates of photosynthesis than those of the other species, when grown at high light, a difference associated with reaction centre density.In flag leaves, when the complications due to variable development and senescence patterns were eliminated, t of the diploid species including T. urartu was lower than that of T. aestivum. The lower apparent chl/RCII of T. urartu arose partly because the molar extinction coefficient of the chlorophyll in the leaves of T. urartu was greater than in T. aestivum. However, the density of PS II reaction centres was slightly lower for the diploid species studied because their chlorophyll contents were lower than the hexaploids.The validity of the method for estimating chl/RCII from fluorescence transients is discussed. The possibility is considered that the difference in apparent chl/RCII of flag and seedling leaves of R. urartu as compared to the other

  5. Ecological robustness of the gut microbiota in response to ingestion of transient food-borne microbes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenhong; Derrien, Muriel; Levenez, Florence; Brazeilles, Rémi; Ballal, Sonia A; Kim, Jason; Degivry, Marie-Christine; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Garrett, Wendy S; Doré, Joël; Veiga, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Resident gut microbes co-exist with transient bacteria to form the gut microbiota. Despite increasing evidence suggesting a role for transient microbes on gut microbiota function, the interplay between resident and transient members of this microbial community is poorly defined. We aimed to determine the extent to which a host's autochthonous gut microbiota influences niche permissivity to transient bacteria using a fermented milk product (FMP) as a vehicle for five food-borne bacterial strains. Using conventional and gnotobiotic rats and gut microbiome analyses (16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing and reverse transcription qPCR), we demonstrated that the clearance kinetics of one FMP bacterium, Lactococcus lactis CNCM I-1631, were dependent on the structure of the resident gut microbiota. Susceptibility of the resident gut microbiota to modulation by FMP intervention correlated with increased persistence of L. lactis. We also observed gut microbiome configurations that were associated with altered stability upon exposure to transient bacteria. Our study supports the concept that allochthonous bacteria have transient and subject-specific effects on the gut microbiome that can be leveraged to re-engineer the gut microbiome and improve dysbiosis-related diseases. PMID:26953599

  6. Ecological robustness of the gut microbiota in response to ingestion of transient food-borne microbes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenhong; Derrien, Muriel; Levenez, Florence; Brazeilles, Rémi; Ballal, Sonia A; Kim, Jason; Degivry, Marie-Christine; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Garrett, Wendy S; Doré, Joël; Veiga, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Resident gut microbes co-exist with transient bacteria to form the gut microbiota. Despite increasing evidence suggesting a role for transient microbes on gut microbiota function, the interplay between resident and transient members of this microbial community is poorly defined. We aimed to determine the extent to which a host's autochthonous gut microbiota influences niche permissivity to transient bacteria using a fermented milk product (FMP) as a vehicle for five food-borne bacterial strains. Using conventional and gnotobiotic rats and gut microbiome analyses (16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing and reverse transcription qPCR), we demonstrated that the clearance kinetics of one FMP bacterium, Lactococcus lactis CNCM I-1631, were dependent on the structure of the resident gut microbiota. Susceptibility of the resident gut microbiota to modulation by FMP intervention correlated with increased persistence of L. lactis. We also observed gut microbiome configurations that were associated with altered stability upon exposure to transient bacteria. Our study supports the concept that allochthonous bacteria have transient and subject-specific effects on the gut microbiome that can be leveraged to re-engineer the gut microbiome and improve dysbiosis-related diseases. PMID:26953599

  7. A numerical comparison with an exact solution for the transient response of a cylinder immersed in a fluid. [computer simulated underwater tests to determine transient response of a submerged cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltrud, M. E.; Lucas, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The transient response of an elastic cylindrical shell immersed in an acoustic media that is engulfed by a plane wave is determined numerically. The method applies to the USA-STAGS code which utilizes the finite element method for the structural analysis and the doubly asymptotic approximation for the fluid-structure interaction. The calculations are compared to an exact analysis for two separate loading cases: a plane step wave and an exponentially decaying plane wave.

  8. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced sediment supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Bed material grain size is an important degree of freedom in fluvial systems as they adjust to system-wide perturbations such as sediment supply changes. However, little is known about processes and patterns of such adjustment in longitudinal grain size sorting in large rivers. This research uses unprecedented datasets collected in a large fluvial system to investigate transient response to recent supply changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Separate fining trends for gravel and fines, a protracted gravel-sand (G-S) transition, and bed patchiness identified in Singer (2008) were interrogated using output from a hydraulic model with grain size distributions (GSDs) extracted from ~125 cross sections spanning ~400 river kilometers of the Sacramento River, California. The analysis suggests that interactions between hydraulics, bed material sorting, and sediment flux explain these previously identified anomalies. Highest values of sorting occur in the G-S transition and represent the overlap of separate fining trends for gravel and fines, where the long profile is jagged with evidence of progressive incision. Much of the sediment in this poorly sorted zone is organized into patches, where transport apparently occurs as bedload sheets. Patchiness occurs over short length scales leading to strong differences in entrainment and flux, regardless of hydraulic conditions. A modified Shields stress is proposed that is scaled by GSD sorting to improve characterization of entrainment/disentrainment. Sediment flux calculations based on an equation sensitive bed material conditions (Singer and Dunne, 2004) reveal a strong relationship between fine sediment flux and d90, suggesting that the efficiency of fine patch flux controls bed material bed surface roughness. Results are in part consistent with Paola and Seal (1995) suggesting that patches are a result of overlapping pdfs of shear stress and sorting and with Ferguson (2003) in that the final end of the protracted G

  9. Transient Responses of Gravel Bars to Increases in Sediment Supply - Field & Flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, C.

    2010-12-01

    Bedforms in a gravel-bed river respond to a combination of water discharge, the rate and size of sediment supply, and valley-scale geometry. This study investigates bar response to an increase in sediment supply. In a large flume (2.75 m wide) with a plane bed of mixed sand and gravel (gravel D50 = 10 mm; 15% sand), alternate bars were formed by inducing a slight perturbation in the flow at the upstream end. After the bars and sediment flux reached a steady state, sediment supply was increased (from 45 kg/min to 70 kg/min). After the bed and sediment flux reached steady state, sediment supply was again increased (from 70 kg/min to 140 kg/min). Throughout the experiment high-frequency (1 Hz) measurements of the sediment flux, as well as moderate frequency (every 90 minutes) measurements of the bed topography were made. As the channel increased transport capacity to match the increased sediment supply, the initial bed adjustment was an increase in slope with near uniform deposition in the cross-stream direction. The bed then evolved to a steady-state configuration in which the locations and dimensions of the bars and pools were very similar to the pre-augmentation condition. During the adjustment process, the cross-stream relief initially decreased, the bar wavelengths decreased, and the bar celerity increased. The evolution from the lower-relief interim state to the post-augmentation steady state was reminiscent of initial bar development from a plane bed. A similar sequence of bed adjustment was observed on the Sandy River, Oregon, following a large increase in sediment flux due to the 2007 Marmot Dam removal. Measurements of bedform evolution immediately downstream of the dam show a transition from a long high-relief lateral bar along the right bank, to a lower-relief multiple short wavelength mid-channel bars, finally back to a long high-relief lateral bar along the right bank, albeit 4-5 meters higher than the original. Previous work on bedform response to

  10. Transient Response of Seismicity and Earthquake Probabilities to Stress Transfer in a Brownian Earthquake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Matthews, M. V.; Simpson, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    drift. The recovery from a step is nearly identical in form to that given by rate and state friction models for interaction. Thus, the BRO offers an alternative approach to modeling the transient response of seismicity to stress perturbations in a formulation that contains a complete and self-consistent probabilistic model.

  11. Quantifying the transient response of bedrock channels to Active Normal Faulting: New Field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, A. C.; Cowie, P. A.; Tucker, G. E.; Attal, M.; Roberts, G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the morphological response of the fluvial system to transient tectonic forcing is one of the major challenges facing quantitative geomorphology. In theory, insight gained from studying channel adjustment to changing tectonic rates should provide clear diagnostic tests of the many competing `erosion laws' which aim to quantify stream incision. However, fluvial algorithms in current landscape models tend to be parameterised in terms of hydraulic scaling relationships, which only describe channel width and depth as power-law functions of river discharge or upstream drainage area. Unfortunately, these scaling relationships, which have been derived from channels in tectonically quiescent areas, are not appropriate for bedrock rivers in active settings. This problem is serious for understanding non-equilibrium systems because hydraulic adjustments are an important aspect of the morphodynamic response to tectonic and climatic forcing. Recent theoretical attempts to resolve this issue still rely fundamentally on assumptions of steady-state channel form. To devise an alternative approach we need to collect geometrical data for channels incising in areas where the boundary conditions are well-constrained independently. We address this challenge by providing new and detailed field measurements of valley and bankfull channel width, depth, slope and grain-size data for an out-of-equilibrium channel with a drainage area of 65km2 crossing an active extensional fault near Fiamignano, Italy, where there are excellent constraints on current rates of fault movement, and good evidence for an increase in throw-rate approximately 700 Kyr ago. We show that in this situation channel width becomes strongly decoupled from drainage area immediately upstream of the fault and that channel aspect ratio and median grain-size are correlated with channel slope. The ratio of total stream power to coarse-fraction grain size peaks in precisely the areas where channel width

  12. Analysis of the photosystem II by modelling the fluorescence yield transients during 10 seconds after a 10 ns pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Natalya E.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Riznichenko, Galina Yu.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of the photosystem II (PS II) redox states is imitated over nine orders of magnitude in time. Our simulations focus on the information of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induced by a 10 ns laser flash. The PS II model analyzes differences in the PS II reaction between leaves (A. Thaliana, spinach) and thermophilic Chlorella cells.

  13. Closed-form SEM solution to the transient far-field response of a thin-wire antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoorfar, Ahmad

    1994-05-01

    A closed-form SEM representation for the transient far-field response of a thin-wire cylindrical antenna is derived, and explicit expressions for all of the corresponding SEM parameters are presented. In particular, a so-called time-dependent natural far-field mode is introduced, and its corresponding integral is analytically evaluated. Excellent agreements with the numerical results are obtained.

  14. A case of hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma with a transient response to fludarabine and alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S; Milner, B J; Johnston, P W; Culligan, D J

    2006-06-01

    Hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma is a rare, usually fatal lymphoma and available literature on management is sparse. Allografting is probably the only curative option. We describe a further case with a dramatic, though transient response to Fludarabine and Alemtuzumab combination, following a failure of conventional chemotherapy. Given the dreadful prognosis with conventional chemotherapy, it is a regimen worth pursuing as a disease reduction strategy prior to allograft where appropriate. PMID:16548918

  15. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  16. A Study of Angiotensin II Pressor Response throughout Primigravid Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gant, Norman F.; Daley, Gilroy L.; Chand, Santosh; Whalley, Peggy J.; MacDonald, Paul C.

    1973-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain sequentially the pressor response to angiotensin II in young primigravid patients throughout pregnancy in order a) to define when in pregnancy resistance to the pressor effects of angiotensin II develops; b) to define the physiologic sequence of events leading to this resistance; and c) to ascertain whether sensitivity to infused angiotensin II could be detected before the onset of clinical signs of pregnancy-induced hypertension. With this prospective approach, two separate groups of patients were defined. The first group of patients remained normal throughout pregnancy. The second group consisted of those patients who, while clinically normotensive during the initial phase of the study, ultimately developed hypertension of pregnancy. 192 patients were studied; of these, 120 patients remained normotensive and 72 developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. In both groups, vascular resistance to infused angiotensin II (more than 8 ng/kg/min required to elicit a pressor response of 20 mm Hg in diastolic pressure) was demonstrated as early as the 10th wk of pregnancy. In the group that remained normotensive, maximum mean vascular resistance occurred at 18-30 wk of pregnancy, (mean pressor dose required being 13.5 to 14.9 ng/kg/min). In those subjects who developed pregnancy-induced hypertension, the mean maximum dose required was 12.9 ng/kg/min, which was observed at the 18th wk of pregnancy. By the 22nd wk there was a clear separation of the two groups, with the mean dose requirement of the subjects destined to develop hypertension being progressively less than that of those who remained normal. The difference between the two groups became significant (P < 0.01) by 23-26 wk of pregnancy. Among patients requiring more than 8 ng/kg/min on one or more tests done between wk 28-32, 91% remained normotensive. Conversely, during the same time period among patients requiring less than 8 ng/kg/min, on at least one occasion, 90

  17. Transient temperature and sea level response of a two-dimensional ocean-climate model to greenhouse gas increases

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional dynamical ocean model is coupled to an energy balance climate model and used to investigate the transient surface temperature and sea level response to greenhouse gas increases. For most experiments a step function surface-troposphere heating perturbation of 6 W/sq m is applied. A transient reduction in the thermohaline overturning flux of 15-30% occurs in most experiments, although in some cases a near-total circulation collapse occurs within the first 100 years and lasts 700-1000 years. The transient circulation decrease is attributed to the greater rate of downward penetration of the heating anomaly in downwelling rather than in upwelling regions and is not a result of reduced convection. For experiments in which the steady state circulation is qualitatively unchanged after a heating perturbation, the surface temperature response is roughly uniform with latitude, in the absence of ice and snow. However, in some cases a heating perturbation induces the transition from a one-cell to a two-cell overturning circulation, or causes a complete reversal in the direction of overturning when a single cell spans both hemispheres, causing marked latitudinal variations in the surface temperature response.

  18. Transient response of sheared magnetic powder excited by a stepwise magnetic field and its comparison with ER and MR fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, KaiKai; Tian, Yu; Shan, Lei; Jiang, Jile

    2013-09-01

    The transient shear behavior of magnetic powder (MP) excited by a stepwise magnetic field in a rotational magnetic powder clutch (MPC) was experimentally studied. The experiment showed that the stable shear stress was approximately proportional to the applied magnetic flux density. The characteristic rising time of the shear stress was independent of the strength of the magnetic field and was affected by the shear rate. It took less than 0.1 s for the shear stress to rise to 63% (1 - e-1) of the stable value. The transient shear stress rising process consisted of two subprocesses: the chain forming process which was less than 100 ms, and the chain coarsening process lasting for dozens of seconds. Upon switching the field off, the shear stress fell rapidly to zero in 0.1 s. Control methods to improve the transient response time of the MPC were discussed and experimentally verified: applying a low voltage in advance; applying a high level voltage for the torque to rise to the target torque and then a desired voltage. These transient characteristics of MP were compared with those of electrorheological (ER) and magneto-rheological (MR) fluids and actuators. The study provides a better understanding of MP excited by a magnetic field and the implications for application.

  19. Maturation of the angiotensin II cardiovascular response in the embryonic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Sonnet S.; Hicks, James W.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important regulator of cardiovascular function in adult vertebrates. Although its role in regulating the adult system has been extensively investigated, the cardiovascular response to Ang II in embryonic vertebrates is relatively unknown. We investigated the potential of Ang II as a regulator of cardiovascular function in embryonic chickens, which lack central nervous system control of cardiovascular function throughout the majority of incubation. The cardiovascular response to Ang II in embryonic chickens was investigated over the final 50% of their development. Ang II produced a dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure on each day of development studied, and the response increased in intensity as development progressed. The Ang II type-1 receptor nonspecific competitive peptide antagonist [Sar1 ile8] Ang II blocked the cardiovascular response to subsequent injections of Ang II on day 21 only. The embryonic pressure response to Ang II (hypertension only) differed from that of adult chickens, in which initial hypotension is followed by hypertension. The constant level of gene expression for the Ang II receptor, in conjunction with an increasing pressure response to the peptide, suggests that two Ang II receptor subtypes are present during chicken development. Collectively, the data indicate that Ang II plays an important role in the cardiovascular development of chickens; however, its role in maintaining basal function requires further study. PMID:20495810

  20. Effects of attention and distractor contrast on the responses of middle temporal area neurons to transient motion direction changes.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Paul S; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2015-06-01

    The ability of primates to detect transient changes in a visual scene can be influenced by the allocation of attention, as well as by the presence of distractors. We investigated the neural substrates of these effects by recording the responses of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) of two monkeys while they detected a transient motion direction change in a moving target. We found that positioning a distractor near the target impaired the change-detection performance of the animals. This impairment monotonically decreased as the distractor's contrast decreased. A neural correlate of this effect was a decrease in the ability of MT neurons to signal the direction change (detection sensitivity or DS) when a distractor was near the target, both located inside the neuron's receptive field. Moreover, decreasing distractor contrast increased neuronal DS. On the other hand, directing attention away from the target decreased neuronal DS. At the level of individual neurons, we found a negative correlation between the degree of response normalization and the DS. Finally, the intensity of a neuron's response to the change was predictive of the animal's reaction time, suggesting that the activity of our recorded neurons was linked to the animal's detection performance. Our results suggest that the ability of an MT neuron to signal a transient direction change is regulated by the degree of inhibitory drive into the cell. The presence of distractors, their contrast and the allocation of attention influence such inhibitory drive, therefore modulating the ability of the neurons to signal transient changes in stimulus features and consequently behavioral performance. PMID:25885809

  1. Nonlinear subjective and biodynamic responses to continuous and transient whole-body vibration in the vertical direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the magnitude of continuous and transient whole-body vibration in the vertical direction on both subjective and biodynamic responses of human subjects has been investigated experimentally. Additionally, the relation between the subjective responses and the dynamic responses has also been studied. Twelve subjects were exposed to sinusoidal continuous vibrations at five frequencies (3.15-8.0 Hz) and at three magnitudes (0.5-2.0 m s -2 rms). They were also exposed to transient vibrations that were modulated one-and-half cycle sinusoidal waveforms at the same frequencies as the continuous vibrations and at three magnitudes corresponding to the magnitudes used for the continuous vibrations. Discomfort was measured by the method of magnitude estimation with reference stimuli having frequency components in the middle of the frequency range used in this study. The driving-point dynamic responses (the ratio between the force and the motion, i.e., acceleration and velocity, at the driving point) were also measured and divided by the responses to the reference stimuli used in the measurement of discomfort so as to allow the comparison of the dynamic responses with the discomfort responses. Both the discomfort estimates and the normalised driving-point dynamic responses were influenced by the stimuli magnitudes, especially with the continuous vibration. At 3.15 and 4.0 Hz, the discomfort estimates and the normalised mechanical impedance and apparent mass increased significantly with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.5-2.0 m s -2 rms. Magnitude estimates for discomfort were correlated with the normalised mechanical impedance and apparent mass in the frequency range investigated. For the transient vibrations, the discomfort estimates and the driving-point dynamic responses were interpreted as responses in frequency bands around the fundamental frequency of the input motion. The results indicate similar nonlinearities in discomfort and driving-point dynamic

  2. Transient Landscape Response to Increased Coupling Across a Subduction Zone Interface, Talamanca Range, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitchler, J. C.; Kirby, E.; Fisher, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    , incised lower reach by a convex knickpoint. Hillslope gradients mimic this pattern, in that the landscape above knickpoints is characterized by low topographic relief. Knickpoints throughout the range are confined to a fairly narrow elevation range clustered around 2000 m, well below the ice extent of the last glacial maximum, and a preliminary analysis suggests that they are not strongly influenced by mapped lithologic differences. The uniform elevation distribution leads us to infer that these knickpoints define a mobile boundary between predominately low-gradient relict landscapes in the upper reaches of streams and relatively high-gradient (on the order of 2 to 3 times steeper) landscape in the lower reaches of the CT that is adjusting to a new (higher) incision rate. These initial observations are consistent with a simple model of a step-function increase in regional uplift rate, and subsequent transient fluvial response to the relative base level change. Downstream projection of the relict fluvial profiles suggests 1-1.5 km of incision, which we infer to represent rock uplift since the collision of the CR at ca. 1-2 Ma. Ongoing research is focused on accounting for evolving orographic precipitation and spatial patterns of rock uplift. However, our preliminary results indicate that the Talamanca range have experienced significant surface uplift at their crest as a consequence of subduction of the Cocos Ridge.

  3. The detector response matrices of the burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Koshut, Tom M.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Horack, John M.; Lestrade, John Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The detector response matrices for the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are described, including their creation and operation in data analysis. These response matrices are a detailed abstract representation of the gamma-ray detectors' operating characteristics that are needed for data analysis. They are constructed from an extensive set of calibration data coupled with a complex geometry electromagnetic cascade Monte Carlo simulation code. The calibration tests and simulation algorithm optimization are described. The characteristics of the BATSE detectors in the spacecraft environment are also described.

  4. Transient response to three-phase faults on a wind turbine generator. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    In order to obtain a measure of its responses to short circuits a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator was modeled and its performance was simulated on a digital computer. Simulation of short circuit faults on the synchronous alternator of a wind turbine generator, without resort to the classical assumptions generally made for that analysis, indicates that maximum clearing times for the system tied to an infinite bus are longer than the typical clearing times for equivalent capacity conventional machines. Also, maximum clearing times are independent of tower shadow and wind shear. Variation of circuit conditions produce the modifications in the transient response predicted by analysis.

  5. Analysis of the transient response of nuclear spins in GaAs with/without nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasly, Mahmoud; Lin, Zhichao; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative to studying the steady-state responses of nuclear spins in solid state systems, working within a transient-state framework can reveal interesting phenomena. The response of nuclear spins in GaAs to a changing magnetic field was analyzed based on the time evolution of nuclear spin temperature. Simulation results well reproduced our experimental results for the transient oblique Hanle signals observed in an all-electrical spin injection device. The analysis showed that the so called dynamic nuclear polarization can be treated as a cooling tool for the nuclear spins: It works as a provider to exchange spin angular momentum between polarized electron spins and nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, leading to an increase in the nuclear polarization. In addition, a time-delay of the nuclear spin temperature with a fast sweep of the external magnetic field produces a possible transient state for the nuclear spin polarization. On the other hand, the nuclear magnetic resonance acts as a heating tool for a nuclear spin system. This causes the nuclear spin temperature to jump to infinity: i.e., the average nuclear spins along with the nuclear field vanish at resonant fields of 75As, 69Ga and 71Ga, showing an interesting step-dip structure in the oblique Hanle signals. These analyses provide a quantitative understanding of nuclear spin dynamics in semiconductors for application in future computation processing.

  6. Transient Overexpression of α-Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Enhances Behavioral Responding to Amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Loweth, Jessica A.; Singer, Bryan F.; Baker, Lorinda K.; Wilke, Georgia; Inamine, Hidetoshi; Bubula, Nancy; Alexander, John K.; Carlezon, William A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Vezina, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is known to contribute to the expression of psychostimulant sensitization by regulating dopamine (DA) overflow from DA neuron terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The present experiments explored the contribution of CaMKII in NAcc neurons postsynaptic to these terminals where it is known to participate in a number of signaling pathways that regulate responding to psychostimulant drugs. Exposure to amphetamine transiently increased αCaMKII levels in the shell but not the core of the NAcc. Thus, HSV (herpes simplex viral) vectors were used to transiently overexpress αCaMKII in NAcc neurons in drug-naive rats, and behavioral responding to amphetamine was assessed. Transiently overexpressing αCaMKII in the NAcc shell led to long-lasting enhancement of amphetamine-induced locomotion and self-administration manifested when αCaMKII levels were elevated and persisting long after they had returned to baseline. Enhanced locomotion was not observed after infection in the NAcc core or sites adjacent to the NAcc. Transient elevation of NAcc shell αCaMKII levels also enhanced locomotor responding to NAcc AMPA and increased phosphorylation levels of GluR1 (Ser831), a CaMKII site, both soon and long after infection. Similar increases in pGluR1 (Ser831) were observed both soon and long after exposure to amphetamine. These results indicate that the transient increase in αCaMKII observed in neurons of the NAcc shell after viral-mediated gene transfer and likely exposure to amphetamine leads to neuroadaptations in AMPA receptor signaling in this site that may contribute to the long-lasting maintenance of behavioral and incentive sensitization by psychostimulant drugs like amphetamine. PMID:20089902

  7. Angiotensin II and canonical transient receptor potential-6 activation stimulate release of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-activating factor from mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Abkhezr, Mousa; Dryer, Stuart E

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in podocytes plays an important role in progression of HIV nephropathy and in collapsing forms of glomerulonephritis. Here, we have observed that application of 100 nM angiotensin II (Ang II) to cultured podocytes for 6-24 hours causes a marked increase in the phosphorylation of STAT3 on tyrosine Y705 but has no effect on phosphorylation at serine S727. By contrast, Ang II treatment of short periods (20-60 minutes) caused a small but consistent suppression of tyrosine phosphylation of STAT3. A similar biphasic effect was seen after treatment with the diacylglycerol analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), an agent that causes activation of Ca(2+)-permeable canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels in podocytes. The stimulatory effects of Ang II on STAT3 phosphorylation were abolished by small-interfering RNA knockdown of TRPC6 and also by inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-dependent downstream enzymes calcineurin and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. The stimulatory effects of Ang II appear to be mediated by secretion and accumulation of an unknown factor into the surrounding medium, as they are no longer detected when medium is replaced every 2 hours even if Ang II is continuously present. By contrast, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on STAT3 phosphorylation persists with frequent medium changes. Experiments with neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies suggest that the STAT3 stimulatory factor secreted from podocytes is not interleukin-6, but also suggest that this factor exerts its actions through a receptor system that requires glycoprotein 130. PMID:24850910

  8. Comparison of arterial pressure and plasma ANG II responses to three methods of subcutaneous ANG II administration

    PubMed Central

    Kuroki, Marcos T.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension is a commonly studied model of experimental hypertension, particularly in rodents, and is often generated by subcutaneous delivery of ANG II using Alzet osmotic minipumps chronically implanted under the skin. We have observed that, in a subset of animals subjected to this protocol, mean arterial pressure (MAP) begins to decline gradually starting the second week of ANG II infusion, resulting in a blunting of the slow pressor response and reduced final MAP. We hypothesized that this variability in the slow pressor response to ANG II was mainly due to factors unique to Alzet pumps. To test this, we compared the pressure profile and changes in plasma ANG II levels during subcutaneous ANG II administration (150 ng·kg−1·min−1) using either Alzet minipumps, iPrecio implantable pumps, or a Harvard external infusion pump. At the end of 14 days of ANG II, MAP was highest in the iPrecio group (156 ± 3 mmHg) followed by Harvard (140 ± 3 mmHg) and Alzet (122 ± 3 mmHg) groups. The rate of the slow pressor response, measured as daily increases in pressure averaged over days 2–14 of ANG II, was similar between iPrecio and Harvard groups (2.7 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) but was significantly blunted in the Alzet group (0.4 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) due to a gradual decline in MAP in a subset of rats. We also found differences in the temporal profile of plasma ANG II between infusion groups. We conclude that the gradual decline in MAP observed in a subset of rats during ANG II infusion using Alzet pumps is mainly due to pump-dependent factors when applied in this particular context. PMID:24993045

  9. Response of centrifugal blowers to simulated tornado transients, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, E S; Gregory, W S; Martin, R A; Littleton, P E

    1982-03-01

    During this quarter, quasi-steady and dynamic testing of the 24-in. centrifugal blower was completed using the blowdown facility located at New Mexico State University. The data were obtained using a new digital data-acquisition system. Software was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to reduce the dynamic test data and create computer-generated movies showing the dynamic performance of the blower under simulated tornado transient pressure conditions relative to its quasi-steady-state performance. Currently, quadrant-four (outrunning flow) data have been reduced for the most severe and a less severe tornado pressure transient. The results indicate that both the quasi-steady and dynamic blower performance are very similar. Some hysteresis in the dynamic performance occurs because of rotational inertia effects in the blower rotor and drive system. Currently quadrant-two (backflow) data are being transferred to the LTSS computer system at Los Alamos and will be reduced shortly.

  10. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT PRESSURE RESPONSE FROM A CONSTANT FLOW RATE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporating a flow pump into a conventional triaxial laboratory system allows fluid to be supplied to or withdrawn from the base of a sediment sample at small and constant rates. An initial transient record of hydraulic head versus time is observed which eventually stabilizes to a constant steady state gradient across the sample; values of hydraulic conductivity can subsequently be determined from Darcy's law. In this paper, analytical methods are presented for determining values of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity from the initial transient phase of such a constant flow rate test. These methods are based on a diffusion equation involving pore pressure and are analogous to those used to describe the soil consolidation process and also to interpret aquifer properties from pumping tests.

  11. Thermal response of a pin-type fusion reactor blanket during steady and transient reactor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Grotz, S.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The thermal analysis of the blanket examines both the steady-state and transient reactor operations. The steady-state analysis covers full power and fractional power operation whereas the transient analysis examines the effects of power ramps and blanket preheat. The blanket configuration chosen for this study is a helium cooled solid breeder design. We first discuss the full power, steady-state temperature fields in the first wall, beryllium rods, and breeder rods. Next we examine the effects of fractional power on coolant flow and temperature field distributions. This includes power plateaus of 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% of full power. Also examined are the restrictions on the rates of power ramping between plateaus. Finally we discuss the power and time requirements for pre-heating the primary from cold iron conditions up to startup temperature (250/sup 0/C).

  12. Learning about equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, D. J.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Häggström, O.

    2013-12-01

    One key uncertainty within the science of climate change pertains to the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS). Several studies using instrumental observations to estimate ECS have found shifts in the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) towards lower values when including observations over the last decade. Identifying the reasons behind shifting PDFs - in the hope of making the best interpretation and use of them - points to the crucial and wider issue of how we should learn from observations, in particular observations accumulating over time. If our underlying geophysical model or our statistical model does not fully capture the climate variability and the warming signal we could expect periods when we appear to learn but when we do not (Oppenheimer et al, 2008). This highlights the importance of using several different model structures when estimating PDFs from observations and the importance of analyzing how the PDFs change as the observational time series get longer. By analyzing how the PDFs change over time and by offering explanations for those changes one should be better equipped to draw conclusions on what can be learnt from the analysis. In this presentation we analyze how the PDFs for ECS and Transient Climate Response (TCR) change as the observational record accumulates. We use a land-ocean resolved Upwelling Diffusion Energy Balance Model (UDEBM) together with a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Radiative forcing time series since 1765 are used together with land and ocean surface temperature observations (CRUTEM4 and HadSST3) as well as observations on ocean heat content to constrain parameters in the UDEBM. Our preliminary results show that with observations up to 1991 (starting in 1856) the PDFs is relatively well constrained in comparison with the prior assumptions. The most like values are 3.0°C and 1.9°C for ECS and TCR, respectively. The corresponding 5-95% intervals are 2.1-6.9°C and 1.5-2.9°C. This can be compared to the

  13. Experimental and analytical study of loss-of-flow transients in EBR-II occurring at decay power levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.; Planchon, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    A series of eight loss-of-flow (LOF) tests have been conducted in EBR-II to study the transition between forced and natural convective flows following a variety of loss-of-primary-pumping power conditions from decay heat levels. Comparisons of measurements and pretest/posttest predictions were made on a selected test. Good agreements between measurements and predictions was found prior to and just after the flow reaching its minimum, but the agreement is not as good after that point. The temperatures are consistent with the flow response and the assumed decay power. The measured results indicate that the flows of driver and the instrumented subassemblies are too much in the analytical model in the natural convective region. Although a parametric study on secondary flow, turbulent-laminar flow transition, heat transfer ability of the intermediate heat exchange at low flow and flow mixing in the primary tank has been performed to determine their effects on the flow, the cause of the discrepancy at very low flow level is still unknown.

  14. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  15. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  16. Simulation on the Comparison of Steady-State Responses Synthesized by Transient Templates Based on Superposition Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiao-dan; Yu, Xue-fei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The generation of auditory-evoked steady-state responses (SSRs) is associated with the linear superposition of transient auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) that cannot be directly observed. A straightforward way to justify the superposition hypothesis is the use of synthesized SSRs by a transient AEP under a predefined condition based on the forward process of this hypothesis. However, little is known about the inverse relation between the transient AEP and its synthetic SSR, which makes the interpretation of the latter less convincible because it may not necessarily underlie the true solution. In this study, we chose two pairs of AEPs from the conventional and deconvolution paradigms, which represent the homo-AEPs from a homogenous group and the hetero-AEPs from two heterogeneous groups. Both pairs of AEPs were used as templates to synthesize SSRs at rates of 20–120 Hz. The peak-peak amplitudes and the differences between the paired waves were measured. Although amplitude enhancement occurred at ~40 Hz, comparisons between the available waves demonstrated that the relative differences of the synthetic SSRs could be dramatically larger at other rates. Moreover, two virtually identical SSRs may come from clearly different AEPs. These results suggested inconsistent relationships between the AEPs and their corresponding SSRs over the tested rates. PMID:26600868

  17. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  18. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna, part 1: Earthquake response spectra versus full transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    As a check on structure safety aspects, two approaches in seismic analysis for the large 70-m antennas are presented. The first approach, commonly used by civil engineers, utilizes known recommended design response spectra. The second approach, which is the full transient analysis, is versatile and applicable not only to earthquake loading but also to other dynamic forcing functions. The results obtained at the fundamental structural frequency show that the two approaches are in good agreement with each other and both approaches show a safe design. The results also confirm past 64-m antenna seismic studies done by the Caltech Seismology Staff.

  19. The transient responses of a special non-homogeneous magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinder for axisymmetric plane strain problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, P. F.; Ding, H. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2006-03-01

    By virtue of the introduction of new dependent variable and the separation of variables technique, the transient responses of a special non-homogeneous magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinder are transformed to two Volterra integral equations of the second kind of about two functions with respect to time. These integral equations can be solved successfully by means of the interpolation method. Then, the complete solutions of displacements, stresses, electric potential, electric displacements, magnetic potential and magnetic inductions are obtained. The present method is suitable for a magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinder with an arbitrary thickness subjected to arbitrary axisymmetric mechanical and electromagnetic loads. Numerical results are finally presented.

  20. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

  1. Rare and transient anti-D antibody response in D(-) liver transplant recipients transfused with D(+) red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Burin des Roziers, N; Ibanez, C; Samuel, D; Francoz, C; Idri, S; François, A; Mortelecque, R; Bierling, P; Pirenne, F

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on 20 D(-) liver transplant (LT) recipients transfused with D(+) RBCs perioperatively and screened for RBC antibodies between 2 and 6 months later. None developed anti-D detectable by the indirect antiglobulin test. Two patients produced weak anti-D that reacted only with papain-treated RBCs at 10 and 11 days without any sign of immune haemolysis. Antibodies became quickly undetectable. These data suggest an unusual pattern of alloimmunization in LT recipients with rapid, weak and transient antibody response and support the safety of transfusing D(+) RBCs in most of D(-) patients during LT surgery. PMID:26918570

  2. The Cervico-Ocular Reflex of normal human subjects in response to transient and sinusoidal trunk rotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Robert N., Jr.; Thurston, Stephen E.; Becker, Keith R.; Ackley, Charles V.; Seidman, Scott H.; Leigh, R. John

    1994-01-01

    We used the magnetic search coil technique to measure the horizontal cervico-ocular reflex (COR) of 8 subjects in response to transient or sinusoidal (0.1-1.0 Hz) trunk rotations while their heads were firmly immobilized. Although we were able to resolve eye rotations of less than 0.05 deg, the COR was hardly measurable (gain was always less than 0.07). This finding, made with the most precise measurement technique used to date, suggests that the COR makes a negligible contribution to the stability of gaze in normal subjects during natural activities.

  3. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channel inhibition potentiates the hypothermic response to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation in the conscious mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Feketa, Viktor V.; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Flores, Christopher M.; Player, Mark R.; Marrelli, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mild decrease in core temperature (therapeutic hypothermia; TH) provides lasting neuroprotection following cardiac arrest or cerebral ischemia. However, current methods for producing TH trigger a cold-defense response which must be countered by sedatives, muscle paralytics and mechanical ventilation. We aimed to determine methods for producing hypothermia in the conscious mouse by targeting two transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in thermoregulation, TRPV1 and TRPM8. Design Controlled prospective animal study. Subjects Conscious unrestrained young and aged male mice. Setting Research laboratory at academic medical center. Interventions Mice were treated with the TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a TRPM8 inhibitor (“compound 5”) or their combination and the effects on core temperature (Tcore) were measured by implanted thermocouples and wireless transponders. Measurements and Main Results TRPV1 agonist DHC produced a dose-dependent (2–4 mg/kg, s.c.) drop in Tcore. A loading dose followed by continuous infusion of DHC produced a rapid and prolonged (>6 hrs) drop of Tcore within the therapeutic range (32–34 °C). The hypothermic effect of DHC was augmented in aged mice and was not desensitized with repeated administration. TRPM8 inhibitor “compound 5” (20 mg/kg s.c.) augmented the drop in core temperature during cold exposure (8 °C). When “compound 5” (30 mg/kg) was combined with DHC (1.25–2.5 mg/kg), the drop in Tcore was amplified and prolonged. Conclusions Activating warm receptors (TRPV1) produced rapid and lasting hypothermia in young and old mice. Furthermore, hypothermia induced by TRPV1 agonists was potentiated and prolonged by simultaneous inhibition of TRPM8. PMID:24595220

  4. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  5. Transient CD4+ T Cell Depletion Results in Delayed Development of Functional Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Bricault, Christine A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ T cell help is required at the time of adenovirus (Ad) vector immunization for the development of functional CD8+ T cell responses, but the temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for the induction of antibody responses remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that induction of antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice can occur at a time displaced from the time of Ad vector immunization by depletion of CD4+ T cells. Transient depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of immunization delays the development of antigen-specific antibody responses but does not permanently impair their development or induce tolerance against the transgene. Upon CD4+ T cell recovery, transgene-specific serum IgG antibody titers develop and reach a concentration equivalent to that in undepleted control animals. These delayed antibody responses exhibit no functional defects with regard to isotype, functional avidity, expansion after boosting immunization, or the capacity to neutralize a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env-expressing pseudovirus. The development of this delayed transgene-specific antibody response is temporally linked to the expansion of de novo antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, which develop after transient depletion of CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that functional vaccine-elicited antibody responses can be induced even if CD4+ T cell help is provided at a time markedly separated from the time of vaccination. IMPORTANCE CD4+ T cells have a critical role in providing positive help signals to B cells, which promote robust antibody responses. The paradigm is that helper signals must be provided immediately upon antigen exposure, and their absence results in tolerance against the antigen. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to the current model that the absence of CD4+ T cell help at priming results in long-term antibody nonresponsiveness, antibody responses can be induced by adenovirus vector immunization or alum

  6. Active control of the forced and transient response of a finite beam. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Structural vibrations from a point force are modelled on a finite beam. This research explores the theoretical limit on controlling beam vibrations utilizing another point source as an active controller. Three different types of excitation are considered, harmonic, random, and transient. For harmonic excitation, control over the entire beam length is possible only when the excitation frequency is near a resonant frequency of the beam. Control over a subregion may be obtained even between resonant frequencies at the cost of increasing the vibration outside of the control region. For random excitation, integrating the expected value of the displacement squared over the required interval, is shown to yield the identical cost function as obtained by integrating the cost function for harmonic excitation over all excitation frequencies. As a result, it is always possible to reduce the cost function for random excitation whether controlling the entire beam or just a subregion, without ever increasing the vibration outside the region in which control is desired. The last type of excitation considered is a single, transient pulse. The form of the controller is specified as either one or two delayed pulses, thus constraining the controller to be casual. The best possible control is examined while varying the region of control and the controller location. It is found that control is always possible using either one or two control pulses.

  7. Usage of the SYSCAP II circuit analysis program to determine semiconductor failure threshold levels caused by lightning/EMP transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusher, D. L.; Kleiner, C. T.

    1983-06-01

    An improved technique for calculating semiconductor junction heating resulting from arbitrary time-varying source terms is described. A FORTRAN subroutine is developed which permits solution of the convolution integral in the SYSCAP circuit analysis program which will simulate the thermal transient for each semiconductor of interest in a circuit subject to lightning/electromagnetic pulses disturbances. An example circuit is used to demonstrate the techniques; the results compare favorably with laboratory test data.

  8. Rapid Transcriptome Changes Induced by Cytosolic Ca2+ Transients Reveal ABRE-Related Sequences as Ca2+-Responsive cis Elements in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Boaz; Davydov, Olga; Knight, Heather; Galon, Yael; Knight, Marc R.; Fluhr, Robert; Fromm, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by cellular calcium is crucial for plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the number of genes known to respond to specific transient calcium signals is limited, and as yet there is no definition of a calcium-responsive cis element in plants. Here, we generated specific cytosolic calcium transients in intact Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and linked them to early transcriptome changes, followed by bioinformatic analysis of the responsive genes. A cytosolic calcium transient induced by calmodulin antagonists and blocked by lanthanides was characterized using aequorin-based luminometry and photon imaging. Analysis of transcriptome changes revealed 230 calcium-responsive genes, of which 162 were upregulated and 68 were downregulated. These include known early stress-responsive genes as well as genes of unknown function. Analysis of their upstream regions revealed, exclusively in the upregulated genes, a highly significant occurrence of a consensus sequence (P < 10−13) comprising two abscisic acid–specific cis elements: the abscisic acid–responsive element (ABRE; CACGTG[T/C/G]) and its coupling element ([C/A]ACGCG[T/C/A]). Finally, we show that a tetramer of the ABRE cis element is sufficient to confer transcriptional activation in response to cytosolic Ca2+ transients. Thus, at least for some specific Ca2+ transients and motif combinations, ABREs function as Ca2+-responsive cis elements. PMID:16980540

  9. Direct deconvolution of two-state pump-probe x-ray absorption spectra and the structural changes in a 100 ps transient of Ni(II)-tetramesitylporphyrin.

    SciTech Connect

    Della-Longa, S.; Chen, L. X.; Frank, P.; Hayakawa, K.; Hatada, K.; Benfatto, M.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. dell' Aquila; Lab. Nazionali di Frascati; Northwestern Univ.; Stanford Univ.; Museo storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche

    2009-05-04

    Full multiple scattering (FMS) Minuit XANES (MXAN) has been combined with laser pump-probe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine the structure of photoexcited Ni(II)tetramesitylporphyrin, Ni(II)TMP, in dilute toluene solution. It is shown that an excellent simulation of the XANES spectrum is obtained, excluding the lowest-energy bound-state transitions. In ground-state Ni(II)TMP, the first-shell and second-shell distances are, respectively, d(Ni-N) = (1.93 {+-} 0.02) {angstrom} and d(Ni-C) = (2.94 {+-} 0.03) {angstrom}, in agreement with a previous EXAFS result. The time-resolved XANES difference spectrum was obtained from the spectra of Ni(II)TMP in its photoexcited T{sub 1} state and its ground state, S{sub 0}. The XANES difference spectrum has been analyzed to obtain both the structure and the fraction of the T{sub 1} state. If the T{sub 1} fraction is kept fixed at the value (0.37 {+-} 0.10) determined by optical transient spectroscopy, a 0.07 {angstrom} elongation of the Ni-N and Ni-C distances [d(Ni-N) and d(Ni-C)] is found, in agreement with the EXAFS result. However, an evaluation of both the distance elongation and the T{sub 1} fraction can also be obtained using XANES data only. According to experimental evidence, and MXAN simulations, the T{sub 1} fraction is (0.60 {+-} 0.15) with d(Ni-N) = (1.98 {+-} 0.03) {angstrom} (0.05 {angstrom} elongation). The overall uncertainty of these results depends on the statistical correlation between the distances and T{sub 1} fraction, and the chemical shift of the ionization energy because of subtle changes of metal charge between the T{sub 1} and S{sub 0} states. The T{sub 1} excited-state structure results, independently obtained without the excited-state fraction from optical transient spectroscopy, are still in agreement with previous EXAFS investigations. Thus, full multiple scattering theory applied through the MXAN formalism can be used to provide structural information, not only on the ground

  10. Transient Small-Scale Magnetic Flux Emergence and Atmospheric Response Observed with New Solar Telescope and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander G.

    2014-06-01

    State-of-the art solar instrumentation is now revealing the activity of the Sun at the highest temporal and spatial resolution. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere is one of the key topics. Observations with the 1.6m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. On August 7, 2013, NST observed active region NOAA 11810 in different photospheric and chromospheric wavelengths. The region displays a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detected a site of emerging magnetic flux accompanied by intense and very confined abnormal granulation dynamics, observed in the photospheric TiO 7057 A with a resolution of 0.034 “/pix. Following the expansion of exploding granules in this site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the HeI 10830A data (bandpass of 0.05 A). The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic field and Doppler velocities reveal a short-lived emerging loop-like structure with strong upflows. We used the SDO/AIA data to investigate the response of the transition region and corona to the transient emerging flux phenomenon. We compare the results with previous observations, and propose a scenario for the production of plasma surges by the transient magnetic flux emergence events.

  11. Transient Earth system responses to cumulative carbon dioxide emissions: linearities, uncertainties, and probabilities in an observation-constrained model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2016-02-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil CO2 emissions and multiple climate targets is essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient response of a climate or environmental variable per trillion tonnes of CO2 emissions, termed TRE, is quantified for a set of impact-relevant climate variables and from a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization. An ˜ 1000-member ensemble of the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model is applied and model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-type framework. Uncertainties in TRE estimates include both scenario uncertainty and model response uncertainty. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.9 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.3 to 2.7 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and a steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic meridional overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The constrained model ensemble is also applied to determine the response to a pulse-like emission and in idealized CO2-only simulations. The transient climate response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the equilibrium climate sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  12. Active Control of the Forced and Transient Response of a Finite Beam. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, John Theodore

    1989-01-01

    When studying structural vibrations resulting from a concentrated source, many structures may be modelled as a finite beam excited by a point source. The theoretical limit on cancelling the resulting beam vibrations by utilizing another point source as an active controller is explored. Three different types of excitation are considered, harmonic, random, and transient. In each case, a cost function is defined and minimized for numerous parameter variations. For the case of harmonic excitation, the cost function is obtained by integrating the mean squared displacement over a region of the beam in which control is desired. A controller is then found to minimize this cost function in the control interval. The control interval and controller location are continuously varied for several frequencies of excitation. The results show that control over the entire beam length is possible only when the excitation frequency is near a resonant frequency of the beam, but control over a subregion may be obtained even between resonant frequencies at the cost of increasing the vibration outside of the control region. For random excitation, the cost function is realized by integrating the expected value of the displacement squared over the interval of the beam in which control is desired. This is shown to yield the identical cost function as obtained by integrating the cost function for harmonic excitation over all excitation frequencies. As a result, it is always possible to reduce the cost function for random excitation whether controlling the entire beam or just a subregion, without ever increasing the vibration outside the region in which control is desired. The last type of excitation considered is a single, transient pulse. A cost function representative of the beam vibration is obtained by integrating the transient displacement squared over a region of the beam and over all time. The form of the controller is chosen a priori as either one or two delayed pulses. Delays

  13. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  14. Synthesis of Diversely Functionalized Oxindoles Enabled by Migratory Insertion of Isocyanide to a Transient σ-Alkylpalladium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wangqing; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-08-01

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbopalladation of N-aryl acrylamides followed by migratory insertion of an isocyanide-coordinated C(sp(3) )-Pd intermediate afforded an alkylimidoyl-Pd(II) complex, which can be intercepted by a nucleophile, including heteroarenes. In addition to amides, the alkylimidoyl-Pd(II) complex was successfully converted into esters, ketones, and bis-heterocyclic compounds. An unprecedented palladium-catalyzed enantioselective domino process involving isocyanide was also documented. PMID:27356093

  15. Electrical processes in nonpolar liquids based on initial transient response and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richley, Edward A.; Mikkelsen, James C.

    1999-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for neutral barium petronate solutions in isopar L are reported. The experimental techniques are novel in that they include the use of ac conductivity measurements during transient depletion and recovery. Use is made of a one-dimensional numerical model to extract actual ion mobilities. Deviations from a one-dimensional theoretical model are shown to be due to a fluid instability which grows in the highly stressed space charge regions near the electrodes. This instability is examined theoretically and is shown quantitatively to have a predictable electrohydrodynamic origin. Furthermore, suspended particles are used to confirm the existence of unstable motion, and also to unambiguously determine the polarity of ions associated with each mobility. Under subsequent zero bias, recovery of the solutions from nearly complete depletion is shown to originate at the solid surfaces of the test cell.

  16. Vibration analysis and transient response of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Ye, Tiangui

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a unified solution for free and transient vibration analyses of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The formulation is derived by means of the variational principle in conjunction with a modified Fourier series which consists of standard Fourier cosine series and supplemented functions. The mechanical and electrical properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction and are estimated by Voigt’s rule of mixture. The convergence, accuracy and reliability of the present formulation are demonstrated by comparing the present solutions with those from the literature and finite element analysis. Numerous results for FGPM beams with different boundary conditions, geometrical parameters as well as material distributions are given. Moreover, forced vibration of the FGPM beams subjected to dynamic loads and general boundary conditions are also investigated.

  17. Spontaneous hypothermia in human sepsis is a transient, self-limiting, and nonterminal response.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Monique T; Rodrigues, Abner C; Cezar, Luana C; Fujita, Andre; Soriano, Francisco G; Steiner, Alexandre A

    2016-06-15

    Hypothermia in sepsis is generally perceived as something dysregulated and progressive although there has been no assessment on the natural course of this phenomenon in humans. This was the first study on the dynamics of hypothermia in septic patients not subjected to active rewarming, and the results were surprising. A sample of 50 subjects presenting with spontaneous hypothermia during sepsis was drawn from the 2005-2012 database of an academic hospital. Hypothermia was defined as body temperature below 36.0°C for longer than 2 h, with at least one reading of 35.5°C or less. The patients presented with 138 episodes of hypothermia, 21 at the time of the sepsis diagnosis and 117 with a later onset. However, hypothermia was uncommon in the final 12 h of life of the patients that succumbed. The majority (97.1%) of the hypothermic episodes were transient and self-limited; the median recovery time was 6 h; body temperature rarely fell below 34.0°C. Bidirectional oscillations in body temperature were evident in the course of hypothermia. Nearly half of the hypothermic episodes had onset in the absence of shock or respiratory distress, and the incidence of hypothermia was not increased during either of these conditions. Usage of antipyretic drugs, sedatives, neuroleptics, or other medications did not predict the onset of hypothermia. In conclusion, hypothermia appears to be a predominantly transient, self-limiting, and nonterminal phenomenon that is inherent to human sepsis. These characteristics resemble those of the regulated hypothermia shown to replace fever in animal models of severe systemic inflammation. PMID:26989218

  18. Stronger Pharmacological Cortisol Suppression and Anticipatory Cortisol Stress Response in Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  19. 3-D transient hydraulic tomography in unconfined aquifers with fast drainage response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M.; Barrash, W.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate, through numerical experiments, the viability of three-dimensional transient hydraulic tomography (3DTHT) for identifying the spatial distribution of groundwater flow parameters (primarily, hydraulic conductivity K) in permeable, unconfined aquifers. To invert the large amount of transient data collected from 3DTHT surveys, we utilize an iterative geostatistical inversion strategy in which outer iterations progressively increase the number of data points fitted and inner iterations solve the quasi-linear geostatistical formulas of Kitanidis. In order to base our numerical experiments around realistic scenarios, we utilize pumping rates, geometries, and test lengths similar to those attainable during 3DTHT field campaigns performed at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS). We also utilize hydrologic parameters that are similar to those observed at the BHRS and in other unconsolidated, unconfined fluvial aquifers. In addition to estimating K, we test the ability of 3DTHT to estimate both average storage values (specific storage Ss and specific yield Sy) as well as spatial variability in storage coefficients. The effects of model conceptualization errors during unconfined 3DTHT are investigated including: (1) assuming constant storage coefficients during inversion and (2) assuming stationary geostatistical parameter variability. Overall, our findings indicate that estimation of K is slightly degraded if storage parameters must be jointly estimated, but that this effect is quite small compared with the degradation of estimates due to violation of "structural" geostatistical assumptions. Practically, we find for our scenarios that assuming constant storage values during inversion does not appear to have a significant effect on K estimates or uncertainty bounds.

  20. Transcriptional 'memory' of a stress: transient chromatin and memory (epigenetic) marks at stress-response genes.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Zoya

    2015-07-01

    Drought, salinity, extreme temperature variations, pathogen and herbivory attacks are recurring environmental stresses experienced by plants throughout their life. To survive repeated stresses, plants provide responses that may be different from their response during the first encounter with the stress. A different response to a similar stress represents the concept of 'stress memory'. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and gene/genome levels is thought to increase survival chances by improving the plant's tolerance/avoidance abilities. Ultimately, stress memory may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation. At the molecular level, the concept of stress memory indicates that the mechanisms responsible for memory-type transcription during repeated stresses are not based on repetitive activation of the same response pathways activated by the first stress. Some recent advances in the search for transcription 'memory factors' are discussed with an emphasis on super-induced dehydration stress memory response genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:25788029

  1. Transient complement inhibition promotes a tumor-specific immune response through the implication of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Janelle, Valérie; Langlois, Marie-Pierre; Tarrab, Esther; Lapierre, Pascal; Poliquin, Laurent; Lamarre, Alain

    2014-03-01

    Although the role of the complement system in cancer development has been studied, its involvement in the development of an antitumoral immune response remains poorly understood. Using cobra venom factor (CVF) to inhibit the complement cascade via C3 molecule exhaustion in immunocompetent mice bearing B16gp33 melanoma tumors, we show that transient inhibition of the complement system allowed for the development of a more robust gp33-specific antitumoral CD8(+) T-cell response. This immune response proved to be natural killer (NK) dependent, suggesting an interaction of complement proteins with this cellular subset leading to T lymphocyte activation and enhanced cytotoxic T-cell activity against tumor cells. This study demonstrates for the first time the implication of the complement system in the development of NK-mediated cytotoxic T-cell-dependent antitumoral immune responses. The complement pathway could therefore be a potent therapeutic target to improve NK-dependent antitumoral immune responses in patients with cancer. PMID:24778316

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of the 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor Under Steady-State and Transient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, M.Q.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Chakrobortty, T.K.; Sarker, M.M.; Mondal, M.A.W

    2001-07-15

    Important thermal-hydraulic parameters of the 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II research reactor operating under both steady-state and transient conditions are reported. Neutronic analyses were performed by using the CITATION diffusion code and the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo code. The output of CITATION and MCNP4B2 were input to the PARET thermal-hydraulic code to study the steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactor. To benchmark the PARET model, data were obtained from different measurements performed by thermocouples in the instrumented fuel (IF) rod during the steady-state operation both under forced- and natural-convection mode and compared with the calculation. The mass flow rates needed for input to PARET were taken from the Final Safety Analysis Report for a downward forced coolant flow equivalent to 3500 gal/min. For natural convection cooling of the reactor, the mass flow rate was generated using the NCTRIGA code. Peak fuel temperatures measured by the thermocouples in the IF rods at different power levels of the TRIGA core were compared with the values calculated by PARET. The axial distribution of the temperatures of the fuel centerline, fuel surface, and the cladding surface in the hot channel were calculated for the reactor operating at the full-power level. Fuel surface heat flux and heat transfer coefficients for the hot channel were also calculated for the reactor operating at the full-power level. The investigated results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental and operational values. The testing of the PARET model calculations through benchmarking the available TRIGA experimental and operational data for pulse-mode operations showed that PARET can successfully be used to analyze the transient behavior of the reactor. Major transient parameters, such as peak power and prompt energy released after pulse, full-width at half-maximum of pulse peak, and maximum fuel centerline temperatures for different fuel elements at different

  3. Finite-element nonlinear transient response computer programs PLATE 1 and CIVM-PLATE 1 for the analysis of panels subjected to impulse or impact loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, R. L.; Witmer, E. A.; French, S. E.; Rodal, J. J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two computer programs are described for predicting the transient large deflection elastic viscoplastic responses of thin single layer, initially flat unstiffened or integrally stiffened, Kirchhoff-Lov ductile metal panels. The PLATE 1 program pertains to structural responses produced by prescribed externally applied transient loading or prescribed initial velocity distributions. The collision imparted velocity method PLATE 1 program concerns structural responses produced by impact of an idealized nondeformable fragment. Finite elements are used to represent the structure in both programs. Strain hardening and strain rate effects of initially isotropic material are considered.

  4. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  5. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event. PMID:23274171

  6. Transient α-helices in the disordered RPEL motifs of the serum response factor coactivator MKL1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Fuju, Takahiro; Obita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Masaaki; Tabuchi, Akiko

    2014-06-01

    The megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) protein functions as a transcriptional coactivator of the serum response factor. MKL1 has three RPEL motifs (RPEL1, RPEL2, and RPEL3) in its N-terminal region. MKL1 binds to monomeric G-actin through RPEL motifs, and the dissociation of MKL1 from G-actin promotes the translocation of MKL1 to the nucleus. Although structural data are available for RPEL motifs of MKL1 in complex with G-actin, the structural characteristics of RPEL motifs in the free state have been poorly defined. Here we characterized the structures of free RPEL motifs using NMR and CD spectroscopy. NMR and CD measurements showed that free RPEL motifs are largely unstructured in solution. However, NMR analysis identified transient α-helices in the regions where helices α1 and α2 are induced upon binding to G-actin. Proline mutagenesis showed that the transient α-helices are locally formed without helix-helix interactions. The helix content is higher in the order of RPEL1, RPEL2, and RPEL3. The amount of preformed structure may correlate with the binding affinity between the intrinsically disordered protein and its target molecule.

  7. Ultrafast electronic response of Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces: From early excitonic transients to saturated image potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkin, V. M.; Lazić, P.; Došlić, N.; Petek, H.; Gumhalter, B.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of attosecond to femtosecond screening and emergent potentials that govern the dynamics and energetics of electrons and holes excited in the various stages of multiphoton photoemission processes and control the photoelectron yield in recently reported experiments [X. Cui, C. Wang, A. Argondizzo, S. Garrett-Roe, B. Gumhalter, and H. Petek, Nat. Phys. 10, 505 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2981]. The study is focused on the dynamical screening of holes created in preexistent quasi-two-dimensional Shockley state bands on Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces and of electrons excited to the intermediate and emerging screened states. Using the formalism of self-consistent electronic response, we analyze first the effects of screening on the dynamics of photoexcited electrons and holes and then of the Coulomb correlated photoexcited pair. Special attention is paid to the correlated primary electron-hole states, which commence as transient surface excitons and develop in the course of screening into uncorrelated electrons and holes propagating in the image potential and surface state bands, respectively. The obtained results enable to establish a consistent picture of transient electron dynamics at Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces that are becoming accessible by the time-, energy-, and momentum-resolved pump-probe multiphoton photoelectron spectroscopies.

  8. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom. PMID:26974325

  9. Low Stretch Solid-Fuel Flame Transient Response to a Step Change in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. B.; Olson, S. L.; T'ien, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a step change in gravity level on the stability of low stretch diffusion flames over a solid fuel is studied both numerically and experimentally. Drop tower experiments have been conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 5.2 Zero Gravity Facility. In the experiments burning PMMA cylinders, a dynamic transition is observed when the steadily burning 1g flame is dropped and becomes a 0g flame. To understand the physics behind this dynamic transition, a transient stagnation point model has been developed which includes gas-phase radiation and solid phase coupling to describe this dynamic process. In this paper, the experimental results are compared with the model predictions. Both model and experiment show that the interior of the solid phase does not have time to change significantly in the few seconds of drop time, so the experimental results are pseudo-steady in the gas-phase, but the solid is inherently unsteady over long time scales. The model is also used to examine the importance of fractional heat losses on extinction, which clearly demonstrates that as the feedback from the flame decreases, the importance of the ongoing heat losses becomes greater, and extinction is observed when these losses represent 80% or more of the flame feedback.

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William; Muscoli, Carolina; Colasanti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom. PMID:26974325

  11. Design oriented identification of critical times in transient response. [due to dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Watson, L. T.; Grandhi, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two techniques are presented for reducing the computational effort in identifying the critical time points. One approach is an adaptive search technique, well suited for the case where the response is exactly known. The other technique, useful for noisy response, is based on a least-squares spline approximation of the response. The possibility of grouping several closely spaced local peaks to identify a single super peak from each group is also investigated. The computational efficiency of the techniques proposed here is illustrated by two examples.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the cerebral microvascular responses to angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vital, Shantel A; Terao, Satoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Granger, D Neil

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type-1 receptors (AT1r) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and ischemic stroke. The objectives of this study was to determine if/how chronic AngII administration affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and blood cell adhesion in the cerebral microvasculature. AngII-loaded osmotic pumps were implanted in wild type (WT) and mutant mice. Leukocyte and platelet adhesion were monitored in cerebral venules by intravital microscopy and BBB permeability detected by Evans blue leakage. AngII (two week) infusion increased blood pressure in WT mice. This was accompanied by an increased BBB permeability and a high density of adherent leukocytes and platelets. AT1r (on the vessel wall, but not on blood cells) was largely responsible for the microvascular responses to AngII. Immunodeficient (Rag-1(-/-) ) mice exhibited blunted blood cell recruitment responses without a change in BBB permeability. A similar protection pattern was noted in RANTES(-/-) and P-selectin(-/-) mice, with bone marrow chimeras (blood cell deficiency only) yielding responses comparable to the respective knockouts. These findings implicate AT1r in the microvascular dysfunction associated with AngII-induced hypertension and suggest that immune cells and blood cell-associated RANTES and P-selectin contribute to the blood cell recruitment, but not the BBB failure, elicited by AngII. PMID:21044218

  13. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Peter G; Dornan, James C; Lynch, Catherine; Maguire, Jennifer F

    2012-08-20

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol may exert a significant detrimental effect on the functioning of the individual's brain, however few studies have examined this before birth. This longitudinal study examined the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the elicited startle response of the fetus. Two groups of fetuses were examined: one whose mothers drank alcohol (approximately 10 units per week); the other whose mothers did not drink alcohol. Fetuses were examined at 29, 32 and 35 weeks gestation and their startle response observed using ultrasound in response to 2 presentations of a pink noise (70-250Hz) at 90dB(A) separated by 30s. Fetuses exposed to alcohol exhibited a weaker startle response at 29 weeks gestation than did fetuses not exposed to alcohol. There was no difference in the response at 32 and 35 weeks gestation. To ensure that the effects were not due to a more general effect of alcohol on fetal movement, a second experiment compared the spontaneous movements (observed on ultrasound for 45 min) of fetuses whose mothers drank alcohol and fetuses of mothers who didn't drink alcohol. There were no differences in movements exhibited by the fetuses. The results suggest that exposure to alcohol delays the emergence of the elicited startle response at 29 weeks gestation but this delay has disappeared by 32 weeks gestation. The possible role of altered neural development, acute exposure to alcohol and disruptions to the fetus's behavioural repertoire, in mediating these effects are discussed. PMID:22691707

  14. Finite-strain large-deflection elastic-viscoplastic finite-element transient response analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodal, J. J. A.; Witmer, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analysis for thin structures that incorporates finite strain, elastic-plastic, strain hardening, time dependent material behavior implemented with respect to a fixed configuration and is consistently valid for finite strains and finite rotations is developed. The theory is formulated systematically in a body fixed system of convected coordinates with materially embedded vectors that deform in common with continuum. Tensors are considered as linear vector functions and use is made of the dyadic representation. The kinematics of a deformable continuum is treated in detail, carefully defining precisely all quantities necessary for the analysis. The finite strain theory developed gives much better predictions and agreement with experiment than does the traditional small strain theory, and at practically no additional cost. This represents a very significant advance in the capability for the reliable prediction of nonlinear transient structural responses, including the reliable prediction of strains large enough to produce ductile metal rupture.

  15. Multiple human papillomavirus type 16 glucocorticoid response elements functional for transformation, transient expression, and DNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, R; Pater, A; Pater, M M

    1993-01-01

    We have previously shown that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) can efficiently transform primary baby rat kidney cells in the presence of the steroid hormones progesterone and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. To study this effect of hormone, different combinations of the previously identified glucocorticoid response element (GRE) at nucleotide 7640 of HPV-16 and the other two GREs that we have recently identified, at nucleotides 7385 and 7474, were mutated. The previously described GRE and the other two GREs were shown to be functional for the induction of transformation by dexamethasone. In addition, transient assays in cervical HeLa cells demonstrated the functional importance of the three individual GREs. Assays for in vitro interaction demonstrated the specific binding of a 97-kDa protein, the glucocorticoid receptor, to both recently identified HPV-16 GREs. Images PMID:8394465

  16. Two analyte calibrations from the transient response of a single potentiometric sensor employed with the SIA technique.

    PubMed

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Legin, Andrey; Del Valle, Manel

    2010-01-15

    Simultaneous quantification of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in solution has been correctly targeted using the kinetic information from a single non-specific potentiometric sensor. Dual quantification was accomplished from the complex information in the transient response of an electrode used in a Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) system and recorded after step injection of sample. Data was firstly preprocessed with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to extract significant features and then fed into an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for building the calibration model. DWT stage was optimized regarding the wavelet function and decomposition level, while the ANN stage was optimized on its structure. To simultaneously corroborate the effectiveness of the approach, two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case, one using a glass selective to Cd(2+) and another a PVC membrane selective to Pb(2+). PMID:20006109

  17. PS II model based analysis of transient fluorescence yield measured on whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana after excitation with light flashes of different energies.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Renger, G

    2011-02-01

    Our recently presented PS II model (Belyaeva et al., 2008) was improved in order to permit a consistent simulation of Single Flash Induced Transient Fluorescence Yield (SFITFY) traces that were earlier measured by Steffen et al. (2005) on whole leaves of Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana at four different energies of the actinic flash. As the essential modification, the shape of the actinic flash was explicitly taken into account assuming that an exponentially decaying rate simulates the time dependent excitation of PS II by the 10 ns actinic flash. The maximum amplitude of this excitation exceeds that of the measuring light by 9 orders of magnitude. A very good fit of the SFITFY data was achieved in the time domain from 100 ns to 10s for all actinic flash energies (the maximum energy of 7.5 × 10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash) is set to 100%, the relative energies of weaker actinic flashes were of ∼8%, 4%, ∼1%). Our model allows the calculation and visualization of the transient PS II redox state populations ranging from the dark adapted state, via excitation energy and electron transfer steps induced by pulse excitation, followed by final relaxation into the stationary state eventually attained under the measuring light. It turned out that the rate constants of electron transfer steps are invariant to intensity of the actinic laser flash. In marked contrast, an increase of the actinic flash energy by more than two orders of magnitude from 5.4×10¹⁴ photons/(cm²flash) to 7.5×10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash), leads to an increase of the extent of fluorescence quenching due to carotenoid triplet (³Car) formation by a factor of 14 and of the recombination reaction between reduced primary pheophytin (Phe(-)) and P680(+) by a factor of 3 while the heat dissipation in the antenna complex remains virtually constant. The modified PS II model offers new opportunities to compare electron transfer and dissipative parameters for different species (e.g. for the green algae and the

  18. Transient hysteresis of near-surface permafrost response to external forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Demchenko, Pavel F.; Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of changes in near-surface permafrost (NSP) area S p relative to change in globally averaged surface air temperature T g are made by using the global climate model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). For ensemble of runs forced by scenarios constructed as return-to-preindustrial continuations of the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios family, a possibility of transient hysteresis in dependence of S p versus T g is exhibited: in some temperature range which depends on imposed scenario of external forcing, NSP area is larger, at the same global mean surface air temperature, in a warming climate than in a cooling climate. This hysteresis is visible more clearly for scenarios with higher concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in comparison to those in which this concentration is lower. Hysteresis details are not sensitive to the type of the prescribed continuation path which is used to return the climate to the preindustrial state. The multiple-valued dependence of S p on T g arises due to dependence of soil state in the regions of extra-tropical wetlands and near the contemporary NSP boundaries on sign of external climatic forcing. To study the dependence of permafrost hysteresis on amplitude and temporal scale of external forcing, additional model runs are performed. These runs are forced by idealised scenarios of atmospheric CO2 content varying, depending on run, with periods from 100 to 1,000 year and with different amplitudes. It is shown that the above-mentioned hysteresis is related to the impact of phase transitions of soil water on apparent inertia of the system as well as to the impact of soil state on atmospheric hydrological cycle and radiation transfer in the atmosphere.

  19. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.; Goldsby, David L.; Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-04-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ≤ 0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ˜6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates.

  1. Transient Thermal Response of Lightweight Cementitious Composites Made with Polyurethane Foam Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kismi, M.; Poullain, P.; Mounanga, P.

    2012-07-01

    The development of low-cost lightweight aggregate (LWA) mortars and concretes presents many advantages, especially in terms of lightness and thermal insulation performances of structures. Low-cost LWA mainly comes from the recovery of vegetal or plastic wastes. This article focuses on the characterization of the thermal conductivity of innovative lightweight cementitious composites made with fine particles of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam waste. Five mortars were prepared with various mass substitution rates of cement with PU-foam particles. Their thermal conductivity was measured with two transient methods: the heating-film method and the hot-disk method. The incorporation of PU-foam particles causes a reduction of up to 18 % of the mortar density, accompanied by a significant improvement of the thermal insulating performance. The effect of segregation on the thermal properties of LWA mortars due to the differences of density among the cementitious matrix, sand, and LWA has also been quantified. The application of the hot-disk method reveals a gradient of thermal conductivity along the thickness of the specimens, which could be explained by a non-uniform repartition of fine PU-foam particles and mineral aggregates within the mortars. The results show a spatial variation of the thermal conductivity of the LWA mortars, ranging from 9 % to 19 %. However, this variation remains close to or even lower than that observed on a normal weight aggregate mortar. Finally, a self-consistent approach is proposed to estimate the thermal conductivity of PU-foam cement-based composites.

  2. Lunar Outgassing, Transient Phenomena, and the Return to the Moon. II. Predictions and Tests for Outgassing/Regolith Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Hummels, Cameron

    2009-12-01

    We follow Paper I with predictions of how gas leaking through the lunar surface could influence the regolith, as might be observed via optical transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) and related effects. We touch on several processes, but concentrate on low and high flow rate extremes, which are perhaps the most likely. We model explosive outgassing for the smallest gas overpressure at the regolith base that releases the regolith plug above it. This disturbance's timescale and affected area are consistent with observed TLPs; we also discuss other effects. For slow flow, escape through the regolith is prolonged by low diffusivity. Water, found recently in deep magma samples, is unique among candidate volatiles, capable of freezing between the regolith base and surface, especially near the lunar poles. For major outgassing sites, we consider the possible accumulation of water ice. Over geological time, ice accumulation can evolve downward through the regolith. Depending on gases additional to water, regolith diffusivity might be suppressed chemically, blocking seepage and forcing the ice zone to expand to larger areas, up to km2 scales, again, particularly at high latitudes. We propose an empirical path forward, wherein current and forthcoming technologies provide controlled, sensitive probes of outgassing. The optical transient/outgassing connection, addressed via Earth-based remote sensing, suggests imaging and/or spectroscopy, but aspects of lunar outgassing might be more covert, as indicated above. TLPs betray some outgassing, but does outgassing necessarily produce TLPs? We also suggest more intrusive techniques from radar to in situ probes. Understanding lunar volatiles seems promising in terms of resource exploitation for human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and offers interesting scientific goals in its own right. Many of these approaches should be practiced in a pristine lunar atmosphere, before significant confusing signals likely to be produced upon humans

  3. LUNAR OUTGASSING, TRANSIENT PHENOMENA, AND THE RETURN TO THE MOON. II. PREDICTIONS AND TESTS FOR OUTGASSING/REGOLITH INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Hummels, Cameron

    2009-12-20

    We follow Paper I with predictions of how gas leaking through the lunar surface could influence the regolith, as might be observed via optical transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) and related effects. We touch on several processes, but concentrate on low and high flow rate extremes, which are perhaps the most likely. We model explosive outgassing for the smallest gas overpressure at the regolith base that releases the regolith plug above it. This disturbance's timescale and affected area are consistent with observed TLPs; we also discuss other effects. For slow flow, escape through the regolith is prolonged by low diffusivity. Water, found recently in deep magma samples, is unique among candidate volatiles, capable of freezing between the regolith base and surface, especially near the lunar poles. For major outgassing sites, we consider the possible accumulation of water ice. Over geological time, ice accumulation can evolve downward through the regolith. Depending on gases additional to water, regolith diffusivity might be suppressed chemically, blocking seepage and forcing the ice zone to expand to larger areas, up to km{sup 2} scales, again, particularly at high latitudes. We propose an empirical path forward, wherein current and forthcoming technologies provide controlled, sensitive probes of outgassing. The optical transient/outgassing connection, addressed via Earth-based remote sensing, suggests imaging and/or spectroscopy, but aspects of lunar outgassing might be more covert, as indicated above. TLPs betray some outgassing, but does outgassing necessarily produce TLPs? We also suggest more intrusive techniques from radar to in situ probes. Understanding lunar volatiles seems promising in terms of resource exploitation for human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and offers interesting scientific goals in its own right. Many of these approaches should be practiced in a pristine lunar atmosphere, before significant confusing signals likely to be produced upon

  4. The impact of transient combination antiretroviral treatment in early HIV infection on viral suppression and immunologic response in later treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Nikos; Touloumi, Giota; Meyer, Laurence; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Lutsar, Irja; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Fisher, Martin; Moreno, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of transient combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) initiated during early HIV infection (EHI) remain unclear. We investigate whether this intervention affects viral suppression and CD4+ cell count increase following its reinitiation in chronic infection (CHI). Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: We identified adult patients from Concerted Action of Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe who seroconverted after 1/1/2000, had a 12 months or less HIV test interval and initiated cART from naive. We classified individuals as ‘pretreated in EHI’ if treated within 6 months of seroconversion, interrupted for at least 12 weeks, and reinitiated during CHI. Statistical analysis was performed using survival analysis methods and mixed models. Results: Pretreated and initiated in CHI groups comprised 202 and 4263 individuals, with median follow-up after CHI treatment 4.5 and 3 years, respectively. Both groups had similar virologic response and relapse rates (P = 0.585 and P = 0.206) but pretreated individuals restarted treatment with higher baseline CD4+ cell count (∼80 cells/μl; P < 0.001) and retained significantly higher CD4+ cell count for more than 3 years after treatment (re)initiation. Assuming common baseline CD4+ cell count, differences in CD4+ cell count slopes were nonsignificant. Immunovirologic response to CHI treatment was not associated with timing or duration of the transient treatment. Conclusion: Although treatment interruptions are not recommended, stopping cART initiated in EHI does not seem to reduce the chance of a successful outcome of treatment in CHI. PMID:26636925

  5. Novel intronic promoter in the rat ER alpha gene responsible for the transient transcription of a variant receptor.

    PubMed

    Tiffoche, C; Vaillant, C; Schausi, D; Thieulant, M L

    2001-09-01

    To analyze the molecular origin of an ER variant, the truncated ER product-1, transiently expressed at the proestrus in lactotrope cells, we generated a 2.5-kb sequence of a genomic region upstream and downstream the specific sequence truncated ER product-1. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that truncated ER product-1 is spliced from a noncoding leader exon localized within the intron 4 of the ER alpha gene. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of a major transcriptional start site, a canonical TATA box and putative cis regulatory elements for pituitary specific expression as well as an E-responsive element. In transient transfection, the truncated ER product-1 promoter was transcriptionally the most active in the lactotrope cell lines (MMQ). Analysis of truncated ER product-1 functionality showed that: 1) the protein inhibited ER alpha binding to the E-responsive element in electromobility shift assays, 2) inhibited the E2 binding to ER alpha in binding assays, 3) the truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex antagonized the transcriptional activity elicited by E2, 4) nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein-ER alpha was altered in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing truncated ER product-1. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the protein exerts full dominant negative activity against ER alpha. Moreover, truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex also repressed the activity of all promoters tested to date, suggesting a general inhibitory effect toward transcription. In conclusion, the data suggest that truncated ER product-1 could regulate estrogen signaling via a specific promoter in lactotrope cells. PMID:11517190

  6. A composite regulatory element in the first intron of the estrogen-responsive very low density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Shuler, F D; Chu, W W; Wang, S; Evans, M I

    1998-08-01

    During periods of egg laying in the chicken, when circulating levels of estrogen are increased, the liver-specific estrogen-dependent very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene is expressed. This expression takes place primarily at the level of transcription, driven by two estrogen response elements that reside in the promoter. In transient transfection assays, expression is increased fourfold when the first intron is added to the promoter construct, indicating that 75% of the regulation comes from intron A. Using in vitro DNase I footprinting, six protein-binding sites were revealed throughout the first intron. The functional significance of these binding sites was evaluated by mutation and transient transfection. Two of the protein-binding regions were shown to increase transcription. Site-specific mutations introduced at either the +66 to +86 or +112 to +129 sites disrupted trans-factor binding and reduced the estrogen-dependent expression by 45% and 34%, respectively. A plasmid containing both mutations resulted in a 43% decrease in expression, indicating that the contributions of these regions are not additive. Competition with known sequences in electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that the +66 to +86 site binds a chicken member of the nuclear receptor transcription factor family. PMID:9726251

  7. Analysis of Critical Reactor Response for TOPAZ-II Water Immersion Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Glushkov, Yevgeny S.; Yermoshin, Mikhail Y.; Skorlygin, Vladimir V.

    1994-07-01

    The unmodified TOPAZ-II water immersion event leading to surrounding the reactor with water and filling with water all internal core cavities (including TFE NaK channels) may hypothetically result in criticality. This paper presents results of preliminary studies of such an accident. Possible scenarios have been analyzed as well as reactivity effects involving the water presence in internal core cavities. A preliminary coupled model has been developed to describe accident transients in the reactor and TFE. The model is based on assumptions that result in overestimating possible consequences. The numerical simulations results point at the TOPAZ-II reactor capability to quench effectively possible power bursts and predict stable periodic oscillations as a final system state, wherein steaming and then refilling up some internal core cavities occurs. That may be considered to be demonstration of the TOPAZ-II reactor self-control capability if its criticality involves water immersion event.

  8. Time-domain solution for transient dynamic response of a large-diameter thin-walled pipe pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuanming; Liu, Hanlong; Chu, Jian; Cheng, Ke

    2015-06-01

    The propagation of stress waves in a large-diameter pipe pile for low strain dynamic testing cannot be explained properly by traditional 1D wave theories. A new computational model is established to obtain a wave equation that can describe the dynamic response of a large-diameter thin-walled pipe pile to a transient point load during a low strain integrity test. An analytical solution in the time domain is deduced using the separation of variables and variation of constant methods. The validity of this new solution is verified by an existing analytical solution under free boundary conditions. The results of this time domain solution are also compared with the results of a frequency domain solution and field test data. The comparisons indicate that the new solution agrees well with the results of previous solutions. Parametric studies using the new solution with reference to a case study are also carried out. The results show that the mode number affects the accuracy of the dynamic response. A mode number greater than 10 is required to enable the calculated dynamic responses to be independent of the mode number. The dynamic response is also greatly affected by soil properties. The larger the side resistance, the smaller the displacement response and the smaller the reflected velocity wave crest. The displacement increases as the stress waves propagate along the pile when the pile shaft is free. The incident waves of displacement and velocity responses of the pile are not the same among different points in the circumferential direction on the pile top. However, the arrival time and peak value of the pile tip reflected waves are almost the same among different points on the pile top.

  9. In-plane response and mode II fracture response of Z-pin woven laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hseng-Ji

    Textile composites are proven to be an attractive choice over traditional pre-preg based composites because of reduced manufacturing costs and improved transverse mechanical properties. However, similar to traditional pre-preg composites, 2D laminates consisting of multiple layers of laminae still suffer from delamination under impact or transverse loads. Z-pin (carbon fiber of small diameter inserted in the thickness direction-z) composites are a means to provide higher through-thethickness stiffness and strength that 2D woven composites lack. In this thesis, The influences of Z-pin density and Z-pin diameter on the response of Z-pin under in-plane loads (compression) and transverse loads (mode II fracture) are examined. Both experiments and numerical simulations were performed to address the problems. Compression tests were conducted first and failure mechanism in each loading scenario was identified, through optical and mechanical measurements, during and after the tests. This was followed by the development of different numerical models of varying degree of sophistication, which include in-plane 2D models, (used to study fiber distortion and damage due to Z-pin insertion), multi-layer 2D models, (used to provide an inexpensive multi-layer model to study the effect of phase difference due to stacking consolidation), and multi-layer-multi-cell models (used to provide a full 3D multi-layer and multi-representative unit cell description). The second part of this thesis investigates the mode II fracture response under static and dynamic loading. Discrete Cohesive Zone Model (DCZM) was adopted to obtain the fracture toughness in conjunction with experimental data. In dynamic test, a crack advance gage (CAG) was designed to capture the exact time when the crack begins to propagate. By use of these CAGs, the corresponding crack propagation speed between different CAGs can be computed accordingly. These observations are supplemented through high speed optical images

  10. Responses of neurons in primary visual cortex to transient changes in local contrast and luminance.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Wilson S; Albrecht, Duane G; Crane, Alison M

    2007-05-01

    During normal saccadic inspection of natural images, the receptive fields of cortical neurons are bombarded with frequent simultaneous changes in local mean luminance and contrast, yet there have been no systematic studies of how cortical neurons respond to such stimulation. The responses of single neurons in the primary visual cortex of the cat were measured for 200 ms presentations of sine-wave gratings confined to the conventional receptive field. Both local mean luminance and contrast were parametrically and randomly varied over the 1-1.5 log unit ranges that are typical of natural images. We find that responses are strongly modulated by both the local mean luminance and contrast, but in an approximately separable manner: the contrast response function is approximately invariant except for a scale factor that depends on the local mean luminance. The shape of the temporal response profiles were found to be approximately invariant with contrast, but were strongly affected by the local mean luminance. The results suggest that most, if not all, cortical neurons carry substantial local luminance information. PMID:17494692

  11. Transient Chemical Denudation Rates in Soils and Saprolites: Responses to Channel Incision in Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinman, B. A.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.; Hurst, M. D.; Maher, K.

    2012-12-01

    Here we explore soil and saprolite weathering along a denudation gradient (~40-400 mm kyr-1) in the Feather River catchment of northwestern California. By comparing the geochemical differences in soils and saprolites along three hillslopes--located above, at, and below a knickpoint--we can discern the impact of a propagating incision signal on the geochemical evolution of the catchment's saprolites and soil. Specifically, we couple mass balance geochemistry with soil and saprolite turnover times to determine rates of chemical weathering of soils and saprolites at the hillslope scale. Soil turnover time was determined by dividing the average soil thickness (L) with the rate of denudation (LT-1). For the catchment scale, we used 10Be-based denudation rates (Riebe et al., 2001; Hurst et al., 2012). For hilltops where accelerated channel incision signal has not yet reached, LiDAR-based hilltop curvature is used for calculating total denudation rates (Hurst et al., 2012). Lastly, for the steepest hillslope base adjacent to channels, we used a nonlinear slope-dependent sediment transport law to estimate denudation (Roering et al., 2007). Turnover times, soil bulk density, and elemental chemistry were then used to estimate the rates of chemical weathering (ML-2T-1) experienced in the soils and saprolites. Our results indicate that, for transient landscapes, both hilltop curvature and the bottom-most slope should be used to capture a range of chemical denudation occurring along adjusting hillslopes. This is because soils and saprolites are undergoing variable rates of physical and chemical denudation along a single hillform: total chemical denudation (of both soils and saprolites) tends to be ~4x's larger at the bottommost part of the hillslope, nearest to the channel. Along the denudation gradient, soils along steeper hillslopes are chemically denuding faster than more gently sloped hillslopes, at rates of ~50 vs. 10t/km2/yr, respectively. Overall, our analysis suggests

  12. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted

  13. Trunk muscular activation patterns and responses to transient force perturbation in persons with self-reported low back pain.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Ian A F; Fox, James R; Henry, Sharon M

    2006-05-01

    Trunk stability requires muscle stiffness associated with appropriate timing and magnitude of activation of muscles. Abnormality of muscle function has been implicated as possible cause or consequence of back pain. This experimental study compared trunk muscle activation and responses to transient force perturbations in persons with and without self-reported history of low back pain. The objective was to determine whether or not history of back pain was associated with (1) altered anticipatory preactivation of trunk muscles or altered likelihood of muscular response to a transient force perturbation and (2) altered muscle activation patterns during a ramped effort. Twenty-one subjects who reported having back pain (LBP group) and twenty-three reporting no recent back pain (NLBP group) were tested while each subject stood in an apparatus with the pelvis immobilized. They performed 'ramped-effort' tests (to a voluntary maximum effort), and force perturbation tests. Resistance was provided by a horizontal cable from the thorax to one of five anchorage points on a wall track to the subject's right at angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees and 180 degrees to the forward direction. In the perturbation tests, subjects first pulled against the cable to generate an effort nominally 15% or 30% of their maximum extension effort. The effort and the EMG activity of five right/left pairs of trunk muscles were recorded, and muscle responses were detected. In the ramped-effort tests the gradient of the EMG-effort relationship provided a measure of each muscle's activation. On average, the LBP group subjects activated their dorsal muscles more than the NLBP group subjects in a maximum effort task when the EMG values were normalized for the maximum EMG, but this finding may have resulted from lesser maximum effort generated by LBP subjects. Greater muscle preactivation was recorded in the LBP group than the NLBP group just prior to the perturbation. The likelihood

  14. Gender differences in response to acute and chronic angiotensin II infusion: a translational approach

    PubMed Central

    Toering, Tsjitske J; van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Visser, Folkert W; Buikema, Hendrik; Navis, Gerjan; Faas, Marijke M; Lely, A Titia

    2015-01-01

    Women with renal disease progress at a slower rate to end stage renal disease than men. As angiotensin II has both hemodynamic and direct renal effects, we hypothesized that the female protection may result from gender differences in responses to angiotensin II. Therefore, we studied gender differences in response to angiotensin II, during acute (human) and chronic (rats) angiotensin II administration. In young healthy men (n = 18) and women (n = 18) we studied the responses of renal hemodynamics (125I-iothalamate and 131I-Hippuran) and blood pressure to graded angiotensin II infusion (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 ng/kg/min for 1 h). Men had increased responses of diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01), mean arterial pressure (P = 0.05), and a more pronounced decrease in effective renal plasma flow (P = 0.009) than women. We measured the changes in proteinuria and blood pressure in response to chronic administration (200 ng/kg/min for 3 weeks) of angiotensin II in rats. Male rats had an increased response of proteinuria compared with females (GEE analysis, P = 0.001). Male, but not female, angiotensin II-treated rats had increased numbers of renal interstitial macrophages compared to sham-treated rats (P < 0.001). In conclusion, gender differences are present in the response to acute and chronic infusion of angiotensin II. Difference in angiotensin II sensitivity could play a role in gender differences in progression of renal disease. PMID:26149279

  15. Influence of electric-double-layer structure on the transient response of nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes model is presented for the impedance response of a long nanochannel under zero bias, capturing the effects of surface conduction and the coupling between transverse momentum and axial ion distribution in a manner reminiscent of Taylor dispersion. This is shown to result in a shift of the impedance frequency spectrum with bulk concentration similar to previous experimental observation [Schiffbauer, Liel, and Yossifon, Phys. Rev. E 89, 033017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.033017]. It further predicts an additional downward shift in frequency with increasing viscosity. Finally, the introduction of a phenomenological model for the impedance response of a dynamic Stern layer in parallel with the diffuse layer transport model is shown to yield good agreement between theory and experiment. As a result, we are able to obtain an equivalent circuit model based on the fundamental model and proposed corrections.

  16. Investigation of the Transient Response of Gower Gulch to Forced Diversion, Death Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. L.; Snyder, N. P.

    2005-12-01

    We document sequential stages of the evolution of Gower Gulch in response to a forced diversion in 1941, using aerial photographs and field surveys. This artificial stream capture provides a rare opportunity to evaluate initial channel conditions and the ongoing response of the system. Five sets of aerial photographs (flight dates 1948, 1960, 1971, 1982, and 1995) have been orthorectified or registered for thorough geomorphic analysis. The response differs throughout the channel, depending on pre-diversion conditions and lithology. At the diversion point and the mouth, bedrock-floored knickzones have formed. Channel narrowing and incision characterize these steep reaches, with upstream knickpoint migration by pothole abrasion. In the central part of the channel, underlain by soft, fine-grained sedimentary rocks, the channel is covered in alluvium and has widened from an average of 14.8 m in 1948 to 24.6 m in 2005. Incision in this area is approximately 1-3 m, as indicated by tributary terraces. In the alluvial fan, the channel has incised up to 6.9 m, and widened from 10.9 m to 45.6 m. Above the diversion, Furnace Creek Wash has narrowed by approximately 12 meters since 1948.

  17. Gas-cap effects in pressure-transient response of naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bemani, A.S.; Ershaghi, I.

    1997-03-01

    During the primary production life of an oil reservoir, segregation of oil and gas within the fissures before reaching the producing wells could create a secondary gas cap if no original gas cap were present, or will join the expanding original gas-cap gas. This paper presents a theoretical framework of gas-cap effects in naturally fractured reservoirs. General pressure solutions are derived for both pseudosteady-state and unsteady-state matrix-fracture interporosity flow. Deviation from the fracture or fracture-matrix response occurs as the gas-cap effect is felt. Anomalous slope changes during the transition period depend entirely on the contrast between the fracture anisotropy parameter, {lambda}{sub l}, and matrix-fracture interporosity parameter, {lambda}, and between the total gas-cap storage capacitance (1 {minus} {omega}{sub 1}) and oil-zone matrix storage (1 {minus} {omega}). A composite double-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {le} {omega}{sub 1c} and 1.0 {le} {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} {le} 1,000. A triple-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {ge} {omega}{sub k} and 140 < {omega}{lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} < 1.0E05.

  18. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors. PMID:20021572

  19. Complete multiwavelength evolution of galactic black hole transients during outburst decay. II. Compact jets and X-ray variability properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dinçer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the relation between compact jet emission and X-ray variability properties of all black hole transients with multiwavelength coverage during their outburst decays. We studied the evolution of all power spectral components (including low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations; QPOs), and related this evolution to changes in jet properties tracked by radio and infrared observations. We grouped sources according to their tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation and show that the standards show stronger broadband X-ray variability than outliers at a given X-ray luminosity when the compact jet turns on. This trend is consistent with the internal shock model and can be important for the understanding of the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation. We also observed that the total and the QPO rms amplitudes increase together during the earlier part of the outburst decay, but after the compact jet turns, either the QPO disappears or its rms amplitude decreases significantly while the total rms amplitudes remain high. We discuss these results with a scenario including a variable corona and a non-variable disk with a mechanism for the QPO separate from the mechanism that creates broad components. Finally, we evaluated the timing predictions of the magnetically dominated accretion flow model that can explain the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation.

  20. Structural response of transient heat loading on a molybdenum surface exposed to low-energy helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, G.; Tripathi, J. K.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-03-01

    The advancement of fusion reactor engineering is currently inhibited by the lack of knowledge surrounding the stability of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a tokamak environment. During normal operation, events of high heat loading occur periodically where large amounts of energy are imparted onto the PFC surface. Concurrently, irradiation by low-energy helium ions present in the fusion plasma can result in the synthesis of a fibre form nanostructure on the PFC surface, called ‘fuzz’. In order to understand how this heterogeneous structure evolves and deforms in response to transient heat loading, a pulsed Nd:YAG millisecond laser is used to simulate these events on a fuzz form molybdenum (Mo) surface. Performance was analysed by three metrics: nanostructure evolution, particle emission, and improvement in optical properties. Experiments performed at the upper end of the expected range for type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) found that the helium-induced nanostructure completely disappears after 200 pulses of the laser at 1.5 MJ m-2. In situ mass loss measurements found that the amount of particles leaving the surface increases as energy density increases and the rate of emission increases with pulse count. Finally, optical properties assisted in providing a qualitative indication of fuzz density on the Mo surface; after 400 pulses at 1.5 MJ m-2, the optical reflectivity of the damaged surface is ~90% of that of a mirror polished Mo sample. These findings provide different results than previous studies done with tungsten (W), and further help illustrate the complicated nature of how transient events of high heat loading in a tokamak environment might impact the performance and lifetime of PFCs in ITER and future DEMO devices (Ueda et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 901-6).

  1. Mesospheric, Thermospheric, and Ionospheric Responses to Acoustic and Gravity Waves Generated by Transient Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Strong acoustic waves with periods ~1-4 minutes have been confirmed to perturb the ionosphere following their generation by earthquakes [e.g., Garcia et al., GRL, 40(5), 2013] and volcanic eruption events [e.g., Heki, GRL, 33, L14303, 2006]. Clear acoustic and gravity wave signatures have also been reported in ionospheric data above strong tropospheric convection [Nishioka, GRL, 40(21), 2013], and prior modeling results suggest that convectively-generated acoustic waves with ~3-4 minute periods are readily detectable above their sources in TEC [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. These observations have provided quantitative insight into the coupling of processes occurring near Earth's surface with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere over short time-scales. Here, we investigate acoustic waves and short-period gravity waves generated by sources near ground level, and the observable responses of the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI) systems. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model, in cylindrically-axisymmetric coordinates, to investigate wave generation, upward propagation, steepening, and dissipation. Acoustic waves may produce observable signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013], and can strongly perturb the lower-thermosphere and E- and F-region ionosphere, prior to the arrival of simultaneously-generated gravity waves. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for mid and low latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013], we investigate its response to realistic acoustic wave perturbations. In particular, we demonstrate that the MLT and ionospheric responses are significantly and nonlinearly determined by the acoustic wave source geometry, spectrum, and amplitude, in addition to the local ambient state of the

  2. Analysis of the transient response of shell structures by numerical methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geers, T. L.; Sobel, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper examines some basic considerations underlying dynamic shell response analysis and the impact of these considerations upon the practical aspects of solution by numerical methods. Emphasis is placed on the solution of linear problems. The present states of development of the finite difference and finite element methods are reviewed, and techniques for the treatment of temporal variation are discussed. An examination is made of the frequency parameters characteristic of thin shell theory, applied excitations, and spatial mesh geometries, and the significance of these parameters with respect to computational convergence is illustrated.

  3. A kinetic model of the transient phase in the response of olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Getz, W M

    1999-10-01

    A model is presented that predicts the instantaneous spike rate of an olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) in response to the quality and concentration of an odor stimulus. The model accounts for the chemical kinetics of ligand-receptor binding and activation processes, and implicitly the initiation of second messenger cascades that lead to depolarization and/or hyperpolarization of the ORN membrane. Both of these polarizing processes are included in the most general form of the model, as well as a process that restores the voltage to its negative resting state. The spike rate is assumed to be linearly proportional to the level of voltage depolarization above a critical negative voltage level. The model includes the simplifying assumption that activation of bound ligand-receptor complexes by G-proteins and other enabling molecules follows a Monod function that has the ratio of enabling molecules to bound unactivated ligand-receptor complexes as its argument. Parameters are selected that provide an excellent fit of the model to previously published empirical data on the response of cockroach ORNs to pulsed 1-hexanol stimuli. The sensitivity of model output to various model parameters is investigated and changes to parameters are discussed that would improve the ability of ORNs to follow rapidly pulsed stimuli. PMID:10576257

  4. A Study on Response of a Contoured Composite Panel with Co-cured Stiffeners Under Transient Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahnaaz; Jain, Prakash Chand; Venkatesh, Siddu

    2016-07-01

    Composite materials are emerging to be the best applied materials for aerospace applications. With rapid improvement in computational facilities, it is now possible to design the best composite lay up for a particular kind of application. This paper presents the development of a Finite Element model of a contoured composite panel with co-cured stiffeners using Finite Element Simulation. Commercial package ANSYS 15.0 is used for this study. Such half contoured panels find wide application in Aerospace industry. The panel is hinged at one of the ends and dynamically loaded at the other end over a relatively small surface area by transverse load. The response of the panel is observed for variation in stresses, deflections and failure criteria. The panel is expected to rotate about the hinge point by 4° from the initial point. The transient response of the composite panel has been observed for expected load and two test load cases and results reported in this paper. Analysis has become useful input for the design of panel.

  5. Responsabilidad = Responsibility. Level II. Student Book and Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, CA.

    This curriculum presents an overview of responsibility as a concept intrinsic to the functioning of a democratic society. The curriculum has been developed to provide students with an increased awareness of the importance of responsibility in their own lives and its place in contemporary society, and to encourage their capacity and inclination to…

  6. Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase II enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F.

    2014-01-01

    The α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3−. Here, we focus on human CA II (CA II), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme. In the second paper in this series, we examine CA IV at the extracellular surface. After microinjecting recombinant CA II in a Tris solution (or just Tris) into oocytes, we expose oocytes to 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3−/pH 7.50 while using microelectrodes to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) and surface pH (pHS). CO2 influx causes the familiar sustained pHi fall as well as a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA II increases the magnitudes of the maximal rate of pHi change, (dpHi/dt)max, and the maximal change in pHS, ΔpHS. Preincubating oocytes with the inhibitor ethoxzolamide eliminates the effects of CA II. Compared with pHS, pHi begins to change only after a delay of ∼9 s and its relaxation has a larger (i.e., slower) time constant (τpHi > τpHS). Simultaneous measurements with two pHi electrodes, one superficial and one deep, suggest that impalement depth contributes to pHi delay and higher τpHi. Using higher CO2/HCO3− levels, i.e., 5%/33 mM HCO3− or 10%/66 mM HCO3−, increases (dpHi/dt)max and ΔpHS, though not in proportion to the increase in [CO2]. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (described in the third paper in this series) accounts for the above general features and supports the conclusion that cytosolic CA—consuming entering CO2 or replenishing exiting CO2—increases CO2 fluxes across the cell membrane. PMID:24965587

  7. Transient response of a single-edge crack in an elastic half-plane

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The elasto-dynamic response of a single-edge crack in a semi-infinite elastic medium is considered in this study. The crack is assumed to appear suddenly in an elastic half-plane that is being stretched by a remote stress field. Near the crack, the interactions between the wave emanating from the tip and those reflected from the free edge take place. This investigation focuses its attention on the determination of the effect of this interaction on the stress intensity factor. Laplace and Fourier transforms are used to reduce the solution to a pair of dual integral equations. A numerical Laplace inversion procedure is used to obtain the time dependence of the solution. Numerical results on the dynamic stress intensity factor are obtained and are presented in a graphical form.

  8. Development of Fuel Cell Co-generation System with Heat-pump System in Consideration of Transient Response of Electric Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The transient response characteristics of electric power output of the fuel cell system for individual houses were investigated, and relation between system control parameters and transient response characteristics were clarified. Furthermore, the transient response characteristics of coefficient of performance (COP) and electric power output of the system which makes heat pump an auxiliary heat source were investigated. Moreover, the relation between COP of heat pump and the transient response characteristics of the system were considered. Analysis of operation cost of system components and annual operation cost balance was performed supposing introducing a fuel cell co-generation system installs to individual house in Sapporo and Tokyo. Relation between COP of heat pump and operation cost, relation of reformer time-constant and operation cost, operation cost of the system with town gas boiler instead of heat pump, were investigated. The fuel cell cogeneration system introduced into Tokyo does not have the necessity of using heat pump and boiler, and it is thought that energy demand is filled with installing a thermal storage tank of small capacity. Moreover, it is more advantageous for operation cost to introduce a town gas boiler rather than introduces about COP=2. 0 heat pump into Sapporo.

  9. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  10. A dynamic-biased dual-loop-feedback CMOS LDO regulator with fast transient response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wang; Maomao, Sun

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a low-dropout regulator (LDO) for portable applications with dual-loop feedback and a dynamic bias circuit. The dual-loop feedback structure is adopted to reduce the output voltage spike and the response time of the LDO. The dynamic bias circuit enhances the slew rate at the gate of the power transistor. In addition, an adaptive miller compensation technique is employed, from which a single pole system is realized and over a 59° phase margin is achieved under the full range of the load current. The proposed LDO has been implemented in a 0.6-μm CMOS process. From the experimental results, the regulator can operate with a minimum dropout voltage of 200 mV at a maximum 300 mA load and IQ of 113 μA. The line regulation and load regulation are improved to 0.1 mV/V and 3.4 μV/mA due to the sufficient loop gain provided by the dual feedback loops. Under a full range load current step, the voltage spikes and the recovery time of the proposed LDO is reduced to 97 mV and 0.142 μs respectively.

  11. Thermal Response of Tritiated Co-deposits from JET and TFTR to Transient Heat Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; N. Bekrisl; J.P. Coad; C.A. Gentile; A. Hassanein; R. Reiswig; S. Willms

    2002-05-30

    High heat flux interactions with plasma-facing components have been studied at microscopic scales. The beam from a continuous wave neodymium laser was scanned at high speed over the surface of graphite and carbon fiber composite tiles that had been retrieved from TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) after D-T plasma operations. The tiles have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was co-deposited during plasma operations, and laser scanning has released more than 80% of the co-deposited tritium. The temperature rise of the co-deposit was much higher than that of the manufactured material and showed an extended time history. The peak temperature varied dramatically (e.g., 1,436 C compared to >2,300 C), indicating strong variations in the thermal conductivity to the substrate. A digital microscope imaged the co-deposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed 100-micron scale hot spots during the interaction. Heat pulse durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, whilst a duration of =10 ms showed minimal changes to the co-deposit. These results show that reliable predictions for the response of deposition areas to off-normal events such as ELMs (edge-localized modes) and disruptions in next-step devices need to be based on experiments with tokamak generated co-deposits.

  12. Transient Responses of Cell Turgor and Growth of Maize Roots as Affected by Changes in Water Potential.

    PubMed

    Frensch, J.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Transient responses of cell turgor (P) and root elongation to changes in water potential were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluate mechanisms of adaptation to water stress. Changes of water potential were induced by exposing roots to solutions of KCl and mannitol (osmotic pressure about 0.3 MPa). Prior to a treatment, root elongation was about 1.2 mm h-1 and P was about 0.67 MPa across the cortex of the expansion zone (3-10 mm behind the root tip). Upon addition of an osmoticum, P decreased rapidly and growth stopped completely at pressure below approximately 0.6 MPa, which indicated that the yield threshold (Ytrans,1) was just below the initial turgor. Turgor recovered partly within the next 30 min and reached a new steady value at about 0.53 MPa. The root continued to elongate as soon as P rose above a new threshold (Ytrans,2) of about 0.45 MPa. The time between Ytrans,1 and Ytrans,2 was about 10 min. During this transition turgor gradients of as much as 0.15 MPa were measured across the cortex. They resulted from a faster rate of turgor recovery of cells deeper inside the tissue compared with cells near the root periphery. Presumably, the phloem was the source of the compounds for the osmotic adjustment. Turgor recovery was restricted to the expansion zone, as was confirmed by measurements of pressure kinetics in mature root tissue. Withdrawal of the osmoticum caused an enormous transient increase of elongation, which was related to only a small initial increase of P. Throughout the experiment, the relationship between root elongation rate and turgor was nonlinear. Consequently, when Y were calculated from steady-state conditions of P and root elongation before and after the osmotic treatment, Yss was only 0.21 MPa and significantly smaller compared with the values obtained from direct measurements (0.42-0.64 MPa). Thus, we strongly emphasize the need for measurements of short-term responses of elongation and turgor to determine cell wall mechanics

  13. Response to mercury (II) ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-11-01

    The mercury (II) ion is toxic and is usually detoxified in Bacteria by reduction to elemental mercury, which is less toxic. This is catalysed by an NAD(P)H-dependent mercuric reductase (EC 1.16.1.1). Here, we present strong evidence that Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) - a methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria - uses this enzyme to detoxify mercury. In radiorespirometry studies, it was found that cells exposed to mercury dissimilated 100% of [(14) C]-methane provided to generate reducing equivalents to fuel mercury (II) reduction, rather than the mix of assimilation and dissimilation found in control incubations. The detoxification system is constitutively expressed with a specific activity of 352 (±18) nmol NADH oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) . Putative mercuric reductase genes were predicted in the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome and found in mRNA microarray studies. The MerA-derived polypeptide showed high identity (> 80%) with MerA sequences from the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:22092810

  14. Investigating the zonal wind response to SST warming using transient ensemble AGCM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palipane, Erool; Lu, Jian; Staten, Paul; Chen, Gang; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2016-04-01

    The response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation adjustment. A hybrid, finite amplitude wave activity budget analysis is performed to elucidate the nonlinear and irreversible aspects of the eddy-mean flow interaction during the adjustment of the zonal wind towards a poleward shifted state. The results confirm the results from earlier more idealized studies, particularly the importance of reduced dissipation of wave activity, in which the midlatitude decrease of effective diffusivity appears to be dominant. This reduction in dissipation increases the survival of midlatitude waves. These surviving waves, when reaching the upper propagation level in the upper troposphere, are subject to the influence of the increase of reflection phase speed at the poleward side of the mean jet, and thus more waves are reflected equatorward across the jet, giving rise to a poleward transport of momentum and thus an eddy momentum flux convergence for the poleward shift. The relative importance of wave breaking-induced PV mixing versus diabatic PV source in the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient is also investigated. The former plays the dominant role in the PV gradient formation during the initial phase of the jet shift, while the latter actually opposes the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient at times.

  15. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(II) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Kim, Tae Kyu; Groot, Frank M. F. de; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

    2012-02-28

    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  16. One- and two-dimensional STEALTH simulations of fuel-pin transient response. Final report. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wahi, K.K.

    1980-08-01

    This report presents an assessment of the adaptability of EPRI's one- and two-dimensional STEALTH computer codes to perform transient fuel rod analysis. The ability of the STEALTH code to simulate transient mechanical or thermomechanical loss-of-coolant accident is described. Analytic models of one- and two-dimensional formulations and features included in the two-dimensional simulation are discussed.

  17. RAMP1 Augments Cerebrovascular Responses to CGRP And Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Zhang, Zhongming; Kinzenbaw, Dale A.; Lynch, Cynthia M.; Russo, Andrew F.; Faraci, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are composed of the calcitonin-like receptor in association with receptor activity-modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). CGRP is an extremely potent vasodilator and may protect against vascular disease through other mechanisms. Methods We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of RAMP1 enhances vascular effects of CGRP using transgenic mice with ubiquitous expression of human RAMP1 (hRAMP1). Because angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key mediator of vascular disease, we also tested the hypothesis that RAMP1 protects against Ang II-induced vascular dysfunction. Results Responses to CGRP in carotid and basilar arteries in vitro as well as cerebral arterioles in vivo were selectively enhanced in hRAMP1 transgenic mice compared to littermate controls (P<0.05), and this effect was prevented by a CGRP receptor antagonist (P<0.05). Thus, vascular responses to CGRP are normally RAMP1-limited. Responses of carotid arteries were examined in vitro following overnight incubation with vehicle or Ang II. In arteries from control mice, Ang II selectively impaired responses to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine by ∼50% (P<0.05) via a superoxide-mediated mechanism. In contrast, Ang II did not impair responses to acetylcholine in hRAMP1 transgenic mice. Conclusions RAMP1 overexpression increases CGRP-induced vasodilation and protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. These findings suggest that RAMP1 may be a new therapeutic target to regulate CGRP-mediated effects during disease including pathophysiological states where Ang II plays a major role. PMID:20814003

  18. L-Asparaginase II Produced by Salmonella Typhimurium Inhibits T Cell Responses and Mediates Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kullas, Amy L.; McClelland, Michael; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Tam, Jason W.; Torres, AnnMarie; Porwollik, Steffen; Mena, Patricio; McPhee, Joseph B.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; van der Velden, Adrianus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium avoids clearance by the host immune system by suppressing T cell responses; however, the mechanisms that mediate this immunosuppression remain unknown. We show that S. Typhimurium inhibit T cell responses by producing L-Asparaginase II, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. L-Asparaginase II is necessary and sufficient to suppress T cell blastogenesis, cytokine production, and proliferation and to downmodulate expression of the T cell receptor. Furthermore, S. Typhimurium-induced inhibition of T cells in vitro is prevented upon addition of L-asparagine. S. Typhimurium lacking the L-Asparaginase II gene (STM3106) are unable to inhibit T cell responses and exhibit attenuated virulence in vivo. L-Asparaginases are used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia through mechanisms that likely involve amino acid starvation of leukemic cells, and these findings indicate that pathogens similarly use L-asparagine deprivation to limit T cell responses. PMID:23245323

  19. Tripeptide-copper complex GHK-Cu (II) transiently improved healing outcome in a rat model of ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sai-Chuen; Cheuk, Yau-Chuk; Chiu, Wai-Yin Vivien; Yung, Shu-Hang; Rolf, Christer G; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2015-07-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), the biological healing of the graft is a rate-limiting step which can contribute to graft failure. The tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine-Cu(II) (GHK-Cu) is a well-known activator of tissue remodeling. We investigated whether GHK-Cu can improve graft healing following ACLR. Seventy-two rats underwent unilateral ACLR were randomized to saline, 0.3 or 3 mg/ml GHK-Cu groups (n = 24). Post-operational intra-articular injections were given from week 2, once a week, for 4 weeks. Gait analysis was performed pre-injury and at harvesting time. At 6 or 12 weeks post-operation, knee specimens were harvested for knee laxity test, graft pull-out test, and histology. At 6 weeks post-ACLR, GHK-Cu groups resulted in a smaller side-to-side difference in knee laxity as compared to the saline group (p = 0.009), but there was no significant difference at 12 weeks post-operation. The graft complex in the 0.3 mg/ml GHK-Cu group had higher stiffness than saline group at 6 weeks post-operation (p = 0.026), but there was no significant difference in ultimate load, gait parameters, and histological scores among treatment groups. All grafts failed mid-substance during pull-out test. Intra-articular supplementation with a bioactive small molecule GHK-Cu improved graft healing following ACLR in rat, but the beneficial effects could not last as treatment discontinued. PMID:25731775

  20. Uptake, p53 Pathway Activation, and Cytotoxic Responses for Co(II) and Ni(II) in Human Lung Cells: Implications for Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt(II) and nickel(II) ions display similar chemical properties and act as hypoxia mimics in cells. However, only soluble Co(II) but not soluble Ni(II) is carcinogenic by inhalation. To explore potential reasons for these differences, we examined responses of human lung cells to both metals. We found that Co(II) showed almost 8 times higher accumulation than Ni(II) in H460 cells but caused a less efficient activation of the transcriptional factor p53 as measured by its accumulation, Ser15 phosphorylation, and target gene expression. Unlike Ni(II), Co(II) was ineffective in downregulating the p53 inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Co(II)-treated cells continued DNA replication at internal doses that caused massive apoptosis by Ni(II). Apoptosis and the overall cell death by Co(II) were delayed and weaker than by Ni(II). Inhibition of caspases but not programmed necrosis pathways suppressed Co(II)-induced cell death. Knockdown of p53 produced 50%–60% decreases in activation of caspases 3/7 and expression of 2 most highly upregulated proapoptotic genes PUMA and NOXA by Co(II). Overall, p53-mediated apoptosis accounted for 55% cell death by Co(II), p53-independent apoptosis for 20%, and p53/caspase-independent mechanisms for 25%. Similar to H460, normal human lung fibroblasts and primary human bronchial epithelial cells had several times higher accumulation of Co(II) than Ni(II) and showed a delayed and weaker caspase activation by Co(II). Thus, carcinogenicity of soluble Co(II) could be related to high survival of metal-loaded cells, which permits accumulation of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. High cytotoxicity of soluble Ni(II) causes early elimination of damaged cells and is expected to be cancer suppressive. PMID:24068677

  1. Resistive wall mode feedback control in EXTRAP T2R with improved steady-state error and transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, P. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2007-10-15

    Experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsa ring ker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] on feedback control of m=1 resistive wall modes (RWMs) are compared with simulations using the cylindrical linear magnetohydrodynamic model, including the dynamics of the active coils and power amplifiers. Stabilization of the main RWMs (n=-11,-10,-9,-8,+5,+6) is shown using modest loop gains of the order G{approx}1. However, other marginally unstable RWMs (n=-2,-1,+1,+2) driven by external field errors are only partially canceled at these gains. The experimental system stability limit is confirmed by simulations showing that the latency of the digital controller {approx}50 {mu}s is degrading the system gain margin. The transient response is improved with a proportional-plus-derivative controller, and steady-state error is improved with a proportional-plus-integral controller. Suppression of all modes is obtained at high gain G{approx}10 using a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controller.

  2. Brucella CβG induces a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory response leading to a transient neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Degos, Clara; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Banchereau, Romain; Moriyón, Ignacio; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causing agent of a chronic zoonosis called brucellosis. The Brucella β-1,2 cyclic glucan (CβG) is a virulence factor, which has been described as a potent immune stimulator, albeit with no toxicity for cells and animals. We first used a genome-wide approach to characterize human myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) responses to CβG. Transcripts related to inflammation (IL-6, IL2RA, PTGS2), chemokine (CXCR7, CXCL2) and anti-inflammatory pathways (TNFAIP6, SOCS3) were highly expressed in CβG-treated mDC. In mouse GMCSF-derived DC, CβG triggered the expression of both activation (CXCL2, KC) and inhibition (SOCS3 and TNFAIP6) molecules. We then characterized the inflammatory infiltrates at the level of mouse ear when injected with CβG or LPS. CβG yielded a lower and transient recruitment of neutrophils compared to LPS. The consequence of these dual pro- and anti-inflammatory signals triggered by CβG corresponds to the induction of a controlled local inflammation. PMID:25654761

  3. Highly sensitive determination of transient generation of biophotons during hypersensitive response to cucumber mosaic virus in cowpea.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Enomoto, Masaru; Ehara, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is one mechanism of the resistance of plants to pathogen infection. It involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which have crucial roles in signal transduction or as toxic agents leading to cell death. Often, ROS generation is accompanied by an ultraweak photon emission resulting from radical reactions that are initiated by ROS through the oxidation of living materials such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. This photon emission, referred to as 'biophotons', is extremely weak, but, based on the technique of photon counting imaging, a system has been developed to analyse the spatiotemporal properties of photon emission. Using this system, the dynamics of photon emission which might be associated with the oxidative burst, which promotes the HR, have been determined. Here, the transient generation of biophotons is demonstrated during the HR process in cowpea elicited by cucumber mosaic virus. The distinctive dynamics in spatiotemporal properties of biophoton emission during the HR expression on macroscopic and microscopic levels are also described. This study reveals the involvement of ROS generation in biophoton emission in the process of HR through the determination of the inhibitory effect of an antioxidant (Tiron) on biophoton emission. PMID:17158510

  4. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part 3: Analysis of global-mean response using simple models

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The roles of surface, atmospheric, and oceanic feedbacks in controlling the global-mean transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (AOGCM) to increasing carbon dioxide are investigated. The analysis employs a four-box energy balance model (EBM) and an oceanic box-diffusion model (BDM) both tuned to the simulated general circulation model response. The land-sea contrast in the surface warming is explained almost entirely by the shortwave radiative feedbacks associated with changes in cloud and surface albedo. The oceanic thermal inertia delays the response; however, the initial delay is enhanced by increases in Anarctic sea-ice cover, which substantially reduce the effective climate sensitivity of the model in the first half of the 75-year experiment. When driven by the observed anthropogenic greenhouse forcing from the pre-industrial period to present day, the energy balance model overestimates the warming observed over land. However, inclusion of the direct forcing due to anthropogenic tropospheric sulphate aerosol eliminates the land/sea contrast in the response at 1990, leaving the simulated warming over land slightly below the observed value, although the rapid warming observed during the 1980s is well reproduced. The vertical penetration of the oceanic response is small below 1000 m. Within the top 1000 m the effective diffusivities are substantially enhanced by reduced convection and thermohaline overturning, driven by increased precipitation minus evaporation at high latitudes. These changes in ocean heat transport become significant after year 30, whereupon the effective oceanic heat capacity increases substantially, although this increase is partially offset by the effect of changes in the sea-ice margin.

  5. The role of hydrogen peroxide in the contractile response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, G; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Medina, J; Parra, T; Griera, M; López-Ongil, S; Arilla, E; Rodríguez-Puyol, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D

    2001-01-01

    In the last years, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed as mediators of proliferative/hypertrophic responses to angiotensin II (Ang II), both in vivo and in vitro. However, the hypothesis that the Ang II-dependent cell contraction could be mediated by ROS, particularly H2O2, has not been tested. Present experiments were devoted to test this hypothesis and to analyze the possible mechanisms involved. Catalase (CAT) prevented the increased myosin light chain phosphorylation and the decreased planar cell surface area (PCSA) induced by 1 microM Ang II in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This preventive effect of CAT was also detected when 1 microM platelet-activating factor (PAF) was used as a contractile agonist instead of Ang II. Similar results were found when using horseradish peroxidase as an H2O2 scavenger or cultured rat mesangial cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells, CAT modified neither the binding of labeled Ang II nor the Ang II-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) synthesis. However, it completely abolished the Ang II-dependent calcium peak, in a dose-dependent fashion. CAT-loaded cells (increased intracellular CAT concentration over 3-fold) did not show either a decreased PCSA or an increased intracellular calcium concentration after Ang II treatment. Ang II stimulated the H2O2 synthesis by cultured cells, and the presence of CAT in the extracellular compartment significantly diminished the Ang II-dependent increased intracellular H2O2 concentration. The physiological importance of these findings was tested in rat thoracic aortic rings: CAT prevented the contraction elicited by Ang II. In summary, present experiments point to H2O2 as a critical intracellular metabolite in the regulation of cell contraction. PMID:11125030

  6. Psb27, a transiently associated protein, binds to the chlorophyll binding protein CP43 in photosystem II assembly intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haijun; Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Chen, Jiawei; Gross, Michael L.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit pigment–protein complex localized in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, mediates light-driven evolution of oxygen from water. Recently, a high-resolution X-ray structure of the mature PSII complex has become available. Two PSII polypeptides, D1 and CP43, provide many of the ligands to an inorganic Mn4Ca center that is essential for water oxidation. Because of its unusual redox chemistry, PSII often undergoes degradation followed by stepwise assembly. Psb27, a small luminal polypeptide, functions as an important accessory factor in this elaborate assembly pathway. However, the structural location of Psb27 within PSII assembly intermediates has remained elusive. Here we report that Psb27 binds to CP43 in such assembly intermediates. We treated purified genetically tagged PSII assembly intermediate complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 with chemical cross-linkers to examine intermolecular interactions between Psb27 and various PSII proteins. First, the water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link proteins with complementary charged groups in close association to one another. In the His27△ctpAPSII preparation, a 58-kDa cross-linked species containing Psb27 and CP43 was identified. This species was not formed in the HT3△ctpA△psb27PSII complex in which Psb27 was absent. Second, the homobifunctional thiol-cleavable cross-linker 3,3′-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) (DTSSP) was used to reversibly cross-link Psb27 to CP43 in His27△ctpAPSII preparations, which allowed the use of liquid chromatography/tandem MS to map the cross-linking sites as Psb27K63↔CP43D321 (trypsin) and CP43K215↔Psb27D58AGGLK63↔CP43D321 (chymotrypsin), respectively. Our data suggest that Psb27 acts as an important regulatory protein during PSII assembly through specific interactions with the luminal domain of CP43. PMID:22031695

  7. Psb27, a transiently associated protein, binds to the chlorophyll binding protein CP43 in photosystem II assembly intermediates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haijun; Huang, Richard Y-C; Chen, Jiawei; Gross, Michael L; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-11-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit pigment-protein complex localized in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, mediates light-driven evolution of oxygen from water. Recently, a high-resolution X-ray structure of the mature PSII complex has become available. Two PSII polypeptides, D1 and CP43, provide many of the ligands to an inorganic Mn(4)Ca center that is essential for water oxidation. Because of its unusual redox chemistry, PSII often undergoes degradation followed by stepwise assembly. Psb27, a small luminal polypeptide, functions as an important accessory factor in this elaborate assembly pathway. However, the structural location of Psb27 within PSII assembly intermediates has remained elusive. Here we report that Psb27 binds to CP43 in such assembly intermediates. We treated purified genetically tagged PSII assembly intermediate complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 with chemical cross-linkers to examine intermolecular interactions between Psb27 and various PSII proteins. First, the water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link proteins with complementary charged groups in close association to one another. In the His27△ctpAPSII preparation, a 58-kDa cross-linked species containing Psb27 and CP43 was identified. This species was not formed in the HT3△ctpA△psb27PSII complex in which Psb27 was absent. Second, the homobifunctional thiol-cleavable cross-linker 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) (DTSSP) was used to reversibly cross-link Psb27 to CP43 in His27△ctpAPSII preparations, which allowed the use of liquid chromatography/tandem MS to map the cross-linking sites as Psb27K(63)↔CP43D(321) (trypsin) and CP43K(215)↔Psb27D(58)AGGLK(63)↔CP43D(321) (chymotrypsin), respectively. Our data suggest that Psb27 acts as an important regulatory protein during PSII assembly through specific interactions with the luminal domain of CP43. PMID:22031695

  8. Electrical coupling suppression and transient response improvement for a microgyroscope using ascending frequency drive with a 2-DOF PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, Z. C.; Hao, Y. L.; Yan, G. Z.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel control strategy for the drive mode of a microgyroscope using ascending frequency drive (AFD) with an AGC-2DOF PID controller, which drives a resonator with a modulation signal not at the resonant frequency and senses the vibration signal at the resonant frequency, thus realizing the isolation between the actual mechanical response and electrical coupling signal. This approach holds the following three advantages: (1) it employs the AFD signal instead of the resonant frequency drive signal to excite the gyroscope in the drive direction, suppressing the electrical coupling from the drive electrode to the sense electrode; (2) it can reduce the noise at low frequency and resonant frequency by shifting flicker noise to the high-frequency part; (3) it can effectively improve the performance of the transient response of the closed-loop control with a 2-DOF (degree of freedom) PID controller compared with the conventional 1-DOF PID. The stability condition of the whole loop is investigated by utilizing the averaging and linearization method. The control approach is applied to drive a lateral tuning fork microgyroscope. Test results show good agreement with the theoretical and simulation results. The non-ideal electrical antiresonance peak is removed and the resonant peak height increases by approximately 10 dB over a 400 Hz span with a flicker noise reduction of 30 dB within 100 Hz using AFD. The percent overshoot is reduced from 36.2% (1DOF PID) to 8.95% (2DOF PID, about 75.3% overshoot suppression) with 15.3% improvement in setting time.

  9. Transient pore pressure response to confining stress excursions in Berea sandstone flooded with an aqueous solution of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.; Cooper, Clay A.

    2014-06-01

    We measured the pore pressure response due to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas bubble nucleation and growth in a Berea sandstone core flooded with an initially subsaturated aqueous solution of CO2, in response to a rapid drop in confining stress, under conditions representative of a confined aquifer. A portion of the CO2 in the Earth's crust, derived from volcanic, magmatic, and biogenic sources, dissolves in groundwater. Sudden reductions in confining stress in the Earth's crust occur due to dilational strain generated by the propagation of seismic Rayleigh and P waves, or aseismic slip in the near field of earthquakes. A drop in confining stress produces a proportional drop in pore fluid pressure. When the pore fluid contains dissolved CO2, the pore pressure responds to a drop in confining stress like it does in the dissolved gas-free case, until the pore pressure falls below the bubble pressure. Gas bubble nucleation and diffusive growth in the pore space trigger spontaneous, transient buildup of the pore fluid pressure, and reduction of effective stress. We measured the rate of pore fluid pressure buildup in the 100 s immediately following the confining stress drop, as a function of the saturation with respect to CO2 at the lowest pore pressure realized during the confining stress drop, using five different CO2 partial pressures. The rate scales with the saturation with respect to dissolved CO2, from 10 kPa/min at 1.25 to 166 kPa/min at 1.8. The net pore pressure rise was as large as 0.7 MPa (100 psi) over 5 h.

  10. Central angiotensin II induces thirst-related responses in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Propper, C R; Hillyard, S D; Johnson, W E

    1995-03-01

    Angiotensin II (A-II), a potent inducer of thirst-related behavior in many vertebrate species, was injected into the third ventricle of the brain of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus couchii. Following injection of 10 ng A-II the animals demonstrated a significant increase in water absorption response (WR) behavior, in which toads press their ventral skin to a moist surface and absorb water by osmosis. This increase in the frequency of WR behavior was positively correlated with an increase in water gain during a 2-hr period indicating that centrally injected A-II stimulates water intake by this amphibian species. We have previously demonstrated that WR behavior is also induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of A-II in several anuran species, including S. couchii. Thus, amphibians, like other vertebrates, demonstrate an increase in water intake in response to either centrally administered or circulating A-II. A second series of experiments was conducted to determine whether the above response to A-II might be secondary to increases in the circulating levels of aldosterone (ALDO) or antidiuretic hormone because the release of both of these hormones has been shown by others to be stimulated by A-II. Scaphiopus couchii injected i.p. with either ALDO or arginine vasotocin in dosages of 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/100 g body weight showed no increase in WR behavior relative to toads injected with saline alone. These results suggest that A-II acts directly on the brain of S. couchii to induce WR behavior. PMID:7782064

  11. Recorded seismic response of Pacific Park Plaza. II. System identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, F.; Celebi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second of two companion papers on the recorded seismic response of the Pacific Park Plaza building, in Emeryville, Calif., during the October 17, 1989, Ms = 7.1 (surface-wave magnitude) Loma Prieta earthquake. In this second part, the recorded data are analyzed in more detail by using system-identification techniques. The three-dimensional behavior and the coupled modes of the building are determined, and the effects of soil-structure interaction are investigated. The study shows that the response of the building is nonlinear at the beginning, and becomes linear after 17 sec into the earthquake. The dominant motion of the building follows an elliptical path oriented in the southeast-northwest direction. Some of the modes are complex, with nonproportional damping, and there are phase differences among modal response components. The fundamental mode of the building is a translation in the southeast-northwest direction at 0.4 Hz, with 13% damping. The wing displacements relative to the center core are large, about 50% of the center core displacements, and indicate significant torsion in the center core. The soil-structure interaction is characterized by a vibration at 0.7 Hz. This is believed to be the fundamental frequency of the surrounding soil medium. The rocking motions of the building are negligible.

  12. Long-term stability of demethylation after transient exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine correlates with sustained RNA polymerase II occupancy*

    PubMed Central

    Kagey, Jacob D.; Kapoor-Vazirani, Priya; McCabe, Michael T.; Powell, Doris R.; Vertino, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are currently the standard of care for myelodysplastic syndrome and are in clinical trials for leukemias and solid tumors. However, the molecular basis underlying their activity remains poorly understood. Here we studied the induction and long-term stability of gene reactivation at three methylated tumor suppressor loci in response to the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR)in human breast cancer cells. At the TMS/ASC locus, treatment with 5-azaCdR resulted in partial DNA demethylation, the re-engagement of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and a shift from a repressive chromatin profile marked with H3K9me2 and H4K20me3 to an active profile enriched in H3ac and H3K4me2. Using a single molecule approach coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation with bisulfite sequencing, we show that H3ac, H3K4me2, and Pol II selectively associated with the demethylated alleles, whereas H3K9me2 preferentially marked alleles resistant to demethylation. H4K20me3 was unaffected by DNA demethylation and associated with unmethylated and methylated alleles. After drug removal, TMS1 underwent partial remethylation yet a subset of alleles remained stably demethylated for over three months. These alleles remained selectively associated with H3K4me2, H3ac, and Pol II and correlated with a sustained low level of gene expression. TMS1 alleles reacquire H3K9me2over time and those alleles that became remethylated retained H3ac. In contrast, CDH1and ESR1 were remethylated and completely silenced within ~1 week of drug removal, and failed to maintain stably unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that the ability to maintain Pol II occupancy is a critical factor in the long-term stability of drug-induced CpG island demethylation. PMID:20587535

  13. Long-term stability of demethylation after transient exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine correlates with sustained RNA polymerase II occupancy.

    PubMed

    Kagey, Jacob D; Kapoor-Vazirani, Priya; McCabe, Michael T; Powell, Doris R; Vertino, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are currently the standard of care for myelodysplastic syndrome and are in clinical trials for leukemias and solid tumors. However, the molecular basis underlying their activity remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the induction and long-term stability of gene reactivation at three methylated tumor suppressor loci in response to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR) in human breast cancer cells. At the TMS1/ASC locus, treatment with 5-azaCdR resulted in partial DNA demethylation, the reengagement of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and a shift from a repressive chromatin profile marked with H3K9me2 and H4K20me3 to an active profile enriched in H3ac and H3K4me2. Using a single-molecule approach coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation with bisulfite sequencing, we show that H3ac, H3K4me2, and Pol II selectively associated with the demethylated alleles, whereas H3K9me2 preferentially marked alleles resistant to demethylation. H4K20me3 was unaffected by DNA demethylation and associated with both unmethylated and methylated alleles. After drug removal, TMS1 underwent partial remethylation, yet a subset of alleles remained stably demethylated for over 3 months. These alleles remained selectively associated with H3K4me2, H3ac, and Pol II and correlated with a sustained low level of gene expression. TMS1 alleles reacquired H3K9me2 over time, and those alleles that became remethylated retained H3ac. In contrast, CDH1 and ESR1 were remethylated and completely silenced within approximately 1 week of drug removal, and failed to maintain stably unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that the ability to maintain Pol II occupancy is a critical factor in the long-term stability of drug-induced CpG island demethylation. PMID:20587535

  14. SIV antigen immunization induces transient antigen-specific T cell responses and selectively activates viral replication in draining lymph nodes in retroviral suppressed rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection causes a qualitative and quantitative loss of CD4+ T cell immunity. The institution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ T cell responses to many pathogens, but HIV-specific responses remain deficient. Similarly, therapeutic immunization with HIV antigens of chronically infected, ART treated subjects results in poor induction of HIV-specific CD4 responses. In this study, we used a macaque model of ART treatment during chronic infection to study the virologic consequences of SIV antigen stimulation in lymph nodes early after immunization. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) seropositive, Mamu A*01 positive rhesus macaques were chronically infected with SIVmac251 and treated with ART. The immune and viral responses to SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 antigen immunization in draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were analyzed. Animals were immunized on contralateral sides with SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 encoding plasmids, which allowed lymph nodes draining each antigen to be obtained at the same time from the same animal for direct comparison. Results We observed that both SIV and RhCMV immunizations stimulated transient antigen-specific T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. The RhCMV-specific responses were potent and sustained (50 days post-immunization) in the periphery, while the SIV-specific responses were transient and extinguished quickly. The SIV antigen stimulation selectively induced transient SIV replication in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions The data are consistent with a model whereby viral replication in response to SIV antigen stimulation limits the generation of SIV antigen-specific responses and suggests a potential mechanism for the early loss and poor HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21752277

  15. Seismic response of transamerica building. II. System identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.; Celebi, M.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the recorded seismic response of the Transamerica Building during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is presented. The system identification algorithm used for the analysis is based on the discrete-time linear filtering approach with least-squares approximation, and assumes a multi-input, single-output model for the building. Fifteen modes in the north-south direction, and 18 modes in the east-west direction are identified from the records. The analysis shows that the building's response to the earthquake was dominated by a coupled mode of vibration at 0.28 Hz in the southwest-northeast direction, which is almost parallel to one of the diagonals in the building's square cross section. The reason for this behavior is the symmetry of the building's structural characteristics, as well as the strong polarization of the S-waves of the earthquake. Several higher modes of the building were excited during the strong-motion part of the earthquake. The results also show a significant amount of rocking in the building at a frequency of 2.15 Hz.

  16. A population response analysis approach to assign class II HLA-epitope restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Arlehamn, Cecilia S. Lindestam; Huang, Huang; Davis, Mark M.; McKinney, Denise M.; Scriba, Thomas Jens; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the specific HLA locus and allele presenting an epitope for recognition by specific T cell receptors (HLA restriction) is necessary to fully characterize the immune response to antigens. Experimental determination of HLA restriction is complex and technically challenging. As an alternative, the restricting HLA locus and allele can be inferred by genetic association, utilizing response data in an HLA typed population. However, simple odds ratio calculations can be problematic when dealing with large numbers of subjects and antigens and because the same epitope can be presented by multiple alleles (epitope promiscuity). Here, we develop a tool, denominated Restrictor Analysis Tool for Epitopes (RATE), to extract inferred restriction from HLA class II -typed epitope responses. This automated method infers HLA class II restriction from large datasets of T cell responses in HLA class II typed subjects by calculating Odds Ratios and relative frequencies from simple data tables. The program is validated by 1. Analyzing data of previously determined HLA restrictions. 2. Experimentally determining in selected individuals new HLA restrictions using HLA transfected cell lines 3. Predicting HLA restriction of particular peptides, and showing that corresponding HLA class II tetramers efficiently bind to epitope specific T cells. We further design a specific iterative algorithm to account for promiscuous recognition by calculation of Odds Ratio values for combinations of different HLA molecules while incorporating predicted HLA binding affinity. The RATE program streamlines the prediction of HLA class II restriction across multiple T cell epitopes and HLA types. PMID:25948811

  17. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed. PMID:25800424

  18. Transient activation of mucosal effector immune responses by resident intestinal bacteria in normal hosts is regulated by interleukin-10 signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong; Sartor, R Balfour; Huang, Kehe; Tonkonogy, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key regulator of mucosal homeostasis. In the current study we investigated the early events after monoassociating germ-free (GF) wild-type (WT) mice with an Escherichia coli strain that we isolated previously from the caecal contents of a normal mouse housed under specific pathogen-free conditions. Our results show that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from both IL-10 deficient mice and WT mice, stimulated ex vivo with E. coli lysate, was dramatically higher at day 4 after monoassociation compared with IFN-γ secreted by cells from GF mice without E. coli colonization. Production of IFN-γ rapidly and progressively declined after colonization of WT but not IL-10-deficient mice. The E. coli lysate-stimulated WT MLN cells also produced IL-10 that peaked at day 4 and subsequently declined, but not as precipitously as IFN-γ. WT cells that express CD4, CD8 and NKp46 produced IFN-γ; WT CD4-positive cells and B cells produced IL-10. Recombinant IL-10 added to E. coli-stimulated MLN cell cultures inhibited IFN-γ secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. MLN cells from WT mice treated in vivo with neutralizing anti-IL-10 receptor antibody produced more IFN-γ compared with MLN cells from isotype control antibody-treated mice. These findings show that a resident E. coli that induces chronic colitis in monoassociated IL-10-deficient mice rapidly but transiently activates the effector immune system in normal hosts, in parallel with induction of protective IL-10 produced by B cells and CD4(+) cells that subsequently suppresses this response to mediate mucosal homeostasis. PMID:27147411

  19. Increase of uncertainty in transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions after stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hajima, Tomohiro; Kawamiya, Michio

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed a dataset from an experiment of an earth system model of intermediate complexity, focusing on the change in transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) after atmospheric CO2 concentration was stabilized in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5. We estimated the TCRE in 2005 at 0.3-2.4 K/TtC for an unconstrained case and 1.1-1.7 K/TtC when constrained with historical and present-day observational data, the latter result being consistent with other studies. The range of TCRE increased when the increase of CO2 concentration was moderated and then stabilized. This is because the larger (smaller) TCRE members yield even greater (less) TCRE. An additional experiment to assess the equilibrium state revealed significant changes in temperature and cumulative carbon emissions after 2300. We also found that variation of land carbon uptake is significant to the total allowable carbon emissions and subsequent change of the TCRE. Additionally, in our experiment, we revealed that equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), one of the 12 parameters perturbed in the ensemble experiment, has a strong positive relationship with the TCRE at the beginning of the stabilization and its subsequent change. We confirmed that for participant models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, ECS has a strong positive relationship with TCRE. For models using similar experimental settings, there is a positive relationship with TCRE for the start of the period of stabilization in CO2 concentration, and rate of change after stabilization. The results of this study are influential regarding the total allowable carbon emissions calculated from the TCRE and the temperature increase set as the mitigation target.

  20. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  1. Myosin-II sets the optimal response time scale of chemotactic amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The response dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton to external chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in numerous cellular functions. One of the key players that governs the dynamics of the actin network is the motor protein myosin-II. Here we investigate the role of myosin-II in the response of the actin system to external stimuli. We used a microfluidic device in combination with a photoactivatable chemoattractant to apply stimuli to individual cells with high temporal resolution. We directly compare the actin dynamics in Dictyostelium discodelium wild type (WT) cells to a knockout mutant that is deficient in myosin-II (MNL). Similar to the WT a small population of MNL cells showed self-sustained oscillations even in absence of external stimuli. The actin response of MNL cells to a short pulse of chemoattractant resembles WT during the first 15 sec but is significantly delayed afterward. The amplitude of the dominant peak in the power spectrum from the response time series of MNL cells to periodic stimuli with varying period showed a clear resonance peak at a forcing period of 36 sec, which is significantly delayed as compared to the resonance at 20 sec found for the WT. This shift indicates an important role of myosin-II in setting the response time scale of motile amoeba. Institute of Physics und Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

  2. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity alters blood pressure response to angiotensin II administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinic, which is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. CP may also disturb hemodynamics of the circulation system. We have tested the role of CP in mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to graded angiotensin (Ang) II infusion in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were treated with CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 1-week and compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The blood pressure response to Ang II (100–1000 ng/kg/min) was determined under the anesthesia condition. Endothelial permeability of aorta was measured according to the Evans blue uptake. The kidney tissue was also subjected to histological investigation. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and pathological findings in CP-treated rats verified CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Significant difference in percentage of change in MAP response to Ang II between male and female rats was detected in vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05) while in CP-treated animals this response difference was not observed. The groups were not significantly different with regard to the endothelial permeability of aorta while the serum level of nitrite in male rats increased significantly following administration of CP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems the different response in percentage of change of MAP to graded Ang II infusion between male and female indicates the effect of CP on renin Ang system parameters. PMID:27110550

  3. Response of laboratory faults to transient stressing at seismic frequencies: stressing-rate and duration-dependent triggering regimes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Elst, N.; Savage, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are sometimes triggered by transient stresses carried by seismic waves. There are several features of triggering that require explanation, including 1) the often-observed delay between the triggering waves and the triggered earthquakes, and 2) the effectiveness of transient stressing in the seismic frequency band. Previous theoretical and laboratory work has suggested that seismic transients should have little impact on faults if the duration of the transient is smaller than the timescale for nucleation of slip. We examine stress triggering during laboratory stick-slip sliding of granite and focus on several observations that pertain to earthquake triggering in nature. 1) Delayed triggering (clock advance) occurs when slip accumulates during the transient but remains below a critical value dc. 2) Delayed and instantaneous triggering both occur much earlier in the stick-slip cycle than expected for a simple Coulomb threshold. 3) Shorter-period (higher stressing-rate) pulses are more effective at triggering than longer-period pulses of the same stress amplitude. We use numerical simulations to show that rate-state friction can explain each of the observed features, but not all three simultaneously. Only the Ruina slip law can reproduce the observations of stressing-rate dependence and early triggering onset. The Dieterich aging law predicts only duration-dependent triggering with relatively late triggering onset. The observations show that moderate-amplitude, short-period transients can have a strong triggering effect even at durations far below the nucleation timescale. Transient oscillations at seismic frequencies may therefore be more effective at earthquake triggering than previously recognized.

  4. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Heather A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Geraghty, Daniel E; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H; Krebs, Shelly J; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; McElrath, M Juliana; Montefiori, David C; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H; Thomas, Rasmi

    2015-07-15

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1-specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120-204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  5. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. PMID:25524862

  6. Transiently responsive protein-polymer conjugates via a 'grafting-from' RAFT approach for intracellular co-delivery of proteins and immune-modulators.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, N; De Coen, R; Laplace, D; Louage, B; Maji, S; Lybaert, L; Hoogenboom, R; De Geest, B G

    2015-09-21

    We report on transiently responsive protein-polymer conjugates that temporarily change their protein conformation from the soluble to the particle-like state. 'Grafting-from' RAFT polymerization of a dioxolane-containing acrylamide with a protein macroCTA is used to design polymer-protein conjugates that self-assemble into nanoparticles at physiological temperature and pH. Acid triggered hydrolysis of the dioxolane units into diol moeities rendered the conjugates fully water soluble irrespective of temperature. PMID:26242974

  7. Potential biosignatures in super-Earth atmospheres II. Photochemical responses.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, J L; Gebauer, S; Godolt, M; Palczynski, K; Rauer, H; Stock, J; von Paris, P; Lehmann, R; Selsis, F

    2013-05-01

    Spectral characterization of super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and a surface pressure of 1 bar around central stars with spectral classes from M0 to M7. The spectral signals of the calculated planetary scenarios have been presented by in an earlier work by Rauer and colleagues. The main motivation of the present work is to perform a deeper analysis of the chemical processes in the planetary atmospheres. We apply a diagnostic tool, the Pathway Analysis Program, to shed light on the photochemical pathways that form and destroy biosignature species. Ozone is a potential biosignature for complex life. An important result of our analysis is a shift in the ozone photochemistry from mainly Chapman production (which dominates in Earth's stratosphere) to smog-dominated ozone production for planets in the habitable zone of cooler (M5-M7)-class dwarf stars. This result is associated with a lower energy flux in the UVB wavelength range from the central star, hence slower planetary atmospheric photolysis of molecular oxygen, which slows the Chapman ozone production. This is important for future atmospheric characterization missions because it provides an indication of different chemical environments that can lead to very different responses of ozone, for example, cosmic rays. Nitrous oxide, a biosignature for simple bacterial life, is favored for low stratospheric UV conditions, that is, on planets orbiting cooler stars. Transport of this species from its surface source to the stratosphere where it is destroyed can also be a key process. Comparing 1g with

  8. THE FLICKER RESPONSE CONTOURS FOR GENETICALLY RELATED FISHES. II

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, W. J.; Wolf, Ernst

    1939-01-01

    The flicker response contour has been determined for several species and types of the teleosts Xiphophorus (X.) and Platypoecilius (P.) under the same conditions. The curve (F vs. log Im) is the same for representatives of each generic type, but is different for the two genera. Its duplex nature is analyzable in each instance by application of the probability integral equation to the rod and cone constituent parts. The parameters of this function provide rational measures of invariant properties of the curves, which have specific values according to the genetic constitution of the animal. The F1 hybrids (H'') of X. montezuma x P. variatus show dominance of the X. properties with respect to cone Fmax. and σ' log I, but an intermediate value of the abscissa of inflection (τ'). The rod segment shows dominance of σ' log I from P., but an intermediate value of Fmax. and of τ'. The composite flicker curve involves the operation of two distinct assemblages of excitable elements, differing quantitatively but not qualitatively in physicochemical organization, probably only secondarily related to the histological differentiation of rods and cones because almost certainly of central nervous locus, but following different rules in hereditary determination, and therefore necessarily different in physical organization. The interpretation of the diverse behavior of the three parameters of the probability summation is discussed, particularly in relation to the physical significance of these parameters as revealed by their quantitative relations to temperature, retinal area, and light time fraction in the flash cycle, and to their interrelations in producing the decline of rod effects at higher intensities. It is stressed that in general the properties of the parameters of a chosen interpretive analytical function must be shown experimentally to possess the physical properties implied by the equation selected before the equation can be regarded as describing those invariant

  9. THE FLICKER RESPONSE CONTOURS FOR GENETICALLY RELATED FISHES. II.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J; Wolf, E

    1939-03-20

    The flicker response contour has been determined for several species and types of the teleosts Xiphophorus (X.) and Platypoecilius (P.) under the same conditions. The curve (F vs. log I(m)) is the same for representatives of each generic type, but is different for the two genera. Its duplex nature is analyzable in each instance by application of the probability integral equation to the rod and cone constituent parts. The parameters of this function provide rational measures of invariant properties of the curves, which have specific values according to the genetic constitution of the animal. The F(1) hybrids (H'') of X. montezuma x P. variatus show dominance of the X. properties with respect to cone F(max.) and sigma' (log I), but an intermediate value of the abscissa of inflection (tau'). The rod segment shows dominance of sigma' (log I) from P., but an intermediate value of F(max.) and of tau'. The composite flicker curve involves the operation of two distinct assemblages of excitable elements, differing quantitatively but not qualitatively in physicochemical organization, probably only secondarily related to the histological differentiation of rods and cones because almost certainly of central nervous locus, but following different rules in hereditary determination, and therefore necessarily different in physical organization. The interpretation of the diverse behavior of the three parameters of the probability summation is discussed, particularly in relation to the physical significance of these parameters as revealed by their quantitative relations to temperature, retinal area, and light time fraction in the flash cycle, and to their interrelations in producing the decline of rod effects at higher intensities. It is stressed that in general the properties of the parameters of a chosen interpretive analytical function must be shown experimentally to possess the physical properties implied by the equation selected before the equation can be regarded as describing

  10. Potential Biosignatures in Super-Earth Atmospheres II. Photochemical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, S.; Godolt, M.; Palczynski, K.; Rauer, H.; Stock, J.; von Paris, P.; Lehmann, R.; Selsis, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Spectral characterization of super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and a surface pressure of 1 bar around central stars with spectral classes from M0 to M7. The spectral signals of the calculated planetary scenarios have been presented by in an earlier work by Rauer and colleagues. The main motivation of the present work is to perform a deeper analysis of the chemical processes in the planetary atmospheres. We apply a diagnostic tool, the Pathway Analysis Program, to shed light on the photochemical pathways that form and destroy biosignature species. Ozone is a potential biosignature for complex life. An important result of our analysis is a shift in the ozone photochemistry from mainly Chapman production (which dominates in Earth's stratosphere) to smog-dominated ozone production for planets in the habitable zone of cooler (M5–M7)-class dwarf stars. This result is associated with a lower energy flux in the UVB wavelength range from the central star, hence slower planetary atmospheric photolysis of molecular oxygen, which slows the Chapman ozone production. This is important for future atmospheric characterization missions because it provides an indication of different chemical environments that can lead to very different responses of ozone, for example, cosmic rays. Nitrous oxide, a biosignature for simple bacterial life, is favored for low stratospheric UV conditions, that is, on planets orbiting cooler stars. Transport of this species from its surface source to the stratosphere where it is destroyed can also be a key process

  11. Transient supersensitivity to α-adrenoceptor agonists, and distinct hyper-reactivity to vasopressin and angiotensin II after denervation of rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Tripovic, Diana; Pianova, Svetlana; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vascular ‘denervation’ hyper-reactivity has generally been investigated 1–2 weeks after administration of chemicals that temporarily prevent transmitter release, but do not necessarily inactivate the neuronal noradrenaline transporters (NETs). We have investigated the reactivity of rat tail arteries over longer periods after removing the terminals by surgical denervation. Experimental approach: Two and 7 weeks after denervation, myography was used to assess contractions of isolated arterial segments to phenylephrine, methoxamine, clonidine, vasopressin and angiotensin II (AII). Denervation was confirmed by lack of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals. Key results: The NET inhibitor, desmethylimipramine, increased the pEC50 for phenylephrine in control, but not denervated arteries after both 2 and 7 weeks. Relative to controls, pEC50s for phenylephrine (with desmethylimipramine), methoxamine, clonidine and vasopressin were increased at 2 but not 7 weeks after denervation. The pEC50 for phenylephrine in the absence of desmethylimipramine was greater than control after both 2 and 7 weeks' denervation. The maximum contraction to vasopressin was larger than in controls at 2 but not 7 weeks after denervation, whereas contractions to AII were markedly enhanced at both time points. Conclusions and implications: Increased vascular reactivity to α1- and α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and vasopressin is transient following denervation. After 7 weeks, increased reactivity to phenylephrine can be entirely accounted for by the loss of NETs. Maintained supersensitivity to AII indicates that denervation differentially and selectively affects vascular reactivity to circulating vasoconstrictor agents. This might explain persistent vasoconstriction in denervated skin of humans after nerve injuries. PMID:20002103

  12. Generation of antitumor response by IL-2-transduced JAWS II dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rossowska, Joanna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Ryśnik, Oliwia; Wojas, Justyna; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Szyda, Anna; Duś, Danuta

    2011-10-01

    Antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) are a promising tool for inducing a tumor-specific immune response. It seems probable that co-administration of those cells together with cytokine-transduced DCs can further increase effectiveness of the antitumor vaccine. The local production of IL-2 by genetically modified DCs may result in alteration of the unfavorable tumor environment causing immune response dysfunction. In the presented study murine DCs of an established JAWS II cell line were transduced with a retroviral vector carrying murine IL-2 gene (JAWS II/IL-2). JAWS II/IL-2 cells demonstrated slightly decreased tumor antigen (TAg) uptake capacities. However, this modification resulted in enhanced ability of the cells to migrate in vivo. The multiple injection of vaccines containing JAWS II/IL-2 cells caused MC38 tumor growth delay and prolonged mice survival. The immunological response was manifested as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) and T cell activation and tumor tissue infiltration by CD8(+) and CD4(+) cells, accompanied by increased IFN-γ production by spleen cells. These observations suggest that repeated peritumoral administration of IL-2-producing dendritic cells can inhibit tumor growth by intensification of CD8(+) and CD4(+) cells' influx into tumor tissue and further activation of the systemic antitumor response. It can be concluded that IL-2 transduced dendritic cells may be used as a potent adjuvant in antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:21676487

  13. Response of a continuous biomethanation process to transient organic shock loads under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-04-15

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is a critical factor that controls the treatment efficiency and biogas production in anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, organic shock loads may cause significant process imbalances accompanied by a drop in pH and acid accumulation or even failure. This study investigated the response of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor to a series of transient organic shock loads of the substrate whey permeate, a high-strength organic wastewater from cheese making. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads of increasing magnitude (a one-day pulse of elevated feed organic concentration) under controlled (near 7) and uncontrolled pH conditions at a fixed HRT of 10 days. The reactor was resilient to up to a shock load of up to 8.0 g SCOD/L·d under controlled pH conditions but failed to recover from the serious imbalance caused by a 3.0-g SCOD/L·d shock load, thus indicating the critical effect of pH on system resilience. The acidified reactor was not restored by interrupted feeding under the acidic conditions that were formed (pH ≤ 4.5) but was successfully restored after pH adjustment to 7. The reactor subsequently reverted to continuous mode without pH control and showed a performance comparable to the stable performance at the design OLR of 1.0 g SCOD/L·d. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically in association with disturbances in the reactor conditions, whereas the archaeal community structure remained simple and less variable during the shock loading experiments. The structural shifts of the bacterial community were well correlated with the process performance changes, and performance recovery was generally accompanied by recovery of the bacterial community structure. The overall results suggest that the reactor pH, rather than simply acting as an accumulation of organic acids, had a crucial effect on the resilience and robustness of the microbial community and thus on the reactor performance under organic

  14. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  15. Aldosterone response to sodium deprivation and angiotensin II in patients with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Seifert, C; Oelkers, W

    1981-03-01

    Unknown pituitary factor(s) apart from ACTH may participate in the regulation of aldosterone (aldo) secretion in man. We investigated whether the 'sensitization' of the zona glomerulosa against angiotensin II (A II) by sodium deficiency was mediated by the pituitary gland. A II was infused in stepwise increasing doses (2, 4, 8 ng/kg/min) into 5 normal subjects (N) and into 8 patients with hypopituitarism (H) before and after 4 days on low sodium diet. Mean cumulative sodium balance after the low sodium diet was -145mM in N and -165mM in H. Plasma-aldo and aldo-excretion rate on the normal sodium diet were slightly higher in H than in N but rose less than normal during sodium depletion in H. Plasma A II and renin activity on normal sodium were slightly higher in H than in N, but the increase on the low sodium diet was blunted in H. The stimulation of plasma-aldo by A II infusion was similar in both groups on the normal sodium diet. In both groups, the response of P-aldo to A II infusion was greater in the sodium deplete than in the replete state, although 'sensitization' was slightly less marked in H than in N. This may be due to the blunted rise of plasma-A II after sodium loss in H, which may also account for abnormalities in the blood pressure response in the H group. Altogether, the results speak against a direct involvement of the pituitary gland in 'sensitization', but an indirect influence through unexplained abnormalities in renin secretion is possible. PMID:7211097

  16. The effect of stimulus significance on relatively sustained (tonic-like) and relatively transient (phasic-like) aspects of electrodermal, heart rate, and eyeblink response.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A S; Taylor, K W; Weinstein, E; Riedel, J

    1985-11-01

    To examine the influence of stimulus significance on more sustained as well as transient aspects of electrodermal, cardiac (HR), and eyeblink response, a 21-sec tone was sounded in one ear or the other. A click occurred during many tones, and a light followed offset by 9 sec. Four groups were studied: one pressed a pedal immediately on hearing any click; another only on click during tone in a specified ear; a third also responded only to the specified ear, but withheld press until the light; a fourth listened without any response. Results confirmed the important role of stimulus significance in each system whether between- or within-subject comparisons were made. Sustained responses were seen only when a significant signal was sought, involving in each case sustained HR deceleration, slowed blink rate, and heightened electrodermal level. Transient response to click and light also appeared only when there were significant signals. Response to tone-onset gave more ambiguous results. ANOVAs of response magnitude suggested that onset of nonsignificant tones might have elicited ORs, while binomial tests indicated these were not elicited with better than random frequency anywhere but on those trials occurring more frequently at the experiment's onset. Interpretations consistent with both the significance hypothesis and with a distinction between automatic and voluntary ORs can be made only here. Motor response had no effect on electrodermal or eyeblink response, and on HR was associated only with increased acceleration 1-2 sec after pedal-press. Studies using small motor responses to establish stimulus significance are therefore not likely to be substantially biased by the response itself. PMID:4084626

  17. Estrogen-dependent activation of the avian very low density apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin genes. Transient alterations in mRNA polyadenylation and stability early during induction.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, A W; Deeley, R G

    1988-10-01

    Administration of estrogen to egg-laying vertebrates activates unscheduled, hepatic expression of major, egg-yolk protein genes in immature animals and mature males. Two avian yolk protein genes, encoding very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) and vitellogenin II, are dormant prior to stimulation with estrogen, but within three days their cognate mRNAs accumulate to become two of the most abundant species in the liver. Accumulation of these mRNAs has been attributed to both induction of transcription and selective, estrogen-dependent mRNA stabilization. We have detected alterations in the size of apoVLDLII mRNA that occur during the first 24 hours that are attributable to a shift in the extent of polyadenylation as steady-state is approached. In vitro transcription assays indicate that primary activation of both genes takes place relatively slowly and that maximal rates of mRNA accumulation occur when the apoVLDLII and vitellogenin II genes are expressed at only 30% and 10% of their fully induced levels, respectively. Transcription data combined with the structural alteration of apoVLDLII mRNA suggest that stability of the two mRNAs may change as steady-state is approached. We have assessed the compatibility of this suggestion with earlier estimates of the kinetics of accumulation of both mRNAs by developing a generally useful algorithm that predicts approach to steady-state kinetics under conditions where both the rate of synthesis and mRNA stability change throughout the accumulation phase of the response. The results predict that the stability of both mRNAs decreases by at least two- to threefold during the approach to steady-state and that, although an additional destabilization of apoVLDLII mRNA may occur following withdrawal of estrogen, the steady-state stability of vitellogenin mRNA is not significantly decreased upon removal of hormone. PMID:3210227

  18. Rotor transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Undamped modes approximate dynamic behavior of rotors and bearings. Application of modal analysis to uncouple equations of motion simplifies stability, steady-state unbalance response, and transient response analysis of system; nonlinear stability is predicted from calculated frequency spectra. Analysis provides designers with complete information without involving large-scale computational costs. Programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use on CDC 6600 computer.

  19. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  20. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  1. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  2. Origin of the autoreactive anti-type II collagen response. II. Specificities, antibody isotypes and usage of V gene families of anti-type II collagen B cells.

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, R; Bailey, C; Enander, I; Mayer, R; Klareskog, L; Moran, T; Bona, C

    1989-03-15

    Autoantibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. We have earlier reported a high frequency of cells producing anti-CII autoantibodies and a low frequency of cells producing multispecific antibodies, in regional lymph nodes 9 to 11 days after primary immunization with CII. It is shown here that anti-CII antibodies produced during primary immune response are IgG-antibodies mainly of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses while IgM antibodies dominate primary responses elicited by OVA and denatured CII as analyzed with a large panel of hybridomas. Anti-CII antibodies generated during the primary response recognize at least five different epitopes on the CII molecule. The specificities of these antibodies for various epitopes result from combinational association of products encoded by genes derived from various VH and VK families and/or by the occurrence of somatic mutations. It is suggested that the primary anti-CII autoantibody response involves activation of memory B cells and is in this aspect different from the origin of "natural" autoantibodies. PMID:2493500

  3. New insights into the mechanism of RNA degradation by ribonuclease II: identification of the residue responsible for setting the RNase II end product.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G; Amblar, Mónica; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2008-05-01

    RNase II is a key exoribonuclease involved in the maturation, turnover, and quality control of RNA. RNase II homologues are components of the exosome, a complex of exoribonucleases. The structure of RNase II unraveled crucial aspects of the mechanism of RNA degradation. Here we show that mutations in highly conserved residues at the active site affect the activity of the enzyme. Moreover, we have identified the residue that is responsible for setting the end product of RNase II. In addition, we present for the first time the models of two members of the RNase II family, RNase R from Escherichia coli and human Rrp44, also called Dis3. Our findings improve the present model for RNA degradation by the RNase II family of enzymes. PMID:18337246

  4. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K.; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; Juliana McElrath, M.; Montefiori, David C.; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Kim, Jerome H.; Thomas, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II–restricted CD4+ T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1–specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)–specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120–204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  5. Transient performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnock, Barry

    Gas turbine engine transient behavior, that which is concerned with the changes in engine parameters during acceleration or decceleration of an engine from one steady state point to a different steady state point, is considered. An engine can also experience cyclic aerodynamic phenomena which occur at a nominally steady condition; examples are compressor rotator stall and intake or afterburner buzz. The following are discussed: certification requirements; mechanism of acceleration; compressor working lines and surge; and some important factors (pressure level, moment of inertia, heat soakage, clearances, measurement of transients, thrust reversal, and transient maneuvers which involve significant changes to the shaft speeds of the engine). A set of graphics illustrating transient performance is presented.

  6. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles: II - Rod Bowing Effect on Boiling Transition under Transient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Tamai, Hidesada; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ohnuki, Akira; Akimoto, Hajime

    A thermal-hydraulic feasibility project for an Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible fuel cycle (FLWR) has been performed since 2002. In this R&D project, large-scale thermal-hydraulic tests, several model experiments and development of advanced numerical analysis codes have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the critical power characteristics in a 37-rod tight-lattice bundle with rod bowing under transient states. It is observed that transient Boiling Transition (BT) always occurs axially at exit elevation of upper high-heat-flux region and transversely in the central area of the bundle, which is same as that under steady state. For the postulated power increase and flow decrease cases that may be possibly met in a normal operation of the FLWR, it is confirmed that no BT occurs when Initial Critical Power Ratio (ICPR) is 1.3. Moreover, when the transients are run under severer ICPR that causes BT, the transient critical powers are generally same as the steady ones. The experiments are analyzed with a modified TRAC-BFI code, where Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) newest critical power correlation is implemented for the BT judgement. The code shows good prediction for the occurrence or the non occurrence of the BT and predicts the BT starting time conservatively. Traditional quasi-steady state prediction of the transient BT is confirmed being applicable for the postulated abnormal transient processes in the tight-lattice bundle with rod bowing.

  7. The Coordination of C4 Photosynthesis and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism in Maize and Miscanthus × giganteus in Response to Transient Changes in Light Quality1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Walker, Berkley J.; Kramer, David M.; Cousins, Asaph B.

    2014-01-01

    Unequal absorption of photons between photosystems I and II, and between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells, are likely to affect the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in C4 plants. Under steady-state conditions, it is expected that the biochemical distribution of energy (ATP and NADPH) and photosynthetic metabolite concentrations will adjust to maintain the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis through the coordination of the C3 (Calvin-Benson-Bassham) and C4 (CO2 pump) cycles. However, under transient conditions, changes in light quality will likely alter the coordination of the C3 and C4 cycles, influencing rates of CO2 assimilation and decreasing the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism. To test these hypotheses, we measured leaf gas exchange, leaf discrimination, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrochromatic shift, photosynthetic metabolite pools, and chloroplast movement in maize (Zea mays) and Miscanthus × giganteus following transitional changes in light quality. In both species, the rate of net CO2 assimilation responded quickly to changes in light treatments, with lower rates of net CO2 assimilation under blue light compared with red, green, and blue light, red light, and green light. Under steady state, the efficiency of CO2-concentrating mechanisms was similar; however, transient changes affected the coordination of C3 and C4 cycles in M. giganteus but to a lesser extent in maize. The species differences in the ability to coordinate the activities of C3 and C4 cycles appear to be related to differences in the response of cyclic electron flux around photosystem I and potentially chloroplast rearrangement in response to changes in light quality. PMID:24488966

  8. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953

  9. Decadal-Scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone From SAGE II Version 7 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere for 1991 and 1992-2005 and compared with those from its previous version 6.2 (v6.2). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of its ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the time series data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11 yr, solar UV (Ultraviolet)-flux throughout most of the latitude/ altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Several regions that have a response that is not quite in-phase are interpreted as being affected by decadal-scale, dynamical forcings. The maximum minus minimum, solar cycle (SClike) responses for the ozone at the low latitudes are similar from the two SAGE II data versions and vary from about 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km, although they are resolved better with v7. SAGE II v7 ozone is also analyzed for 1984-1998, in order to mitigate effects of end-point anomalies that bias its ozone in 1991 and the analyzed results for 1991-2005 or following the Pinatubo eruption. Its SC-like ozone response in the upper stratosphere is of the order of 4%for 1984-1998 vs. 2.5 to 3%for 1991-2005. The SAGE II v7 results are also recompared with the responses in ozone from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) that are in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure for 1991-2005 and then for late 1992- 2005 to avoid any effects following Pinatubo. Shapes of their respective response profiles agree very well for 1992-2005. The associated linear trends of the ozone are not as negative in 1992-2005 as in 1984-1998, in accord with a leveling off of the effects of reactive chlorine on ozone. It is concluded that the SAGE II v7 ozone yields SC-like ozone responses and trends that are of better quality than those from v6.2.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone marrow-derived cells prevents acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Jia, L-X; Zhang, W-M; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y-L; Li, H-H; Qi, Y-F; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in hypertensive cardiac injury. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is involved in the inflammatory response. However, the role of ER stress in elevated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress in Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac injury. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ang II infusion in mice increased ER stress-related genes expression in the heart. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency, a key mediator of ER stress, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines in Ang II-infused mouse hearts. CHOP deficiency increased Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury: (1) Masson trichrome staining showed increased fibrotic areas, (2) immunohistochemistry staining showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β1 and (3) quantitative real-time PCR showed increased expression of collagen in CHOP-deficient mouse heart. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that CHOP deficiency in bone marrow cells was responsible for Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury. Moreover, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry revealed that CHOP deficiency decreased neutrophil apoptosis in response to Ang II. Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypertension induced ER stress after Ang II infusion. ER stress in bone marrow-derived cells protected acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to Ang II. PMID:27277680

  11. The effect of HN-65021 on responses to angiotensin II in human forearm vasculature.

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, J R; Chowienczyk, P J; Brett, S E; Mant, T G; Durnin, C; Lynn, F; Stevenson, P; Ritter, J M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of (2-butyl-4-chloro-1[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]methyl]-1H-imadazole-5-carboxylic acid,-1-(ethoxycarbonyloxy) ethyl-ester (HN-65021), on angiotensin II induced vasoconstriction in forearm vasculature of eight healthy men. Placebo and HN-65021 (5, 10 and 100 mg) were administered orally. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography during rising dose brachial artery infusions of angiotensin II (0.3-1000 pmol min-1) 2 h after dosing. HN-65021 inhibited angiotensin II, causing a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Angiotensin II (100 pmol min-1) decreased mean blood flow in the infused arm by 63.1 +/- 3.2% when infused following placebo and by 49.9 +/- 4.3%, 50.7 +/- 3.5% and 36.4 +/- 2.8% following HN-65021 doses of 5.10 and 100 mg respectively. These results demonstrate that HN-65021 antagonises angiotensin II receptor mediated vasoconstriction in human forearm resistance vessels. PMID:8703667

  12. Double integration of current transients in response to an abrupt change of applied bias: Application to dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurzo, I.; Barančok, D.; Haluška, M.

    1995-11-01

    The depolarization current transients are processed in two consecutive steps: initially the feedback capacitor of a charge-to-voltage converter (QVC) is charged by the transient current, which is followed by integrating the output of the QVC via a gated integrator operated in the mode of exponential averaging. Unlike charge transient spectroscopy [QTS; J. W. Farmer, C. D. Lamp, and J. M. Meese, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1063 (1982)], intended originally for high-resistivity semiconductors, the gate aperture duration is set to intervals comparable to the rate window. Since a single channel of our advanced system represents an unrestored time-domain filter, output signals of the three gated integrators are properly combined in an analog mixer, to get a second-order filter [Crowell and Alipanahi, Solid-State Electron. 24, 25 (1980)]. Apart from the selectivity improvement, our multichannel scheme eliminates parasitic charges due to leaky dielectrics. The formalism of the evaluation of kinetic parameters of dipoles is applied to experimentally observed relaxation peaks from Gd-doped CaF2 crystals.

  13. Responsiveness vs. basal activity of plasma ANG II as a determinant of arterial pressure salt sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Osborn, John W; Ariza-Nieto, Pilar; Collister, John P; Soucheray, Sandra; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Katz, Stephen

    2003-11-01

    Infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) causes salt-sensitive hypertension. It is unclear whether this is due to the body's inability to suppress ANG II during increased salt intake or, rather, an elevated basal level of plasma ANG II itself. To distinguish between these mechanisms, Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters for measurement of arterial pressure and infusion of drugs, respectively. The sensitivity of arterial pressure to salt was measured in four groups with the following treatments: 1) saline control (Con, n = 12); 2) administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril to block endogenous ANG II (ANG-Lo, n = 10); 3) administration of enalapril and 5 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) ANG II to clamp plasma ANG II at normal levels (ANG-Norm, n = 10); and 4) administration of enalapril and 20 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) ANG II to clamp ANG II at high levels (ANG-Hi, n = 10). Rats ingested a 0.4% NaCl diet for 3 days and then a 4.0% NaCl diet for 11 days. Arterial pressure of rats fed the 0.4% NaCl diet was lower in ANG-Lo (84 +/- 2 mmHg) compared with Con (101 +/- 3 mmHg) and ANG-Norm (98 +/- 4 mmHg) groups, whereas ANG-Hi rats were hypertensive (145 +/- 4 mmHg). Salt sensitivity was expressed as the change in arterial pressure divided by the change in sodium intake on the last day of the 4.0% NaCl diet. Salt sensitivity (in mmHg/meq Na) was lowest in Con rats (0.0 +/- 0.1) and progressed from ANG-Lo (0.8 +/- 0.2) to ANG-Norm (1.5 +/- 0.5) to ANG-Hi (3.5 +/- 0.5) rats. We conclude that the major determinant of salt sensitivity of arterial pressure is the basal level of plasma ANG II rather than the responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:12881218

  14. Comparing Geant4 hadronic models for the WENDI-II rem meter response function.

    PubMed

    Vanaudenhove, T; Dubus, A; Pauly, N

    2013-01-01

    The WENDI-II rem meter is one of the most popular neutron dosemeters used to assess a useful quantity of radiation protection, namely the ambient dose equivalent. This is due to its high sensitivity and its energy response that approximately follows the conversion function between neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent in the range of thermal to 5 GeV. The simulation of the WENDI-II response function with the Geant4 toolkit is then perfectly suited to compare low- and high-energy hadronic models provided by this Monte Carlo code. The results showed that the thermal treatment of hydrogen in polyethylene for neutron <4 eV has a great influence over the whole detector range. Above 19 MeV, both Bertini Cascade and Binary Cascade models show a good correlation with the results found in the literature, while low-energy parameterised models are not suitable for this application. PMID:22972796

  15. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. II - Low solidity airfoil row response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.

  16. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    SciTech Connect

    Garbett, K; Mendler, O J; Gardner, G C; Garnsey, R; Young, M Y

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated.

  17. Semi-analytical solution for three-dimensional transient response of functionally graded annular plate on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    The three-dimensional transient analysis of functionally graded annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions is carried out in this paper. The material properties of the FGM plate are assumed to vary smoothly in an exponential law along the thickness direction. The plate is assumed to rest on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation. A semi-analytical method, which integrates the state space method (SSM), Laplace transform and its inversion, as well as the one-dimensional differential quadrature method (DQM), is proposed to obtain the transient response of the plate. The state space method is used to obtain the analytical solution in the thickness direction. The differential quadrature method is employed to approximate the solution in the radial direction. The Laplace transform and the numerical inversion are used to obtain the solution in time domain. Numerical results show a good agreement between the response histories obtained by the present method and finite element method. The effects of the boundary conditions at the edges, the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient are studied. Numerical examples show that the peak response decreases as the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient increase. The results obtained in this paper can serve as benchmark data in further research.

  18. Analysis of Experimental Sea-level Transient Data and Analog Method of Obtaining Altitude Response for Turbine-propeller Engine with Relay-type Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Pack, George J

    1951-01-01

    Correlation has been established between transient engine and control data obtained experimentally and data obtained by simulating the engine and control with an analog computer. This correlation was established at sea-level conditions for a turbine-propeller engine with a relay-type speed control. The behavior of the controlled engine at altitudes of 20,000 and 35,000 feet was determined with an analog computer using the altitude pressure and temperature generalization factors to calculate the new engine constants for these altitudes. Because the engine response varies considerably at altitude some type of compensation appears desirable and four methods of compensation are discussed.

  19. Temporal thermal response of Type II-IR fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Changrui; Wang Dongning; Li Yuhua; Sun Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2009-06-01

    We use the phase mask method to investigate both experimentally and theoretically the temporal thermal response of Type II-IR fiber Bragg gratings inscribed by a femtosecond laser. A fast testing system is developed to measure the thermal response time by means of periodic CO2 laser irradiation, which creates a rapid temperature change environment. The temporal thermal response is found to be independent of the heat power and the heat direction, although the grating produced destroys the axial symmetry of the fiber. The measured values of the temporal thermal response are {approx}230 ms for heating and {approx}275 ms for cooling, which different from the simulation results obtained from a lumped system equation. The causes of such differences are investigated in detail.

  20. Reciprocal Influence of Salt Intake on Adrenal Glomerulosa and Renal Vascular Responses to Angiotensin II in Normal Man

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, Norman K.; Chenitz, William R.; Adams, Douglass F.; Williams, Gordon H.

    1974-01-01

    The adrenal glomerulosa cell and the renal vasculature respond to similar arterial angiotensin II (A II) levels. We have assessed the effect of decreased sodium intake on their responses to A II in man. Studies were performed in 42 normal subjects in balance on a daily intake of 100 meq potassium and either 200 or 10 meq sodium/day. Renal blood flow was measured with 133Xe and arterial A II, renin and aldosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. A II was infused intravenously (1, 3, or 10 ng/kg/min) for 40—60 min; 14 subjects received graded doses. The A II level increased linearly with dose and plateaued within 3 min; blood pressure and renal vascular resistance showed a similar time-course. Aldosterone rose within 10 and plateaued within 20 min. Dose-response relationships were established between the rate of A II infusion and the adrenal, the renal vascular, and pressor responses. Sodium restriction reduced the pressor (P < 0.01) and the renal vascular response (P < 0.01), but potentiated the adrenal response to A II (P < 0.01). An excellent correlation was found between the plasma A II and aldosterone levels, but the slope of their regression relationship on a high (y = 0.13x + 6) and low salt intake (y = 0.32x + 14) differed significantly (P < 0.0005). Thus, sodium intake reciprocally influences vascular and adrenal responses to A II: salt restriction blunts the vascular response and potentiates the adrenal's, a physiologically important influence in view of aldosterone's role in sodium conservation. PMID:4365595

  1. Serial Assessment of Therapeutic Response to a New Radiosensitization Treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), in Patients with Stage I/II Breast Cancer Using Breast Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yaogawa, Shin; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Akima, Ryo; Itoh, Kenji; Morio, Kazuo; Yasunami, Hiroaki; Onogawa, Masahide; Kariya, Shinji; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have developed a new radiosensitization treatment called Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II). Using KORTUC II, we performed breast-conserving treatment (BCT) without any surgical procedure for elderly patients with breast cancer in stages I/II or patients refusing surgery. Since surgery was not performed, histological confirmation of the primary tumor region following KORTUC II treatment was not possible. Therefore, to precisely evaluate the response to this new therapy, a detailed diagnostic procedure is needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic response to KORTUC II treatment in patients with stage I/II breast cancer using annual breast contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Twenty-one patients with stage I/II breast cancer who were elderly and/or refused surgery were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent MRI prior to and at 3 to 6 months after KORTUC II, and then approximately biannually thereafter. Findings from MRI were compared with those from other diagnostic modalities performed during the same time period. Results: KORTUC II was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects. All of 21 patients showed a clinically complete response (cCR) on CE MRI. The mean period taken to confirm cCR on the breast CE MRI was approximately 14 months. The mean follow-up period for the patients was 61.9 months at the end of October 2014. Conclusions: The therapeutic effect of BCT using KORTUC II without surgery could be evaluated by biannual CE MRI evaluations. Approximately 14 months were required to achieve cCR in response to this therapy. PMID:26703733

  2. Attenuation of renal excretory responses to ANG II during inhibition of superoxide dismutase in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Islam, Mohammed Toriqul; Castillo, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    To examine the functional interaction between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NADPH oxidase activity, we assessed renal responses to acute intra-arterial infusion of ANG II (0.5 ng·kg−1·min−1) before and during administration of a SOD inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC, 0.5 mg·kg−1·min−1), in enalaprilat-pretreated (33 μg·kg−1·min−1) rats (n = 11). Total (RBF) and regional (cortical, CBF; medullary; MBF) renal blood flows were determined by Transonic and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Renal cortical and medullary tissue NADPH oxidase activity in vitro was determined using the lucigenin-chemiluminescence method. DETC treatment alone resulted in decreases in RBF, CBF, MBF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine flow (V), and sodium excretion (UNaV) as reported previously. Before DETC, ANG II infusion decreased RBF (−18 ± 3%), CBF (−16 ± 3%), MBF [−5 ± 6%; P = not significant (NS)], GFR (−31 ± 4%), V (−34 ± 2%), and UNaV (−53 ± 3%). During DETC infusion, ANG II also caused similar reductions in RBF (−20 ± 4%), CBF (−19 ± 3%), MBF (−2 ± 2; P = NS), and in GFR (−22 ± 7%), whereas renal excretory responses (V; −12 ± 2%; UNaV; −24 ± 4%) were significantly attenuated compared with those before DETC. In in vitro experiments, ANG II (100 μM) enhanced NADPH oxidase activity both in cortical [13,194 ± 1,651 vs. 20,914 ± 2,769 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein] and in medullary (21,296 ± 2,244 vs. 30,597 ± 4,250 RLU/mg protein) tissue. Application of DETC (1 mM) reduced the basal levels and prevented ANG II-induced increases in NADPH oxidase activity in both tissues. These results demonstrate that renal excretory responses to acute ANG II administration are attenuated during SOD inhibition, which seems related to a downregulation of NADPH oxidase in the deficient condition of SOD activity. PMID:19923406

  3. Catalina/Palomar Optical Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshalingam, M.; Griffith, C. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.

    2008-07-01

    Inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 330-1000 nm), obtained on July 7 UT with the 3-m Shane reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the transient reported in ATel 1604 has a very blue, featureless continuum. This could be a very young Type II supernova (though at this time no clear hydrogen Balmer features are present), or some kind of Galactic transient. Further observations are encouraged.

  4. The effects of elastic supports on the transient vibroacoustic response of a window caused by sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Ou, Dayi; Mak, Cheuk Ming

    2011-08-01

    The transient vibration and sound radiation (TVSR) of plate-like structures with general elastic boundary conditions was investigated using the time-domain finite element method (TDFEM) and time-domain boundary element method (TDBEM). In this model, the structure can have arbitrary elastic boundary conditions and hence the effects of the boundary conditions on the TVSR can be effectively studied. The predicted results agreed well with existing experimental data using two classical boundary conditions: simply supported at all edges and clamped-free-free-free. The TVSR of a single panel with a more general boundary condition in two connected chambers was also measured. The predicted results agreed well with these experimental results. The prediction method was subsequently applied to evaluate the effects of elastic boundary supports on the TVSR of a window caused by a sonic boom. Loudness, non-audible acoustic perception, and tactile vibration thresholds were analyzed for different boundary conditions (varying between clamped and simply supported). The possibility of improving the transient vibration and noise isolation performance by selecting an appropriate boundary condition was thereby demonstrated. PMID:21877794

  5. Deletion of Nuclear Factor kappa B p50 Subunit Decreases Inflammatory Response and Mildly Protects Neurons from Transient Forebrain Ischemia-induced Damage.

    PubMed

    Rolova, Taisia; Dhungana, Hiramani; Korhonen, Paula; Valonen, Piia; Kolosowska, Natalia; Konttinen, Henna; Kanninen, Katja; Tanila, Heikki; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari

    2016-08-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia induces delayed death of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly in the CA2 and medial CA1 area. Early pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory response can ameliorate neuronal death, but it also inhibits processes leading to tissue regeneration. Therefore, research efforts are now directed to modulation of post-ischemic inflammation, with the aim to promote beneficial effects of inflammation and limit adverse effects. Transcription factor NF-κB plays a key role in the inflammation and cell survival/apoptosis pathways. In the brain, NF-κB is predominantly found in the form of a heterodimer of p65 (RelA) and p50 subunit, where p65 has a transactivation domain while p50 is chiefly involved in DNA binding. In this study, we subjected middle-aged Nfkb1 knockout mice (lacking p50 subunit) and wild-type controls of both sexs to 17 min of transient forebrain ischemia and assessed mouse performance in a panel of behavioral tests after two weeks of post-operative recovery. We found that ischemia failed to induce clear memory and motor deficits, but affected spontaneous locomotion in genotype- and sex-specific way. We also show that both the lack of the NF-κB p50 subunit and female sex independently protected CA2 hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced cell death. Additionally, the NF-κB p50 subunit deficiency significantly reduced ischemia-induced microgliosis, astrogliosis, and neurogenesis. Lower levels of hippocampal microgliosis significantly correlated with faster spatial learning. We conclude that NF-κB regulates the outcome of transient forebrain ischemia in middle-aged subjects in a sex-specific way, having an impact not only on neuronal death but also specific inflammatory responses and neurogenesis. PMID:27493832

  6. Deletion of Nuclear Factor kappa B p50 Subunit Decreases Inflammatory Response and Mildly Protects Neurons from Transient Forebrain Ischemia-induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rolova, Taisia; Dhungana, Hiramani; Korhonen, Paula; Valonen, Piia; Kolosowska, Natalia; Konttinen, Henna; Kanninen, Katja; Tanila, Heikki; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia induces delayed death of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly in the CA2 and medial CA1 area. Early pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory response can ameliorate neuronal death, but it also inhibits processes leading to tissue regeneration. Therefore, research efforts are now directed to modulation of post-ischemic inflammation, with the aim to promote beneficial effects of inflammation and limit adverse effects. Transcription factor NF-κB plays a key role in the inflammation and cell survival/apoptosis pathways. In the brain, NF-κB is predominantly found in the form of a heterodimer of p65 (RelA) and p50 subunit, where p65 has a transactivation domain while p50 is chiefly involved in DNA binding. In this study, we subjected middle-aged Nfkb1 knockout mice (lacking p50 subunit) and wild-type controls of both sexs to 17 min of transient forebrain ischemia and assessed mouse performance in a panel of behavioral tests after two weeks of post-operative recovery. We found that ischemia failed to induce clear memory and motor deficits, but affected spontaneous locomotion in genotype- and sex-specific way. We also show that both the lack of the NF-κB p50 subunit and female sex independently protected CA2 hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced cell death. Additionally, the NF-κB p50 subunit deficiency significantly reduced ischemia-induced microgliosis, astrogliosis, and neurogenesis. Lower levels of hippocampal microgliosis significantly correlated with faster spatial learning. We conclude that NF-κB regulates the outcome of transient forebrain ischemia in middle-aged subjects in a sex-specific way, having an impact not only on neuronal death but also specific inflammatory responses and neurogenesis. PMID:27493832

  7. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  8. Comment on "Transient response of an acoustic medium by an excited submerged spherical shell" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109(6), 2789-2796 (2001)].

    PubMed

    Bahari, Ako; Popplewell, Neil

    2015-05-01

    A closed form solution was derived previously for the response of a submerged spherical shell when the shell was excited by a spatially distributed, transient load at its inner surface [Zakout (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109(6), 2789-2796]. Numerical results were presented for the modal and total acoustic pressures outside the empty sphere when the load's temporal history corresponded to the Heaviside step function. However, the result presented for the shell's "breathing" mode was inconsistent with these data as it corresponded to the delta Dirac (impulse) function. Furthermore, numerical results, which were given later for the total acoustic pressure responses, did not involve either of these excitations. Consequently the present objective is to rectify these anomalies. PMID:25994723

  9. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

  10. Transcriptional and functional studies of a Cd(II)/Pb(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator(CmtR) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yanjun; Nie, Li; Qian, Lin; Cai, Lu; Liu, Jianshe

    2012-08-01

    The acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can resist exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) concentrations. This property is important for its use in biomining processes, where Cd and other metal levels range usually between 15 and 100 mM. To learn about the mechanisms that allow A. ferrooxidans cells to survive in this environment, a bioinformatic search of its genome showed the presence of that a Cd(II)/Pb(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator (CmtR) was possibly related to Cd homeostasis. The expression of the CmtR was studied by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR using A. ferrooxidans cells adapted for growth in the presence of high concentrations of Cd. The putative A. ferrooxidans Cd resistance determinant was found to be upregulated when this bacterium was exposed to Cd in the range of 15-30 mM. The CmtR from A. ferrooxidans was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, the soluble protein was purified by one-step affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity. UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements showed that the reconstruction CmtR was able to bind Cd(II) forming Cd(II)-CmtR complex in vitro. The sequence alignment and molecular modeling showed that the crucial residues for CmtR binding were likely to be Cys77, Cys112, and Cys121. The results reported here strongly suggest that the high resistance of the extremophilic A. ferrooxidans to Cd including the Cd(II)/Pb(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator. PMID:22555344

  11. Transient thermoelectric supercooling: Isosceles current pulses from a response surface perspective and the performance effects of pulse cooling a heat generating mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piggott, Alfred J., III

    With increased public interest in protecting the environment, scientists and engineers aim to improve energy conversion efficiency. Thermoelectrics offer many advantages as thermal management technology. When compared to vapor compression refrigeration, above approximately 200 to 600 watts, cost in dollars per watt as well as COP are not advantageous for thermoelectrics. The goal of this work was to determine if optimized pulse supercooling operation could improve cooling capacity or efficiency of a thermoelectric device. The basis of this research is a thermal-electrical analogy based modeling study using SPICE. Two models were developed. The first model, a standalone thermocouple with no attached mass to be cooled. The second, a system that includes a module attached to a heat generating mass. With the thermocouple study, a new approach of generating response surfaces with characteristic parameters was applied. The current pulse height and pulse on-time was identified for maximizing Net Transient Advantage, a newly defined metric. The corresponding pulse height and pulse on-time was utilized for the system model. Along with the traditional steady state starting current of Imax, Iopt was employed. The pulse shape was an isosceles triangle. For the system model, metrics new to pulse cooling were Qc, power consumption and COP. The effects of optimized current pulses were studied by changing system variables. Further studies explored time spacing between pulses and temperature distribution in the thermoelement. It was found net Q c over an entire pulse event can be improved over Imax steady operation but not over steady I opt operation. Qc can be improved over Iopt operation but only during the early part of the pulse event. COP is reduced in transient pulse operation due to the different time constants of Qc and Pin. In some cases lower performance interface materials allow more Qc and better COP during transient operation than higher performance interface materials

  12. Margaret Mead and behavioral scientists in World War II: problems in responsibility, truth, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mabee, C

    1987-01-01

    In World War II, Margaret Mead and her behavioral science colleagues actively applied their science to the American war effort on issues such as morale, food habits, psychological warfare, and the evacuation of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast. Mead's participation or lack of participation in these activities, and her varying enthusiasms and misgivings about them, raise fundamental issues about the responsibility of behavioral scientists to warn the public against dangerous policies, as well as the ethics of behavioral scientists participating in deceitful psychological warfare and the extent of their effectiveness in contributing to public policymaking. PMID:3546479

  13. Photodynamic response of an endothelial hybridoma cell line using zinc(II) tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse-Sawyer, Janet E.; Dixon, B.; Roberts, David J.; Griffiths, John; Brown, Stanley B.

    1995-03-01

    The EAhy 926 cell is a hybridoma line derived from human endothelium and A549/8 cells. They display stable endothelial characteristics and may provide an indication of how endothelial cells respond to photodynamic therapy. Cells were grown as monolayers, seeded at a density of 104 cells/35 mm dish, and then incubated with zinc (II) tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines (carboxylated, sulphonated, pyridinium or diethanolamine sulphonamide). After 24 hours, the cells were illuminated with laser light at 680 nm or 692 nm as appropriate. The response to each photosensitizer was evaluated using cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and release of tissue factor.

  14. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Tatekawa, Takayuki

    2014-04-01

    We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small.

  15. Proinflammatory response of alveolar type II pneumocytes to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Alexander S; Woolley, Steven M; Fraga, Charles H; Byrne, Karen; Mulligan, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Type II pneumocytes (T2P) are integral in preserving the integrity of the alveolar space by modulating the fluid composition surrounding the alveolar epithelium. There is also mounting evidence supporting their contribution to the development of acute inflammatory lung injury subsequent to oxidative stress. This study characterized the response of T2P to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation (H&R). Rat T2P from a cultured cell line (RLE-6TN) were rendered hypoxic for 2 h, and reoxygenated for up to 6 h. Activation of signaling kinases, the nuclear translocation of proinflammatory transcription factors, and quantification of secreted cytokine and chemokine protein content were assessed. Type II pneumocytes expressed activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 maximally at 15 min of reoxygenation. C-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 activation was minimal at all time points studied. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1 were dramatic after 15 min of reoxygenation. There was a significant increase in the protein secretion of CINC (p = 0.03), IL-1beta (p = 0.02), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.001) at 6 h of reoxygenation. Type II pneumocytes respond directly to H&R. ERK 1/2 activity peaks at 15 min of reoxygenation, and correlates temporally with the nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and AP-1. These signaling cascades likely promote the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:14961986

  16. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    PubMed

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs. PMID:25274584

  17. Amylin Uncovered: A Review on the Polypeptide Responsible for Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Amylin is primarily responsible for classifying type II diabetes as an amyloid (protein misfolding) disease as it has great potential to aggregate into toxic nanoparticles, thereby resulting in loss of pancreatic β-cells. Although type II diabetes is on the increase each year, possibly due to bad eating habits of modern society, research on the culprit for this disease is still in its early days. In addition, unlike the culprit for Alzheimer's disease, amyloid β-peptide, amylin has failed to receive attention worthy of being featured in an abundance of review articles. Thus, the aim of this paper is to shine the spotlight on amylin in an attempt to put it onto the top of researchers' to-do list since the secondary complications of type II diabetes have far-reaching and severe consequences on public health both in developing and fully developed countries alike. This paper will cover characteristics of the amylin aggregates, mechanisms of toxicity, and a particular focus on inhibitors of toxicity and techniques used to assess these inhibitors. PMID:23607096

  18. MHC class II transcription is associated with inflammatory responses in a wild marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Montano-Frías, Jorge E; Vera-Massieu, Camila; Álvarez-Martínez, Roberto; Flores-Morán, Adriana; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important non-specific and rapid responses that a vertebrate can elicit in response to damage or a foreign insult. To date, despite increasing evidence that the innate and adaptive branches of immunity are more intricately related than previously thought, few have examined interactions between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, a polymorphic region of the vertebrate genome that is involved with antigen presentation) and inflammation, and even less is known about these interactions in an eco-immunological context. Here, we examined the effect of MHC class II DRB gene multiplicity and transcription on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced inflammation during the early stages of development of California sea lions. Neither constitutive nor expressed ZacaDRB diversity was found to be associated with pup responses to PHA at any of the stages of pup development. However, for two-month-old pups, those with a specific MHC-DRB locus (ZacaDRB-A) tended to have less efficient responsive inflammation. Transcription of distinct MHC-DRB loci was also linked to PHA-induced inflammation, with patterns that varied markedly between ages, and that suggested that ongoing infectious processes could limit the capacity to respond to a secondary challenge. Life history constraints and physiological processes associated with development of California sea lions, in conjunction with their changing pathogenic environment could explain the observed effects of MHC class II transcription on PHA-induced inflammation. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to examine the importance of expressed vs. constitutive MHC loci on inflammation in a natural population. PMID:27137083

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired cardiac hypertrophic response to angiotensin II in mice lacking FGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Pellieux, Corinne; Foletti, Alessandro; Peduto, Giovanni; Aubert, Jean-François; Nussberger, Jürg; Beermann, Friedrich; Brunner, Hans-R.; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells. PMID:11748268

  20. Involvement of transient receptor potential-like channels in responses to mGluR-I activation in midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; Bengtson, C Peter; Longone, Patrizia; Carignani, Corrado; Fusco, Francesca R; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B

    2003-10-01

    We investigated the involvement of store-operated channels (SOCs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the response to activation of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) with the agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, puff application) in dopamine neurons in rat brain slices. The mGluR1-induced conductance reversed polarity close to 0 mV and at more positive potentials when extracellular potassium concentrations were increased, indicating the involvement of a cationic channel. DHPG currents but not intracellular calcium responses were reduced by low extracellular sodium concentrations but were not affected by sodium channel blockers, tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin or by inhibition of the h-current with cesium. Abolition of calcium responses with intracellular BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; 10 mm) did not affect current responses, indicating they were not calcium activated. Extracellular application of non-selective SOCs and TRP channel blockers 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB), SKF96365, ruthenium red and flufenamic acid (but not gadolinium) reduced DHPG current and calcium responses. Intracellular application of ruthenium red and 2-APB did not affect DHPG currents, indicating that IP3 and ryanodine receptors did not mediate their actions. Single-cell PCR revealed the presence of TRPC1 and 5 mRNA in most dopamine neurons and subtypes 3, 4 and 6 in some. Store depletion evoked calcium entry indicative of SOCs, providing the first functional observation of such channels in native central neurons. Store depletion with either cyclopiazonic acid or ryanodine abolished calcium but not current responses to DHPG. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the mGluR1-induced inward current are consistent with the involvement of TRP channels whereas calcium responses are dependent on the function of SOCs in voltage clamp recordings. PMID:14622174

  1. Application of confocal microscopy on glutamate-induced intracellular calcium transient in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Geng; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiuli; Wu, Yuxiang; Luo, Qingming

    2006-02-01

    Intracellular calcium, as an important second messenger, plays a significant role in cell signaling transduction and metabolism. Glutamate can induce the intracellular calcium transient through triggering diverse signaling pathways. To test the effect of glutamate to neurons, we loaded Fluo-3/Am in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, and then acquired two-dimensional fluorescent image by confocal microscopy and the analyzed fluorescent intensity. In cultured neurons, we observed two types of neurons that have different morphology: bipolar-type and pyramidal-type. Inducing [Ca 2+] i transient by glutamate, we found the amplitude and time constant of the response curves of bipolar neurons are larger than those of pyramidal neurons. Further, we induced [Ca 2+] ii transient under different concentrations of glutamate. Two different types of kinetic of the [Ca 2+] i transient have been found, corresponded to the two kinds of neuron. The amplitude of [Ca 2+] i transient increased when applying higher concentration of glutamate in pyramidal neurons; while it decreased in bipolar ones. Responses of neurons bathing in calcium-free extracellular solution to glutamate were different from those bathing in normal solution. [Ca 2+] i transient of pyramidal neurons caused by any concentration were totally blocked; while [Ca 2+] i transient in bipolar neurons caused by high concentration of glutamate (500μM) were partly inhibited. All of the phenomena suggest that different types of cultured hippocampal neurons may have different mechanism of the response to glutamate.

  2. Differential analysis of transient increases of serum cTnI in response to handling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelian, Igor; Dunn, Michael E; Mould, Diane R; Hirkaler, Gerard; Geng, Wanping; Coluccio, Denise; Nicklaus, Rosemary; Singer, Thomas; Reddy, Micaela

    2013-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponins are the key biomarkers of myocardial necrosis in humans and in preclinical species. The use of ultrasensitive assays for serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a biomarker in safety studies is hampered by interindividual differences. In this study, we investigated the effect of handling procedures on serum cTnI and explored modeling and simulation approaches to mitigate the impact of these interindividual differences. Femoral-catheterized male Crl:WI(Han) rats (n = 16/group) were left undisturbed in their cages with no handling; subjected to 5 min of isoflurane/O2 anesthesia (A); or placed into a rodent restrainer followed by simulated tail vein injection (RR). Serum cTnI concentrations were assessed over a 24-h period using an ultrasensitive assay, and the study was repeated for confirmation. The mean serum cTnI concentration pre-procedure was 4.2 pg/mL, and remained stable throughout the duration of the study in the rats submitted to the A procedure. Serum cTnI concentrations increased transiently after the RR procedure with a median time to maximum concentration (Tmax), of 1 and 2 h and a mean maximum value concentration (Cmax), of 53.0 and 7.2 pg/mL in the initial and repeat studies, respectively. A population pharmacodynamic model identified interindividual, procedure- and study-specific effects on serum cTnI concentrations in rats. It is concluded that a modeling and simulation approach more appropriately describes and statistically analyzes the data obtained with this ultrasensitive assays. PMID:25505566

  3. Functional role for the angiotensin II receptor (AT1A) 3'-untranslated region in determining cellular responses to agonist: evidence for recognition by RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Thekkumkara, T J; Thomas, W G; Motel, T J; Baker, K M

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a functional role for the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtype AT1A mRNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by stably transfecting the coding region of the receptor gene with or without the 845 bp 3'-UTR. Two cell lines expressing similar levels of cell-surface receptors (with 3'-UTR, Bmax=571 fmol/mg protein; without 3'-UTR, Bmax=663 fmol/mg protein) were used in the present study. Both cell lines expressed high-affinity receptors (with 3'-UTR, Kd=0.83 nM; without 3'-UTR, Kd=0.82 nM), and binding studies with 125I-labelled Ang II in the presence of GTP[S] demonstrated that both coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins. Despite these similarities, significant differences were observed for receptor-mediated cell signalling pathways. In cells without the 3'-UTR, Ang II stimulated an increase in cAMP accumulation (11-fold above control) and in cells with the 3'-UTR no stimulation was observed, which was consistent with previous observations in most endogenous Ang II receptor (AT1)-expressing cells. Activation of cAMP by Ang II in cells without the 3'-UTR correlated with an inhibition of DNA synthesis, determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Ang II-mediated responses were blocked by EXP3174, a selective non-peptide receptor antagonist. We also observed differences in the transient profiles of intracellular calcium between cells with and without the 3'-UTR in response to Ang II. In cells with the 3'-UTR, a sustained level of intracellular calcium was observed after Ang II stimulation, whereas cells without the 3'-UTR displayed a full return to basal level within 50 s of Ang II treatment. Even though the expressed exogenous gene is under the control of a constitutively expressing promoter (cytomegalovirus promoter), Northern-blot analysis revealed a considerably greater accumulation of AT1A mRNA in cells without the 3'-UTR compared with cells with the 3'-UTR. Analysis of the decay rate of the AT1A mRNA in

  4. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher M; Mitchell, James R

    2012-06-19

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  5. Dynamic reorganization of photosystem II supercomplexes in response to variations in light intensities.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Pascal; Manfredi, Marcello; Meneghesso, Andrea; Marengo, Emilio; Saracco, Guido; Barber, James; Morosinotto, Tomas; Pagliano, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms and need to acclimate to ever-changing light conditions in order to survive. These changes trigger a dynamic reorganization of the membrane protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes. Photosystem II (PSII) and its light harvesting system (LHCII) are the major target of this acclimation response, and accumulating evidences indicate that the amount and composition of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in thylakoids are dynamically adjusted in response to changes in light intensity and quality. In this study, we characterized the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes of pea plants in response to long-term acclimation to different light intensities. We provide evidence of a reorganization of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes showing distinct changes in their antenna moiety. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a specific reduction of Lhcb3, Lhcb6 and M-LHCII trimers bound to the PSII cores, while the Lhcb4.3 isoform increased in response to high light intensities. The modulation of Lhcb protein content correlates with the reduction of the functional PSII antenna size. These results suggest that the Lhcb3, Lhcb4.3 and Lhcb6 antenna subunits are major players in modulation of the PSII antenna size upon long-term acclimation to increased light levels. PsbS was not detected in the isolated PSII-LHCII supercomplexes at any light condition, despite an increased accumulation in thylakoids of high light acclimated plants, suggesting that PsbS is not a constitutive component of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. PMID:27378191

  6. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher M.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  7. Transfected Type II Interleukin-1 Receptor Impairs Responsiveness of Human Keratinocytes to Interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Bossú, Paola; Visconti, Ugo; Ruggiero, Paolo; Macchia, Giovanni; Muda, Marco; Bertini, Riccardo; Bizzarri, Cinzia; Colagrande, Antonella; Sabbatini, Vilma; Maurizi, Giovanni; Del Grosso, Egidio; Tagliabue, Aldo; Boraschi, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Of the two known types of specific receptors for interleukin (IL)-1, the function of the type II IL-1 receptor (IL-IRII) is stil elusive. IL-1RII, is alleg-edly devoid of signaling capacity and is therefore thought to act by trapping and inbibiting IL-1. To directly assess the functional role of IL-1RII, a human keratinocyte cell line has been stably transfected with a cDNA coding for IL-1RII, and its responsiveness to IL-1 has been compared with that of nontransfected cells. Parental cells express IL-1RI and are responsive to low doses of IL-1, whereas transfected cells overexpress IL-1RII, both in its membrane and soluble form, and show a dramatically impaired response to IL-1. Selective block of IL-1RII restores the ability of transfected keratinocytes to respond to IL-1, indicating that the overexpressed IL-1RII, is in fact uniquely responsible for their refractori-ness to IL-1. The main mechanism of unrespon-siveness in transfected keratinocytes appears to be the capture and neutralization of IL-1 by the soluble form of IL-1RII. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7495308

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition does not affect the response to exogenous angiotensin II in the human forearm.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, D; Stewart, D; Webster, J; Benjamin, N

    1994-01-01

    Suppression of endogenous levels of angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, may result in up-regulation of vascular AT1 receptors. We have evaluated the effects of orally administered enalapril on angiotensin II induced vasoconstriction in the human forearm. Subjects received in random order, enalapril (20 mg) or matched placebo daily for 2 weeks. Forearm blood flow response to increasing doses of angiotensin II was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography at the beginning of the study and at the end of each 2 week treatment period. Treatment with enalapril significantly reduced plasma angiotensin II levels and supine blood pressure compared with placebo. The percentage reductions in forearm blood flow in the infused arm, in response to the maximum dose of angiotensin II (50,000 fmol min-1) were 48.1 +/- 3.6% at baseline, 57.5 +/- 3.6% on placebo and 54.5 +/- 4.2% on enalapril. The differences were not significantly different. This demonstrates that suppression of plasma angiotensin II for a 14 day period does not enhance the response to exogenous intra-arterial angiotensin II in the human forearm of healthy salt replete subjects. PMID:7893582

  9. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  10. The Mysterious Transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 is an Extremely Luminous Type II SN at z = 0.21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornock, R.; Miller, A. A.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    We report on further spectroscopic observations of the transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 discovered by Yuan et al. (ATEL #1515) and followed up by several groups (ATEL #1524, ATEL #1576, ATEL #1578, and ATEL #1593). We observed the object for 840 s using the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS; Oke et al. 1995) on the Keck I 10-m telescope on 2008 Aug 3.25 UT. Our initial observations of this object (ATEL #1576) showed a blue and largely featureless spectrum, but at later epochs several unidentified weak spectral features appeared (ATEL #1576 and ATEL #1593).

  11. PS II model-based simulations of single turnover flash-induced transients of fluorescence yield monitored within the time domain of 100 ns-10 s on dark-adapted Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Steffen, R; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Chemeris, Yu K; Renger, G; Rubin, A B

    2008-01-01

    The set up described in Steffen et al. (Biochemistry 40:173-180, 2001) was used to monitor in the time domain from 100 ns to 10 s single turnover flash-induced transients of the normalized fluorescence yield (SFITFY) on dark-adapted cells of the thermophilic algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick. Perfect data fit was achieved within the framework of a previously proposed model for the PS II reaction pattern (Lebedeva et al., Biophysics 47:968-980, 2002; Belyaeva et al., Biophysics 51:860-872, 2006) after its modification by taking into account nonradiative decay processes including nonphotochemical quenching due to time-dependent populations of P680(+*) and (3)Car. On the basis of data reported in the literature, a consistent set of rate constants was obtained for electron transfer at the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, pH in lumen and stroma, the initial redox state of plastoquinone pool and the rate of plastoquinone oxidation. The evaluation of the rate constant values of dissipative processes due to quenching by carotenoid triplets in antennae and P680(+*)Q(A)(-*) recombination as well as the initial state populations after excitation with a single laser flash are close to that outlined in (Steffen et al., Biochemistry 44:3123-3133, 2005a). The simulations based on the model of the PS II reaction pattern provide information on the time courses of population probabilities of different PS II states. We analyzed the maximum (F(m)(STF)) and minimum (F(0)) of the normalized FL yield dependence on the rate of the recombination processes (radiative and dissipative nonradiative) and of P680(+*) reduction. The developed PS II model provides a basis for theoretical comparative analyses of time-dependent fluorescence signals, observed at different photosynthetic samples under various conditions (e.g. presence of herbicides, other stress conditions, excitation with actinic pulses of different intensity, and duration). PMID:18937044

  12. Abnormal Adrenal Responsiveness and Angiotensin II Dependency in High Renin Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dluhy, Robert G.; Bavli, Sam Z.; Leung, Frank K.; Solomon, Harold S.; Moore, Thomas J.; Hollenberg, Norman K.; Williams, Gordon H.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin II (AII) and the diastolic blood pressure responses to saralasin were studied in 19 patients with high renin essential hypertension (HREH) on a 10-meq Na+/100 meq K+ diet. The increment in plasma renin activity (PRA) between supine and upright positions was used as an estimate of the acute stimulation of the adrenal gland by endogenous AII; the normal increment in plasma aldosterone divided by the increment in PRA was >3.8. 7 of 19 had abnormal upright posture responses with significantly greater mean PRA increments (24±6 ng/ml per h) and significantly smaller plasma aldosterone increments 47 ± 16 ng/dl) (P < 0.036) compared to the increments observed in HREH patients with normal adrenal responsiveness (PRA = 15 ± 1 ng/ml per h; plasma aldosterone = 87 ± 17 ng/dl). When AII was infused at doses of 0.1-3 ng/kg per min, only patients with normal posture responses had normal plasma aldosterone increments; plasma aldosterone levels failed to significantly increase even at the highest infusion rate in the patients with the abnormal upright posture responses. The AII competitive inhibitor, saralasin (0.3-30 μg/kg per min) was then infused to study the occurrence of angiotensinogenic hypertension in both HREH subgroups. The mean decline in diastolic blood pressure to saralasin in the subnormal adrenal responsive patients (−15 ± 3 mm Hg) was significantly greater than in the normal adrenal responsive group (−3 ± 2 mm Hg) (P < 0.02). It is concluded that patients with HREH are not a homogeneous population; approximately one-third have AII-dependent hypertension. In these patients, the mechanism responsible for the elevated renin and blood pressure could be a compensatory increase secondary to decreased adrenal responsiveness to AII. In the remainder, the high PRA levels have little, if any, causal role in the pathogenesis of the hypertension but could reflect a marker of other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:500810

  13. Responsibility and Responsiveness (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    HEW has become a focus for the aspirations and concerns of our Nation for the income, the education, the physical and mental health, and well being of its citizenry. This report looks to the future and suggests reconception and reform for HEW. Not intended as a progress report, it does review and defend the present structure of the department,…

  14. The Membrane-Associated Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Channel Is the Central Heat Shock Receptor Controlling the Cellular Heat Shock Response in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Zohar; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Saidi, Younousse; Weiss, Yoram George

    2013-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved molecular response to various types of stresses, including heat shock, during which heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are produced to prevent and repair damages in labile proteins and membranes. In cells, protein unfolding in the cytoplasm is thought to directly enable the activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), however, recent work supports the activation of the HSR via an increase in the fluidity of specific membrane domains, leading to activation of heat-shock genes. Our findings support the existence of a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism of HSF-1 activation in animal cells, which is initiated by a membrane-associated transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV). We found in various non-cancerous and cancerous mammalian epithelial cells that the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX), upregulated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70 and Hsp90 respectively, while the TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and AMG-9810, attenuated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70, Hsp90, respectively. Capsaicin was also shown to activate HSF-1. These findings suggest that heat-sensing and signaling in mammalian cells is dependent on TRPV channels in the plasma membrane. Thus, TRPV channels may be important drug targets to inhibit or restore the cellular stress response in diseases with defective cellular proteins, such as cancer, inflammation and aging. PMID:23468922

  15. Transient transfection of purified Babesia bovis merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient transfection of intraerythrocytic Babesia bovis parasites has been previously reported. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of methods for transfection of purified B. bovis merozoites using either nucleofection (Amaxa) or conventional electroporation (Gene Pulser II...

  16. Matrix method of determining the longitudinal-stability coefficients and frequency response of an aircraft from transient flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Pearson, Henry A

    1952-01-01

    A matrix method is presented for determining the longitudinal-stability coefficients and frequency response of an aircraft from arbitrary maneuvers. The method is devised so that it can be applied to time-history measurements of combinations of such simple quantities as angle of attack, pitching velocity, load factor, elevator angle, and hinge moment to obtain the over-all coefficients. Although the method has been devised primarily for the evaluation of stability coefficients which are of primary interest in most aircraft loads and stability studies, it can be used also, with a simple additional computation, to determine the frequency-response characteristics. The entire procedure can be applied or extended to other problems which can be expressed by linear differential equations.

  17. Simulation of coupled bunch mode growth driven by a high-Q resonator: A transient response approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, S.; Bogacz, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    In this article the use of a longitudinal phase-space tracking code, ESME, to simulate the growth of a coupled-bunch instability in the Fermilab Booster is examined. A description of the calculation of the resonant response is given, and results are presented for the growth of the coupled bunch instability in a ring in which all of the rf buckets are equally populated and in one in which several consecutive buckets are empty. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. High-energy response of the PRESCILA and WENDI-II neutron rem meters.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; McLean, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    WENDI-II was designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) specifically as a wide-range rem meter, suitable for applications at particle accelerators, with response extension to 5 GeV. PRESCILA was also designed at LANL, mainly as a lightweight alternative to traditional rem meters, but has shown excellent response characteristics above 20 MeV. This Note summarises measurements performed over a span of 4 y to characterise the high-energy neutron response (>20 MeV) of these meters to several hundred million electron volts. High-energy quasi-monoenergetic beams utilised as part of this study were produced by the cyclotron facilities at the Université Catholique de Louvain (33 and 60 MeV) and the T. Svedberg Laboratory ( 46, 95, 143 and 173 MeV). In addition, measurements were also conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, 800 MeV spallation neutron source, in broad energy fields with an average energy of 345 MeV. For the sake of completeness, data collected between 2.5 and 19 MeV in monoenergetic neutron fields at the German Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility are also included in this study. PMID:18381335

  19. An Intersubjective View of Empathy and Hypnotic Trance: Response to Wickramasekera II.

    PubMed

    Henning, Janna A

    2016-01-01

    In response to Wickramasekera II's description of his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis in "Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy" (Wickramasekera II, 2015), Henning offers further reflections on what empathy might be and what it allows therapists to do, particularly in conditions of hypnotic trance. She defines her intersubjective view of hypnotic trance as an experience in which client and therapist mutually engage in a shared state of consciousness, and a mutual bidirectional or multidirectional exchange of verbal and nonverbal, as well as conscious and unconscious, material occurs, and which may include shared taking on of roles and expectations in each party, as suggested by the other, particularly when both client and therapist are highly hypnotizable. Research on the concept of "mutual hypnosis," or co-trance, is reviewed, and barriers to scholarly discussions about intersubjectivity in therapy relationships are described. Concepts from other disciplines and traditions, including quantum physics, transpersonal psychology, contemplative Christianity, and shamanistic practices and trance in other cultures are then offered to clarify the processes of intersubjectivity, and perspectives about empathy and hypnotic co-trance are offered from the context of the author's own clinical work as a trauma therapist. Finally, suggestions are provided for future research approaches and methods to further explore and understand these phenomena. PMID:26675153

  20. Differential responses of photosystems I and II to seasonal drought in two Ficus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shubin; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jiaolin; Cao, Kunfang

    2016-05-01

    Hemiepiphytic Ficus species exhibit more conservative water use strategy and are more drought-tolerant compared with their non-hemiepiphytic congeners, but a difference in the response of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to drought stress has not been documented to date. The enhancement of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) have been identified as important mechanisms that protect the photosystems under drought conditions. Using the hemiepiphytic Ficus tinctoria and the non-hemiepiphytic Ficus racemosa, we studied the water status and the electron fluxes through PSI and PSII under seasonal water stress. Our results clearly indicated that the decline in the leaf predawn water potential (ψpd), the maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) and the predawn maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were more pronounced in F. racemosa than in F. tinctoria at peak drought. The Fv/Fm of F. racemosa was reduced to 0.69, indicating net photoinhibition of PSII. Concomitantly, the maximal photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) decreased significantly in F. racemosa but remained stable in F. tinctoria. The fraction of non-photochemical quenching [Y(NPQ)] and the ratio of effective quantum yield of PSI to PSII [Y(I)/Y(II)] increased for both Ficus species at peak drought, with a stronger increase in F. racemosa. These results indicated that the enhancement of NPQ and the activation of CEF contributed to the photoprotection of PSI and PSII for both Ficus species under seasonal drought, particularly for F. racemosa.

  1. Characteristics and control response of the TOPAZ II Reactor System Real-time Dynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.

    1993-11-12

    A dynamic simulator of the TOPAZ II reactor system has been developed for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program. The simulator combines first-principle modeling and empirical correlations in its algorithm to attain the modeling accuracy and computational through-put that are required for real-time execution. The overall execution time of the simulator for each time step is 15 ms when no data is written to the disk, and 18 ms when nine double precision data points are written to the disk once in every time step. The simulation program has been tested and it is able to handle a step decrease of $8 worth of reactivity. It also provides simulations of fuel, emitter, collector, stainless steel, and ZrH moderator failures. Presented in this paper are the models used in the calculations, a sample simulation session, and a discussion of the performance and limitations of the simulator. The simulator has been found to provide realistic real-time dynamic response of the TOPAZ II reactor system under both normal and casualty conditions.

  2. Platinum(II) Metallomesogens: New External-Stimuli-Responsive Photoluminescence Materials.

    PubMed

    Cuerva, Cristián; Campo, José A; Cano, Mercedes; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2016-07-11

    New dicatenar isoquinoline-functionalized pyrazoles, [Hpz(R(n,n)iq) ] (R(n,n)=C6 H3 (OCn H2n+1 )2 ; n=4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18), have been strategically designed and synthesized to induce mesomorphic and luminescence properties into the corresponding bis(isoquinolinylpyrazolate)platinum(II) complexes [Pt(pz(R(n,n)iq) )2 ]. Thermal studies reveal that all platinum(II) compounds exhibit columnar mesophases over an exceptionally wide temperature range, above 300 °C in most cases. The photophysical behavior was also investigated in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of the formation of Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt interactions, the weak greenish emission of the platinum derivatives turns bright orange in the mesophase. Additionally, the complexes are sensitive to a great variety of external inputs, such as temperature, mechanical grinding, pressure, solvents, and vapors. On this basis, they are used as dopant agents of a polyvinylpyrrolidone or poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer matrix to achieve stimuli-responsive thin films. PMID:27273696

  3. Intracellular Ca2+ Transient Phase II Can be Assessed by Half-Logistic Function Model in Isolated Aequorin-Injected Mouse Left Ventricular Papillary Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Otsuji, Mikiya; Arita, Hideko; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Myocardial contraction and relaxation are regulated by increases and decreases in intracellular cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i). In previous studies, we found that a half-logistic (h-L) function, which represents a half-curve of a symmetrical sigmoid logistic function with a boundary at the inflection point, curve-fits the first half of the ascending phase (CaTI) and the second half of the descending phase of the [Ca2+]i transient curve (CaTIV) better than a mono-exponential (m-E) function. In the present study, we investigated the potential application of an h-L function to the analysis of the second half of the ascending phase of the [Ca2+]i transient curve (CaTII). Methods The [Ca2+]i transient was measured using the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin, which was microinjected into 15 isolated left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles of mice. The observed CaTII data during the time duration from the point corresponding to the maximum of the first-order time derivative of Ca2+ concentration (dCa/dtmax) to the point corresponding to the peak Ca2+ concentration was curve-fitted by the least-squares method using the h-L and m-E function equations. Results The mean correlation coefficient (r) values of the h-L and m-E curve-fits for CaTII were 0.9996 and 0.9984, respectively. The Z transformation of h-L r was larger than that of m-E r (p < 0.0001). H-L residual mean square (RMS) was smaller than m-E RMS (p < 0.001). Conclusions The h-L function tracks the magnitudes and time courses of CaTII more accurately than the m-E function in isolated aequorin-injected mouse LV papillary muscle. Compared with the m-E time constant, the h-L time constant of CaTII is a more reliable index for evaluating the time duration of the change in the increase in [Ca2+]i during the combination of the middle part of the contraction process and the early part of the relaxation process. CaTII can be assessed by the h-L function model in cardiac muscles. The h

  4. Health as Submission and Social Responsibilities: Embodied Experiences of Javanese Women With Type II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitaloka, Dyah; Hsieh, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    By examining women's experiences with type II diabetes, we explore how illness can provide resources to construct meanings of everyday life in Javanese culture. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants in Central Java, Indonesia, and adopted grounded theory for data analysis. We identified four themes that diabetes serves as resources for women in Indonesia to (a) normalize suffering, (b) resist social control, (c) accept fate, and (d) validate faith. We concluded by noting three unique aspects of Javanese women's illness management. First, through the performance of submission, our participants demonstrated spirituality and religiosity as essential elements of health. Second, diabetes empowers individuals in everyday suffering through two divergent processes: embracing submission and resisting control. Finally, diabetes provides opportunities for individuals within a social network to (re)negotiate social responsibilities. In summary, diabetes provides unique resources to empower our participants to obtain voices that they otherwise would not have had. PMID:25810467

  5. Brainstem pathology of infantile Gaucher's disease with only wave I and II of auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Kaga, K; Ono, M; Yakumaru, K; Owada, M; Mizutani, T

    1998-11-01

    We studied the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and neuropathology in a female infant who died at six months of age because of typical infantile Gaucher's disease. The patient was hospitalized for hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive. Her ABR showed only waves I and II. The neuropathological study disclosed that: (1) Gaucher's cells were found in the perivascular region of the cerebrum and anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus. (2) Gliosis was found in the dorsal part of the brainstem rather than the ventral part. (3) Neuronal cells in the superior olivary nucleus were lost, and marked gliosis was found in the cochlear nucleus. The disappearance of wave III and later waves of ABR could be supported by these pathological findings. PMID:10197147

  6. Campbell Response in Type-II Superconductors under Strong Pinning Conditions.

    PubMed

    Willa, R; Geshkenbein, V B; Prozorov, R; Blatter, G

    2015-11-13

    Measuring the ac magnetic response of a type II superconductor provides valuable information on the pinning landscape (pinscape) of the material. We use strong pinning theory to derive a microscopic expression for the Campbell length λ(C), the penetration depth of the ac signal. We show that λ(C) is determined by the jump in the pinning force, in contrast to the critical current j(c), which involves the jump in pinning energy. We demonstrate that the Campbell lengths generically differ for zero-field-cooled and field-cooled samples and predict that hysteretic behavior can appear in the latter situation. We compare our findings with new experimental data and show the potential of this technique in providing information on the material's pinscape. PMID:26613463

  7. Campbell response in type-II superconductors under strong pinning conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willa, R.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Prozorov, R.; Blatter, G.

    2015-11-11

    Measuring the ac magnetic response of a type II superconductor provides valuable information on the pinning landscape (pinscape) of the material. We use strong pinning theory to derive a microscopic expression for the Campbell length λC, the penetration depth of the ac signal. We show that λC is determined by the jump in the pinning force, in contrast to the critical current jc, which involves the jump in pinning energy. We demonstrate that the Campbell lengths generically differ for zero-field-cooled and field-cooled samples and predict that hysteretic behavior can appear in the latter situation. As a result, we compare ourmore » findings with new experimental data and show the potential of this technique in providing information on the material’s pinscape.« less

  8. Campbell response in type-II superconductors under strong pinning conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Willa, R.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Prozorov, R.; Blatter, G.

    2015-11-11

    Measuring the ac magnetic response of a type II superconductor provides valuable information on the pinning landscape (pinscape) of the material. We use strong pinning theory to derive a microscopic expression for the Campbell length λC, the penetration depth of the ac signal. We show that λC is determined by the jump in the pinning force, in contrast to the critical current jc, which involves the jump in pinning energy. We demonstrate that the Campbell lengths generically differ for zero-field-cooled and field-cooled samples and predict that hysteretic behavior can appear in the latter situation. As a result, we compare our findings with new experimental data and show the potential of this technique in providing information on the material’s pinscape.

  9. Dynamics of stochastic predator-prey models with Holling II functional response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Zu, Li; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the dynamics of stochastic predator-prey models with Holling II functional response. For the stochastic systems, we firstly establish sufficient conditions for the existence of the globally positive solutions. Then we investigate the asymptotic moment estimations of the positive solutions and study the ultimately bounded in the mean of them. Thirdly, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we verify that there are unique stationary distributions and they are ergodic. The obtained results show that the systems still retain some stability in the sense of weak stability provided that the intensity of the white noise is relatively small. Finally, some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate our main results.

  10. Group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors contribute to different aspects of visual response processing in the rat superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Cirone, Jennifer; Salt, Thomas E

    2001-01-01

    Neurones in the superior colliculus (SC) respond to novel sensory stimuli and response habituation is a key feature of this. It is known that both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors participate in visual responses of superficial SC neurones. A feature of Group II and Group III mGlu receptors is that they may modulate specific neural pathways, possibly via presynaptic mechanisms. However, less is known about how this may relate to functions of systems in whole animals. We have therefore investigated whether these receptors affect specific attributes of visual responses in the superficial SC. Recordings were made from visually responsive neurones in anaesthetised rats, and agonists and antagonists of Group II and III mGlu receptors were applied iontophoretically at the recording site. We found that application of the Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (l-AP4) produced an increase in visual response habituation, whilst Group III antagonists decreased habituation. These effects were independent of the response habituation mediated via GABAB receptors. In contrast, modulation of Group II mGlu receptors with the specific agonist LY354740 or the antagonist LY341495 did not affect response habituation, although these compounds did modulate visual responses. This suggests a specific role for Group III mGlu receptors in visual response habituation. The magnitude of Group II effects was smaller during presentation of low contrast stimuli compared with high contrast stimuli. This suggests that activation of Group II receptors may be activity dependent and that these receptors can translate this into a functional effect in adapting to high contrast stimuli. PMID:11433000

  11. Transient and residual stresses and displacements in self-curing bone cement - Part II: thermoelastic analysis of the stem fixation system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M; Nair, R; Burke, D L; Miller, J

    1982-02-01

    In this second part of a two-part report, an idealized model of the stem fixation system is analyzed to determine the adverse effects of the thermal stresses and displacements of bone cement during its curing process. The Shaffer-Levitsky stress-rate strain-rate law for chemically hardening material has been used. The results show that if the cement is surrounded by cancellous bone, as opposed to cortical bone, then transient tensile circumferential stresses in the cement and similar radial stresses at the stem/cement interface are generated. The former may cause flaws and voids within the still cement, while the latter may cause gaps at the interface. PMID:7078115

  12. Feasibility demonstration of a variable frequency driver-microwave transient regression rate measurement system. [for solid propellant combustion response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of a system capable of rapidly and directly measuring the low-frequency (motor characteristics length bulk mode) combustion response characteristics of solid propellants has been investigated. The system consists of a variable frequency oscillatory driver device coupled with an improved version of the JPL microwave propellant regression rate measurement system. The ratio of the normalized regression rate and pressure amplitudes and their relative phase are measured as a function of varying pressure level and frequency. Test results with a well-characterized PBAN-AP propellant formulation were found to compare favorably with the results of more conventional stability measurement techniques.

  13. Simplified methods for interpreting the effect of transfer-function zeros on the transient response of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onken, R.

    1972-01-01

    Two simple methods are outlined for evaluating the effect of transfer-function zeros on the system time response. The pole effects can also be evaluated. These methods are useful for simplified analysis or creating design criteria in terms of desirable regions of pole-zero locations. The type of transfer function studied is limited to those linear systems. Corresponding to ordinary longitudinal or lateral aircraft transfer functions, the denominator polynomial is of fourth order and the numerator of third order at most. With the longitudinal motion of the aircraft as an example, the methods are used in the evaluation of optimal regulator control with respect to a particular performance index structure.

  14. Shallow landslide stability computation using a distributed transient response model for susceptibility assessment and validation. A case study from Ribeira Quente valley (S. Miguel island, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, P.; Marques, R.; Zêzere, J. L.; Marques, F.; Queiroz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last 15 years, several heavy rainstorms have occurred in Povoação County (S. Miguel Island, Azores), namely in the Ribeira Quente Valley. These rainfall events have triggered hundreds of shallow landslides that killed tens of people and have been responsible for direct and indirect damages amounting to tens of millions of Euros. On the 6th March 2005 an intense rainfall episode, up to 160 mm of rain in less than 24 h, triggered several shallow landslides that caused 3 victims and damaged/blocked roads. The Ribeira Quente Valley has an area of about 9.5 km2 and is mainly constituted by pyroclastic materials (pumice ash and lapilli), that were produced by the Furnas Volcano explosive eruptions. To provide an assessment of slope-failure conditions for the 6th March 2005 rainfall event, it was applied a distributed transient response model for slope stability analysis. The adopted methodology is a modified version of Iversońs (2000) transient response model, which couple an infinite slope stability analysis with an analytic solution of the Richard's equation for vertical water infiltration in quasi-saturated soil. The validation was made on two different scales: (1) at a slope scale, using two distinct test sites where landslides were triggered; and (2) at the basin scale, using the entire landslide database and generalizing the modeling input parameters for the regional spatialization of results. At the slope scale, the obtained results were very accurate, and it was possible to predict the precise time of the slope failures. At the basin scale, the obtained results were very conservative, even though the model predicted all the observed landslide locations, in the 23.7% of the area classified as untable at the time of the slope failures. This methodology revealed to be a reasonable tool for landslide forecast for both temporal and spatial distributions, on both slope and regional scales. In the future, the model components will be integrated into a GIS

  15. Rapid Spectroscopy of Elusive Transients and Young Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri; van Kerkwijk, Marten; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cooke, Jeffrey; Yaron, Ofer; Ofek, Eran; Goobar, Ariel; Sollerman, Jesper; Amanullah, Rahman; Cenko, Bradley; Quimby, Robert; Bernard, Stephanie; Pritchard, Tyler; Horesh, Assaf; Arcavi, Iair; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, Andy; Singer, Leo; Wozniak, Przemek; Vestrand, Tom

    2014-08-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) is systematically exploring the optical transient sky. We focus on short timescales to optimize the survey discovery rate of very young supernovae and rare ephemeral transients. Building on the PTF legacy, our new iPTF software pipeline is geared towards automated alerts for follow-up within hours of discovery. Rapid response spectroscopy of iPTF transients will unveil (i) progenitors of supernovae: shock cooling, companion, circumstellar material properties, (ii) origin of recently discovered but poorly understood new classes of gap transients, and (iii) redshifts of relativistic afterglows discovered in seventy square degree searches or even independent of a high energy trigger. These unique physical insights into the nature of the explosion cannot be gained from late-time observations. Here, we request a dedicated iPTF-Gemini program for rapid spectroscopy. We request a total of ten target-of-opportunity triggers on the Gemini-South and Gemini-North telescopes (10.83 hours). The rapid Gemini data will be complemented with panchromatic observations: radio with JVLA and CARMA, UV/X-ray with the Swift satellite and long-term optical/near-IR studies with Palomar/Magellan/Keck.

  16. Electronic and optical response of functionalized Ru(II) complexes: joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Kilina, Svetlana; Tretiak, Sergei; Sykora, Milan; Albert, Victor; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Koposov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the Ru(II) complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge -- a carboxyl group -- needs to be added to one or two of the 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure affect electronic and optical properties and, consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru(II)-systems. In this study, we analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state properties, respectively, of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase and acetonitrile solution. In addition, an effective Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states in all molecules. All theoretical results nicely complement and allow for detailed interpretation of experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes that have been done in parallel with our theoretical investigations. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show that deprotonation of the carboxyl group in the Ru-complexes results in a slight blue shift and decrease of oscillator strengths of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotonated complexes demonstrate strong agreement if the theoretical calculations are performed with the addition of a dielectric continuum model. A polar solvent is found to play an

  17. Transiently Responsive Block Copolymer Micelles Based on N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide Engineered with Hydrolyzable Ethylcarbonate Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Sabah; Louage, Benoit; Nuhn, Lutz; Van Driessche, Alexandra; Van Deun, Jan; Karalic, Izet; Risseeuw, Martijn; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Rycke, Riet; De Wever, Olivier; Hennink, Wim E; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-01-11

    The lack of selectivity and low solubility of many chemotherapeutics impels the development of different biocompatible nanosized drug carriers. Amphiphilic block copolymers, composed of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic domain, show great potential because of their small size, large solubilizing power and loading capacity. In this paper, we introduce a new class of degradable temperature-responsive block copolymers based on the modification of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) with an ethyl group via a hydrolytically sensitive carbonate ester, polymerized by radical polymerization using a PEG-based macroinitiatior. The micellization and temperature-responsive behavior of the PEG-poly(HPMA-EC) block copolymer were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). We observed that the polymer exhibits lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior and that above the cloud point (cp) of 17 °C the block copolymer self-assembles in micelles with a diameter of 40 nm. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy show a dose-dependent cellular uptake of the micelles loaded with a hydrophobic dye. The block copolymer nanoparticles were capable of delivering the hydrophobic payload into cancer cells in both 2D and 3D in vitro cultures. The block copolymer has excellent cytocompatibility, whereas loading the particles with the hydrophobic anticancer drug paclitaxel results in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. PMID:26650350

  18. Transient upsets in microprocessor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. E.; Masson, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of transient faults in microprocessor based controllers are discussed. Such controllers typically consist of a microprocessor, read only memory storing and application program, random access memory for data storage, and input/output devices for external communications. The effects of transient faults on the performance of the controller are reviewed. An instruction level perspective of performance is taken which is the basis of a useful high level program state description of the microprocessor controller. A transition matrix is defined which determines the controller's response to transient fault arrivals.

  19. Containment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Cellular Immune Responses and Protection from Rechallenge following Transient Postinoculation Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rossio, Jeffrey L.; Arnaout, Ramy; Li, Li; Parks, Thomas L.; Schneider, Douglas K.; Kiser, Rebecca F.; Coalter, Vicky J.; Walsh, Geneva; Imming, Robert J.; Fisher, Bradley; Flynn, Bernard M.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Piatak, Michael; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Nowak, Martin A.; Wodarz, Dominik

    2000-01-01

    To better understand the viral and host factors involved in the establishment of persistent productive infection by primate lentiviruses, we varied the time of initiation and duration of postinoculation antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir {9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine}while performing intensive virologic and immunologic monitoring in rhesus macaques, inoculated intravenously with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660. Postinoculation treatment did not block the initial infection, but we identified treatment regimens that prevented the establishment of persistent productive infection, as judged by the absence of measurable plasma viremia following drug discontinuation. While immune responses were heterogeneous, animals in which treatment resulted in prevention of persistent productive infection showed a higher frequency and higher levels of SIV-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses during the treatment period compared to control animals, despite the absence of either detectable plasma viremia or seroconversion. Animals protected from the initial establishment of persistent productive infection were also relatively or completely protected from subsequent homologous rechallenge. Even postinoculation treatment regimens that did not prevent establishment of persistent infection resulted in downmodulation of the level of plasma viremia following treatment cessation, compared to the viremia seen in untreated control animals, animals treated with regimens known to be ineffective, or the cumulative experience with the natural history of plasma viremia following infection with SIVsmE660. The results suggest that the host may be able to effectively control SIV infection if the initial exposure occurs under favorable conditions of low viral burden and in the absence of ongoing high level cytopathic infection of responding cells. These findings may be particularly important in relation to prospects for control of primate lentiviruses in the settings of

  20. Type I Interferon Suppresses Type II Interferon–Triggered Human Anti-Mycobacterial Responses

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Montoya, Dennis; Schenk, Mirjam; Lee, Delphine J.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Chun, Rene; Iyer, Shankar S.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Popper, Stephen J.; Relman, David A.; Stenger, Steffen; Bloom, Barry R.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) are important for protection against many viral infections, whereas type II interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for host defense against some bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Study of IFN responses in human leprosy revealed an inverse correlation between IFN-β and IFN-γ gene expression programs. IFN-γ and its downstream vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial genes were preferentially expressed in self-healing tuberculoid lesions and mediated antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in vitro. In contrast, IFN-β and its downstream genes, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), were induced in monocytes by M. leprae in vitro and preferentially expressed in disseminated and progressive lepromatous lesions. The IFN-γ–induced macrophage vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptide response was inhibited by IFN-β and by IL-10, suggesting that the differential production of IFNs contributes to protection versus pathogenesis in some human bacterial infections. PMID:23449998

  1. Modelling of Dynamic Responses of AN Automotive Fuel Rail System, Part II: Entire System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, S. F.; HU, Q.; STOTTLER, S.; RAGHUPATHI, R.

    2001-08-01

    The computer model developed for calculating pressure fluctuations inside an automotive fuel injector (Hu et al. Journal of Sound and Vibration (submitted)) is extended to the entire fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors, a pressure regulator, pressure damper, fuel pump, and torturous fuel supply and return lines. Since the pressure fluctuations generated inside any injector can propagate throughout the entire fuel rail system, the responses of all injectors are coupled. The presence of a pressure regulator may also affect the dynamic responses of the fuel rail system. In Part II of this paper, formulations for describing pressure fluctuations inside the injectors, pressure regulator, and fuel rails are derived and solved simultaneously. The effect of twists and turns of the fuel lines on the losses of fluid kinetic energy, and that of wave propagation throughout the fuel rail system are taken into account. The computer model thus developed is validated experimentally. Measurements are conducted on a test bench that simulates a real engine with injectors fired in a particular order. The calculated pressure fluctuations inside different injectors and fuel lines are compared with the measured data under various working conditions. Favorable agreements are obtained in all cases.

  2. Continuum electrodynamics of type-II superconductors in the mixed state: The dc and ac response

    SciTech Connect

    Placais, B.; Mathieu, P.; Simon, Y.; Sonin, E.B.; Traito, K.B.

    1996-11-01

    The dc and ac response of the ideal type-II superconductor in the mixed state is analyzed in the frame of a continuum electrodynamics, in which all fields are averaged on a scale exceeding the intervortex distance. The results of previous calculations are brought together and compared, while paying special attention to the role of the vortex line tension and the normal current. The electromagnetic response is studied in the whole range of magnetic fields and frequencies. The possible effect of the normal current on vortex motion is discussed. We argue in this respect that existing theories, where the Lorentz force involves the normal current, are not consistent with Onsager relations. Due to vortex line tension the external fields penetrate into a superconductor as a superposition of two modes with different complex wave numbers (the two-mode electrodynamics). Obtained expressions for the surface impedance should permit one to determine the parameters of the theory from the experiment and to discriminate different models of vortex motion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Individual differences in nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and sex predict transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    McClernon, Francis J; Kozink, Rachel V; Rose, Jed E

    2008-08-01

    Exposure to smoking cues increases craving for cigarettes and can precipitate relapse. Whereas brain imaging studies have identified a distinct network of brain regions subserving the processing of smoking cues, little is known about the influence of individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms on brain cue reactivity. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate relations between individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms and event-related blood oxygen level-dependent responses to visual smoking cues in a sample of 30 smokers. Predictors were self-report nicotine dependence (Fagerström test of nicotine dependence, FTND), prescan withdrawal symptoms (craving and negative affect), and sex. The unique variance of each predictor was examined after controlling for each of the others. Positive associations were observed between FTND and reactivity to cues in right anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) whereas negative associations were observed between prescan craving and reactivity in ventral striatum. Higher negative affect or being male was associated with greater reactivity in left hippocampus and left OFC. Women exhibited greater cue reactivity than men in regions including the cuneus and left superior temporal gyrus. Individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms were uniquely associated with brain reactivity to smoking cues in regions subserving reward, affect, attention, motivation, and memory. These findings provide further evidence that reactivity to conditioned drug cues is multiply determined and suggest that smoking cessation treatments designed to reduce cue reactivity focus on each of these variables. PMID:17987060

  4. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  5. Defect in the sodium-modulated tissue responsiveness to angiotensin II in essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Shoback, D M; Williams, G H; Moore, T J; Dluhy, R G; Podolsky, S; Hollenberg, N K

    1983-01-01

    In normal subjects, dietary sodium intake modulates renovascular, adrenal, and pressor responses to infused angiotensin II (AII). To examine the hypothesis that this modulation is abnormal in some patients with essential hypertension, we studied 18 hypertensives and 9 normal subjects twice--during dietary sodium restriction and during loading. Paraaminohippurate (PAH) clearance was used to assess renal plasma flow. AII was infused in graded doses (0.3-3.0 ng/kg per min). Plasma aldosterone, cortisol, renin activity, AII, sodium, potassium, and PAH clearance were measured at the onset and end of each AII dose. During dietary sodium repletion, eight of the subjects with essential hypertension showed a normal renovascular response (greater than 125 ml/min per 1.73 m2) to AII infusion (3 ng/kg per min). The decrement in renal blood flow in these normal responders (NR) was 168 +/- 10, which was comparable to the range in normotensive subjects (206 +/- 25 ml/min per 1.73 m2). All of the remaining hypertensive patients, designated abnormal responders (AbR), had lower (less than 125) renal blood flow responses to the same dose of infused AII (mean decrement: 84 +/- 11 ml/min per 1.73 m2) compared with the NR and normotensive subjects. Renal blood flow responses to all AII doses were statistically greater on a high-vs.-low salt diet in the NR (P less than 0.001, chi-square) and normotensives (P = 0.004, chi-square) but sodium intake had no effect on this response in the AbR. Basal renal blood flow in NR increased significantly (P less than 0.001, paired t test) with dietary sodium repletion, from 491 +/- 36 (low salt) to 602 +/- 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (high salt), but was almost identical in the AbR on differing dietary sodium intakes (429 +/- 24 vs. 425 +/- 26 ml/min per 1.73 m2). The adrenal responses to sodium intake and infused AII also differed in the two subgroups. In the NR, the adrenal response to AII was significantly greater (P = 0.011, Wilcoxon signed rank test

  6. Transient responses via regulation of mRNA stability as an immuno-logical strategy for countering infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Junichi

    2008-12-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression plays a pivotal role as a fast control system for T-cells and B-cells operating in the defense reactions against rapidly growing infectious agents. The framework of this machinery involves cis-acting elements in the mRNAs of relevant cytokines and trans-acting factors interacting with these elements. The cis- and trans-acting factors enforce rapid mRNA decay with other proteins such as nucleases in the decay machinery. The most prominent cis-element contains A + U- rich sequence (ARE), and is located in the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. Some ARE-binding proteins promote the rapid decay, and others protect the mRNA from degradation. The 5'-end of nascent mRNA undergoes capping which protects the 5'-end together with the cap-binding protein, and the 3' end is protected with poly (A) tail and associating poly (A) binding protein. Unlike in classical drawing of linear structure of mRNA, the end structures interact with each other through a common platform composed of translation initiation factors, revealing the cross-talk of the 5'-end cap structure and 3'-end poly (A) tail on the translational machinery. The rapid degradation and stabilization of mRNA is triggered by a cellular signaling cascade through phosphorylation of associating protein factors in response to environmental stimuli, and a large nucleolytic complex for specific decay reaction called exosome is formed with the 3'-UTR of mRNA through interaction with the ARE-binding proteins. Possible therapeutic agents modifying stability of ARE-containing mRNA are being screened in order to treat immunological disorders. PMID:19075798

  7. Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreiter, Sebastian; Vormehr, Mathias; van de Roemer, Niels; Diken, Mustafa; Löwer, Martin; Diekmann, Jan; Boegel, Sebastian; Schrörs, Barbara; Vascotto, Fulvia; Castle, John C.; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Schoenberger, Stephen P.; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-specific mutations are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they lack expression in healthy tissues and can potentially be recognized as neo-antigens by the mature T-cell repertoire. Their systematic targeting by vaccine approaches, however, has been hampered by the fact that every patient’s tumour possesses a unique set of mutations (‘the mutanome’) that must first be identified. Recently, we proposed a personalized immunotherapy approach to target the full spectrum of a patient’s individual tumour-specific mutations1. Here we show in three independent murine tumour models that a considerable fraction of non-synonymous cancer mutations is immunogenic and that, unexpectedly, the majority of the immunogenic mutanome is recognized by CD4+ T cells. Vaccination with such CD4+ immunogenic mutations confers strong antitumour activity. Encouraged by these findings, we established a process by which mutations identified by exome sequencing could be selected as vaccine targets solely through bioinformatic prioritization on the basis of their expression levels and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding capacity for rapid production as synthetic poly-neo-epitope messenger RNA vaccines. We show that vaccination with such polytope mRNA vaccines induces potent tumour control and complete rejection of established aggressively growing tumours in mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell neo-epitope vaccination reshapes the tumour microenvironment and induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against an independent immunodominant antigen in mice, indicating orchestration of antigen spread. Finally, we demonstrate an abundance of mutations predicted to bind to MHC class II in human cancers as well by employing the same predictive algorithm on corresponding human cancer types. Thus, the tailored immunotherapy approach introduced here may be regarded as a universally applicable blueprint for comprehensive exploitation of the substantial neo

  8. Changes in the protective mechanism of photosystem II and molecular regulation in response to high temperature stress in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qian; Xi, Xiaojun; Jiang, Aili; Wang, Shiping; Tian, Yihua

    2016-04-01

    The response to high temperature stress, which influences the growth and development of grapes, varies between laboratory conditions and ambient growth conditions, and is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high temperature on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.) grown under artificial and ambient conditions. A temperature of 35 °C did not alter Photosystem II (PS II) activity and the expression of some heat-shock protein (HSPs) genes. These changes were, however, observed at 45 °C under artificial conditions, as well as when the ambient natural temperature was greater than 40 °C. Interestingly, these changes corresponded to shifts in PS II activity and HSPs expression. The protective mechanism of PS II was induced by temperatures greater than 40 °C. These data indicating that the expression of HSFA2, GLOS1 and some heat-shock protein (sHSPs) genes were more sensitive to the heat stress. Unlike the Kyoho grapevines, the Jumeigui grapevines showed rapid and dramatically deterioration in PS II activity and the expression of some heat response genes and HSP21, indicating that the Jumeigui grapevines could not counter the heat stress. These were some differences in PSII activity and the expression of heat response genes between the two cultivated conditions could be attributed to other environmental factors, inherent plant vigor, and the adaptation mechanism. PMID:26852109

  9. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes

  10. Time-Resolved Transient Optical Absorption Study of Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes and Their Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers with Zn(II) Ion Couplers.

    PubMed

    Rais, David; Menšík, Miroslav; Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Vohlídal, Jiří; Pfleger, Jiří

    2015-06-18

    α,ω-Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes spontaneously assemble with Zn(II) ions giving conjugated constitutional dynamic polymers (dynamers) of the metallo-supramolecular class, which potentially might be utilized in optoelectronics. Their photophysical properties, which are of great importance in this field of application, are strongly influenced by the dynamic morphology. It was assessed in this study by using ultrafast pump-probe optical absorption spectroscopy. We identified and characterized relaxation processes running in photoexcited molecules of these oligomers and dynamers and show impacts of disturbed coplanarity of adjacent rings (twisting the thiophene-thiophene and thiophene-terpyridyl bonds by attached hexyl side groups) and Zn(II) ion couplers on these processes. Major effects are seen in the time constants of rotational relaxation, intersystem crossing, and de-excitation lifetimes. The photoexcited states formed on different repeating units within the same dynamer chain do not interact with each other even at very high excitation density. The method is presented that allows determining the equilibrium fraction of unbound oligothiophene species in a dynamer solution, from which otherwise hardly accessible values of the average degree of polymerization of constitutionally dynamic chains in solution can be estimated. PMID:25913085

  11. Endothelial cell-specific aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout mice exhibit hypotension mediated, in part, by an attenuated angiotensin II responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Agbor, Larry N.; Elased, Khalid M.; Walker, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Hypotension in aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout mice (ahr−/−) is mediated, in part, by a reduced contribution of angiotensin (Ang) II to basal blood pressure (BP). Since AHR is highly expressed in endothelial cells (EC), we hypothesized that EC-specific ahr−/− (ECahr−/−) mice would exhibit a similar phenotype. We generated ECahr−/− mice by crossing AHR floxed mice (ahrfx/fx) to mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by an EC-specific promoter. BP was assessed by radiotelemetry prior to and following an acute injection of Ang II or chronic treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi). ECahr−/− mice were hypotensive (ECahr+/+: 116.1 ± 1.4; ECahr−/−: 107.4 ± 2.0 mmHg, n=11, p<0.05) and exhibited significantly different responses to Ang II and ACEi. While Ang II increased BP in both genotypes, the increase was sustained in ECahr+/+, whereas the increase in ECahr−/− mice steadily declined. Area under the curve analysis showed that Ang II-induced increase in diastolic BP (DBP) over 30 min was significantly lower in ECahr−/− mice (ECahr+/+ 1297 ± 223 mmHg/30 min; ECahr−/−AUC: 504 ± 138 mmHg/30 min, p<0.05). In contrast, while ACEi decreased BP in both genotypes, the subsequent rise in DBP after treatment was significantly delayed in the ECahr−/− mice. ECahr−/− mice also exhibited reduced vascular and adipose Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression, and reduced aortic Ang II-dependent vasoconstriction in the presence of vascular adipose. Taken together these data suggest that hypotension in ECahr−/− mice results from reduced vascular responsiveness to Ang II that is influenced by AT1R expression and adipose. PMID:21684261

  12. Transient Responses of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Gradual Changes of Atmospheric CO2. Part I. Annual Mean Response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, S.; Stouffer, R. J.; Spelman, M. J.; Bryan, K.

    1991-08-01

    This study investigates the response of a climate model to a gradual increase or decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The model is a general circulation model of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land surface system with global geography and seasonal variation of insulation. To offset the bias of the coupled model toward settling into an unrealistic state, the fluxes of heat and water at the ocean-atmosphere interface are adjusted by amounts that vary with season and geography but do not change from one year to the next. Starting from a quasi-equilibrium climate, three numerical time integrations of the coupled model are performed with gradually increasing, constant, and gradually decreasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.It is noted that the simulated response of sea surface temperature is very slow over the northern North Atlantic and the Circumpolar Ocean of the Southern Hemisphere where vertical mixing of water penetrates very deeply. However, in most of the Northern Hemisphere and low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the distribution of the change in surface air temperature of the model at the time of doubling (or halving) of atmospheric carbon dioxide resembles the equilibrium response of an atmospheric-mixed layer ocean model to CO2 doubling (or halving). For example, the rise of annual mean surface air temperature in response to the gradual increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide increases with latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere and is larger over continents than oceans.When the time-dependent response of the model oceans to the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide is compared with the corresponding response to the CO2, reduction at an identical rate, the penetration of the cold anomaly in the latter case is significantly deeper than that of the warm anomaly in the former case. The lack of symmetry in the penetration depth of a thermal anomaly between the two cases is associated with the difference in static stability, which is due mainly

  13. Time response of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te crystals under transient and pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X. C.; Han, H. T.; Zhang, Z. C.; Ouyang, X. P.; Xu, Y. D.; Wang, T.; Zha, G. Q.; Ouyang, X.

    2012-03-15

    A CdZnTe detector based on high-quality Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te crystals was developed and tested as a monitor in high-intensity radiation fields. The current-voltage measurements were performed using thermally evaporated Au contacts deposited on the crystals, which revealed resistivity of 10{sup 10}{Omega}{center_dot}cm. Typical leakage current for the planar devices was {approx}3 nA for a field strength of 1000 V{center_dot}cm{sup -1}. The test results show that the CdZnTe detector has a fast time response, with a rise time of approximately 2 ns, when exposed to transient and pulsed irradiation of X-rays or electron beams. The decay of current curves is observed and discussed according to charge carrier trapping effects and space-charge accumulation mechanisms. It is suggested that the current decreases quickly with strengthening of the electric field, possibly because of charge de-trapping.

  14. Unique Responses are Observed in Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 and Vanilloid 1 (TRPA1 and TRPV1) Co-Expressing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadofsky, Laura R.; Sreekrishna, Koti T.; Lin, Yakang; Schinaman, Renee; Gorka, Kate; Mantri, Yogita; Haught, John Christian; Huggins, Thomas G.; Isfort, Robert J.; Bascom, Charles C.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are implicated in modulation of cough and nociception. In vivo, TRPA1 and TRPV1 are often co-expressed in neurons and TRPA1V1 hetero-tetramer formation is noted in cells co-transfected with the respective expression plasmids. In order to understand the impact of TRP receptor interaction on activity, we created stable cell lines expressing the TRPA1, TRPV1 and co-expressing the TRPA1 and TRPV1 (TRPA1V1) receptors. Among the 600 compounds screened against these receptors, we observed a number of compounds that activated the TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPA1V1 receptors; compounds that activated TRPA1 and TRPA1V1; compounds that activated TRPV1 and TRPA1V1; compounds in which TRPA1V1 response was modulated by either TRPA1 or TRPV1; and compounds that activated only TRPV1 or TRPA1 or TRPA1V1; and one compound that activated TRPA1 and TRPV1, but not TRPA1V1. These results suggest that co-expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors imparts unique activation profiles different from that of cells expressing only TRPA1 or TRPV1. PMID:24921186

  15. Transient presence of clonal chromosomal aberrations in Ph-negative cells in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia remaining in deep molecular response on tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Gniot, Michał; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Błażej; Lewandowska, Maria; Lehmann-Kopydłowska, Agata; Jarmuż-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) turned this formerly fatal neoplasm into a manageable chronic condition. Therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often leads to significant reduction of disease burden, known as the deep molecular response (DMR). Herein, we decided to analyze the cohort of CML patients treated in our center with TKIs, who obtain and retain DMR for a period longer than 24 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of clonal cytogenetic aberrations in Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) cells in patients with DMR during TKI treatment. The analyzed data was obtained during routine molecular and cytogenetic treatment monitoring, using G-banded trypsin and Giemsa stain (GTG) karyotyping and reverse transcription quantitative PCR. We noticed that approximately 50% of patients (28 of 55) in DMR had, at some follow-up point, transient changes in the karyotype of their Ph- bone marrow cells. In 9.1% of cases (5 of 55), the presence of the same aberrations was observed at different time points. The most frequently appearing aberrations were monosomies of chromosomes 19, 20, 21, and Y. Statistical analysis suggests that the occurrence of such abnormalities in CML patients correlates with the TKI treatment time. PMID:25496750

  16. Neuroprotective effects of selective β-1 adrenoceptor antagonists, landiolol and esmolol, on transient forebrain ischemia in rats; a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Goyagi, Toru; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishikawa, Toshiaki; Tobe, Yoshitsugu; Masaki, Yoko

    2012-06-21

    Although selective beta-1 adrenoceptor antagonists are known to provide neuroprotective effects after brain ischemia, dose-response relationships of their neuroprotective effects have not been examined. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the degree of brain protection against transient forebrain ischemia would be influenced by different doses of selective beta-1 adrenoceptor antagonists, esmolol and landiolol, in rats. Adult male S.D. rats received intravenous infusion of saline 0.5 ml/h, esmolol 20, 200, 2,000 μg/kg/min, or landiolol 5, 50, 500 μg/kg/min. Infusion was initiated 30 min prior to ischemia and continued for 24h. Ten-minute forebrain ischemia was induced by hemorrhagic hypotension and occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries. Neurological and histological examinations were performed. Neurological deficit scores at 1, 4 and 7 days were lower, and the number of intact neurons in CA1 hippocampal region was larger in the rats treated with esmolol and landiolol after ischemia, compared with saline-treated rats (P<0.05), whereas no difference was found among different doses of esmolol and landiolol. These results suggested that selective beta-1 adrenoceptor antagonists improved neurological and histological outcomes following forebrain ischemia in rats, irrespective of their doses. PMID:22583856

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 Deficiency Impairs Host Defense and Proinflammatory Responses to Bacterial Infection by Regulating Protein Kinase Cα Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Sun, Yuyang; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenxue; Privratsky, Breanna; Tan, Shirui; Zhou, Zongguang; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yu-Quan; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Singh, Brij B; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is a nonselective cation channel that is required for Ca(2+) homeostasis necessary for cellular functions. However, whether TRPC1 is involved in infectious disease remains unknown. Here, we report a novel function for TRPC1 in host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. TRPC1(-/-) mice exhibited decreased survival, severe lung injury, and systemic bacterial dissemination upon infection. Furthermore, silencing of TRPC1 showed decreased Ca(2+) entry, reduced proinflammatory cytokines, and lowered bacterial clearance. Importantly, TRPC1 functioned as an endogenous Ca(2+) entry channel critical for proinflammatory cytokine production in both alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. We further identified that bacterium-mediated activation of TRPC1 was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store depletion. After activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLC-γ), TRPC1 mediated Ca(2+) entry and triggered protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity to facilitate nuclear translocation of NF-κB/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and augment the proinflammatory response, leading to tissue damage and eventually mortality. These findings reveal that TRPC1 is required for host defense against bacterial infections through the TLR4-TRPC1-PKCα signaling circuit. PMID:26031335

  18. Differential regulation of mRNA stability controls the transient expression of genes encoding Drosophila antimicrobial peptide with distinct immune response characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Youheng; Xiao, Qianghai; Zhang, Ting; Mou, Zongchun; You, Jia; Ma, Wei-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The tight regulation of transiently expressed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a distinct antimicrobial spectrum and different expression kinetics contributes greatly to the properly regulated immune response for resistance to pathogens and for the maintenance of mutualistic microbiota in Drosophila. The important role of differential regulation of AMP expression at the posttranscriptional level needs to be elucidated. It was observed that the highly expressed Cecropin A1 (CecA1) mRNA encoding a broad antimicrobial spectrum AMP against both bacteria and fungi decayed more quickly than did the moderately expressed Diptericin mRNA encoding AMP against Gram negative bacteria. The mRNA stability of AMPs is differentially regulated and is attributed to the specific interaction between cis-acting ARE in 3′-UTR of AMP mRNA and the RNA destabilizing protein transactor Tis11 as shown in co-immunoprecipitation of the Tis11 RNP complex with CecA1 mRNA but not other AMP mRNA. The p38MAPK was further demonstrated to play a crucial role in stabilizing ARE-bearing mRNAs by inhibiting Tis11-mediated degradation in LPS induced AMP expression. This evidence suggests an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important molecular basis for and effective approach to exact control of AMP gene expression. These mechanisms thereby orchestrate a well balanced and dynamic antimicrobial spectrum of innate immunity to resist infection and maintain resident microbiota properly. PMID:19726583

  19. Differential regulation of mRNA stability controls the transient expression of genes encoding Drosophila antimicrobial peptide with distinct immune response characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Youheng; Xiao, Qianghai; Zhang, Ting; Mou, Zongchun; You, Jia; Ma, Wei-Jun

    2009-10-01

    The tight regulation of transiently expressed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a distinct antimicrobial spectrum and different expression kinetics contributes greatly to the properly regulated immune response for resistance to pathogens and for the maintenance of mutualistic microbiota in Drosophila. The important role of differential regulation of AMP expression at the posttranscriptional level needs to be elucidated. It was observed that the highly expressed Cecropin A1 (CecA1) mRNA encoding a broad antimicrobial spectrum AMP against both bacteria and fungi decayed more quickly than did the moderately expressed Diptericin mRNA encoding AMP against Gram negative bacteria. The mRNA stability of AMPs is differentially regulated and is attributed to the specific interaction between cis-acting ARE in 3'-UTR of AMP mRNA and the RNA destabilizing protein transactor Tis11 as shown in co-immunoprecipitation of the Tis11 RNP complex with CecA1 mRNA but not other AMP mRNA. The p38MAPK was further demonstrated to play a crucial role in stabilizing ARE-bearing mRNAs by inhibiting Tis11-mediated degradation in LPS induced AMP expression. This evidence suggests an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important molecular basis for and effective approach to exact control of AMP gene expression. These mechanisms thereby orchestrate a well balanced and dynamic antimicrobial spectrum of innate immunity to resist infection and maintain resident microbiota properly. PMID:19726583

  20. Interaction among the vacuole, the mitochondria, and the oxidative stress response is governed by the transient receptor potential channel in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Baopeng; Chen, Jiatong; Wang, Hui; Jia, Chang; Ding, Xiaohui; Xu, Ning; Dong, Yijie; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens, causing both mucosal candidiasis and life-threatening systemic infections. To survive in the host immune defense system, this pathogen uses an elaborate signaling network to recognize and respond to oxidative stress, which is essential for its pathogenicity. However, the exact mechanisms that this fungus employs to integrate the oxidative stress response (OSR) with functions of various organelles remain uncharacterized. Our previous work implicated a connection between the calcium signaling system and the OSR. In this study, we find that the vacuolar transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Yvc1, one of the calcium signaling members, plays a critical role in cell tolerance to oxidative stress. We further provide evidence that this channel is required not only for activation of Cap1-related transcription of OSR genes but also for maintaining the stability of both the mitochondria and the vacuole in a potassium- and calcium-dependent manner. Element assays reveal that this TRP channel affects calcium influx and potassium transport from the vacuole to the mitochondria. Therefore, the TRP channel governs the novel interaction among the OSR, the vacuole, and the mitochondria by mediating ion transport in this pathogen under oxidative stress. PMID:25308698

  1. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 Deficiency Impairs Host Defense and Proinflammatory Responses to Bacterial Infection by Regulating Protein Kinase Cα Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Sun, Yuyang; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenxue; Privratsky, Breanna; Tan, Shirui; Zhou, Zongguang; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yu-Quan; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is a nonselective cation channel that is required for Ca2+ homeostasis necessary for cellular functions. However, whether TRPC1 is involved in infectious disease remains unknown. Here, we report a novel function for TRPC1 in host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. TRPC1−/− mice exhibited decreased survival, severe lung injury, and systemic bacterial dissemination upon infection. Furthermore, silencing of TRPC1 showed decreased Ca2+ entry, reduced proinflammatory cytokines, and lowered bacterial clearance. Importantly, TRPC1 functioned as an endogenous Ca2+ entry channel critical for proinflammatory cytokine production in both alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. We further identified that bacterium-mediated activation of TRPC1 was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store depletion. After activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLC-γ), TRPC1 mediated Ca2+ entry and triggered protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity to facilitate nuclear translocation of NF-κB/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and augment the proinflammatory response, leading to tissue damage and eventually mortality. These findings reveal that TRPC1 is required for host defense against bacterial infections through the TLR4-TRPC1-PKCα signaling circuit. PMID:26031335

  2. Benchmark Simulations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Responses during EBR-II Inherent Safety Tests using SAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Rui; Sumner, Tyler S.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced system analysis tool SAM is being developed for fast-running, improved-fidelity, and wholeplant transient analyses at Argonne National Laboratory under DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. As an important part of code development, companion validation activities are being conducted to ensure the performance and validity of the SAM code. This paper presents the benchmark simulations of two EBR-II tests, SHRT-45R and BOP- 302R, whose data are available through the support of DOE-NE’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program. The code predictions of major primary coolant system parameter are compared with the test results. Additionally, the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code simulation results are also included for a code-to-code comparison.

  3. Conceptualization of the predevelopment groundwater flow system and transient water-level responses in Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2012-01-01

    aquifer. Flow directions in the alluvial-volcanic aquifer are variable and are controlled by localized areas where small amounts of water can drain into the regional carbonate aquifer. These areas commonly are controlled by geologic structures, such as Yucca fault. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer generally drains to the center of the basin; from there flow is to the south-southeast out of the study area toward downgradient discharge areas. Southward flow in the regional carbonate aquifer occurs in a prominent potentiometric trough that results from a faulted zone of enhanced permeability centered about Yucca fault. Vertical hydraulic gradients between the aquifer systems are downward throughout the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer is believed to be minor because of the intervening confining unit. Transient water levels were identified and analyzed to understand hydraulic responses to stresses in Yucca Flat. Transient responses have only a minimal influence on the general predevelopment flow directions in the aquifers. The two primary anthropogenic stresses on the groundwater system since about 1950 are nuclear testing and pumping. Most of the potentiometric response in the aquifers to pumping or past nuclear testing is interim and localized. Persistent, long-lasting changes in hydraulic head caused by nuclear testing occur only in confining units where groundwater fluxes are negligible. A third stress on the groundwater system is natural recharge, which can cause minor, short- and long-term changes in water levels. Long-term hydrographs affected by natural recharge, grouped by similar trend, cluster in distinct areas of Yucca Flat and are controlled primarily by spatial differences in local recharge patterns.

  4. Neuropilin 2 deficiency does not affect cortical neuronal viability in response to oxygen-glucose-deprivation and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng T; Jiang, Susan X; Slinn, Jacqueline; O'Hare, Michael; Karchewski, Laurie

    2010-04-01

    Neuropilin 2 (NRP2) is a type I transmembrane protein that binds to distinct members of the class III secreted Semaphorin subfamily. NRP2 plays important roles in repulsive axon guidance, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through partnering with co-receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) during development. Emerging evidence also suggests that NRP2 contributes to injury response and environment changes in adult brains. In this study, we examined the contribution of NRP2 gene to cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury using NRP2 deficient mouse. To our surprise, the lack of NRP2 expression does not affect the outcome of brain injury induced by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in mouse. The cerebral vasculature in terms of the middle cerebral artery anatomy and microvessel density in the cerebral cortex of NRP2 deficient homozygous (NRP2(-/-)) mice are normal and almost identical to those of the heterozygous (NRP2(+/-)) and wild type (NRP2(+/+)) littermates. MCAO (1h) and 24h reperfusion caused a brain infarction of 23% (compared to the contralateral side) in NRP2(-/-) mice, which is not different from those in NRP2(+/- and +/+) mice at 22 and 21%, respectively (n=19, p>0.05). Correspondingly, NRP2(-/-) mouse also showed a similar level of deterioration of neurological functions after stroke compared with their NRP2(+/- and +/+) littermates. Oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) caused a significant neuronal death in NRP2(-/-) cortical neurons, at the level similar to that in NRP(+/+) cortical neurons (72% death in NRP(-/-) neurons vs. 75% death in NRP2(+/+) neurons; n=4; p>0.05). Together, these loss-of-function studies demonstrated that despite of its critical role in neuronal guidance and vascular formation during development, NRP2 expression dose not affect adult brain response to cerebral ischemia. PMID:20036291

  5. Influenza virus-like particles produced by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana induce a protective immune response against a lethal viral challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Aoust, Marc-André; Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier; Couture, Manon M-J; Trépanier, Sonia; Guay, Jean-Martin; Dargis, Michèle; Mongrand, Sébastien; Landry, Nathalie; Ward, Brian J; Vézina, Louis-P

    2008-12-01

    A strain-specific vaccine represents the best possible response to the threat of an influenza pandemic. Rapid delivery of such a vaccine to the world's population before the peak of the first infection wave seems to be an unattainable goal with the current influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity. Plant-based transient expression is one of the few production systems that can meet the anticipated surge requirement. To assess the capability of plant agroinfiltration to produce an influenza vaccine, we expressed haemagglutinin (HA) from strains A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) by agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Size distribution analysis of protein content in infiltrated leaves revealed that HA was predominantly assembled into high-molecular-weight structures. H5-containing structures were purified and examination by transmission electron microscopy confirmed virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. High-performance thin layer chromatography analysis of VLP lipid composition highlighted polar and neutral lipid contents comparable with those of purified plasma membranes from tobacco plants. Electron microscopy of VLP-producing cells in N. benthamiana leaves confirmed that VLPs accumulated in apoplastic indentations of the plasma membrane. Finally, immunization of mice with two doses of as little as 0.1 microg of purified influenza H5-VLPs triggered a strong immune response against the homologous virus, whereas two doses of 0.5 microg of H5-VLPs conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with the heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1) strain. These results show, for the first time, that plants are capable of producing enveloped influenza VLPs budding from the plasma membrane; such VLPs represent very promising candidates for vaccination against influenza pandemic strains. PMID:19076615

  6. Changes in glomerular hemodynamic response to angiotensin II after subacute renal denervation in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, B J; Mundy, C A; Maciejewski, A R; Printz, M P; Ziegler, M G; Pelayo, J C; Blantz, R C

    1986-01-01

    We examined the changes in glomerular hemodynamics produced by angiotensin II (AII) in both normal Munich-Wistar rats and rats which were unilaterally renal denervated (measured kidney) 4-6 d prior to the measurement periods. Measurements of glomerular dynamics were performed in a control period after plasma volume expansion and during infusion of 11 ng X 100 g body wt-1 X min-1 of AII. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient increased from 38 +/- 1 to 49 +/- 1 mmHg in denervated rats compared with a lesser response in controls (from 39 +/- 1 to 45 +/- 1 mmHg, P less than 0.05). Single nephron plasma flow decreased from 213 +/- 17 to 87 +/- 4 nl X min-1 X g kidney wt (KW)-1 in denervated kidneys versus a more modest decrease in control kidneys (from 161 +/- 9 to 102 +/- 5 nl X min X gKW-1). These changes were due to a greater increase in both afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance after AII infusion in denervated compared with control kidneys. Glomerular AII receptor maximum binding was 1,196 +/- 267 fmol/mg protein in denervated kidneys compared with 612 +/- 89 fmol/mg protein (P less than 0.01) in controls with no change in receptor affinity. We conclude the subacute unilateral renal denervation results in renal vasodilation, denervation magnifies the vasoconstrictive effect of AII infusion on glomerular hemodynamics, and the observed increased response to AII after denervation is associated with increases in glomerular AII receptors. PMID:3745432

  7. A dilated cardiomyopathy mutation blunts adrenergic response and induces contractile dysfunction under chronic angiotensin II stress.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ross; Song, Weihua; Smoktunowicz, Natalia; Marston, Steven

    2015-12-01

    We investigated cardiac contractility in the ACTC E361G transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). No differences in cardiac dimensions or systolic function were observed in young mice, whereas young adult mice exhibited only mild diastolic abnormalities. Dobutamine had an inotropic and lusitropic effect on the mouse heart. In papillary muscle at 37°C, dobutamine increased relaxation rates [∼50% increase of peak rate of force decline normalized to force (dF/dtmin/F), 25% reduction of time to 90% relaxation (t90) in nontransgenic (NTG) mice], but in the ACTC E361G mouse, dF/dtmin/F was increased 20-30%, and t90 was only reduced 10% at 10 Hz. Pressure-volume measurements showed increases in maximum rate of pressure decline and decreases in time constant of left ventricular pressure decay in the ACTC E361G mouse that were 25-30% of the changes in the NTG mouse, consistent with blunting of the lusitropic response. The inotropic effect of dobutamine was also blunted in ACTC E361G mice, and the dobutamine-stimulated increase in cardiac output (CO) was reduced from 2,100 to 900 μl/min. Mice were treated with high doses of ANG II for 4 wk. The chronic stress treatment evoked systolic dysfunction in ACTC E361G mice but not in NTG. There was a significant reduction in rates of pressure increase and decrease, as well as reduced end-systolic pressure and increased volume. Ejection fraction and CO were reduced in the ACTC E361G mouse, indicating DCM. In vitro DCM-causing mutations uncouple the relationship between Ca(2+) sensitivity and tropo