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Sample records for ii upper ebro

  1. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  3. A new upper limit to the local population II density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1972-01-01

    An upper limit to the local population II density is derived, in terms of the mass-luminosity ratio, on the basis of U, B, and V photometric observations of several thousand stars with V magnitudes between 12 and 18 in a region near the North Galactic Pole. The photographic and photoelectric photometry and the reduction procedures are discussed. Models of the density distribution and luminosity function of the population II stars are used to predict their distribution in color and apparent magnitude. The derived local density of population II is found to be significantly lower than previous estimates. Possible causes for this discrepancy are considered.

  4. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  5. Sedimentary evolution of the Pliocene and Pleistocene Ebro margin, northeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alonso, B.; Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of the Spanish Ebro margin overlie a regional unconformity and contain a major disconformity. These unconformities, named Reflector M and Reflector G, mark the bases of two seismic sequences. Except for close to the upper boundary where a few small channel deposits are recognized, the lower sequence lacks channels. The upper sequence contains nine channel-levee complexes as well as base-of-slope aprons that represent the proximal part of the Valencia turbidite system. Diverse geometries and variations in seismic units distinguish shelf, slope, base-of-slope and basin-floor facies. Four events characterize the late Miocene to Pleistocene evolution of the Ebro margin: (a) formation of a paleodrainage system and an extensive erosion-to-depositional surface during the latest Miocene (Messinian), (b) deposition of hemipelagic units during the early Pliocene, (c) development of canyons during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene, and (d) deposition of slope wedges, channel-levee complexes, and base-of-slope aprons alternating with hemipelagic deposition during the Pleistocene. Sea-level fluctuations influenced the evolution of the sedimentary sequences of the Ebro margin, but the major control was the sediment supply from the Ebro River. ?? 1990.

  6. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  7. MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

  8. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability on the Ebro margin, western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Lee, H.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of core samples from the Ebro continental slope define two distinct areas on the basis of sediment type, physical properties and geotechnical behavior. The first area is the upper slope area (water depths of 200-500 m), which consists of upper Pleistocene prodeltaic silty clay with a low water content (34% dry weight average), low plasticity, and high overconsolidation near the seafloor. The second area, the middle and lower slope (water depths greater than 500 m), contains clay- and silt-size hemipelagic deposits with a high water content (90% average), high plasticity, and a low to moderate degree of overconsolidation near the sediment surface. Results from geotechnical tests show that the upper slope has a relatively high degree of stability under relatively rapid (undrained) static loading conditions, compared with the middle and lower slopes, which have a higher degree of stability under long-term (drained) static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading, which occurs during earthquakes, the upper slope has a higher degree of stability than the middle and lower slopes. For the surface of the seafloor, calculated critical earthquake accelerations that can trigger slope failures range from 0.73 g on the upper slope to 0.23 g on the lower slope. Sediment buried well below the seafloor may have a critical acceleration as low as 0.09 g on the upper slope and 0.17 g on the lower slope. Seismically induced instability of most of the Ebro slope seems unlikely given that an earthquake shaking of at least intensity VI would be needed, and such strong intensities have never been recorded in the last 70 years. Other cyclic loading events, such as storms or internal waves, do not appear to be direct causes of instability at present. Infrequent, particularly strong earthquakes could cause landslides on the Ebro margin slope. The Columbretes slide on the southwestern Ebro margin may have been caused by intense earthquake shaking

  9. System Characterization of MAHI EXO-II: A Robotic Exoskeleton for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    French, James A.; Rose, Chad G.; O'Malley, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance characterization of the MAHI Exo-II, an upper extremity exoskeleton for stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation, as a means to validate its clinical implementation and to provide depth to the literature on the performance characteristics of upper extremity exoskeletons. Individuals with disabilities arising from stroke and SCI need rehabilitation of the elbow, forearm, and wrist to restore the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). Robotic rehabilitation has been proposed to address the need for high intensity, long duration therapy and has shown promising results for upper limb proximal joints. However, upper limb distal joints have historically not benefitted from the same focus. The MAHI Exo-II, designed to address this shortcoming, has undergone a static and dynamic performance characterization, which shows that it exhibits the requisite qualities for a rehabilitation robot and is comparable to other state-of-the-art designs. PMID:25984380

  10. Global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from SAGE II observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Larsen, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Rind, D.

    1992-01-01

    The global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from the archived SAGE II water vapor data set are presented. For both summer and winter months, vertical profiles of zonal mean relative humidity are derived for each of the six 20-deg latitude bands covering 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Some examples of global maps of upper tropospheric relative humidity are shown to illustrate the relationship between moist areas and convective activity.

  11. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1st M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1st M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. Results: One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1st molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. Conclusions: The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1st molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle. PMID:27011741

  12. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Dynamics of Mediterranean late Quaternary fluvial activity: An example from the River Ebro (north Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Jáuregui, Ángel; González-Amuchástegui, María José; Mauz, Barbara; Lang, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Late Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial evolution of the upper River Ebro (Miranda basin, north Spain) is analysed using geomorphological, sedimentological, and optical dating techniques. Maximum regional crustal uplift of 0.98 m/ka approximately helped preserve a suite of terraces in the Miranda basin: 5 river terraces (T1-5) were identified and their formation attributed to MIS 6 (T1), MIS 5d (T2), MIS 4 (T3), MIS 2 (T4), MIS 1 (T5). Alluvium deposited in terraces T1, T2, T3, and T4 is well-sorted, clast-supported gravels; whereas the T5 deposit is exclusively composed of silt. Gravels were deposited during cold and dry periods when reduced vegetation cover on hillslopes increased sediment supply to the trunk river. Silt was deposited in overbank settings under warmer and wetter climate conditions when vegetation cover stabilised hillslopes and restricted sediment supply. It also resulted in lower peak discharge and reduced flow velocities over vegetated floodplains. The chronological sequence of terraces indicates that incision occurred during climatic transitions. We conclude that the upper River Ebro responded to fluctuations in sediment supply and discharge controlled by late Quaternary climate cycles.

  14. Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary facies on the Ebro continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, J.; Nelson, C.H.; Barber, J.H., Jr.; Giro, S.

    1990-01-01

    Late Pleistocene-Holocene history of the Ebro continental shelf of northeastern Spain is recorded in two main sedimentary units: (1) a lower, transgressive unit that covers the shelf and is exposed on the outer shelf south of 40??40???N, and (2) an upper, progradational, prodeltaic unit that borders the Ebro Delta and extends southward along the inner shelf. The lower transgressive unit includes a large linear shoal found at a water depth of 90 m and hardground mounds at water depths of 70-80 m. Some patches of earlier Pleistocene prodelta mud remain also, exposed or covered by a thin veneer of transgressive sand on the northern outer shelf. This relict sand sheet is 2-3 m thick and contains 9000-12,500 yr old oyster and other shells at water depths of 78-88 m. The upper prodelta unit covers most of the inner shelf from water depths of 20-80 m and extends from the present Ebro River Delta to an area to the southwest where the unit progressively thins and narrows. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic reflection data shows the following facies occurring progressively offshore: (1) a thick stratified facies with thin progradational "foresets beds", (2) a faintly laminated facies with sparse reflectors of low continuity, and (3) a thin transparent bottomset facies underlain by a prominent flat-lying reflector. Deposition in the northern half of the prodelta began as soon as the shoreline transgressed over the mid-shelf, but progradation of the southern half did not begin until about 1000-3000 yrs after the transgression. A classic deltaic progradational sequence is shown in the Ebro prodelta mud by (1) gradation of seismic facies away from the delta, (2) coarsening-upward sequences near the delta and fining-upward sequences in the distal mud belt deposits, and (3) thin storm-sand layers and shell lags in the nearshore stratified facies. The boundaries of the prodeltaic unit are controlled by increased current speeds on the outer shelf (where the shelf narrows) and

  15. Estimated post-Messinian sediment supply and sedimentation rates on the Ebro continental margin, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the extensive data base of seismic profiles, radiometric ages, and stratigraphic time markers such as the subaerial Messinian surface, sedimentation rates and Ebro River sediment discharge can be estimated for different periods and environments of the Ebro continental margin. New values for sediment discharge (i.e., 6.2 versus previous estimates of 2-3.5 million t/yr) for the Holocene highstand are more reliable but remain minimum estimates because a small proportion of Ebro sediment advected to the Balearic Rise and Abyssal Plain cannot be accounted for, especially during lowstands. The general highstand conditions of the Pliocene, which were similar to those of the Holocene, resulted in a low discharge of Ebro River sediment (ca. 6.5 million t/yr) and an even thickness of sediment across the margin that deposited at rates of about 24-40 cm/ky. In contrast, sediment supply increased two-three times during the Pleistocene, the margin prograded rapidly and deposition occurred at rates of 101-165 cm/ky on the outer shelf and slope, but basin floor rates remained anomalously low (21-26 cm/ky) because sediment was drained and broadly dispersed eastward in Valencia Trough. During the late Pleistocene rise of sea level, the main depocenters progressively shifted shoreward and sedimentation rates greatly decreased from 175 cm/ky on the upper slope during the early transgression to 106 cm/ky on the outer shelf and then to 63 cm/ky on the mid-shelf during the late transgression as the river sediment discharge dropped to half by Holocene time. Maximal sedimentation rates occurred in active depocenters of sediment dispersal such as the Holocene delta (370 cm/ky) or the youngest Pleistocene Oropesa channel-levee complex (705 cm/ky) where deposition rates increased by an order of magnitude or more compared to average Ebro shelf (38 cm/ky) or base-of-slope rates in the Pleistocene (21 cm/ky). The sedimentation rates verify the importance of sea-level control on the

  16. Assessment of upper airways measurements in patients with mandibular skeletal Class II malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nayanna Nadja e; Lacerda, Rosa Helena Wanderley; Silva, Alexandre Wellos Cunha; Ramos, Tania Braga

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mandibular Class II malocclusions seem to interfere in upper airways measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the upper airways measurements of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion in order to investigate the association between these measurements and the position and length of the mandible as well as mandibular growth trend, comparing the Class II group with a Class I one. Methods: A total of 80 lateral cephalograms from 80 individuals aged between 10 and 17 years old were assessed. Forty radiographs of Class I malocclusion individuals were matched by age with forty radiographs of individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion. McNamara Jr., Ricketts, Downs and Jarabak's measurements were used for cephalometric evaluation. Data were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by means of SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Student's t-test, Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used. A 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level were adopted to interpret the results. Results: There were differences between groups. Oropharynx and nasopharynx sizes as well as mandibular position and length were found to be reduced in Class II individuals. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the size of the oropharynx and Xi-Pm, Co-Gn and SNB measurements. In addition, the size of the nasopharynx was found to be correlated with Xi-Pm, Co-Gn, facial depth, SNB, facial axis and FMA. Conclusion: Individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion were shown to have upper airways measurements diminished. There was a correlation between mandibular length and position and the size of oropharynx and nasopharynx. PMID:26560826

  17. Inorganic geochemistry of surface sediments of the Ebro shelf and slope, northwestern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Alonso, B.

    1990-01-01

    Distributions of major, minor, and trace elements in surface sediment of the continental shelf and upper slope of the northeastern Spanish continental margin reflect the influences of discharge from the Ebro River and changes in eustatic sea levels. Multivariate factor analysis of sediment geochemistry was used to identify five groupings of samples (factors) on the shelf and slope. The first factor is an aluminosilicate factor that represents detrital clastic material. The second factor is a highly variable amount of excess SiO2 and probably represents a quartz residuum originating from winnowing of relict detrital sediments. A carbonate factor (Factor 3) has no positive correlation with other geochemical parameters but is associated with the sand-size fraction. The carbonate in these sediments consists of a mixture of biogenic calcite and angular to subangular detrital grains. Organic carbon is associated with the aluminosilicate factor (Factor 1) but also factors out by itself (Factor 4); this suggests that there may be two sources of organic matter, terrestrial and marine. The fifth factor comprises upper slope sediments that contain high concentrations of manganese. The most likely explanation for these high manganese concentrations is precipitation of Mn oxyhydroxides at the interface between Mn-rich, oxygen-deficient, intermediate waters and oxygenated surface waters. During eustatic low sea levels of the glacial Pleistocene, the Ebro Delta built across the outer continental shelf and deposited sediment with fairly high contents of organic carbon and continental components. The period of marine transgression from eustatic low (glacial) to eustatic high (interglacial) sea levels was characterized by erosion of the outer shelf delta and surficial shelf sediments and the transport of sediment across the slope within numerous canyons. Once eustatic high sea level was reached, delta progradation resumed on the inner shelf. Today, coarse-grained sediment (silt and

  18. Decadal-Scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone From SAGE II Version 7 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere for 1991 and 1992-2005 and compared with those from its previous version 6.2 (v6.2). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of its ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the time series data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11 yr, solar UV (Ultraviolet)-flux throughout most of the latitude/ altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Several regions that have a response that is not quite in-phase are interpreted as being affected by decadal-scale, dynamical forcings. The maximum minus minimum, solar cycle (SClike) responses for the ozone at the low latitudes are similar from the two SAGE II data versions and vary from about 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km, although they are resolved better with v7. SAGE II v7 ozone is also analyzed for 1984-1998, in order to mitigate effects of end-point anomalies that bias its ozone in 1991 and the analyzed results for 1991-2005 or following the Pinatubo eruption. Its SC-like ozone response in the upper stratosphere is of the order of 4%for 1984-1998 vs. 2.5 to 3%for 1991-2005. The SAGE II v7 results are also recompared with the responses in ozone from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) that are in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure for 1991-2005 and then for late 1992- 2005 to avoid any effects following Pinatubo. Shapes of their respective response profiles agree very well for 1992-2005. The associated linear trends of the ozone are not as negative in 1992-2005 as in 1984-1998, in accord with a leveling off of the effects of reactive chlorine on ozone. It is concluded that the SAGE II v7 ozone yields SC-like ozone responses and trends that are of better quality than those from v6.2.

  19. Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.

    2002-01-01

    This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

  20. The Ebro margin study, northwestern Mediterranean Sea - an introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, A.; Hans, Nelson C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin from the coast to the deep sea off northeastern Spain was selected for a multidisciplinary project because of the abundant Ebro River sediment supply, Pliocene and Quaternary progradation, and margin development in a restricted basin where a variety of controlling factors could be evaluated. The nature of this young passive margin for the last 5 m.y. was investigated with particular emphasis on marine circulation, sediment dynamics, sediment geochemistry, depositional facies, seismic stratigraphy, geotechnical properties, geological hazards and human influences. These studies show the importance of marine circulation, variation in sediment supply, sea-level oscillation and tectonic setting for the understanding of modern and ancient margin depositional processes and growth patterns. ?? 1990.

  1. Searching for the Upper Mass Limit in NGC 3603, the Nearest Giant H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    2009-07-01

    What is the mass of the highest mass star? 100Mo? 150Mo? 200Mo? Or higher? Theory gives us little guidance as to what physics sets the upper mass limit, presuming one exists. Is it due to limitations in the highest masses that can coalesce? Or is it due to stability issues in such a behemoth? Observationally, the upper mass limit is poorly constrained at present, with the strongest evidence coming from the K-band luminosity function of the Arches cluster near the Galactic Center. Here we propose to investigate this question by determining the Initial Mass Function of NGC 3603, the nearest giant H II region. This cluster is known to contain a wealth of O3 and hydrogen-rich Wolf-Rayets, the most luminous and massive of stars. By constructing an accurate H-R diagram for the cluster, we will construct a present day mass function using newly computed high mass evolutionary tracks, and convert this to an initial mass function using the inferred ages. This will allow us to see whether or not there is a true deficit of high mass stars, evidence of an upper mass cutoff. At the same time we are likely to establish good masses for the highest mass stars ever determined. We have laid the groundwork for this project using the Magellan 6.5-m telescope and the excellent seeing found on Las Campanas, plus analysis of archival ACS/HRS frames, but we now need to obtain spectra of the stars unobservable from the ground. This can only be done with HST and a reburbished STIS.

  2. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  3. Flux flow resistivity and upper critical field in ideal type II amorphous superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, S. J.; Wong, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    Flux flow resistivity ρ f and upper critical field H c2 of ideal type II amorphous bulk supercbnductors Zr3Ni and Zr3Rh on both as-quenched and thermally relaxed states have been studied. It is found that thermal annealing does not change the temperature dependence of H c2 in homogeneous superconductors. The temperature and field dependence of ρ f in all samples studied exhibits a universal scaling relation of the form ρ f /ρ n =f(h, t), where ρ n is the normal state resistivity, and h and t are the reduced field and reduced temperature, respectively. The results are compared with predictions of the time-dependent microscopic theories for bulk superconductors in the dirty limit. In the low-field region ( H≪H c2 ) the viscosity coefficient contains both the ordinary (Bardeen-Stephen, Tinkham) and anomalous (Gor'kov-Kopnin) terms. For H⋍H c2 the results agree qualitatively with the theory of Imai with pair-breaking in the anomalous term. Implications of the present results are discussed.

  4. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kenawy, A.; López-Moreno, J. I.; McCabe, M. F.; Brunsell, N. A.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  5. Ebro Lightning Mapping Array: sprite-producing lightning and ground-to-cloud-to-ground flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, O. A.; Montanyà, J.; Romero, D.; Pineda, N.; Soula, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the summer of 2011 a three-dimensional lightning mapping array (LMA) has been deployed in the Ebro delta and surrounding area in eastern Spain. This area was chosen for its proximity to both summer storms over land and cold season thunderstorms over sea, which often produce transient luminous mesospheric events (mainly sprites and elves). In 2011, six of the twelve VHF band (60-66 MHz) sensors were operational, and more followed in early 2012. The area is also covered by LS8000 interferometer and LINET detection systems which provide complementary data. The first flash analysed occurred at the end of the life of a thunderstorm cluster on July 12th and started as an upward negative leader launched by a windmill, growing into the lower positive charge region 3-4 km altitude above the windmills and at 5-7 km altitude eastward, into stratiform precipitation. Briefly, leaders expanded into the upper positive charge region (8-10 km). A downward negative leader reached the ground in the Ebro delta (visually confirmed and detected by LINET). It was followed by two more return strokes and further eastward expansion. The flash lasted 2 seconds and measured 38 km across. LINET and a SAFIR interferometer system did not detect the beginning of the upward flash. Several other complex flashes with horizontal extents larger than 60 km have been mapped since. Other interesting phenomena were observed as well: emissions detected every 3.15 seconds from some of the wind turbines (corona or short upward leaders), suggestive of the blade rotation, and aircraft flying around 8.5 km altitude through thunderstorm anvils showing up as sharp trails of pulses. From July till December 2011 at least 33 sprites were recorded roughly within 150 km from the Ebro LMA. The initial data show the sprites to occur mainly over the sources emitted during the period between the triggering +CG and the onset of the sprite, from ~6-8 km altitude (-15° to -30°C). This activity can be horizontally

  6. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

  7. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

  8. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  9. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g(-1)). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TUsite for water and sediments showed values < 1 for the three bioassays. In both matrices, daphnia and fish were more sensitive to the mixture of pesticide residues present. PMID:26802514

  10. Spacelab 2 Upper Atmospheric Modification Experiment over Arecibo. II - Plasma dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Swartz, W. E.; Kelly, M. C.; Sulzer, M. P.; Noble, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experiment performed on Spacelab 2 over Arecibo to study the neutral gas dynamics of supersonic flows in a rarefield atmosphere and to modify the plasma density by releasing chemically reactive vapors. Exhaust vapor was released at an altitude of 317 km, where the plasma density was 300,000/cu cm. Observations were made with high resolution incoherent scatter radar. A localized depletion formed in the ionosphere. The depletion fell and eventually disappeared within the bottomside F-region ionosphere. The dynamics of the evolution of the depletion are discussed. Optical and radar data are compared, setting an upper limit of 3 percent for the branching ratio to produce O(D-1) from dissociative recombination of CO(2+) and electrons.

  11. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  12. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (Care II) to Study Artificial Dusty Plasmas in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Gatling, G.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Vierinen, J.; Bhatt, A.; Holzworth, R. H., II; McCarthy, M.; Gustavsson, B.; La Hoz, C.; Latteck, R.

    2015-12-01

    A sounding rocket launched from Andoya, Norway in September 2015 carried 37 rocket motors and a multi-instrument daughter payload into the ionosphere to study the generation of plasma wave electric fields and ionospheric density disturbances by the high-speed injection of dust particles. The primary purpose of the CARE II mission is to validate the dress-particle theory of enhanced incoherent scatter from a dusty plasma and to validate models of plasma instabilities driven by high-speed charged particles. The CARE II chemical payload produces 66 kg of micron-sized dust particles composed of aluminium oxide. In addition to the dust, simple molecular combustion products such as N2, H2, CO2, CO, H20 and NO will be injected into the bottomside of the F-layer. Charging of the dust and ion charge exchange with the molecules yields plasma particles moving at hypersonic velocities. Streaming instabilities and shear electric fields causes plasma turbulence that can be detected using ground radars and in situ plasma instruments. The instrument payload was separated from the chemical release payload soon after launch to measure electric field vectors, electron and ion densities, and integrated electron densities from the rocket to the ground. The chemical release of high speed dust was directed upward on the downleg of the rocket trajectory to intersect the F-Layer. The instrument section was about 600 meters from the dust injection module at the release time. Ground HF and UHF radars were operated to detected scatter and refraction by the modified ionosphere. Optical instruments from airborne and ground observatories were used to map the dispersal of the dust using scattered sunlight. The plasma interactions are being simulated with both fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. CARE II is a follow-on to the CARE I rocket experiment conducted from Wallops Island Virginia in September 2009.

  13. Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. II. Triggering, Visibility, and Effect on Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Hα line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 Å with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 Å continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 Å SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 Å shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 Å, Fe IX 171 Å, and Fe XIV 211 Å show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on Hα morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  14. The Role of Type II Spicules in the Upper Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's co rona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view th at the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results fr om coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hy pothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discr epancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions and <5% in the quiet Sun). The red- blue asymmetries of EUV spec tral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR; T< or =0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so coronal heating would be required to maintain the high temperatu res that are seen at all altitudes. The necessity of coronal heating is inescapable. Traditional coronal heating models predict far too little emission from the LTR, and we suggest that this emission comes pr imarily from the bulk of the spicule material that is heated to < or =0.1 MK and is visible in He II (304 ?A) as it falls back to the surf ace.

  15. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  16. Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  17. Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales-II: Soxhlet extraction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Ging, T.; Love, A.; Anders, D.

    1986-01-01

    We report on Soxhlet extraction (and subsequent related analyses) of 39 Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales from the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin, and analyses of 28 oils from the Basin. Because of the influence of primary petroleum migration, no increase in the relative or absolute concentrations of hydrocarbons or bitumen was observed at the threshold of intense hydrocarbon generation (TIHG), or during mainstage hydrocarbon generation in the Bakken shales. Thus, the maturation indices that have been so useful in delineating the TIHG and mainstage hydrocarbon generation in other studies were of no use in this study, where these events could clearly be identified only by Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The data of this study demonstrate that primary petroleum migration is a very efficient process. Four distinctive classes of saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatograms from the Bakken shales arose from facies, maturation, and primary migration controls. As a consequence of maturation, the % of saturated hydrocarbons increased in the shale extract at the expense of decreases in the resins and asphaltenes. Measurements involving resins and asphaltenes appear to be excellent maturation indices in the Bakken shales. Two different and distinct organic facies were present in immature Bakken shales. -from Authors

  18. The role of type II spicules in the upper solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's corona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view that the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results from coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hypothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discrepancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions, <5% in the quiet Sun, and <8% in coronal holes). The red-blue asymmetries of EUV spectral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR;T ≤ 0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so substantial coronal heating would be needed to maintain the high temperatures that are seen at all altitudes. We suggest that the corona contains a mixture of thin strands, some of which are populated by spicule injections, but most of which are not. A majority of the observed hot emission originates in non-spicule strands and is explained by traditional coronal heating models. However, since these models predict far too little emission from the LTR, most of this emission comes from the bulk of the spicule material that is only weakly heated and visible in He II (304 Å) as it falls back to the surface.

  19. Uranium levels in Ebro Delta topsoils (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Roca, N.; López-Pancorbo, A.; Fernández-Sáncheza, R.; Tume, P.

    2012-04-01

    The sources of uranium in agricultural soils can be divided into two main groups: those inherent to the parent material and those produced by anthropic inputs. The use of phosphate fertilizers, the presence of old brown coal mines and a nuclear power plant located upstream from the studied area could contribute to the increase of this radionuclide. Monitoring the uranium levels in these soils is necessary due to the importance of the delta as a rice producing area. The main objective of this work was to analyze the uranium content in the considered soils and in the rice grains harvested in those soils. Soil and rice grain samples were taken in Ebro Delta, at a rice producing area in Tarragona Province, Spain. Top soils (0-5 and 5-20 cm) were analyzed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Soil samples were digested by the aqua regia methods for the determination of pseudototal uranium concentration. The available fraction was extracted with EDTA 0.05M at pH 7 and rice grains were measured by digestion with a mixture of HNO3:H2O (3:2) in hermetically closed Teflon containers and then heated in the microwave for two hours. All the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. The soils had basic pH (8.0 ± 0.2), a low salinity (ranged from 5.4 to 0.1 dS•m-1), a relatively high content of organic carbon (3.2 ± 1.8) and a loamy texture: silt (31.9% ± 14.8) and clay (25.7% ± 13.5). The average content for uranium pseudototal fraction was 0.51 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.25 to 0.95 mg•kg-1) and the average content for available uranium was 0.19 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.02 to 0.65 mg•kg-1). All values for U in rice grains were below 0.0007 mg•kg-1. The uranium content in these soils and rice were in agreement with safety levels cited in the literature. The pH, the salt content and organic matter content become the soil properties that acquire greater importance in the uranium availability.

  20. Hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ebro River Basin (Spain): a view through Li-B-Sr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.; Negrel, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we report hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron and strontium isotope measurements (δ2H, δ18O, δ7Li, δ11B and 87Sr/86Sr) together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain. The Ebro River Basin is mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006. And secondly, the Ebro river along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The main objective of the present work is to characterize the hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters within the Ebro River Basin and to constrain the behavior of Li and B and their isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies with a specific aim to investigate spatio-temporal variations for both Li and B isotopes signatures within the Ebro River Basin. The main goal of this study is thus to determine the sources contributing to Li and B in the river waters of the Ebro Basin, as well as to characterize the controlling factors that can determine the distribution of Li and B and their isotopes in the river waters of the Ebro Basin. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) show that all the river waters have a purely local origin from precipitation, without significant evaporation or water/rock interaction, as all points plot close to the general meteoric-water line. In the river waters, Li isotopic signatures (δ7Li) are comprised between +12.9 and +20.9‰, δ11B values are ranging from +9.9 to +25.0‰ and 87Sr/86Sr are between 0.70786 and 0.70897.

  1. Trend study and assessment of surface water quality in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouza-Deaño, R.; Ternero-Rodríguez, M.; Fernández-Espinosa, A. J.

    2008-11-01

    SummaryThirty-four Physical-chemical and chemical variables were analysed in surface water samples collected every month over a period of 24 years. They were determined from thirteen sampling stations located along the Spanish Ebro River affected by anthropogenic and seasonal influences. The trend study was performed using the Mann-Kendall Seasonal Test and the Sen's Slope estimator. Results revealed parameter variation over time due mainly to the reduction in phosphate concentration and increasing pH levels at the Ebro Basin during the 1981-2004 period. Exploratory analysis of data was also carried out by display methods (cluster analysis), and unsupervised pattern recognition (principal component analysis) in an attempt to differentiate between sources of variation in the water quality. PCA has allowed the identification of the following factors: geologic, climatic and anthropogenic. Spatial and seasonal sources of variation were identified that affect the quality and hydrochemistry of river water.

  2. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain) high frequency radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-08-01

    Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58-0.83 and 4.02-18.31 cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  3. Global change impacts on river ecosystems: A high-resolution watershed study of Ebro river metabolism.

    PubMed

    Val, Jonatan; Chinarro, David; Pino, María Rosa; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Global change is transforming freshwater ecosystems, mainly through changes in basin flow dynamics. This study assessed how the combination of climate change and human management of river flow impacts metabolism of the Ebro River (the largest river basin in Spain, 86,100km(2)), assessed as gross primary production-GPP-and ecosystem respiration-ER. In order to investigate the influence of global change on freshwater ecosystems, an analysis of trends and frequencies from 25 sampling sites of the Ebro river basin was conducted. For this purpose, we examined the effect of anthropogenic flow control on river metabolism with a Granger causality study; simultaneously, took into account the effects of climate change, a period of extraordinary drought (largest in past 140years). We identified periods of sudden flow changes resulting from both human management and global climate effects. From 1998 to 2012, the Ebro River basin was trending toward a more autotrophic condition indicated by P/R ratio. Particularly, the results show that floods that occurred after long periods of low flows had a dramatic impact on the respiration (i.e., mineralization) capacity of the river. This approach allowed for a detailed characterization of the relationships between river metabolism and drought impacts at the watershed level. These findings may allow for a better understanding of the ecological impacts provoked by flow management, thus contributing to maintain the health of freshwater communities and ecosystem services that rely on their integrity. PMID:27392332

  4. Recent Trends in the Ebro River Basin: Is It All "Just" Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Merz, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under pressure from a variety of stressors such as industry, agriculture, water abstraction or pollution. Changing climate can potentially enhance the impact of these stressors, especially under water scarcity conditions. The aim of the GLOBAQUA project ("Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity") is, therefore, to analyze the combined effect of multiple stressors in the context of increasing water scarcity. As part of the GLOBAQUA project, this study examines recent trends in climate, water quantity and quality parameters in the Ebro River Basin in Northern Spain to identify stressors and determine their joint impact on water resources. Mann-Kendall trend analyses of temperature, precipitation, streamflow, groundwater level, streamwater and groundwater quality data (spanning between 15 and 40 years) were performed. Moreover, anthropogenic pressures such as land use and alteration of natural flow by reservoirs were considered. Climate data indicate increasing temperatures in the Ebro River Basin especially in summer and autumn, and decreasing precipitation particularly in summer. In contrast, precipitation mostly shows upwards trends in autumn, but these are counterbalanced by greater evapotranspiration due to higher temperatures. Overall, this results in annual and seasonal streamflow decreases at the majority of gauging stations. Declining trends in streamflow are most pronounced during summer and are also observed in subbasins without reservoirs. Diminishing water resources become also apparent in generally decreasing groundwater levels in the Ebro River Basin. This decrease is most pronounced in areas where groundwater serves as main origin for irrigation water, which demonstrates how land use acts as a local rather than regional driver of change. Increasing air temperatures correlate with increasing water temperatures over the past 30 years, which indicates the effect of changing climate on water

  5. Characterizing the surface circulation in the Ebro Delta using a HF radar data-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Piedracoba Varela, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    One year-long (2014) quality-controlled current observations from a CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar network deployed in the Ebro Delta (northwestern Mediterranean) were combined with operational products provided by a regional ocean forecasting system named IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability. First, accurate HF radar data were used as benchmark for the rigorous validation of IBI performance by means of the computation of skill metrics and quality indicators. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that IBI properly captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation observed by the HF radar, according to the resemblance of circulation patterns and the eddy kinetic energy spatial distribution. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of variability both in time and space. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for the HF radar (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevalent wind regimes in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures by performing a conditional averaging approach. This data-model synergistic approach has proved to be valid to operationally monitor and describe the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology constitutes a powerful tool for improving operational ocean forecasting systems at European level within the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). It also facilitates high-stakes decision-making for coastal management and

  6. Flow regime patterns and their controlling factors in the Ebro basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M. Dolores; Marchamalo, Miguel; García de Jalón, Diego; González del Tánago, Marta

    2010-05-01

    SummaryNatural intra-annual flow fluctuations vary between rivers, being a determining factor for aquatic insects, fish and riparian communities which are adapted to the habitat conditions and different flows throughout the seasons. Moreover, restoration of seasonal flow patterns plays an important role in achieving good ecological status of rivers, through the preservation and/or recovery of components and processes of natural river ecosystems. In this work we: (a) classify fluvial segments in the Ebro basin (North-Eastern Spain) according to the intra-annual variability of flows under natural conditions using statistical cluster analysis of monthly mean flow data; (b) characterise the resulting flow typologies according to several ecologically important hydrological variables; (c) analyse the relationships between flow regimes of fluvial segments and physical variables from their catchments; and finally (d) predict the most probable natural flow regime using logistic models based on the most determinant physical characteristics. Fifteen natural flow typologies were described in the Ebro basin, which were characterised in terms of flow fluctuation through the year as well as timing, flow ratio and duration of the maximum and minimum flows. Precipitation, biogeography and geology of catchments showed the highest correlations with flow regimes. Basin size, mean elevation and slope were also correlated. The logistic model we developed had a prediction success of 72% in the Ebro basin. The definition of the natural hydrological conditions (to which the biological communities are tailored), even when flow data are not available, is an important support in the management of river ecosystems. It is especially suitable for setting goals in aquatic ecosystem conservation or restoration projects.

  7. An Early to Middle Miocene Magnetostratigraphy From the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Perez-Rivares, F. J.; Larrasoana, J. C.; Murelaga, X.; Arenas, C.; Pardo, G.; Cabrera, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Ebro Basin represents the last stage of evolution of the south-pyrenean foreland, which formed since the late Cretaceous as a result of northwards subduction and collision between the Iberian and the European plates. The basin evolved into a land-locked configuration by the latest Eocene when continued compression led to closing of its NW marine gateway. Filling of the basin continued from late Eocene to the late Middle Miocene, leading to the accumulation of a thick sequence of alluvial and lacustrine sediments. In the middle-to-late Miocene the basin opened towards the Mediterranean and river incision cut through the complete Eocene to Miocene sedimentary succession. Nearly undeformed Early to Middle Miocene units crop out extensively in the central parts of the basin and have delivered a long and continuous magnetostratigraphic record. Considering the time resolution achievable with magnetostratigraphy, the numerous studies on the sedimentary sequences of the Ebro Basin provide compelling evidence for stratigraphic completeness and relatively steady sedimentation over the Oligocene-Miocene time interval. The perfect match with the geomagnetic polarity time scale provides a robust and high resolution chronology for the late stages of basin infill, allowing cyclostratigraphic analysis to be made as well as correlation with the various records of regional to global climate change. Noticeably, the Early- Middle Miocene boundary corresponds in the central Ebro Basin with a remarkable and sharp transition from a marly-gypsiferous to a carbonate unit. It represents a significant environmental change from a dry period dominated by a hipersaline water body to a wetter period with rapid installation of an areally extensive carbonate lake. Magnetostratigraphic data indicates that this period of lacustrine expansion is simultaneously recorded in other basins of the Iberian Plate and corresponds to the climatic optimum of the Langhian stage that preceeded the middle

  8. Detection of major river bed changes in the River Ebro (north-eastern Spain)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espejo, R.; Torrent, J.; Roquero, C.

    1973-01-01

    The application or ERTS-1 data to determine the major river bed changes of the Ebro River in northeastern Spain is discussed. Image quality was good enough to permit a clear identification of the river course and bands MSS 5 and 7 proved to be the most useful for this purpose. Reflectance for band 5 was high due to the high sediment content of the water and sufficed to identify the river. Features like bodies of water related to old channels and depressions were only apparent in band 7.

  9. Morphology of the Ebro fan valleys from SeaMARC and sea beam profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; O'Connell, S.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The northern continental slope off the Ebro Delta has a badland topography indicating major slope erosion and mass movement of material that deposits sediment into a ponded lobe. The southern slope has a low degree of mass movement activity and slope valleys feed channel levee-complexes on a steep continental rise. The last active fan valley is V-shaped with little meandering and its thalweg merges downstream with the Valencia Valley. The older and larger inactive channel-levee complex is smoother, U-shaped, and meanders more than the active fan valley. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. High-speed observations of Transient Luminous Events and Lightning (The 2008/2009 Ebro Valley campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Soula, Serge; Romero, David; Pineda, Nicolau; Solà, Glòria; March, Víctor

    2010-05-01

    The future ASIM mission will provide x/y rays detections from space to investigate the origins of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes and its possible relation with transient luminous events (TLE). In order to support the future space observations we are setting up some ground infrastructure located at the Ebro Valley region (Northeast of Spain). At the end of 2008 and during 2009 we carried out our first observation campaign in order to acquire experience to support the future ASIM mission. From January 2008 to February 2009 we focused on the observation of TLE's with our intensified high-speed camera system. We recorded 14 sprites, 19 elves and, in three sprites, we observed also halos (Montanyà et al. 2009). Unfortunately no high-speed records of TLEs where observed in the range of the (XDDE) VHF network. However, we have recorded several tens of TLEs at normal frame rate (25 fps) which are in the XDDE range (Van der Velde et al., 2009). Additionally, in August 2009 we installed our first camera for TLE observation in the Caribean. The camera is located in San Andrés Isl. (Colombia). From June 2009 to October 2009 we focused all of our efforts to record lightning at high-speed (10000 fps), vertical close electric fields and x-ray emissions from lightning. We recorded around 60 lightning flashes but we only clearly evidenced high energy detections in only one flash. The detections were produced during the leader phase of a cloud-to-ground flash. The leader signature on the recorded electric field was very short (around 1 ms) and, during this period, a burst of high energy emissions where detected. Then, few detections where produced just after the return stroke. The experience of this preliminary campaign has given us the basis for the future campaigns where we plan to count with two high-speed cameras and a Lightning Mapping Array. References Montanyà et al. (2009). High-Speed Intensified Video Recordings of Sprites and Elves over the Western Mediterranean Sea

  11. A tentative 10-year sediment budget of the lower River Ebro (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, A.; Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; López-Tarazón, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Dams in the Ebro basin alter flow regime and sediment transport of most rivers in the catchment. This fact, together with changes in land use, results in a sustained decrease of the sediment load since the beginning of the 20th century, with special impact on the sediment load of the lower reaches of the river. The aim of this work is to develop a long-term suspended sediment budget for the river reach downstream the largest complex of dams in the basin (Mequinenza-Ribarroja-Flix, impounding around 1.7 km3 of water). As a first step we have estimated the river's sediment load over a 10-year period based on turbidity and water discharge records continuously measured by the Ebro Water Authorities. Turbidity measurements have been calibrated by means of five-hundred manual water samples collected during all flow conditions (i.e. floods and low flows) between 2002 and 2008. Water samples have been collected 28 km downstream from the lowermost Flix Dam, at the Mora d'Ebre Monitoring Section (hereafter MEMS). Discharge at MEMS is estimated by routing the flow hydrographs from the Asc

  12. Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palanques, A.; Drake, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

  13. Are pesticide residues associated to rice production affecting oyster production in Delta del Ebro, NE Spain?

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Victoria; Riva, Carmen; Faria, Melissa; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez Tejedor, Margarita; Roque, Ana; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barata, Carlos

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide usage in Delta del Ebro (NE Spain) during the rice growing season has been associated with oyster episodes of mortality that occur early in summer. However, there are no studies that have directly evaluated pesticide levels and effects in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) cultured in Ebro's Bays. In this study pesticide levels in water, metal body burdens and up to 12 different biochemical markers were monitored in gills and digestive glands of oysters transplanted from May to June in 2008 and 2009. Biochemical responses evidenced clear differences in oysters from 2008 and 2009. Oysters transplanted in 2009 showed their antioxidant defenses unaffected from May to June and consequently increased levels of tissue damage measured as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and of mortality rates. Conversely oysters transplanted in 2008 increase their antioxidant defenses from May to June, had low levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and low mortality rates. Some pesticides in water such as bentazone and propanil together with high temperatures and salinity levels were related with tissue damage in oyster transplanted in 2008 but the observed large differences between years indicate that abiotic factors alone could not explain the high mortalities observed in 2009. An analysis of recent reported studies pointed out in the direction that in addition to abiotic factors the use of oysters sensitive to diseases may explain the observed responses. PMID:22940045

  14. A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

  15. Modes of development of slope canyons and their relation to channel and levee features on the Ebro sediment apron, off-shore northeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the

  16. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  17. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

  18. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    and the hydrologic response of the basin. This hydrologic behaviour, that is the relation between the hyetograph and the hydrograph, was estimated taking into account rainfall duration (6-8 hours according to historical documents), basin characteristics, soil type, soil land use and cover and the antecedent soil moisture, using SCS Curve Number method. After that, a transfer Synthetic Unitary Hydrograph function and a wave propagation method (Muskingum) were applied to describe the discharge evolution and the water routing into the stream channel. The software used in this stage was the HEC-HMS (USACE). The results of the hydraulic simulation at the Sant Agustí street cross section were the following: a) a maximum water depth of 6.16 m above the original river bed, b) a mean water velocity of about 2 m•s-1, c) a peak flow of 996 m3•s-1 (increased by 480 m3•s-1 from the Cercavins River downstream Tàrrega), and d) a specific peak discharge of the event of 6.6 m3•s-1•km-2, which exceeds the values of the 500-year return period floods compiled from the Ebro drainage basin systematic database. From the information obtained in the flooded cellars, the sediment concentration during the peak flow was estimated in 11.2% (in volume), characteristic of a hyperconcentrated flow. The water level reached in the abovepresented cross section is partly explained by the recently discovered Sant Agustí Bridge, buried until now in the river bed. The results of the hydrologic modelling were: a) a surface runoff total volume of 12 hm3, b) a runoff coefficient of about 35.5%, c) a lagtime of 2.5-3 hours, and d) if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was low (situation I), a total rainfall of 225 mm with a peak intensity higher than 100 mm•h-1 is needed; if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was medium (situation II), a total rainfall of 156 mm with a peak intensity of about 70 mm•h-1 occurs. Rainfall values for medium previous moisture

  19. Chronology of the Final Marine Regression in the Eastern Ebro Basin: Late Eocene to Early Oligocene Tectonosedimentary Evolution. (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Garces, M.; Saez, A.; Lopez-Blanco, M.; Beamud, E.; Gomez-Paccard, M.; Cabrera, L.

    2007-12-01

    The Ebro Basin is a triangular shaped foreland basin surrounded by three alpine ranges: the Pyrenees to the north, the Iberian Range to the SW and the Catalan Coastal Range to the SE. During the early Paleocene started the development of the Ebro Basin by flexural subsidence related to the growth of its margins as a consequence of the continental collision of Iberia and Europe. Connection of the Ebro Basin with the open sea was maintained until late Eocene, when ongoing convergence along the Pyrenean margin lead to the final closure of its western connection with the Atlantic Ocean. Since then, a long endorheic period of uninterrupted continental sedimentation leads to the accumulation of a thick sequence composed by alluvial and lacustrine facies. In foreland basins, tectonics plays a fundamental role in the sedimentation, by generating relief in the margins and accommodation space in the basin. Therefore, it is generally assumed that the main sedimentary breaks have a tectonic origin. The tectonic control on the sedimentation has been successfully established along the margins of the Ebro Basin through the study of the geometries of the syntectonic sediments. However, away from the margins, in distal alluvial and lacustrine environments some other factors related to the climate can also exert control on the sedimentation. In order to interpret the sedimentary record of the Ebro Basin in terms of tectonosedimentary and paleoclimatic evolution, we have sampled two magnetostratigraphic sections (1000 m and 600 m, thick) on Eocene-Oligocene continental sequences. Samples were collected at 2-5 m stratigraphic intervals. Stepwise thermal demagnetisation of the NRM of up to 2 samples per site has yielded a local magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Unambiguous correlation with the geomagnetic polarity time scale was feasible based on the presence of late Eocene to early Oligocene mammal fossil localities and previous magnetostratigraphic studies spanning the complete

  20. Factors controlling late Cenozoic continental margin growth from the Ebro Delta to the western Mediterranean deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin sedimentation system originated with a Messinian fluvial system. This system eroded both a major subaerial canyon cutting the margin southeastward from the present Ebro Delta and an axial valley that drained northeastward down Valencia Trough. Post-Messinian submergence of this topography and the Pliocene regime of high sea levels resulted in a marine hemipelagic drape over the margin. Late Pliocene to Pleistocene glacial climatic cycles, drainagebasin deforestation, and sea-level lowstands combined to increase sediment supply, cause the margin to prograde, and create a regime of lowstand sediment-gravity flows in the deeper margin. The depositional patterns of regressive, transgressive and highstand sea-level regimes suggest that location of the sediment source near the present Ebro Delta throughout the late Cenozoic, southward current advection of sediment, and greater subsidence in the southern margin combined to cause generally asymmetric progradation of the margin to the southeast. Thicker, less stable deposits filling the Messinian subaerial canyon underwent multiple retrograde failures, eroded wide gullied canyons and formed unchanneled base-of-slope sediment aprons in the central margin area; other margin areas to the north and south developed a series of channel-levee complexes. On the basin floor, the formation of Valencia Valley over the Messinian subaerial valley and earlier faults led to draining of about 20% of the Ebro Pleistocene sediment from channel-levee complexes through the valley to prograde Valencia Fan as much as 500 km northeast of the margin. Thus, the Ebro margin has two growth directions, mainly southeastward during higher sea levels, and eastward to northeastward during lower sea levels. The northeastward draining of turbidity currents has produced unusually thin and widely dispersed turbidite systems compared to those on ponded basin floors. During the past few centuries, man's impact has exceeded natural

  1. [Miranda de Ebro: Medical condition of the concentration camp in the autumn of 1943].

    PubMed

    Héraut, Louis-Armand

    2008-01-01

    Georges Morin's thesis (Algiers January 4 1944) allows to understand the sanitary conditions of the refugee camp at Miranda De Ebro (Spain) in the fall 1943. To avoid the Nazi occupation and the Obligatory Work Service in Germany 18,000 French got in Spain in 1943 and 10,000 including 39 physicians came through Miranda. The French were the majority and they created a Health Service separate from the official Spanish Health Service. The general dirtiness, the lack of water, the rudimentary conditions of lodging, the inadequacy and imbalance of food provoked two diseases among the young men: scabies and the so-called "mirandite" that is to say all the diarrheic diseases in the camp. Despite hard conditions of living the death rate in the camp remained smaller than crossing the Pyrenees from France where the danger threatened the escaped men. PMID:19230323

  2. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  3. Tradeoffs in river restoration: Flushing flows vs. hydropower generation in the Lower Ebro River, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Carlos M.; Pérez-Blanco, C. Dionisio; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-10-01

    Although the effectiveness of flushing floods in restoring basic environmental functions in highly engineered rivers has been extensively tested, the opportunity cost is still considered to represent an important limitation to putting these actions into practice. In this paper, we present a two-stage method for the assessment of the opportunity cost of the periodical release of flushing flows in the lower reaches of rivers with regimes that are basically controlled by a series of dams equipped with hydropower generation facilities. The methodology is applied to the Lower Ebro River in Spain. The results show that the cost of the reduced power generation resulting from the implementation of flushing floods is lower than the observed willingness to pay for river restoration programmes.

  4. Analysis of the major floods in the Ebro River basin (Iberian Peninsula) since 1600 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles Balasch, Josep; Monserrate, Adrián; Sánchez, Alberto; Abellà, Andreu; Tuset, Jordi; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Barriendos, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The magnitude and main characteristics of the major floods of the Ebro River in the last 400 years, one of the most important rivers in the Western Mediterranean, have been reconstructed at several locations along the river system. The reconstruction of each flood peak flow was possible thanks to the previous collection of historical accounts, limnimarks (flood marks) and old maps and sketches with information of flooded sections and areas. Then, for each event, an iterative hydraulic simulation method with a one-dimensional hydraulic model (HEC- RAS) was applied to a DTM of the bed and floodplain morphologies. The roughness coefficients were estimated from present and historical information. To reduce the uncertainty of the hydraulic simulation, models were calibrated with present-day, gauged flows. Nevertheless, the uncertainty of some crucial variables was also evaluated. The Ebro flows from West to East and can, thus, be divided into two major catchments: the Western sub-basin, which gathers water from the Western Pyrenees and the Iberian Range down to Zaragoza (40,400 km2); and the Eastern sub-basin, the Segre-Cinca river system (22,800 km2), which drains the Central Pyrenees. Our objective is to reconstruct major floods in both sub-basins in order to assess how they propagated along the river down to Xerta, a village located near the outlet with a very rich flood record. Results for the studied period (1600-2013 AD) show a total of 9 major floods that exceeded 4000 m3·s-1 at Xerta . From a time point of view, a more intense flooding period is noticeable during the second half of the 19th Century, and a clear reduction appears in the second half of the 20th century due to the construction of reservoirs. The heaviest flood of this period was in October 1787, with a maximum peak discharge of 13,000 m3·s-1 (0.16 m3·s-1·km-2); this value is of the same order of magnitude than the greatest floods in other Mediterranean and European rivers of similar

  5. Resonance line transfer with partial redistribution. IV - A generalized formulation for lines with common upper states. V - The solar Ca II lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkey, R. W.; Shine, R. A.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized formulation is given for treating partial redistribution effects in transfer problems in resonance lines with common upper states. The formulation allows explicitly for the possibility that several spectral lines may arise in transitions from a given upper level to several sharp lower levels, including, for example, the ground state and metastable states. Line profiles for the Ca II H and K lines have been calculated, accounting for the partial frequency coherence of scattered photons. These profiles are compared with calculations made with identical atomic and atmospheric models but assuming complete redistribution. Very significant differences between the profiles obtained using these two different physical descriptions of the scattering process are found, and it is now apparent that the assumption of complete redistribution is a serious oversimplification of the actual physical situation. The results question the validity of equating brightness temperatures observed at K(sub 1) in stellar spectra with minimum temperatures in stellar chromospheres; it appears likely that such a procedure will systematically underestimate the value of T-min.

  6. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  7. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. Middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which determines a low plant cover and high soil erodibility of the soils, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of a moderate heating, on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm soil depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE-Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 °C and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm soil depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower SOM and SAS and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly EC in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P < 0.01) in the splash erosion rates. The size of pores is reduced by heating treatment or fire effect, as derived from variations in pF.

  8. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability (SAS) and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However, heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly the soil salinity (EC) in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P < 0.01) in the splash erosion rates. The size of pores is reduced by heating, as derived from variations in soil water retention capacity.

  9. Presence of pyrethroid pesticides in water and sediments of Ebro River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feo, M. L.; Ginebreda, A.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe distribution of pyrethroid insecticides of the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain) was assessed by measuring concentrations in surface water and sediment samples. Pyrethroid extraction from water was carried out by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE), while the sediment was sonicated and cleaned up using Florisil cartridge. Method detection of limits (MLODs) for the 12 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L -1 for water and 2.6 to 62.4 pg g -1 for sediment. Recoveries values were in the range of 47-105% for water and 51-105% for sediments, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water and sediment samples. Cypermethrin was detected in 22 water samples collected from Ebro River Delta, while deltamethrin was present only in three water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.73 ng L -1 to 57.2 ng L -1 and 2 ng L -1 to 58.8 ng L -1 for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. These concentration levels were higher than median lethal concentration (LC50) values found for deltamethrin and lower than LC50 values found for cypermethrin when short time toxic effects are considered. In sediment samples only cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranged from 8.27 ng g -1 to 71.9 ng g -1. These levels were higher than its LC50 values. Environmental dynamic behaviour and fate were also evaluated for cypermethrin measuring the sediment/water partition coefficient (ranging from 5.0 to 6.3) and kinetic data (half-life ranging between 13 and 50 days). Results were in good agreement to those reported in literature

  10. Channel morphodynamics and habitat recovery in a river reach affected by gravel-mining (River Ésera, Ebro basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tarazon, J. A.; Lobera, G.; Andrés-Doménech, I.; Martínez-Capel, F.; Muñoz-Mas, R.; Vallés, F.; Tena, A.; Vericat, D.; Batalla, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Physical processes in rivers are the result of the interaction between flow regime and hydraulics, morphology, sedimentology and sediment transport. The frequency and magnitude of physical disturbance (i.e. bed stability) control habitat integrity and, consequently, ecological diversity of a particular fluvial system. Most rivers experience human-induced perturbations that alter such hydrosedimentary equilibrium, thus affecting the habitat of aquatic species. A dynamic balance may take long time to be newly attained. Within this context, gravel mining is well known to affect channel characteristics mostly at the local scale, but its effect may also propagate downstream and upstream. Sedimentary forms are modified during extraction and habitat features are reduced or even eliminated. Effects tend to be most acute in contrasted climatic environments, such as the Mediterranean areas, in which climatic and hydrological variability maximises effects of impacts and precludes short regeneration periods. Present research focuses on the evolution of a river reach, which has experienced an intense gravel extraction. The selected area is located in the River Ésera (Ebro basin), where interactions between morphodynamics and habitat recovery are examined. Emphasis is put on monitoring sedimentary, morphological and hydraulic variables to later compare pre (t0) and post (t1, t2... tn) extraction situations. Methodology for all time monitoring steps (i.e. ti) includes: i) characterization of grain size distribution at all of the different hydromorphological units within the reach; ii) description of channel morphology (together with changes before and after floods) by means of close-range aerial photographs, which are taken with a digital camera attached to a 1m3 helium balloon (i.e. BLIMP); and iii) determination of flow parameters from 2D hydraulic modelling that is based on detailed topographical data obtained from Leica® GNSS/GPS and robotic total station, and River

  11. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of habitat change in anthropogenically impacted coastal wetlands of the Ebro Delta (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Benito, Xavier; Trobajo, Rosa; Ibáñez, Carles; Cearreta, Alejandro; Brunet, Manola

    2015-12-15

    Present-day habitats of the Ebro Delta, NE Iberian Peninsula, have been ecologically altered as a consequence of intensive human impacts in the last two centuries (especially rice farming). Benthic foraminiferal palaeoassemblages and sediment characteristics of five short cores were used to reconstruct past wetland habitats, through application of multivariate DCA and CONISS techniques, and dissimilarity coefficients (SCD). The timing of environmental changes was compared to known natural and anthropogenic events in order to identify their possible relationships. In deltaic wetlands under altered hydrological conditions, we found a decrease in species diversity and calcareous-dominated assemblages, and a significant positive correlation between microfaunal changes and organic matter content. Modern analogues supported palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the recent evolution of the Delta wetlands. This research provides the first recent reconstruction of change in the Ebro Delta wetlands, and also illustrates the importance of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring present and future conditions in Mediterranean deltas. PMID:26563545

  12. Near-Inertial Internal Waves: a Mechanism to Maintain a Permanent Bottom Nepheloid Layer on the Ebro Shelf (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, A.; Puig, P.; Guillen, J.

    2002-12-01

    In the Ebro delta continental shelf activity of near-inertial waves (17 h period) was recorded by a current meter with turbidimeter deployed 5 m above the bottom at 60 m depth. Between 60 m depth and the shelf break this shelf has very gentle slopes of 0.1° or less and coincides with the range of estimated angles of propagation of near-inertial internal waves energy of this region (θ ; from 0.05 to 0.15°). Data from a closely-spaced grid of CTD+T+F stations in the Ebro shelf show a permanent bottom nepheloid layer extending from about 50-60 m depth to the shelf break, coinciding with the zone where the shelf gradient fits with θ . The development of this mid-to-outer shelf nepheloid layer maintains similar during the year independently from storms and river avenues events and can remain isolated within or underneath the thermocline. These facts suggest that the repetitive action of near-inertial internal waves maintain this mid-to-outer shelf nepheloid layer during the year. Internal waves could contribute to distribute and maintain suspended sediment near the bottom in the mid and outer part of the Ebro shelf. This mechanism could be affecting other Mediterranean continental shelves and could explain similar nepheloid layer distributions found in other Mediterranean prodeltaic systems.

  13. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  14. Factors Influencing Goal Attainment in Patients with Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Following Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A in Real-Life Clinical Practice: Sub-Analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Fheodoroff, Klemens; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS). Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001), contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS]) (p = 0.006) and spasticity (p = 0.02) than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001), contracture (p < 0.0001), spasticity (p < 0.001) and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001). Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01) with more contractures (p = 0.008). The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year) vs. longer-term (>1 year)) post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2%) or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%), although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment. PMID:25856546

  15. Sedimentary record of Pleistocene paleodoline evolution in the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzón, A.; Pérez, A.; Soriano, M. A.; Pocoví, A.

    2008-03-01

    Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the Ebro River, in NE Spain, are widely affected by faults, fractures and tilting of beds. Based on the lithological, geometrical and textural features of these deposits, seven architectural elements have been differentiated. Gravel Bars (GB), Gravel-filled Channels (CH), Sheets and Channel-fill Sands (SB), are the most common elements and, together with less frequent Overbank Fines (FF), characterize a gravel-dominated braided fluvial system. Gravel Lobes (GL) that draw progressive unconformities and are laterally related to U-shaped or basin-form mud deposits, Sediment Gravity Flow deposits (SG), and Sands with Slumps and Convolute Bedding (SGS), are not typical architectural elements of braided fluvial environments and they are interpreted in this work as related to syn-sedimentary deformation. Our research proves that deformation is due to dissolution of the underlying Tertiary evaporites with genesis of dolines. The development of these karst structures involved both subsidence and sudden collapses that affected previous fluvial sediments. Small depressions (dolines) generated that were progressively filled by syn-sedimentary deformed detrital deposits. A model for the evolution of the doline fills is purposed that envisages several stages: 1) gravitational processes caused remobilisation of previous fluvial gravels that were dragged to the created depression, 2) flooding of the depression and development of a backswamp area that was progressively filled by fine sediments and gravel lobes as a consequence of the overflow of nearby channels, 3) gravel lobes draw progressive unconformities revealing several subsidence episodes related to dissolution, dragging and compaction, 4) non-deformed fluvial facies at the top of the series mark the end of the karstification influence. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminiscence) ages, the first from the terraces of the Ebro River, demonstrate that karst has developed in this area at least since

  16. Comparison of three statistical downscaling methods for precipitation in the Hérault and Ebro catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Sylvain; Vrac, Mathieu; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the GICC project "REMedHE" (http://www.remedhe.org) is to evaluate and compare the evolution of water supply capacity under climatic and anthropogenic changes by 2050 on two Mediterranean catchments: the Hérault (South of France) and the Ebro (North East of Spain) catchments. Indeed, the Mediterranean region has been identified as a "hot spot" of climate change, especially for precipitation which is expected to globally decrease while water needs should continue to increase. To perform such a study, it is then necessary to simulate future water flows with hydrological models fed by high-resolution precipitation data representative of the future climate. To generate high-resolution climate simulations, three different statistical downscaling approaches have been applied. The first one consists in a deterministic transfer function based on a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). The second method involves a Stochastic Weather Generator (SWG), simulating local values from probability density functions conditioned by large-scale predictors. The third approach belongs to the "Model Output Statistics" (MOS) family, in bias correcting the large-scale distributions with respect to the local-scale ones, through the Cumulative Distribution Function transform CDFt approach. These statistical downscaling models were calibrated and cross-validated using the SAFRAN dataset (for Hérault catchment), a dataset compiled by HydroSciences Montpellier (for Ebro catchment) as local-scale reference and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis outputs as predictors, over two time periods 1959-1984 and 1985-2010. Cross-validation analysis shows that the inter-annual variability of the yearly sum of precipitation from GAM is close to that from SAFRAN. However, daily variability and occurrence frequency are badly represented by GAM. On the opposite, SWG and one version of CDFt allow both the inter-annual and

  17. Late Holocene evolution of playa lakes in the central Ebro depression based on geophysical surveys and morpho-stratigraphic analysis of lacustrine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Desir, G.; González-Sampériz, P.; Gutiérrez, M.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Moreno, A.; Guerrero, J.; Roqué, C.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.

    2013-08-01

    The origin and morpho-stratigraphic evolution of the largest playa-lake system (La Playa-El Pueyo) in the Bujaraloz-Sástago endorheic area, located in the semiarid central sector of the Ebro Depression, are analysed. The enclosed depressions are developed on gypsiferous Tertiary bedrock and show a prevalent WNW-ESE orientation parallel to the direction of the prevalent strong local wind (Cierzo). Yardangs have been carved in bedrock and unconsolidated terrace deposits in the leeward sector of the largest lake basins. A sequence of three lacustrine terrace levels has been identified by detailed geomorphological mapping. The treads of the upper, middle and lower terrace levels are situated at + 9 m, + 6 m and + 0.5 m above the playa-lake floors, respectively. Seismic refraction and electrical resistivity profiles acquired in La Playa reveal a thin basin fill (~ 2 m) with a planar base. These data allow ruling out the genetic hypothesis for the depressions involving the collapse of large bedrock cavities and support a mixed genesis of combined widespread dissolution and subsidence by groundwater discharge and eolian deflation during dry periods. The 5 m thick deposit of the middle terrace was investigated in hand-dug and backhoe trenches. Six AMS radiocarbon ages from this terrace indicate an aggradation phase between 3.9 ka and ca. 2 ka. These numerical ages yield a maximum average aggradation rate of 2.6 mm/yr and a minimum excavation rate by wind deflation of 3 mm/yr subsequent to the accumulation of the middle terrace. The latter figure compares well with those calculated in several arid regions of the world using yardangs carved in palaeolake deposits. The aggradation phase between 4 and 2 ka is coherent with other Iberian and Mediterranean records showing relatively more humid conditions after 4 ka, including the Iron Ages and the Iberian-Roman Period.

  18. Assessing sinkhole activity in the Ebro Valley mantled evaporite karst using advanced DInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Castañeda, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Herrera, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Sinkholes in karst areas may cause subsidence damage in transportation infrastructures, demolition of buildings and even the loss of human lives when they occur in a catastrophic way. Differential Interferometry (DInSAR) is a promising technology for detecting and characterizing sinkholes, as well as for reducing the associated risk when combined with other sources of data such as a sinkhole inventory. In this work, the usefulness of InSAR techniques and data for sinkhole risk management has been analyzed through the comparison of three DInSAR-derived velocity maps with a comprehensive sinkhole inventory in the Ebro Valley, NE Spain. The DInSAR maps have contributed to improve the sinkhole inventory in different ways: (1) detection of non-inventoried sinkholes; (2) revision of sinkhole areas previously classified as inactive as active; and (3) refinement of underestimated sinkhole boundaries. The obtained results suggest that DInSAR products are suitable for analyzing active dissolution-induced subsidence. The application of these techniques may help in recognizing and better characterizing previously unknown karst subsidence problems and in preventing personal and property losses. However, the analysis reveals that the available DInSAR maps combined overlook about 70% of the previously mapped active sinkholes mainly due to decorrelation.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence. PMID:24815900

  20. Surface pressure disturbance in the Ebro Valley (Spain) produced by the Pyrenees mountains during PYREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Bénech, B.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the pressure anomaly created by the Pyrenees during the Pyrenees Experiment (PYREX) in the Ebro Valley is studied and analysed. In the first part, pressure disturbance is obtained during some selected cases of PYREX by subtracting the synoptic component from the pressure registered by microbarographs and regular meteorological stations located in the area. As expected from a linear model, a low pressure is found for northerly synoptic winds and a high pressure for southerly synoptic winds. Data shows that the maximum pressure anomaly observed may reach values of the order of 7 hPa. Pressure-anomaly spatial patterns found inside the valley are classified by using principal component analysis (PCA). It is found that the first axes deduced from the PCA carried out represent 75% of the variance in pressure data, indicating that all the stations analysed observed pressure anomalies in a correlated manner. Pressure anomalies are then related to incident-air characteristics expressed as Froude and Rossby numbers. Significant correlation is generally found with these numbers in all cases, demonstrating the dynamic origin of the pressure anomaly computed.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cyanobacteria from microbial mats of the Ebro Delta, Spain.

    PubMed

    Urmeneta, Jordi; Navarrete, Antoni; Huete, Javier; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2003-03-01

    Isolation and identification of several strains of cyanobacteria from microbial mats of the Ebro Delta, Spain, are described. A series of tenfold dilutions was the first step of isolation. Self-isolation techniques, which use one or several physiological characteristics of a cyanobacterium, were applied in some cases to obtain enrichment cultures. Twelve filamentous strains were isolated and stored in axenic culture. As only a few cyanobacterial species can be frozen and revived without any cryoprotective agent, preservation of isolated strains was assayed with several cryoprotective solutions. Methanol and glycerol were not suitable as cryoprotective agents for most of the isolates. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was apparently the best cryoprotector. A new method, which used a filter paper as a growing substratum that later could be directly stored at -80 degrees C, was successfully used. A morphological study of each strain under light and electron microscopy was made to classify them. All isolated strains belong to phylum BX, Class 1, subsection III of the Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Most genera are included in the LPP group as Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes. PMID:12567243

  2. Trend analysis of river water temperatures in the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Ma Angeles; Quilez, Dolores; Isidoro, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Water temperature is an important factor conditioning physical, biological and chemical processes in water courses. The huge changes along the last 50 years in land and water use (dam construction, urban development, nuclear power plants (NPP), riparian alteration, irrigation development, and return of agricultural lands to forests), along with climate change, call for the study of their influence on river water temperatures. This work analyzed the trends (1973-2010) in water temperature (Tw) along the Ebro River (14 water quality stations) in North-East Spain and its main tributaries (6 water quality stations), as a first step to assess its possible relationships with land use changes, climate change, and other factors. Water temperature trends (ΔTw) were estimated by two different methods: (1) multiple regression incorporating year seasonality and linear trend; and (2) non-parametric Mann-Kendall seasonal trend estimator. A cluster analysis based on principal components (performed upon the variables Tw, ΔTw, annual Tw range, lag of the Tw annual cycle, coefficient of correlation between water and air temperature (Ta), and station altitude) allowed for grouping stations with similar behaviour in Tw (along the year, seasonality, and throughout the study period, trend). Trend analysis by the regression and Mann-Kendall methods produced similar results. They showed significant (P

  3. Ocean-atmosphere-wave characterisation of a wind jet (Ebro shelf, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Navarro, Jorge; Pallares, Elena; Ràfols, Laura; Espino, Manuel; Palomares, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution the wind jet dynamics in the northern margin of the Ebro River shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea) are investigated using coupled numerical models. The study area is characterised by persistent and energetic offshore winds during autumn and winter. During these seasons, a seaward wind jet usually develops in a ˜ 50 km wide band offshore. The COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) modelling system was implemented in the region with a set of downscaling meshes to obtain high-resolution meteo-oceanographic outputs. Wind, waves and water currents were compared with in situ observations and remote-sensing-derived products with an acceptable level of agreement. Focused on an intense offshore wind event, the modelled wind jet appears in a limited area offshore with strong spatial variability. The wave pattern during the wind jet is characterised by the development of bimodal directional spectra, and the ocean circulation tends to present well-defined two-layer flow in the shallower region (i.e. inner shelf). The outer shelf tends to be dominated by mesoscale dynamics such as the slope current. Due to the limited fetch length, ocean surface roughness considering sea state (wave-atmosphere coupling) modifies to a small extent the wind and significant wave height under severe cross-shelf wind events. However, the coupling effect in the wind resource assessment may be relevant due to the cubic relation between the wind intensity and power.

  4. A review of the effects of agricultural and industrial contamination on the Ebro delta biota and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, S; Mateo, R; Guitart, R

    2001-10-01

    The Ebro delta (NE Spain) is a 320 km2 wetland area of international importance for conservation. The area is devoted to rice farming and receives large amounts of pesticides. Industrial pollutants are also carried to the delta by the river. The information accumulated during the last 25 year on the effect of such pollution on the biota is reviewed in order to identify the existing gaps and needs for management. Organochlorine pesticides were legally used until 1977, which has resulted in the widespread presence of these compounds in the Ebro delta biota. Lethal, sublethal or other detrimental effects of these pesticides on wildlife in the area were poorly investigated, but negative effects on the reproduction of ducks and herons were reported. Nowadays, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the main responsible of organochlorine pollution in the area: concentrations in biota samples are higher than levels observed in nearby coastal areas, as a result of the significant PCB inputs by the river which, in 1990, were evaluated at 126 kg yr(-1). The massive use of herbicides is thought to have contributed to the elimation of macrophyte vegetation in the lagoons during the eighties, which had strong consequences on diving ducks and coot populations. Weed control is also related to the loss of biodiversity held by rice fields. The massive and inadequate use of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides (involving more than 20,000 t yr(-1) has produced some waterbird mortality events, and may have direct and indirect effects on other non-target organisms. The accumulation in the soil of lead pellets used in waterfowl shooting is estimated to kill some 16,300 waterbirds in the Ebro delta every year. PMID:11686200

  5. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain: A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Henar; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; López-Gómez, José; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd; de La Horra, Raúl; Arche, Alfredo

    2009-09-01

    The Permian-Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk-Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift-postrift cycles are recorded in these facies, but there are only a few studies of quantitative subsidence analysis (backstripping method) and only a previous one using forward modelling for the quantification of synrift-postrift phases of this period. Here we present the results obtained by the quantitative analysis of fourteen field sections and oil-well electric log records in the Iberian and Ebro Basins, Spain. Backstripping analysis showed five synrift phases of 1 to 3 million years duration followed by postrift periods for the Permian-Triassic interval. The duration, however, shows lateral variations and some of them are absent in the Ebro Basin. The forward modelling analysis, assuming local isostatic compensation, has been applied to each observation point using one-layer and two-layer lithospheric configurations. The second one shows a better fit between observation and model prediction in a systematic way, so a two layer configuration is assumed for the sedimentary basin filling analysis. Lithospheric stretching factors β and δ obtained in the forward modelling analysis are never higher than 1.2, but sometimes β < 1 and simultaneously δ > 1 in the same section. If surficial extension is compensated by deep compression either at the roots of the rift basins or in far-away zones is not yet clear, but this anomaly can be explained using a simple shear extensional model for the Iberian and Ebro basins.

  6. Evaluating the surface circulation in the Ebro delta (northeastern Spain) with quality-controlled high-frequency radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-11-01

    The Ebro River delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three-site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed in December 2013. The main goal of this work is to explore basic features of the sea surface circulation in the Ebro deltaic region as derived from reliable HF radar surface current measurements. For this aim, a combined quality control methodology was applied: firstly, 1-year long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters was conducted to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. The signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution, although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be sporadic episodes since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) values emerged in the ranges [0.58-0.83] and [4.02-18.31] cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely, the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of the Ebro delta mouth, or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. The EOF analysis related the flow response to local wind forcing and confirmed that the surface current field evolved in

  7. Sea level rise impacts on rice production: The Ebro Delta as an example.

    PubMed

    Genua-Olmedo, Ana; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

    2016-11-15

    Climate change and sea level rise (SLR) are global impacts threatening the sustainability of coastal territories and valuable ecosystems such as deltas. The Ebro Delta is representative of the vulnerability of coastal areas to SLR. Rice cultivation is the main economic activity in the region. Rice fields occupy most of the delta (ca. 65%) and are vulnerable to accelerated SLR and consequent increase in soil salinity, the most important physical factor affecting rice production. We developed a model to predict the impacts of SLR on soil salinity and rice production under different scenarios predicted by the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change by coupling data from Geographic Information Systems with Generalized Linear Models. Soil salinity data were measured in agricultural parcels and rice production from surveys among farmers. The correlation between observed and soil salinity predicted values was high and significant (Pearson's r=0.72, P<0.0001), thus supporting the predictive ability of the model. Soil salinity was directly related to distances to the river, to the delta inner border, and to the river old mouth, while clay presence, winter river flow and surface elevation were inversely related to it. Surface elevation was the most important variable in explaining soil salinity. Rice production was negatively influenced by soil salinity, thus the models predict a decrease from higher elevation zones close to the river to the shoreline. The model predicts a maximum reduction in normalized rice production index from 61.2% in 2010 to 33.8% by 2100 in the worst considered scenario (SLR=1.8m), with a decrease of profit up to 300 € per hectare. The model can be applied to other deltaic areas worldwide, and help rice farmers and stakeholders to identify the most vulnerable areas to SLR impacts. PMID:27481453

  8. Titanospirillum velox: a huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Haselton, A.; Sole, M.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.

  9. Bottom-boundary-layer measurements on the continental shelf off the Ebro River, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Losada, M.A.; Medina, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of currents, waves and light transmission obtained with an instrumented bottom tripod (GEOPROBE) were used in conjunction with a theoretical bottom-boundary-layer model for waves and currents to investigate sediment transport on the continental shelf south of the Ebro River Delta, Spain. The current data show that over a 48-day period during the fall of 1984, the average transport at 1 m above the seabed was alongshelf and slightly offshore toward the south-southwest at about 2 cm/s. A weak storm passed through the region during this period and caused elevated wave and current speeds near the bed. The bottom-boundary-layer model predicted correspondingly higher combined wave and current bottom shear velocities at this time, but the GEOPROBE optical data indicate that little to no resuspension occurred. This result suggests that the fine-grained bottom sediment, which has a clay component of 80%, behaves cohesively and is more difficult to resuspend than noncohesive materials of similar size. Model computations also indicate that noncohesive very fine sand in shallow water (20 m deep) was resuspended and transported mainly as bedload during this storm. Fine-grained materials in shallow water that are resuspended and transported as suspended load into deeper water probably account for the slight increase in sediment concentration at the GEOPROBE sensors during the waning stages of the storm. The bottom-boundary-layer data suggest that the belt of fine-grained bottom sediment that extends along the shelf toward the southwest is deposited during prolonged periods of low energy and southwestward bottom flow. This pattern is augmented by enhanced resuspension and transport toward the southwest during storms. ?? 1990.

  10. 20 Myr of eccentricity paced lacustrine cycles in the Cenozoic Ebro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Luis; Garcés, Miguel; Cabrera, Lluís; Costa, Elisenda; Sáez, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Long-period orbital forcing is a crucial component of the major global climate shifts during the Cenozoic as revealed in marine pelagic records. A complementary regional perspective of climate change can be assessed from internally drained lake basins, which are directly affected by insolation and precipitation balance. The Ebro Basin in northeastern Iberia embraces a 20 Myr long continuous sedimentary record where recurrent expansions and retractions of the central lacustrine system suggest periodic shifts of water balance due to orbital oscillations. In order to test climatic (orbital) forcing a key-piece of the basin, the Los Monegros lacustrine system, has been analyzed in detail. The cyclostratigraphic analysis points to orbital eccentricity as pacemaker of short to long-term lacustrine sequences, and reveals a correlation of maxima of the 100-kyr, 400-kyr and 2.4-Myr eccentricity cycles with periods of lake expansion. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronostratigraphy of the complete continental record allows further assessing long-period orbital forcing at basin scale, a view that challenges alternate scenarios where the stratigraphic architecture in foreland systems is preferably associated to tectonic processes. We conclude that while the location of lacustrine depocenters reacted to the long-term tectonic-driven accommodation changes, shorter wavelenght oscillations of lake environments, still million-year scale, claims for a dominance of orbital forcing. We suggest a decoupling between (tectonic) supply-driven clastic sequences fed from basin margins and (climatic) base level-driven lacustrine sequences in active settings with medium to large sediment transfer systems.

  11. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  12. Population structure and life history of Hemimysis lamornae mediterranea (Malacostraca: Mysida) in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, L.; Guerao, G.; Vicente, C. San; Ribera, C.

    2013-10-01

    Hemimysis lamornae mediterraneaBacescu, 1936 has been recently reported in the Ebro Delta (Spain, NW Mediterranean). Little is known about the biology and ecology of this mysid and we provide the first information about its population biology. H. l. mediterranea were collected from Sant Carles de la Ràpita harbor from June 2010 to March 2012 at night. The H. l. mediterranea population was composed of two main individual size categories: larger-sized winter/spring individuals and smaller-sized spring/summer individuals. The overall sex ratio is highly skewed; mature females are 2.5 times more abundant than mature males. Reproductive activity was higher during late winter and spring but was almost continuous throughout the year. The intra-marsupial development and growth of juveniles has been studied in the laboratory. The mean duration of incubation period (intra-marsupial stages) in laboratory conditions was 11 days (20 °C) and the age at first maturity ranged from14 to 20 days. The growth rate was faster in early juveniles and declined with age, showing a maximum of 0.152 mm d- 1. The laboratory results and demographic data suggest that H. l. mediterranea will produce several generations per year in the Ebro Delta. H. l. mediterranea was characterized by a combination of early maturation of individuals (short juvenile period), rapid growth, small adult size, a continuous reproduction all year round, iteroparous females, a relatively high fecundity and a high number of generations per year.

  13. Nutrient sources and dynamics in a mediterranean fluvial regime (Ebro river, NE Spain) and their implications for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecilla, Néstor J.; Galve, Jorge P.; Zaera, Lidia G.; Retamar, Javier F.; Álvarez, Alejandro N. A.

    2005-03-01

    Nonpoint source and point source nutrient loads (N, PO 4-P, COD) to the Ebro River in its central sector were estimated using hydrogeological and socioeconomical data. Their impacts on eutrophication and nutrient dynamics in the river were analyzed through a review of the public administration's historical data and the interpretation of two sampling profiles in September 02 (low flows season) and April 03 (high flows season). A marked seasonality was found in nutrient concentrations, nutrient loads and eutrophication indicators (O 2, Turbidity), appearing symptoms of eutrophication during the summer related to both NPS and PS Nutrient loads within the study area. Agricultural NPS account for 64% of NO 3 loads generated within the study area while urban and industrial PS are responsible of 88% PO 4-P and 71% COD loads. Biological reactions within the river ecosystem (including denitrification in the most eutrophic branches) were found to be a key factor in nutrient content and dynamics. Improvements in urban and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, land use planning and restoration of river-side wetlands, seem to be adequate policies for the improvement of the nutrient water quality in the studied sector of the Ebro River. Flow and temperature seasonality related to Mediterranean fluvial regime imposes significant limitations to nutrient PS in order to accomplish the combined approach proposed in European Water Framework Directive (WFD), based upon Emission Limit Values (ELV) and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).

  14. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  15. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-04-01

    We have analysed increments of background radiation during thunderstorm in the energy range 0.1 - 2 MeV in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain. We present 8 episodes, 3 summer cases and 5 winter cases. The increments of the measured high-energy radiation have been analysed and compared with measurements of electric field, precipitation, radar reflectivity, lightning activity a charge regions altitude. For the first time, measurements of high-energy radiation associated with thunderstorms are compared with radar reflectivity and lightning detected by a LMA network. The aim of this paper is to discern if the high-energy radiation increments measured are related with the storm electrification, like reported in previous publications, or other factors like precipitation. As summary these are the main results: • The comparative of energy spectra of 1 hour period with rain and 1 hour period without rain shows that radon-ion daughters are quite important in the increase of the measured high-energy radiation. • The analysis of the time normalized cumulative curves of radiation counts, radar reflectivity and lightning activity (LINET and LMA detections) shows that that high-energy radiation increments are time related with radar reflectivity rather than lightning activity. • The calculated altitude of the negative charge regions of the different thunderstorms analayzed is too high for the photons produced at those altitudes by Bremmstrahlung effect to overcome atmospheric attenuation and reach the scintillator placed at sea level. These results lead us to conclude, as a contribution in addition to previous works, that the measured increments of high-energy analysed on this paper are associated with radon-ion daughters rather than storm electrification. However, the use of a detector in an energy from 0.1 MeV to 2 Mev does not allow to completely exclude the possibility that part of the high-energy radiation reported should be related storm electrification

  16. Contaminant accumulation and multi-biomarker responses in field collected zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), to evaluate toxicological effects of industrial hazardous dumps in the Ebro river (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Huertas, David; Soto, David X; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi; Riva, Mari Carmen; Barata, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of industrial waste containing high concentrations of mercury, cadmium and organochlorine residues were dumped in a reservoir adjacent to a chlorine-alkali plant in the village of Flix(Catalonia, Spain), situated at the shore of the lower Ebro river. Effects of these contaminants to aquatic river invertebrates were assessed by integrating analyses of metals and organochlorine residues in field collected zebra mussels and crayfish with a wide range of biomarkers. Biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, oxidative stress biomarkers (glutathione content, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase), levels of lipid peroxidation and of DNA strand breaks. The results obtained evidenced similar response patterns in mussels and crayfish with increasing toxic stress levels from upper parts of the river towards the meander located immediately downstream from the most polluted site, close to the waste dumps. The aforementioned stress levels could be related with concentrations of mercury, cadmium, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorobiphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes from 4- to 195-fold greater than local background levels. The response of biomarkers to these pollutant concentrations differences was reflected in high activities and levels of antioxidant enzymes, metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and decreased levels of glutathione. PMID:19954812

  17. Sea, freshwater or saltpans? Foraging ecology of terns to assess mercury inputs in a wetland landscape: The Ebro Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotin, Javier; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Ruiz, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    The Ebro catchment, the largest river basin in Spain, includes various heavily industrialized areas. Among these is the Flix site, where a chemical plant has been operating since the beginning of the 20th century. This extended operational period, together with the construction of a dam next to the factory around 1960, resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of heavily polluted sediments in the adjacent riverbed, many of which are contaminated by mercury. Pollutants from Flix are carried downstream by the Ebro River to its delta. In order to assess the transfer of mercury to the complex river estuary ecosystem, we studied the ecology of the tern community living there as these birds segregate into a range of habitats. For this purpose, first we used stable isotope analysis (SIA) (δ 34S, δ 13C, δ 15N) of eggs to determine the trophic ecology and habitat partitioning of several tern species (Common, Sandwich, Little, Gull-Billed and Whiskered Tern) breeding sympatrically, in order to link their foraging ecology with habitat types. Next we measured mercury concentrations in eggs to monitor the input of this metal into the diverse habitats. With the exception of the Little Tern, the other terns used a restricted habitat range in the Ebro Delta, as shown by C and S isotopes; the Gull-Billed and Whiskered Tern foraged in freshwater habitats, while the Common and Sandwich Tern used marine habitats. This restricted feeding behavior of the Gull-Billed and Common Tern contrasts with previous reports in other breeding sites. The Little Tern, which showed a wide range of isotopic values, was found to be an opportunistic forager but fed mainly in saltpans, a feeding habitat not reported previously for this species in this area. We found that mercury concentrations are related to foraging habitat and diet, and are unexpectedly higher in species feeding on demersal prey in marine habitats and also higher in birds feeding in saltpans than in those feeding in freshwater

  18. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence of incision-induced halokinetic uplift and dissolution subsidence in transverse drainages crossing the evaporite-cored Barbastro-Balaguer Anticline (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    were closer to the new incisional base level. Most likely, the development of a thick caprock, rich in less soluble sediments, has hampered dissolution and subsidence processes in subsequent stages. Incision-induced halokinetic deformation is locally recorded by differentially uplifted terraces dipping away from the valley. The increasing differential loading caused by the entrenchment of the fluvial systems has driven the lateral and upward flow of salt-rich evaporites from the valley margins towards the valley bottom. A minimum long-term uplift rate of 0.3 mm/yr has been calculated for a titled OSL-dated Upper Pleistocene terrace of the Cinca River valley. The capture of the Ebro Basin and its change to exorheic conditions have played an instrumental role in the development of the Quaternary gravitational deformations associated with the evaporitic bedrock. The new incisional drainage network propitiated the karstification and evacuation of large amounts of evaporites, and its entrenchment has created adequate differential loading conditions for the salt to flow towards the valley floors.

  19. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicates that this line shows dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). Significant sinkhole-related subsidence was also measured by DInSAR techniques on the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. This study demonstrates that DInSAR velocity maps, coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys, may help in the identification of the railway track sections that are affected by active subsidence.

  20. Early-Middle Miocene subtle compressional deformation in the Ebro foreland basin (northern Spain); insights from magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Ruth; Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Beamud, Elisabet; Garcés, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    The results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses of 19 sites carried out on magnetostrigraphically-dated, Lower to Middle Miocene (20.4 to 13.7 Ma) "non-deformed" mudstones from the central part of the Ebro basin reveal the presence of a subtle tectonic overprint lasting at least until the Langhian (Middle Miocene) in the southern Pyrenean foreland. Magnetic ellipsoids show a sedimentary fabric in 42% of sites and a weak and well-defined magnetic lineation in 47% and 11% of sites. The magnetic lineation is roughly oriented around the east-west direction, compatible with a very weak deformation occurring there and related to the north-south compression linked to the convergence between Europe, Iberia and Africa during the Early-Middle Miocene. A slight variation of the magnetic parameters Km, Pj, and T exists through time, probably due to changes in the sedimentary conditions in the basin.

  1. Lead shot pellets in the Ebro delta, Spain: densities in sediments and prevalence of exposure in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Mateo, R; Martínez-Vilalta, A; Guitart, R

    1997-01-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has been found to be a serious problem for waterfowl in some southern European countries, but few studies have been conducted in Spain. In order to obtain these data, studies were made in the Ebro delta, a Spanish Ramsar site, during 1992 and 1993. Lead shot densities in the first 20 cm of sediment ranged from < 8 900 to 2 661 000 shot ha(-1). A similar proportion of birds had lead shot in the gizzard and elevated liver lead (> 5 microg g(-1) DW) concentrations. Northern pintail and common pochard (both with declining populations in Europe) showed the highest levels of shot ingestion, with 70.8 and 69.2%, respectively. Body condition index in the northern pintail was negatively correlated with the number of pellets in the gizzard and liver Pb concentration. Levels of exposure were higher than in other northern countries of the western Palearctic flyway, where lead shot have been banned recently. PMID:15093399

  2. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, María J.; Rovira, Albert; García-Contreras, Darío; Contreras, Eva; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Losada, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930-2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  4. Environmental concentrations of metals in the catalan stretch of the ebro river, Spain: assessment of temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Vilavert, Lolita; Sisteré, Clara; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impact and the human health risks associated with exposure to a number of metals before and after initiating the decontamination process in Flix dam (Catalonia, Spain). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Pb were determined in samples of drinking water, river water, and soils collected in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain. The results were compared with those of previous surveys performed in the same zones. Human exposure to metals, as well as the associated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, was also estimated. In river and drinking waters, most analyzed metals showed increases, being significant that of Cr. The movements of polluted sludge in Flix dam could be the reason for the Cr levels found in the current survey. However, Hg was not detected in both drinking and river waters. Important differences on Mn levels were found, being higher those in river water than in drinking water. In turn, although soil concentrations of all analyzed metals showed a decreasing temporal trend, the reductions were only significant for Ni. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all elements was below the unity, considered the safe threshold. For carcinogenic risks, all values were found to be lower than 10(-5), which has been defined as the maximum recommended excess of cancer risk according to the Spanish Legislation. The only exception was the As exposure through soil and drinking water, which slightly exceeded this threshold. The current results indicate the need to perform a continuous assessment of metal levels not only in river waters, but also in drinking water in order to assure the harmlessness of the decontamination process for the health of the population living downriver (Ebro) the Flix dam. PMID:25283512

  5. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC < 0.4 dS/m), but IRF salinity was very high in Valcuerna (7.9 dS/m) with underlain saline lutites, high to moderate in Clamor (2.6 dS/m) and Violada (2.1 dS/m) with gypsum-rich soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites

  6. XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic Hydrogen-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: Hydrogen Coronae and Ion Escape

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×1025 s−1 to ∼5.3×1030 s−1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EOH) to <3 EOH and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. Key Words: Stellar activity—Low-mass stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral

  7. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part II: hydrogen coronae and ion escape.

    PubMed

    Kislyakova, Kristina G; Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Kulikov, Yuri N; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a "super-Earth" with a radius of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth), located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×10²⁵ s⁻¹ to ∼5.3×10³⁰ s⁻¹, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EO(H)) to <3 EO(H) and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. PMID:24283926

  8. Managing type II work-related upper limb disorders in keyboard and mouse users who remain at work: a case series report.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, Bo; Rose, Robyn-Lee

    2008-01-01

    Work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) are difficult to diagnose due to the limited availability of recognized objective assessment methods. This case series report demonstrates the use of the "typing capacity cycle" test and standardized clinical tests as outcome measures to assess work capacity in four high-intensity keyboard and mouse users who remain at work before and after the implementation of a six-month treatment program. Pain intensity, the duration of pain before treatment, the duration of treatment, type of work, and the location of the pain were recorded for each patient. Function was assessed before and after treatment using the Functional Grading Scale. The assessment results were analyzed to determine any improvements made after rehabilitation. The outcomes indicate that all patients improved their resting pain and work capacity with the three-phase rehabilitation program. PMID:18215754

  9. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  10. {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux and growth rates of a microbial mat from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Ebro River Delta)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Masque, P.; Martinez-Alonso, M.; Mir, J.; Esteve, I.

    1999-11-01

    Environmental archives are needed to study the variability of natural systems and the impact of man on them. Microbial mats, modern homologues of stromatolites, can be found in extreme environments such as the Ebro River Delta and were studied as potential environmental archives of atmospheric deposition. {sup 210}Pb, a radiotracer widely used in geochronology studies, was used both to determine the growth rates of a microbial mat from this environment and to estimate the {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The {sup 210}Pb profile showed the presence of three distinct peaks related to low growth-rate periods. This variability indicted the sensitivity of the system to external forcing. The annual atmospheric flux of {sup 210}Pb was 81.2 {+-} 1.4 B1 m{sup {minus}2}yr{sup {minus}1}, which is similar to other values found in the literature. The age profile showed two layers of differing growth rates, being 0.99 {+-} 0.10 mm yr{sup {minus}1} from the surface down to 10 mm depth. The accumulated mass profile showed a change at about 9 mm depth, corresponding to year 1983 {+-} 1. It is noteworthy that this is coincident with a strong El Nino Southern Oscillation event during 1982--1983, which has been shown to affect other ecosystems, including some in the Mediterranean area.

  11. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Carmelo; Luzi, Guido

    2014-05-27

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  12. The Solar Rotation in the 1930s from the Sunspot and Flocculi Catalogs of the Ebro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, V.; Curto, J. J.; Casas, R.

    2016-09-01

    The tables of sunspot and flocculi heliographic positions included in the catalogs published by the Ebro Observatory in the 1930s have recently been recovered and converted into digital format by using optical character recognition (OCR) technology. We here analyzed these data by computing the angular velocity of several sunspot and flocculi groups. A difference was found in the rotational velocity for sunspots and flocculi groups at high latitudes, and we also detected an asymmetry between the northern and southern hemispheres, which is especially marked for the flocculi groups. The results were then fitted with a differential-rotation law [ ω=a+b sin2 B] to compare the data obtained with the results published by other authors. A dependence on the latitude that is consistent with former studies was found. Finally, we studied the possible relationship between the sunspot/flocculi group areas and their corresponding angular velocity. There are strong indications that the rotational velocity of a sunspot/flocculi group is reduced (in relation to the differential rotation law) when its maximum area is larger.

  13. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-06-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicate that this line show dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). By using DInSAR techniques, it was also measured the significant subsidence related to the activity of sinkholes in the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. Thus, this study demonstrate that DInSAR velocity maps coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys may help in the identification of the sectors of railway tracks that may compromise the safety of travellers.

  14. Spring and Summer Proliferation of Floating Macroalgae in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Tancada Lagoon, Ebro Delta, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, M.; Comín, F. A.

    2000-08-01

    During the last 10 years, a drastic change in the structure of the community of primary producers has been observed in Tancada Lagoon (Ebro Delta, NE Spain). This consisted of a decrease in the abundance of submerged rooted macrophyte cover and a spring and summer increase in floating macroalgae. Two spatial patterns have been observed. In the west part of the lagoon, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, dominated during winter and decreased progressively in spring when Cladophora sp. reached its maximum development. In the east part of the lagoon, higher macroalgal diversity was observed, together with lower cover in winter and early spring. Cladophora sp., Gracilaria verrucosa Papenfuss and Chondria tenuissima Agardh, increased cover and biomass in summer. Maximum photosynthetic production was observed in spring for G. verrucosa (10·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and C. tenuissima (19·0 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) in contrast with Cladophora sp. (15·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and Chaetomorpha linum (7·2 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) which reached maximum production in summer. Increased conductivity from reduced freshwater inflow, and higher water temperatures during periods of lagoon isolation, mainly in summer, were the main physical factors associated with an increase in floating macroalgal biomass across the lagoon. Reduced nitrogen availability and temperature-related changes in carbon availability during summer were related to a decrease in abundance of C. linum and increases in G. verrucosa and Cladophora sp.

  15. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Carmelo; Luzi, Guido

    2014-05-01

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  16. Mouse molar morphogenesis revisited by three-dimensional reconstruction. II. Spatial distribution of mitoses and apoptosis in cap to bell staged first and second upper molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Lesot, H; Vonesch, J L; Peterka, M; Turecková, J; Peterková, R; Ruch, J V

    1996-10-01

    Tooth morphogenesis is a complex multifactorial process in which differential mitotic activities and cell death play important roles. Upper first (m1) and second (m2) molars from mouse embryos were investigated from early cap to bell stage. m2 differed from m1 by delayed origin of the enamel grooves delimiting the protrusion of the cap bottom towards the dental papilla, and retardation of the enamel knot formation. The width of the m2 enamel organ was conspicuously smaller during cap formation and length remained smaller throughout the period of observation. Formation of the cap depression was comparable in m1 and m2, however margins delimiting the enamel organ cavity arose in m1 and m2 as mirror images. Attempts were made to correlate changes in the distribution of apoptotic cells and bodies and/or mitoses with morphogenesis. These cellular activities were recorded from histological sections and represented in space using computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstructions. Mitoses in the epithelial compartment were associated with the development of the cervical loop. In the mesenchyme of m1 at early bell stage, a postero-anterior increasing gradient of mitoses was observed which might be correlated with the anterior growth of the molar. Cells in the enamel knot demonstrated a high level of apoptosis, retarded in m2, but absolutely no division. Apoptotic processes were also involved in the anterior delimitation of the m1 epithelium. Apoptosis might correspond to the programmed destruction of cells whose function had to be suppressed or whose potential activity had to be avoided. PMID:8946249

  17. Spatio-temporal variability in Ebro river basin (NE Spain): Global SST as potential source of predictability on decadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámiz-Fortis, S. R.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, J. M.; Argüeso, D.; Esteban-Parra, M. J.; Castro-Díez, Y.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryThis paper investigates the spatial and temporal variability of streamflow in the Ebro river basin and its potential predictability. Principal Component Analysis applied to monthly streamflow series from 83 gauging stations distributed through the basin, reveals three homogeneous regions: Basque-Cantabrian, Pyrenees and Southern Mediterranean. Attending to this classification the main characteristic time scales of the maximum monthly streamflows are studied by Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA). Decadal variations in streamflow make particularly large contributions to year-to-year streamflow variance in stations placed in the Basque-Cantabrian and Southern Mediterranean regions, while for the Pyrenees flows the interannual contribution is more important. The predictability of the Ebro flow anomalies has been investigated using a combined methodology: at decadal time scales SST anomalies from several regions provide a significant source of predictability for the Ebro flow, while at interannual time scales autoregressive-moving-average modelling, applied to the time series previously filtered by SSA, is able to provide potential skill in forecasting. For gauging stations associated to the Basque-Cantabrian region significant correlations between the maximum monthly streamflow anomalies and a tripole-like pattern in the North Atlantic SSTs during the previous spring are found. This association is found maximum and stable for the tropical part of the pattern (approximately 0-20°N). For the gauging stations placed to the southeast of basin some influence from the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is found. This method allows evaluating, independently, the decadal and interannual predictability of the streamflow series. In addition, the combination of both modelling techniques gives as result a methodology that has the capacity to provide basin-specific hydroclimatic predictions which vary (for the 1990-2003 validation period) between 62% for the Basque

  18. Design of adaptation actions to compensate the hydrological impact of the river regulation by dams on the Ebro Delta (Spain): combining modeling and field work.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Darío; Jurado, Alicia; Carpintero, Miriam; Rovira, Albert; Polo, María J.

    2016-04-01

    River regulation by dams for both flood control and water storage has allowed to decrease both uncertainty and risks associated to extreme hydrological events. However, the alteration of the natural river flow regime and the detraction of high water volumes usually lead to significant effects downstream on the morphology, water quality, ecological status of water… and this is particularly relevant in the transitional waters since the sea level rise poses an additional threat on such conditions. The Ebro River, in northeastern Spain, is one of the highly regulated rivers in Spain with the dams located in the mainstream. Besides an estimated decrease of a 30% of the freshwater inputs, the sediment delivery to the final delta in the Mediterranean has dramatically been decreased up to a 99%, with environmental risks associated to the reduction of the emerged areas from the loss of sediment supply, the impact on the subsidence dynamics, and the sea level rise. The Ebro Delta suffers a mean regression of 10 m per year, and the persistence of macrophyte development in the final reach of the river due to the low water mean flow regime. The project LIFE EBRO-ADMICLIM (ENV/ES/001182), coordinated by the IRTA in Catalonia (Spain), puts forwards pilot actions for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change in the Ebro Delta. An integrated approach is proposed for managing water, sediment and habitats (rice fields and wetlands), with the multiple aim of optimizing ground elevation, reducing coastal erosion, increasing the accumulation (sequestration) of carbon in the soil, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and improving water quality. This work presents the pilot actions included in the project to mitigate the loss of water flow and sediment supply to the delta. Sediment injections at different points upstream have been designed to calibrate and validate a sediment transport model coupled to a 2D-hydrodinamic model of the river. The combination of an a

  19. Future climate scenarios and rainfall--runoff modelling in the Upper Gallego catchment (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bürger, C M; Kolditz, O; Fowler, H J; Blenkinsop, S

    2007-08-01

    Global climate change may have large impacts on water supplies, drought or flood frequencies and magnitudes in local and regional hydrologic systems. Water authorities therefore rely on computer models for quantitative impact prediction. In this study we present kernel-based learning machine river flow models for the Upper Gallego catchment of the Ebro basin. Different learning machines were calibrated using daily gauge data. The models posed two major challenges: (1) estimation of the rainfall-runoff transfer function from the available time series is complicated by anthropogenic regulation and mountainous terrain and (2) the river flow model is weak when only climate data are used, but additional antecedent flow data seemed to lead to delayed peak flow estimation. These types of models, together with the presented downscaled climate scenarios, can be used for climate change impact assessment in the Gallego, which is important for the future management of the system. PMID:17428594

  20. Drainage architecture and sediment routing in erosive catchments within the Ebro Eiver sedimentary basin (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The Ebro Basin (EB) is the result of filling a foreland basin located between active mountain ranges during the Paleogene compressive phases, and later affected by phases of distension in the Neogene. The arrangement of filler material is monocline in the eastern margin and in the contact with the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR). This has repercussions on the model of emptying the erosive basins and in the drainage that took place in the margins of the original sedimentary basin. One can speak of a drainage architecture and sediment routing associated to a monocline erosive basin model. The monocline topography in the original margin of EB encouraged the formation of a string of erosive basins around the contact with CCR, which are the result of headward erosion towards the center of the EB of the rivers draining the CCR towards the Valencia Trough. At the time, the transition from the EB in its initial condition of endorheic to exorheic was through one of these monocline erosive basins. The erosive basins emptied by means of two vectors. On the one hand, growth in surface of the basin by deepening anaclinal streams through resistant beds of monocline stratigraphic succession that empty and link small depressions that increase laterally on the less resistant lithologic member. Moreover, the new drainage system entrenches as the exit point of the basin does, thanks to gradients created by distensional movements of the Neogene Valencia Trough. Growth and entrenchment model of river basins, as well as, sedimentary deposits and landforms generated by these processes are described and analyzed.

  1. Relationship of mineralogy to depositional environments in the non-marine Tertiary mudstones of the southwestern Ebro Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingles, M.; Salvany, J. M.; Muñoz, A.; Pérez, A.

    1998-03-01

    During the Middle-Late Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene a non-marine succession, about 5000 m thick, was deposited in the western Ebro Basin. In the northern and southern margins of the basin, conglomerate deposits of alluvial fan origin were deposited. Towards the centre of the basin there is a lateral change to flood plain sandstones and mudstones and finally carbonate and evaporitic lacustrine deposits. Two types of saline lakes, where evaporitec precipitation occurred, can be distinguished: central saline lakes of high salinity, and marginal saline lakes, located near the southern margin, with lower salinity than the central ones. X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM and EDX analysis were carried out on mudstones from central and southern deposits. The clay minerals identified were illite, chlorite, kaolinite, Mg-rich smectite, palygorskite and mixed-layers illite-smectite and chlorite-smectite. Apart from clays, carbonates (calcite, dolomite and magnesite) and other silicates (quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and analcime) were recognised. The palygorskite, Mg-rich smectite, analcime, dolomite and magnesite are of diagenetic origin. The other minerals are detrital, and derived from the surrounding mountain chains. The clay mineral assemblage of each environment is related to the diverse various source areas (Iberian Range and Pyrenees) and their compositional variation through time, as well as to diagenetic processes. On the basis of clay mineral distribution, the detrital clay mineral assemblages are preserved in the alluvial fans, the flood plain without saline influence, and the central saline lakes. In the saline flood plains and marginal saline lakes diagenetic palygorskite and Mg-rich smectites were formed. In the marginal saline lakes the formation of magnesium clays prevailed but in the central saline lakes, where no clay mineral diagenesis is observed, the magnesium precipitated as dolomite and magnesite.

  2. Reliability of palaeostress analysis from fault striations in near multidirectional extension stress fields. Example from the Ebro Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlegui-Crespo, L. E.; Simon-Gomez, J. L.

    1998-07-01

    A standard palaeostress analysis was carried out by applying a sequence of the Right Dihedra, y- R diagram and Etchecopar methods to 37 fault samples collected in Miocene deposits of the central Ebro Basin. This gave rise to 37 standard solutions which show a pervasive multidirectional extension stress regime for this region. Owing to the possible low definition of the horizontal stress axes in this type of stress regime, the results were then submitted to a stability test by subsampling the initial data sets. The level of stability of the solutions is good, as defined by the differences between successive solutions and the standard one. Most individual stress tensors so obtained differ by less than 15° in σ3 azimuth and 0.1 in stress ratio R=( σ2- σ3)/( σ1- σ3), respectively, from the corresponding standard solutions. Furthermore, the application of the Central Limit Theorem by averaging solutions from groups of subsamples demonstrates that the majority of the standard stress tensors are quite exact. The regional homogeneity of the final results is interpreted as a further proof of reliability. Stability and reliability increase as the sample size grows. There is no 'magic' number of data which separates reliable from unreliable stress solutions, but a quantitative approach allows us to estimate the expected error and the associated probability for each sample size. A sufficient stability may be accomplished using monophase fault samples from 25-30 faults, and it does not increase significantly for samples larger than 40 faults. For samples under 20-25 faults in uniaxial stress regimes (especially in multidirectional extension), the subsampling/averaging technique may be a useful tool. This method also allows testing and, in some special cases (these where subsample mean tensors provide stable results that systematically differ from the initial standard tensor), improving stress solutions.

  3. Upper ministernotomy.

    PubMed

    Reser, Diana; Holubec, Tomas; Scherman, Jacques; Yilmaz, Murat; Guidotti, Andrea; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    During the past 50 years, median sternotomy has been the gold standard approach in cardiac surgery with excellent long-term outcomes. However, since the 1990 s, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has gained wide acceptance due to patient and economic demand. The advantages include less surgical trauma, less bleeding, less wound infections, less pain and faster recovery of the patients. One of these MICS approaches is the J-shaped upper ministernotomy which results in favourable long-term outcomes even in elderly and redo patients when compared with conventional sternotomy. Owing to its similarity to a full midline sternotomy, it has become the most popular MICS approach besides a mini-thoracotomy. It is a safe and feasible access, but certain recognized principles are mandatory to minimize complications. After identification of the landmarks, the 5-cm skin incision is performed in the midline between the second and fourth rib. The third or fourth right intercostal space is located and dissected laterally off the sternum. After osteotomy, the pericardium is pulled up with stay sutures which allow excellent exposure. The surgical procedures are performed in a standard fashion with central cannulation. Continuous CO2 insufflation is used to minimize the risk of air embolism. Epicardial pacing wires are placed before the removal of the aortic cross-clamp and one chest tube is used. Sternal closure is achieved with three to five stainless steel wires. The pectoral muscle, subcutaneous tissue and skin are adapted with resorbable running sutures. When performed properly, complications are rare (conversion, bleeding and wound infection) and well manageable. PMID:26530961

  4. Foraging movements of Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

  5. Analysis of the influence of river discharge and wind on the Ebro turbid plume using MODIS-Aqua and MODIS-Terra data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Nóvoa, D.; Mendes, R.; deCastro, M.; Dias, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2015-02-01

    The turbid plume formed at many river mouths influences the adjacent coastal area because it transports sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. The effects of the main forcings affecting the Ebro turbid plume were analyzed using data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites over the period 2003-2011. Composite images were obtained for days under certain river discharge conditions (different flow regimes) and different types of wind (alongshore and cross-shore winds) in order to obtain a representative plume pattern for each situation. River discharge was the main driver of the Ebro River plume, followed by wind as the secondary force and regional oceanic circulation as the third one. Turbid plume extension increased monotonically with increased river discharge. Under high river discharge conditions (> 355 m3 s- 1), wind distributed the plume in the dominant wind direction. Seaward winds (mistral) produced the largest extension of the plume (1893 km2), whereas southern alongshore winds produced the smallest one (1325 km2). Northern alongshore winds induced the highest mean turbid value of the plume, and southern alongshore winds induced the lowest one. Regardless of the wind condition, more than 70% of the plume extension was located south of the river mouth influenced by the regional oceanic circulation.

  6. Integrated ecotoxicological and chemical approach for the assessment of pesticide pollution in the Ebro River delta (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köck, Marianne; Farré, Marinella; Martínez, Elena; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Ginebreda, Antoni; Navarro, Asunción; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryApplication of pesticides in the Ebro River delta (NE Spain) during the rice growing season is suspected to be one of the major causes behind the shellfish mortality episodes that occur yearly in this area at spring time. In an attempt to shed light on this suspicion, a monitoring study combining ecotoxicity measurements in water using three different bioassays and pesticides analysis in both water and shellfish has been carried out in this area in April-June 2008. Water and shellfish samples have been collected at six selected sites, two of them located in the bays where seafood (mussels and oysters) are grown, and four located in the main draining channels discharging the output water from the rice fields into the bays. Toxicity of the water samples has been evaluated using three standardized bioassays: 24-48 h immobilization of Daphnia magna, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) and bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. Analysis of pesticides (six triazines, four phenylureas, four organophosphorous, one anilide, two chloroacetanilides, one thiocarbamate and four acid herbicides) in water has been carried out by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Analysis of pesticides in shellfish has been performed by pressurized liquid extraction (ASE), followed by SPE clean-up and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results have shown individual pesticides concentrations in water above 100 ng/L for about 50% of the compounds investigated, and total pesticides levels above 5 μg/L in the draining channels some days. The most ubiquitous compounds have been bentazone and MCPA and the highest levels have been observed for malathion (up to 5825 ng/L) and MCPA (up to 4197 ng/L). In shellfish, malathion has shown the highest concentration (53 mg/kg). A reasonable coherence has been observed between pesticide concentration (in

  7. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  8. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  9. Sedimentary processes related to the groundwater flows from the Mesozoic Carbonate Aquifer of the Iberian Chain in the Tertiary Ebro Basin, northeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, J. A.; Coloma, P.; Pérez, A.

    1999-12-01

    In this work, the importance of groundwater in the formation and evolution of evaporitic lacustrine facies in the Iberian Chain and Ebro Basin contact (Spain) is studied. There are outcrops of geological materials from Palaeozoic to Quaternary times. These materials have been classified into eight hydrostratigraphic units. The Jurassic `carniolas' and limestones in the Iberian Chain (HU 4 and 5) are the materials which have the best hydraulic properties for underground water catchment and for forming the regional aquifer. The Triassic gypsum and marl of HU 3 form the impermeable substratum of the overlying Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonated aquifers, and they are therefore the impermeable base of the aquifers being studied. The equipotential line map of the regional aquifer shows the pattern of the groundwater flowing to specific points which mark the springs producing the underground drainage of the Iberian Chain. The volume of water throughout the aquifer is currently evaluated at approximately 250 hm 3/year, which discharge through springs with high flowrates, or through diffuse discharges in the riverbeds and in wetlands (saline lakes). The water discharged in these springs has a high mineralisation, with a dry residue of over 1000 mg/l. Calcium sulphate compositions dominate, originating in the presence of soluble anhydrous materials within the Lias and Keuper formations. The current sedimentation in relation to the groundwater flows from the Iberian Chain can only be found in the areas of diffuse discharge where the evaporitic sedimentation can be observed because of the frequently endorheic character. On the right bank of the Ebro River more than 60 depressions are known, where very mineralised lakes form. These are locally referred to as `saladas'. During the Miocene, the hydrogeological functioning would be similar to the present one, leaving the groundwater and the dissolved salts in a non-marine basin. They would therefore accumulate in large areas of

  10. Long-to-short term Milankovitch Forcing in a Foreland Basin: The Los Monegros lake system of the Ebro Basin (late Oligocene-Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, L.; Garces, M.; Cabrera, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Ebro basin is particular among the Mediterranean alpine regions because it underwent an endorheic basin from late Eocene to middle Miocene. The cause for this prolonged internally drained regime was the presence of three bounding active thrust belts: the Pyrenees (North), the Iberian Ranges (Southwest) and the Catalan Coastal Ranges (Southeast). Fluvial and alluvial systems fed a central lacustrine system, dominated by evaporitic formations in the central and western sectors, and shallow lake carbonates towards the East. Repeated expansions and retractions of the lake system in the central basinal sectors have lead to an alternation of shallow-lake carbonates and distal alluvial red mudstone units. Magnetostratigraphy-based age control of the Oligocene-early Miocene basin infill allows to suggest long term Milankovitch forcing, spreading of the lacustrine units being related to the 2,4-Myr eccentricity maxima. A detailed study of the latest Oligocene-Miocene lacustrine units of the Monegros system has been carried out in order to decipher the response of the lacustrine systems to higher frequency orbital forcing, with focus on the 100 and 400-kyr eccentricity cycle. A new magnetostratigraphic age model based in new magnetostratigraphic data has been constructed for these sequences. Facies analysis permitted generating a sedimentary model from which a relative paleobathimetry time series has been produced. The resulting spectral analyses in time domain reveal significant peaks matching with the 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity cycle. Assumed our magnetostratigraphy-based age model, a correlation of phases of lacustrine expansion with periods of eccentricity maxima is derived, which is the same phase relationship suggested for the 2.4-Myr megasequential arrangement. We conclude that climate (orbital) forcing controlled the sequential facies arrangement from high to low frequencies of the lacustrine systems of the eastern Ebro Basin. The accumulation of several

  11. Cellular automata to understand the behaviour of beach-dune systems: Application to El Fangar Spit active dune system (Ebro delta, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada

    2016-08-01

    Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.

  12. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. Assessment of sediment ecotoxicological status as a complementary tool for the evaluation of surface water quality: the Ebro river basin case study.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Gallego, Elena Perez; Schuhmacher, Marta; Blasco, Julián

    2015-01-15

    According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), assessment of surface water status is based on ecological and chemical status that is not always in coherence. In these situations, ecotoxicity tests could help to obtain a better characterization of the ecosystems. The general aim of this work is to design a methodology to study the ecotoxicological status of freshwater systems. This could be useful and complementary to ecological status, for a better ecological characterization of freshwater systems. For this purpose, sediments from thirteen sampling sites within the Ebro river watershed (NE Spain) were collected for ecotoxicity characterization. The ecotoxicity of pore water has been evaluated employing the test organisms Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna, while whole sediment ecotoxicity was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Nitzschia palea and Chironomus riparius. An analysis of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) was performed to evaluate the sediment toxicity associated to bioavailable metals. Moreover, data about priority pollutants defined by the WFD in water, sediment and fish as well as data of surface water status of each sampling point were provided by the Monitoring and Control Program of the Ebro Water bodies. In general terms, whole sediment bioassays have shown more toxicity than pore water tests. Among the different organisms used, P. subcapitata and C. riparius were the most sensitive in pore water and whole sediment, respectively. Our evaluation of the ecotoxicological status showed high coincidences with the ecological status, established according to the WFD, especially when ecosystem disruption due to numerous stressors (presence of metals and organic pollution) was observed. These results allow us to confirm that, when chemical stressors affect the ecosystem functioning negatively, an ecotoxicological approach, provided by suitable bioassays in pore

  14. Multi-storey calcrete profiles developed during the initial stages of the configuration of the Ebro Basin's exorrheic fluvial network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Alfonso; Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Sancho, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Multi-storey calcrete profiles developed in the Quaternary on strath terraces of the Cinca and Alcanadre rivers, tributaries of the Ebro River in NE Spain. Two calcrete profiles (Tor 1 and Tor 2) near the village of El Tormillo show horizons with an arrangement that differs from that of commonly described calcrete profiles. Significant lateral changes occur in these profiles within a distance of less than 200 m, reflecting their pedofacies relationship. The Tor 1 profile on terrace Qt1 (the highest and oldest) consists of six horizons (from bottom to top): 1) coarse fluvial gravels; 2) mudstones with carbonate nodules; 3) a chalky horizon; 4) laminar horizons, including one peloidal horizon; 5) a multi-storey horizon formed of at least six minor sequences, each of which includes a lower detrital layer, a pisolithic horizon, and a thin discontinuous laminar horizon (these sequences indicate several cycles of brecciation and/or reworking); and 6) a topmost laminar and brecciated horizon also including reworked pisoliths. Some 200 m to the north of Tor 1, horizon 5 undergoes a lateral change to channel fill-deposits. The infill of the channels shows a fining-upwards sequence ranging from clasts of about 10 cm in diameter to red silts with sparse pebbles. All the clasts come from the underlying calcrete horizons. Laminar horizons are interbedded with the clastic channel deposits. The youngest calcrete profiles developed on terrace Qt3 of the Cinca River and on the Qp4 and Qp6 mantled pediment levels. All show relatively simple profiles composed mostly of lower horizons of coated gravels, with thin laminar horizons at the top. Most of the horizons, especially the laminar ones, show biogenic features such as alveolar septal structures, calcified filaments, biofilms, spherulites, micropores and needle-like calcite crystals. These features indicate the important role of vegetation in the formation of all the above profiles. The interbedding of clastic sediments and

  15. High spatial patchiness of methane concentrations over the flat landscape of the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, J.-A.; Rodó, X.; Curcoll, R.; Agueda, A.; Sánchez, L.; Occhipinti, P.; Nofuentes, M.; Arias, R.; Batet, O.

    2012-04-01

    With the aim of evaluate the role of a different water management on greenhouse gases (GHGs) at each side of the Ebro River Delta, five points were chosen to be sampled for GHGs for studying their spatial variability along diurnal cycles. The daily schedule for sampling was starting one day at the evening/sunset, followed by the next day dawn sampling, and eventually closing the cycle at the evening/sunset. Samples are been taken along the seasonal cycle to cope with the main rice works: seeding, growing, flourishing, maturation, harvesting, fields flooding and soil aeration before new seeding. The Ebre River Delta terrain is covered in its 200 km2 with the same agroecosystem (paddy fields) at the two riversides, and natural lagoons and marshes are found along the shoreline. The five spots to be sampled were selected to represent all these habitats at each side of the Delta; one is close to paddy fields, another one to the lagoons, and the fifth one to the river embankments up the river, with a pentagonal shape. Continuous measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) following radial paths transects of the pentagon were performed with a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyser mounted on a car. The air inlet was held in front of the car, at forty cm above ground, with a little buffer to filter particles. Due to the constraints imposed by this buffer, every measurement was copying for a track of 30 m, for a 60 km/hour car speed. Flasks for GHGs (CO2, CH4, CO, N20) analyses by Gas Chromatography were taken at every spot with the car engine stopped while the CRDS analyzer was measuring yet, in order to compare results. Ebre River Delta rice cultures management is usually characterized for maintaining the paddies flooded after the harvesting of rice to giving enough aquatic life for feeding the migratory birds. Only during the previous time to seed the rice, the fields are dried. Nevertheless, two years ago, the left side of the riversides is being dried during winter to prevent

  16. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  17. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

    2006-05-29

    The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

  18. Upper airway test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An upper airway biopsy is obtained by using a flexible scope called a bronchoscope. The scope is passed down through ... may be performed when an abnormality of the upper airway is suspected. It may also be performed as ...

  19. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and

  20. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  1. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest, A.; Crate, David; Blasingame, Thomas; Major, R.P.; Brown, Lewis; Stafford, Wayne

    2002-11-02

    The principal objectives of the project were: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs.

  2. Pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Odgren, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal examinations are common procedures in many radiology departments. Performing this examination on pediatric patients requires understanding the formation of the gastrointestinal tract and the various disease processes and anatomical variances that can occur. The examination also requires a thorough patient history. This article discusses embryologic development and anatomy of the small bowel and colon, disease processes and conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal tract examinations performed on the pediatric and neonatal patient. PMID:24806054

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF MATERIAL FROM ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES ON THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT CLEARANCE MECHANISM. PART I: IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS. PART II: IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to measure the toxic effects of a variety of substances from the environment on the clearance mechanism of the upper respiratory tract using an in vitro hamster model system. Studies using hamsters for in vivo exposures to ozone were also conducted to deter...

  4. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome. PMID:27105797

  5. Radioactivity evaluation of Ebro river water and sludge treated in a potable water treatment plant located in the South of Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2010-03-01

    A potable water treatment plant with an average production rate of 4.3m(3)/s, providing several cities in the south of Catalonia (Spain) with drinking water, has been studied for a period of six years (2002-2007) regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. First, gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities were determined in ingoing and outgoing water samples. The values for all these parameters were below the Spanish normative limits established for waters for human consumption. For the sludge samples generated in the plant, we quantified some gamma emitting radioisotopes: natural ((40)K, (214)Pb, etc.) and artificial ((60)Co, (110m)Ag, etc.) which may be related to the geological or/and industrial activities (such as a nuclear power plant) located upstream of the PWTP on the Ebro River. Finally, when the sludge samples were compared with those from other water treatment plants, the influence of the industrial activities on the radioisotopes found in the analysed samples was confirmed since the activity levels for some of the isotopes quantified were 10 times higher. PMID:20031431

  6. Gillnet selectivity in the Ebro Delta coastal lagoons and its implication for the fishery management of the sand smelt, Atherina boyeri (Actinopterygii: Atherinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Climent, Sílvia; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles; Nebra, Alfonso; Muñoz-Camarillo, Gloria; Casals, Frederic; Vinyoles, Dolors; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2012-12-01

    Multimesh nylon gillnets were set in three Ebro Delta (North-East of Spain) lagoons to determine mesh selectivity for the inhabiting fish community. Each gillnet consisted on a series of twelve panels of different mesh size (ranging from 5.0 to 55.0 mm bar length) randomly distributed. The SELECT method (Share Each Length's Catch Total) was used to estimate retention curves through five models: normal location, normal scale, gamma, lognormal and inverse Gaussian. Each model was fitted twice, under the assumptions of equal and proportional to mesh size fishing effort, but no differences were found between approaches. A possible situation of overfishing in the lagoons, where artisanal fisheries are carried out with a low surveillance effort, was assessed using a vulnerable species inhabiting these brackish waters as case study: the sand smelt, Atherina boyeri. The minimum size for its fishery has not been established, thus remaining under an uncontrolled exploitation situation. Therefore, a Minimum Landing Size (MLS) is proposed based on sexual maturity data. The importance of establishing an adequate MLS and regulate mesh sizes in order to respect natural maturation length is discussed, as well as, the proposal of other measures to improve A. boyeri fishery management.

  7. Studies on nodules and adult Onchocerca volvulus during a nodulectomy trial in hyperendemic villages in Liberia and Upper Volta. II. Comparison of the macrofilaria population in adult nodule carriers.

    PubMed

    Albiez, E J; Büttner, D W; Schulz-Key, H

    1984-09-01

    In the Liberian rain-forest and the savanna of Upper Volta 189 adult nodule carriers were operated on. From 2231 extirpated nodules 3327 male and 5713 female macrofilariae were isolated. About 98% of the male worms and 88% of the female worms were found alive. The sex ratio of the live male and female worms was 1:1.5 in Liberia and 1:1.6 in Upper Volta. Less than 1% of all live macrofilariae were immature in both countries. 22% of the live male worms in Liberia were regarded as old. The percentage of old male and female worms in Upper Volta and that of the old female worms in Liberia were similar (5-7%). The portion of old worms was independent of the age of the patients in Liberia. Dead worms were found in 66% of the Liberians and in 85% of the Voltaics. The percentage of patients with dead worms increased with the age. About 0.5% of all male and 8% of all female worms were calcified. In Liberia the percentage of calcified worms increased with the age of the patients. In both countries the highest number of live and dead worms were found on the pelvic girdle. On the thorax many more macrofilariae were found in Upper Volta than in Liberia. This may contribute to the severe eye lesions in this savanna area. The presented findings provide some basic information for the planning and performance of trials with macrofilaricidal drugs in hyperendemic areas of West Africa. However, the striking differences between individual worm burdens have to be considered. PMID:6541822

  8. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Cate, David; Blasingame, Thomas; Major, R.P.; Brown, Lewis; Stafford, Wayne

    2001-08-07

    The principal objectives of this project was to: increase the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. Efforts for Year 1 of this project has been reservoir characterization, which has included three (3) primary tasks: geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, and microbial characterization.

  9. Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groesbeck, W.

    An account is given of the design features of the LOX/LH2-fueled Centaur upper stage engine and fuel cryotankage, in order to serve as a basis for understanding the Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) system instituted. MECO follows the instant of spacecraft separation from the upper stage. The planetary launch program during 1966-1978 involved 23 Centaur launches and led to no upper stage reentry; LEO missions for HEAO and OAO satellite lofting in 1963-1979 involved nine Centaur launches and led to five reentries. GEO satellite launches in 1969-1986 saw 32 launches and three known reentries.

  10. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609

  11. Upper GI Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disclaimer Diagnostic Tests Upper GI Endoscopy Print or Order Publications Information on this topic is also available ... GI Endoscopy (PDF, 381 KB)​ You can also order print versions from our online catalog. ​​ Additional Links ​ ...

  12. Upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  13. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  14. Current systems: Upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States orbital transfer vehicles are presented: PAM-D (Payload Assist Module); PAM-D2; IUS (Inertial Upper Stage); and TOS (Transfer Orbit Stage). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  15. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  16. Patterns of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in fish species downstream of a long-term mercury-contaminated site in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Barata, Carlos; García-Berthou, Emili; Tobias, Aurelio; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

    2011-09-01

    Since the 19th century, large amounts of industrial waste were dumped in a reservoir adjacent to a chlor-alkali plant in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain). Previous toxicological analysis of carp populations inhabiting the surveyed area have shown that the highest biological impact attributable to mercury pollution occurred downstream of the discharge site. However, mercury speciation in fish from this polluted area has not been addressed yet. Thus, in the present study, piscivorous European catfish (Silurus glanis) and non-piscivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were selected, to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation capacities of both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at the discharge site and downstream points. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were fitted in order to assess the relationship between both Hg species in fish and different variables of interest. Mercury levels in fish inhabiting the dam at the discharge site were found to be approximately 2-fold higher than those from an upstream site; while mercury pollution progressively increased downstream of the hot spot. In fact, both THg and MeHg levels at the farthest downstream point were 3 times greater than those close to the waste dump. This result clearly indicates downstream transport and increased mercury bioavailability as a function of distance downstream from the contamination source. A number of factors may affect both the downstream transport and increased Hg bioavailability associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). PMID:21663932

  17. Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, María José; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse and their metabolites have been recently recognized as environmental emerging organic contaminants. Assessment of their concentration in different environmental compartments is essential to evaluate their potential ecotoxicological effects. It also constitutes an indirect tool to estimate drug abuse by the population at the community level. The present work reports for the first time the occurrence of drugs of abuse and metabolites residues along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) and also evaluates the contribution of sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents to the presence of these chemicals in natural surface waters. Concentrations measured in influent sewage waters were used to back calculate drug usage at the community level in the main urban areas of the investigated river basin. The most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in the studied aqueous matrices were cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ephedrine and ecstasy. Lysergic compounds, heroin, its metabolite 6-monoacetyl morphine, and Delta(9)-tetradhydrocannabinol were the substances less frequently detected. Overall, total levels of the studied illicit drugs and metabolites observed in surface water (in the low ng/L range) were one and two orders of magnitude lower than those determined in effluent (in the ng/L range) and influent sewage water (microg/L range), respectively. The investigated STPs showed overall removal efficiencies between 45 and 95%. Some compounds, such as cocaine and amphetamine, were very efficiently eliminated (>90%) whereas others, such as ecstasy, methamphetamine, nor-LSD, and THC-COOH where occasionally not eliminated at all. Drug consumption estimates pointed out cocaine as the most abused drug, followed by cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamine, which slightly differs from national official estimates (cannabis, followed by cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamine and heroin). Extrapolation of the consumption data obtained for the studied area to Spain points out a total

  18. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  19. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  20. Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-29

    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

  1. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination. PMID:16517345

  2. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Gabriela Mabel; Prost, Angela Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is complicated because the eyelid must retain mobility, flexibility, function, and a suitable mucosal surface over the delicate cornea. Defects of the upper eyelid may be due to congenital defects or traumatic injury or follow oncologic resection. This article focuses on reconstruction due to loss of tissue. Multiple surgeries may be needed to reach the desired results, addressing loss of tissue and then loss of function. Each defect is unique and the laxity and availability of surrounding tissue vary. Knowing the most common techniques for repair assists surgeons in the multifaceted planning that takes place. PMID:27105803

  3. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Irfan-Ur; Saeian, Kia

    2016-04-01

    In the intensive care unit, vigilance is needed to manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A focused history and physical examination must be completed to identify inciting factors and the need for hemodynamic stabilization. Although not universally used, risk stratification tools such as the Blatchford and Rockall scores can facilitate triage and management. Urgent evaluation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds requires prompt respiratory assessment, and identification of hemodynamic instability with fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions if necessary. Future studies are needed to evaluate the indication, safety, and efficacy of emerging endoscopic techniques. PMID:27016164

  4. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended load at-a-cross-section: the lowermost Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rovira, A; Alcaraz, C; Ibáñez, C

    2012-07-01

    Suspended load dynamics were analyzed for the period 2007-2009 in a semi-meandering cross-section under different hydrological conditions. Samples were collected at four different points of the cross-section. During "low discharges" (≤ 600 m³/s) suspended load samples were collected at-a-monthly basis, whereas at "high discharges" (> 600 m³/s) sampling was conducted intensively (at-a-daily basis during the first stages of the flood event). Results indicated that during low discharges, both organic and inorganic suspended load concentrations tended to be uniformly distributed across the fluvial section; but during high discharges, two distinct areas were found: an area extending from the "Inner-bank" to the "Channel centre" (Area-I) with higher suspended concentrations (organic and inorganic) than those recorded in the "Outer bank" (Area-II). This phenomenon was likely related to the formation of secondary flow velocity cells and the activation of new sources of sediment. In addition, a non-significant relationship between organic suspended load and water flow was observed in the outer-bank. At-a-monthly basis, the analysis of the suspended load showed the existence of an intra-annual cycle of the inorganic concentrations, with a progressive increase from October to March followed by a decrease from March to September. Nevertheless, the organic suspended load did not show any trend, being equally distributed along the year, suggesting that other sources of organic matter besides phytoplankton are predominant. PMID:22560895

  5. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part II. Depositional settings of the coal bearing, upper Tradewater Formation in western Kentucky with emphasis on the Mannington (No. 4) coal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Baynard, D.N.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Depositional settings were determined in the coal bearing, Middle Pennsylvanian, upper Tradewater Formation in western Kentucky with emphasis on the Mannington (No. 4) coal zone. The coals have been analyzed for maceral contents, lithotypes, dry sulfur/ash percentages, vitrinite reflectance values, pyrite/marcasite contents, and associated lithologies at different vertical and lateral scales. This study concludes that: (1) the thin coarsening - or fining upward sequences, under the Mannington (No. 4) coal zone are possibly shallow bayfill and channel-fill deposits that provided an environment that has slight differences in topography, (2) rapid vertical and lateral change in total vitrinite, dry sulfur/ash percentages and lithotypes at different scales in the Mannington (No. 4) coal zone are indicative of wideranging Eh and pH values and possibly result from slight changes in paleotopography, and (3) the Davis (No. 6) coal was deposited after a period of thick coarsening - or fining upward sequences, possibly providing a relatively flat-stable surface for peat development. The consistent total vitrinite, dry sulfur/ash values, and thickness trends indicate a more restricted environment (pH and Eh) in the Davis (No. 6) swamp. 41 references, 25 figures, 3 tables.

  6. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  7. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. PMID:26173852

  8. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Lobo, Alan J

    2015-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered medical emergency with an incidence of 84-160/100000 and associated with mortality of approximately 10%. Guidelines from the National Institute for Care and Care Excellence outline key features in the management of AUGIB. Patients require prompt resuscitation and risk assessment using validated tools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy provides accurate diagnosis, aids in estimating prognosis and allows therapeutic intervention. Endoscopy should be undertaken immediately after resuscitation in unstable patients and within 24 hours in all other patients. Interventional radiology may be required for bleeding unresponsive to endoscopic intervention. Drug therapy depends on the cause of bleeding. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors should be used in patients with high-risk ulcers. Terlipressin and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used following variceal haemorrhage. Hospitals admitting patients with AUGIB need to provide well organised services and ensure access to relevant services for all patients, and particularly to out of hours endoscopy. PMID:26430191

  9. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  10. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  11. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  12. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  13. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  14. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  15. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  16. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  17. Upper extremity myoelectric prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Uellendahl, J E

    2000-08-01

    Myoelectric control of upper limb prostheses has proven to be an effective and efficient means of controlling prosthetic components. This means of control has been used extensively for over 30 years, during which time these systems have become reliable and durable in most situations. Myoelectric control, or any other prosthetic control scheme, should not be considered as the optimal control for arm prostheses, but rather as one of the several effective ways of producing desired function. Advanced clinical practice calls for a blending of all control schemes, as appropriate, to allow the prosthesis to serve the intentions of the user efficiently and with little mental effort. Technology continues to change, bringing with it new and sometimes better ways of fitting amputees. Microprocessors and programmable controllers have opened new and exciting avenues for improvement in function. New, and as of yet unidentified, electronic and mechanical advances are certainly on the horizon. There is much work to be done before upper limb prostheses rightfully are called arm replacements. But progress is occurring and advances are being made toward the goal of replacing the function and appearance of that marvelous tool, the human arm. PMID:10989484

  18. Planetary upper atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2005-10-01

    Earth and most planets in our solar system are surrounded by permanent atmospheres. Their outermost layers, the thermospheres, ionospheres and exospheres, are regions which couple the atmospheres to space, the Sun and solar wind. Furthermore, most planets possess a magnetosphere, which extends into space considerably further than the atmosphere, but through magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes closely interacts with it. Auroral emissions, found on Earth and other panets, are manifestations of this coupling and a mapping of distant regions in the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere along magnetic field lines. This article compares planetary upper atmospheres in our solar system and attempts to explain their differences via fundamental properties such as atmospheric gas composition, magnetosphere structure and distance from Sun. Understanding the space environment of Earth and its coupling to the Sun, and attempting to predict its behaviour ("Space Weather") plays an important practical role in protecting satellites, upon which many aspects to todays civilisation rely. By comparing our own space environment to that of other planets we gain a deeper understanding of its physical processes and uniqueness. Increasingly, we apply our knowledge also to atmospheres of extrasolar system planets, which will help assessing the possibility of life-elsewhere in the Universe.

  19. Dynamics of suprabenthos off the Ebro Delta (Catalan Sea: western Mediterranean): Spatial 13 and temporal patterns and relationships with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Palanques, Albert; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat

    2007-12-01

    Dynamics of suprabenthos (hyperbenthos) composition and biomass have been simultaneously analyzed at two sites (S1, S2) off the Ebro River Delta (western Mediterranean). The stations, separated by ca. 5 km, differed in terms of depth (S1, 47 m; S2, 61 m), distance to the river mouth (S2 south of S1 and farther from the mouth) and fishing activity (S1 is a fishing ground; S2 is in an area closed to fishing). Peracarids (gammaridean amphipods, mysids, and cumaceans) were dominant among suprabenthic taxa. Seasonality was the main explanation for changes in taxonomic composition, with two seasonal groups indicated by MDS analyses (late summer-autumn, August-September, and November 2003; early summer, June and July samples). Peracarids at both S1 and S2 showed a peak of abundance in early July, with the highest densities reaching 5400 individuals (100 m) -2 at S2. There was a sharp decrease of density in late July (S1) and August (S2), then an increase in August (S1) and in September (S2), respectively. A secondary peak of abundance occurred in November (S1) and December (S2). There was, therefore, a similar picture in the dynamics of suprabenthic peracarids at both sites, though with a delay of 1 month at the deeper S2. This pattern coincided with changes in river discharge (specifically, a decrease of suprabenthos when influx was below 200 m 3 s -1 in the period June-September 2003), and with the formation of a thermal gradient (also in June-September 2003) between S1 and S2 associated with the 15 °C isotherm. In addition, the decrease of suprabenthos in late July-August also coincided with the massive occurrence of mucilaginous aggregates close to the bottom (at between 0 and 4 m above the bottom), in the usual habitat of suprabenthos. C/N ratios in sediments (an indicator of the degree of degradation of organic matter (OM)) increased during this peak abundance of mucilaginous aggregates. The impoverishment of sediments in total organic carbon (TOC) was parallel to

  20. Oscillator strength measurements in samarium(II), neodymium(II) and praseodymium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruohong

    A knowledge of the abundances of lanthanide ions in stellar photospheres is valuable in astrophysics, especially for chemically peculiar stars. However, the determination of elemental abundances is often limited by inadequate knowledge of oscillator strengths. Combining independently measured values of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions is an effective and precise method to measure oscillator strengths. It avoids absolute intensity measurements, requiring a knowledge of the absolute number density of particles and absolute measurements of intensity, and furthermore decreases the systematic error greatly. In the previous work of our group, the lifetimes of Sm II, Nd II and Pr II were obtained. In this thesis work, we measured the corresponding branching fractions of these lanthanide ions using a fast-ion-beam laser-induced- fluorescence technique. The power of this technique is that ions are selectively excited by a laser, which ensures that every branch comes from a single upper level and gets rid of spectral blends. Besides, the low ion-beam density ensures that the systematic errors due to collisions and radiation trapping are negligible. Combining the branching fractions with our previously measured lifetimes, we obtained 608, 430 and 260 oscillator strength values for Sm II, Nd II and Pr II transitions, respectively, over the wavelength range 350-850 nm. These transitions originate from 69 upper levels in the range 21 655 cm -1 -29 388 cm -1 for Sm II, 46 upper levels in the range 22 697 cm -1 -29 955 cm -1 for Nd II, and 32 levels in the range 22 040 cm -1 -28 577 cm -1 for Pr II. Of the 260 measured oscillator strength values of Pr II, 183 have been determined accurately for the first time. The uncertainties arise principally from systematic uncertainties of the efficiency calibration of the optical detection system (7.1%), with smaller statistical contributions (1.5%). Comparisons are made to prior measurements.

  1. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  3. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. II - Imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Burch, J. L.; Swenson, G. R.; Aamodt, E. K.; Geller, S. P.; Rairden, R. L.; Hassler, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    On the ATLAS 1 mission (STS-45, launched March 24, 1992) two experiments, AEPI (Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging) and SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) performed the first of a series of active experiments intended to probe the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere with electron beams. The luminous artificial aurora generated by the electron beam interaction was detected and measured by AEPI both in white light and in a narrow wavelength band at 427.8 nm (peak intensity 5 kR). Modelling calculation showed that there was a significant contribution from emissions originating near the spacecraft. The spatial intensity distribution of the observed auroral patch is consistent with emission contribution from both high and low altitude regions. An extended tail in the direction of the shuttle wake was observed in the 427.8 nm channel, consistent with a decay time associated with the dissipation of the hot electron plasma.

  4. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hasan, N; Fletcher, E C

    1998-07-01

    Many clinicians are familiar with the clinical symptoms and signs of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In its most blatant form, OSA is complete airway obstruction with repetitive, prolonged pauses in breathing, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation; followed by arousal with resumption of breathing. Daytime symptoms of this disorder include excessive daytime somnolence, intellectual dysfunction, and cardiovascular effects such as systemic hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. It has been recently recognized that increased pharyngeal resistance with incomplete obstruction can lead to a constellation of symptoms identical to OSA called "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS). The typical findings of UARS on sleep study are: (1) repetitive arousals from EEG sleep coinciding with a (2) waxing and waning of the respiratory airflow pattern and (3) increased respiratory effort as measured by esophageal pressure monitoring. There may be few, if any, obvious apneas or hypopneas with desaturation, but snoring may be a very prominent finding. Treatment with nasal positive airway pressure (NCPAP) eliminates the symptoms and confirms the diagnosis. Herein we describe two typical cases of UARS. PMID:9676067

  5. Upper and lower pharyngeal airway space in West-Tamil Nadu population

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Prabhakaran; Muthukumar, Karthi; Krishnan, Prabhakar; Senthil Kumar, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the upper and lower pharyngeal airway (LPA) width in Class II malocclusion patients with low, average, and high vertical growth patterns. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric films of 90 Class II subjects were used to measure the upper and LPAs. The inclusion criteria were subjects of West-Tamil Nadu, aged between 14 and 25 years, only skeletal Class II subjects of either gender and no pharyngeal pathology at initial visit. The sample comprised a total of 90 Class II subjects divided into three groups according to the vertical facial pattern: Normodivergent (n = 30), hypodivergent (n = 30), and hyperdivergent (n = 30). The assessment of upper and LPAs was done according to McNamara's airway analysis. Statistical Analysis: The intergroup comparison of the upper and LPAs was performed with one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test was used to compare among the various vertical patterns. Results: Skeletal Class II subjects with hyperdivergent facial pattern showed statistically significant narrow upper pharyngeal width when compared to normodivergent and hypodivergent facial patterns. No statistically significant difference was found in the lower pharyngeal width in all three vertical facial growth patterns. Conclusion: Subjects with Class II malocclusions and hyperdivergent growth pattern have significantly narrow upper pharyngeal airway space when compared to other two vertical patterns. Narrow pharyngeal airway space is one of the predisposing factors for mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26538913

  6. Congenital Median Upper Lip Fistula

    PubMed Central

    al Aithan, Bandar

    2012-01-01

    Congenital median upper lip fistula (MULF) is an extremely rare condition resulting from abnormal fusion of embryologic structures. We present a new case of congenital medial upper lip fistula located in the midline of the philtrum of a 6 year old girl. PMID:22953305

  7. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty. PMID:23186767

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  9. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  10. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  11. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  12. Orographic Disturbances of Upper Atmosphere Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shefov, N. N.; Pertsev, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    There are some increases of the temperature of the hydroxyl emission (delta T approximately 20 K, z approximately 90 km) and of the intensity of the 63000 oxygen emission (delta I/I approximately 20 per cent, z approximately 250 km) for the lee of the mountains at distances about 150 km in the case of the latitudinal direction of the wind (U approximately 10 m/s) at the 3000 m level. Airflow motions over mountains may be one of the possible processes of generation of wave disturbances penetrating into the upper atmospheres (HINES, 1974; LINDZEN, 1971). The purpose here is to study the penetration of orographic disturbances into upper atmosphere. Airplane measurements of emission variations of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 6300 A near the Northern Ural mountains were made. Several nocturnal flights were carried out in March, 1980 and January to February, 1981 at heights about 3000 m along 64 deg northern latitude in the Ural region. Spectrographs SP-48 with electronic image converters registration for OH ((9,4) and (5,1) bands - 7700 to 8100 A) and OI (6300 A) emissions were used. The zenith region was observed, and exposure time was 2 minutes. This corresponds to averaging of the emission intensities along the airplane trace over a distance of 10 km. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature variations at the flight altitude were made.

  13. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  14. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  15. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

  16. Accurate Ritz Wavelengths of Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 × 10-2 s-1 and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  17. ACCURATE RITZ WAVELENGTHS OF PARITY-FORBIDDEN [Co II] AND [V II] LINES OF ASTROPHYSICAL INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  18. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways. PMID:15301356

  19. SHUEE on the evaluation of upper limb in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Ana Paula; Nicolini-Panisson, Renata D'Agostini; de Jesus, Aline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of the tool for evaluation of spastic upper limb SHUEE (Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation) in the evaluation of upper limb in cerebral palsy (CP) and its ability to detect changes after surgical treatment of identified deformities. METHODS: 19 patients with spastic hemiplegic CP had their upper limb evaluated by SHUEE. Five patients underwent surgical treatment of deformities detected and performed the test at one year postoperatively. RESULTS: The mean age was 9.02 years old; 18 patients were classified as level I GMFCS and one patient as level II. At baseline, the mean spontaneous functional analysis was 59.01; dynamic positional analysis was 58.05 and grasp-and-release function, was 91.21. In the postoperative period the scores were, respectively, 65.73, 69.62 and 100, showing an improvement of 3.5% in the spontaneous functional analysis and of 44.8% in dynamic positional analysis. CONCLUSIONS: SHUEE is a tool for evaluation of spastic upper limb in cerebral palsy that helps in the specific diagnosis of deformities, indication of treatment and objective detection of results after surgical treatment. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26327806

  20. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Claudia J; Mcdonald, Eric; Sancho, Carlos; Pena, Jose- Luis

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  1. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Rachel E.; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F. G.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka 14C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered. PMID:23382220

  2. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  3. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  4. Identification of compounds bound to suspended solids causing sub-lethal toxic effects in Daphnia magna. A field study on re-suspended particles during river floods in Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, Claudia; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia; Díez, Sergi; Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Barata, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Identifying chemicals causing adverse effects in organisms present in water remains a challenge in environmental risk assessment. This study aimed to assess and identify toxic compounds bound to suspended solids re-suspended during a prolonged period of flushing flows in the lower part of Ebro River (NE, Spain). This area is contaminated with high amounts of organochlorine and mercury sediment wastes. Chemical characterization of suspended material was performed by solid phase extraction using a battery of non-polar and polar solvents and analyzed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. Mercury content was also determined for all sites. Post-exposure feeding rates of Daphnia magna were used to assess toxic effects of whole and filtered water samples and of re-constituted laboratory water with re-suspended solid fractions. Organochlorine and mercury residues in the water samples increased from upstream to downstream locations. Conversely, toxic effects were greater at the upstream site than downstream of the superfund Flix reservoir. A further analysis of the suspended solid fraction identified a toxic component eluted within the 80:20 methanol:water fraction. Characterization of that toxic component fraction by LC-MS/MS identified the phytotoxin anatoxin-a, whose residue levels were correlated with observed feeding inhibition responses. Further feeding inhibition assays conducted in the lab using anatoxin-a produced from Planktothrix agardhii, a filamentous cyanobacteria, confirmed field results. This study provides evidence that in real field situation measured contaminant residues do not always agree with toxic effects. PMID:25667993

  5. Are native naiads more tolerant to pollution than exotic freshwater bivalve species? An hypothesis tested using physiological responses of three species transplanted to mercury contaminated sites in the Ebro River (NE, Spain).

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; López, Miguel Angel; Díez, Sergi; Barata, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    In the lower Ebro River exist the paradoxical convergence of relatively well preserved river dynamics with the historical presence of a chloralkali plant with a long history of mercury discharges and the recent invasion of foreign bivalves species. Here we performed a comparative study on two alien bivalves, the Zebra mussel and the Asian clam (Dreissena polymorpha and Corbicula fluminea), and one protected species of naiads (Psilunio littoralis), which is the most common species of the freshwater mussel assemblages in this river. Individuals of the three species were transplanted to three sites that included a clean unpolluted upstream site, a contaminated location next to the mercury source and a downstream one. The study focused on digestive gland antioxidant and oxidative stress responses such as antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S transferase, glutathione levels, metallothionein proteins, DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation levels. Results evidenced interspecies differences on accumulation levels of mercury, antioxidant defensive systems and oxidative tissue damage. The naiad species, despite of accumulating more mercury showed the greatest antioxidant defensive potential, which was characterized by having high constitutive activities of glutathione S transferase and inducible activities and levels of key antioxidant enzymes and glutathione. Exposed individuals of C. fluminea had moderate levels of metal accumulation, the highest activities of antioxidant enzymes but also high levels of lipid peroxidation. D. polymorpha mussels showed the lowest levels of mercury but the lowest antioxidant responses and consequently the highest levels of oxidative injuries in the DNA and of mortality. Our results support the hypothesis that naiad species might be more tolerant to pollution than exotic species. PMID:20952043

  6. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  7. Upper Blepharoplasty for Areola Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O. L.; Heil, J.; Golatta, M.; Domschke, C.; Sohn, C.; Blumenstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common rejuvenating facial plastic surgery procedures. The procedure has been described many times and has very few complications. The tissue removed from the upper eyelid during blepharoplasty can be used as a skin graft for areola reconstruction due to the tissueʼs similarity to the areolaʼs natural skin. The present study investigated the use of upper blepharoplasty for areola reconstruction. Criteria were patient satisfaction, objective measurements and the assessment of cosmesis by a panel of physicians. All eight patients included in the study were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Objective measurements and assessment by a panel of physicians using photographs of the reconstructed nipple-areola complex showed very good aesthetic results. PMID:24771929

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  9. The upper atmosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

  10. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  12. Solar Variability, Lunar Spectroscopy and Earth's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    Solar EUV radiation and its variability is of central importance to the earths upper atmosphere. Variability of the earths upper atmosphere is a major concern to NASAs satellite missions. This LARGE PROJECT (2 year) proposal asks for continued measurments of solar EUV variability using EUVE to observe solar light scattered from the moon. Existing EUVE data prove that we can enhance ourunderstanding of the physics of the upper atmosphere at a time when solar EUV measurements are scarce. Our aims include: (i) to understand the phase and polarization dependence of solar light scattered from the moon, (ii) to quantify variations in solar EUV irradiance, (iii) to calibrate these data with a rocket--launched EUV payload, and (iv) to use these data with simultaneous UV measurements from UARS as inputs to upper atmospheric models. Very short exposures (<30 min) are required. We request TYPE 2 observations twice a lunar month, and a variety of TYPE 1 observations to permit us to take the necessary steps towards converting lunar intensity data to absolute solar irradiances.

  13. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances. PMID:26720949

  14. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  15. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  16. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  17. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  18. Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease The full report is titled “Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Best Practice Advice From the Clinical Guidelines ...

  19. The NASA program on upper atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

  20. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  1. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  2. The statistical upper mantle assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Anderson, Don L.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in modern mantle geochemistry is to link geochemical data with geological and geophysical observations. Most of the early geochemical models involved a layered mantle and the concept of geochemical reservoirs. Indeed, the two layer mantle model has been implicit in almost all geochemical literature and the provenance of oceanic island basalt (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) [van Keken et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 30 (2002) 493-525]. Large-scale regions in the mantle, such as the 'convective' (i.e. well-stirred, homogeneous) upper mantle, sub-continental lithosphere, and the lower mantle were treated as distinct and accessible geochemical reservoirs. Here we discuss evidence for a ubiquitous distribution of small- to moderate-scale (i.e. 10 2-10 5 m) heterogeneity in the upper mantle, which we refer to as the statistical upper mantle assemblage (SUMA). This heterogeneity forms as the result of long-term plate tectonic recycling of sedimentary and crustal components. The SUMA model does not require a convectively homogenized MORB mantle reservoir, which has become a frequently used concept in geochemistry. Recently, Kellogg et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204 (2002) 183-202] modeled MORB and OIB Sr and Nd isotopic compositions as local mantle averages of random distributions of depleted residues and recycled continental crustal material. In this model, homogenization of the MORB source region is achieved by convective stirring and mixing. In contrast, in the SUMA model, the isotopic compositions of MORB and OIB are the outcome of homogenization during sampling, by partial melting and magma mixing (e.g. [Helffrich and Wood, Nature 412 (2001) 501-507]), of a distribution of small- to moderate-scale upper mantle heterogeneity, as predicted by the central limit theorem. Thus, the 'SUMA' acronym also captures what we consider the primary homogenization process: sampling upon melting and averaging. SUMA does not require the

  3. Coping with upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, John W

    2002-09-01

    Your doctor has diagnosed your problem as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Common URIs include viral rhinitis (the common cold), sore throat, and sinusitis (sinus infection). Most URIs are caused by viruses, but some are caused by bacteria. Your physician may have recommended medication to treat your symptoms; these include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen for pain or fever and antihistamines and/or decongestants to treat congestion and runny nose. Because they treat bacterial infections, antibiotics will not help a viral URI. PMID:20086546

  4. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  5. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  6. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  7. BORE II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  8. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  9. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  10. 76 FR 33346 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Upper Snake Field Office, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... following notices: (1) Notice of Emergency Closure of Public Lands, Idaho, 53 FR 8701 (March 16, 1988); (2) Notice of Seasonal Restrictions and Limited Land Use, Closure Order, Idaho, 57 FR 27264 (June 18, 1992... River, 60 FR 19762 (April 20, 1995). II. Discussion of Public Comments The BLM Upper Snake Field...

  11. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper, Main Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper, Main Gate Valve, Governor, Waterwheel and Generator of No. 1 Set; Lower, View Looking Down upon Generator Set." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 122 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  12. Mathematics and Experimental Sciences in the FRG-Upper Secondary Schools. Occasional Paper 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Hans-Georg

    The mathematics and experimental science courses in the programs of the upper secondary school in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are discussed. The paper addresses: (1) the two "secondary levels" within the FRG school system, indicating that the Secondary I-Level (SI) comprises grades 5 through 9 or 10 while the Secondary II-Level (SII)…

  13. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. PMID:25857514

  15. Upper and lower dissipative bounds for THMC Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Karrech, A.; Chua, H.; Poulet, T.; Trefry, M. G.; Western Australian Geothermal Centre of Excellence

    2011-12-01

    The ability to understand and predict how thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes interact is fundamental to the exploration, stimulation and exploitation of natural and enhanced geothermal systems. Because of the complexity of THMC coupling exact solutions are hard or impossible to find. Therefore, a new perspective is required for assessing upper and lower bounds of dissipation in such simulations. We present (i) such a new Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) coupling formulation, based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics; (ii) show how THMC feedback is incorporated in the thermodynamics approach; (iii) suggest a unifying thermodynamic framework for coupling across scales and (iv) formulate a new rationale for assessing upper and lower bounds of dissipation for THMC processes. Using forward simulations these bounds can be used for assessing uncertainties of material properties as a function of independent variables (e.g. temperature, pressure, damage, grain size, chemistry, strain...). At the large scale the bounds can be used to characterize uncertainties of geothermal fluid extraction from natural and stimulated geothermal reservoirs.
    Upper and lower bounds of dissipation Boundary conditions applied to the model boundary for THMC coupling

  16. Upper limb kinematics after cervical spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Sébastien; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Reilly, Karen T; Rossetti, Yves; Collet, Christian; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of upper limb kinematic studies have been conducted, no review actually addresses the key-features of open-chain upper limb movements after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this literature review is to provide a clear understanding of motor control and kinematic changes during open-chain upper limb reaching, reach-to-grasp, overhead movements, and fast elbow flexion movements after tetraplegia. Using data from MEDLINE between 1966 and December 2014, we examined temporal and spatial kinematic measures and when available electromyographic recordings. We included fifteen control case and three series case studies with a total of 164 SCI participants and 131 healthy control participants. SCI participants efficiently performed a broad range of tasks with their upper limb and movements were planned and executed with strong kinematic invariants like movement endpoint accuracy and minimal cost. Our review revealed that elbow extension without triceps brachii relies on increased scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movements providing a dynamic coupling between shoulder and elbow. Furthermore, contrary to normal grasping patterns where grasping is prepared during the transport phase, reaching and grasping are performed successively after SCI. The prolonged transport phase ensures correct hand placement while the grasping relies on wrist extension eliciting either whole hand or lateral grip. One of the main kinematic characteristics observed after tetraplegia is motor slowing attested by increased movement time. This could be caused by (i) decreased strength, (ii) triceps brachii paralysis which disrupts normal agonist-antagonist co-contractions, (iii) accuracy preservation at movement endpoint, and/or (iv) grasping relying on tenodesis. Another feature is a reduction of maximal superior reaching during overhead movements which could be caused by i) strength deficit in agonist muscles like pectoralis major, ii) strength deficit in proximal synergic

  17. Assessing upper limb function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Ilse; Feys, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The need to fully assess upper limb function in multiple sclerosis (MS) has become increasingly clear with recent studies revealing a high prevalence of upper limb dysfunction in persons with MS leading to increased dependency and reduced quality of life. It is important that clinicians and researchers use tailored outcome measures to systematically describe upper limb (dys)function and evaluate potential deterioration or improvement on treatment. This topical review provides a comprehensive summary of currently used upper limb outcome measures in MS, classified according to the levels of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). The clinical utility, strengths, weaknesses and psychometric properties of common upper limb outcome measures are discussed. Based on this information, recommendations for selecting appropriate upper limb outcome measures are given. The current shortcomings in assessment which need to be addressed are identified. PMID:24664300

  18. Rheology of the upper mantle: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Karato, S; Wu, P

    1993-05-01

    Rheological properties of the upper mantle of the Earth play an important role in the dynamics of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, such fundamental issues as the dominant mechanisms of flow have not been well resolved. A synthesis of laboratory studies and geophysical and geological observations shows that transitions between diffusion and dislocation creep likely occur in the Earth's upper mantle. The hot and shallow upper mantle flows by dislocation creep, whereas cold and shallow or deep upper mantle may flow by diffusion creep. When the stress increases, grain size is reduced and the upper mantle near the transition between these two regimes is weakened. Consequently, deformation is localized and the upper mantle is decoupled mechanically near these depths. PMID:17746109

  19. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early

  20. Osmium isotopes and the Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauns, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" horizon at the Frasnian/Famennian boundary (~367 Ma) records one of the most severe world-wide catastrophic bio-events in Earth's history. Current theories for the causes of mass extinction include (e.g. Schindler 1990) (i) meteoritic impact, (ii) sea-level changes, shifts of the sedimentary realm and generation of anoxic milieus, (iii) enhanced clastic input and modification of sea water chemistry, and, possibly, (iv) a combination of (ii) and (iii). The time-integrated Os isotopic composition of Kellwasser limestones appears to be a suitable tool to shed light on these options and possibly place constraints on the Os isotopic evolution of Upper Devonian sea water. We present complete Re-Os analyses of limestone and shale whole rock samples, and some biogenic/diagenetic constituents (conodonts, Fe oxides). The results indicate extreme Re and Os compositional variations between different limestone and shale sublayers (Re = 0.1 - 40 ppb, Os 26 - 830 ppt, Re/Os = 4 - 240). The present Os isotopic ratios of the rocks were found to be very radiogenic (187Os/186Os = 9,865 - 388,35). For the first time, conodont samples extracted from the Kellwasser sequence were tested as potential tracers for the Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Their Os contents are in the range of 210 - 112 ppt, which required analysis of about 15.000 specimens per sample to obtain sufficient Os for mass spectrometry. The Os of the conodonts (187Os/186Os = 14,35 - 67,89) is significantly less radiogenic compared to their complementary host rocks. Their 187Re/186Os, however, exceed the 187Re/186Os ratios of the host limestones by at least 1-2 orders of magnitude. Recalculation of the 187Re/186Os ratios of all rock and conodont samples for an age of 367 Ma yielded in all cases unrealistic and very contrasting values with respect to any hypothetical Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Our Re-Os isotopic data do establish several points

  1. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  2. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  6. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  7. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  9. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  10. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  11. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  13. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098

  14. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541. PMID:18457241

  15. [Malocclusion and upper airway obstruction].

    PubMed

    Lopatiene, Kristina; Babarskas, Algis

    2002-01-01

    After more than a century of conjecture and heated argument, the orthodontic relevance of nasal obstruction and its assumed effect on facial growth continues to be debated. Oral respiration disrupts those muscle forces exerted by tongue, cheeks and lips upon the maxillary arch. The main characteristics of the respiratory obstruction syndrome are presence of hypertrophied tonsils or adenoids, mouth breathing, open-bite, cross-bite, excessive anterior face height, incompetent lip posture, excessive appearance of maxillary anterior teeth, narrow external nares, "V" shaped maxillary arch. The purpose of this study is to evaluate relationship between nasal obstruction and severity of malocclusion. The sample analyzed in this article consisted of 49 children aged from 7 to 15 years, who pronounced difficulty in breathing through the nose. Patients and their parents were interviewed, clinical examination was performed, and measurements from dental casts and panoramic radiograph were obtained. All patients were examined by otorhinolaryngologist, and the nasal obstruction was confirmed by posterior rhinomanometry test. This study showed the significant association between nasal resistance and increased overjet (p = 0.042), open bite (p = 0.033) and maxillary crowding (p = 0.037). The tendency of greater nasal resistance was observed for the patients with the first permanent molars relationship Angle II and posterior cross-bite. PMID:12474699

  16. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  17. 76 FR 8740 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... OMX Group, Inc. 20110357 G Oak Hill Capital Partners II, L.P.; Vantage Oncology, Inc.; Oak Hill Capital Partners II, LP. ] 20110358 G Vantage Oncology, Inc.; Oak Hill Capital Partners II, L.P.; Vantage Oncology, Inc. 20110372 G Ebro Foods S.A.; Ricegrowers Limited; Ebro Foods S.A. 20110378 G Brightpoint,...

  18. Exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus.

    PubMed

    Hoyen, Harry; Papendrea, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Extensile and adequate exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus are important in trauma surgery. The standard deltopectoral approach can be extended distally to expose the whole humerus if necessary. Often, wide exposures of the upper humerus are necessary to reduce complex fractures and apply the plate on the lateral aspect of the humerus. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy as well as strategies of nerve mobilization is necessary for achieving adequate exposures in this area. This article details the many exposure methods for the shoulder, upper humerus, and their extensile extensions. PMID:25440068

  19. Method of enhancing the upper critical field (HC sub 2 ) in high temperature superconducting ceramic copper oxide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, C.Z.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a method of increasing the current carrying capacity and enhancing the upper critical (H{sub c2}) in a Type II superconducting material. It comprises providing a sample of a Type II superconducting material; exposing the sample to gamma radiation ranging in dosage level from about ten million rads to about one hundred million rads at a dose rate of about three million rads per hour.

  20. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  1. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  2. Golf injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Wiesler, Ethan R; Lumsden, Boyd

    2005-01-01

    Golf has demonstrated increasing popularity and with this heightened enthusiasm has come an increased awareness of the significant number of injuries associated with playing golf. While back injuries represent the most commonly injured specific body part, upper extremity injuries are most frequent overall and the most likely to result in loss of play. Patterns of injury differ based on level of play and time spent playing or practicing golf. Among golf professionals, the hand/wrist is the most commonly injured upper extremity structure. Among amateurs, the elbow is most commonly injured. The vast majority of upper extremity injuries are due to overuse. Age, ability, equipment, and swing mechanics also play contributing roles. Most upper extremity golf injuries can be successfully treated with appropriate cessation or modification of play, anti-inflammatory modalities, and rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is rarely required, but if needed can prove successful in a high percentage of patients. PMID:15766435

  3. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  4. MAVEN: Exploring the Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Bruce Jakos...

  5. Re-Shaping the Upper Secondary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husen, Torsten

    1975-01-01

    Article listed guiding principles for the upper secondary school curriculum of the post-industrial society as an attempt to meet the educational needs of the young people of today and the citizens of tomorrow. (Author/RK)

  6. Upper-Stratospheric Ozone Trends 1979-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Cunnold, Derek; Bishop, Lane; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Godin, Sophie; Frith, Stacey Hollandsworth; Hood, Lon; Miller, Alvin J.; Oltmans, Sam; Randel, William

    2002-01-01

    Extensive analyses of ozone observations between 1978 and 1998 measured by Dobson Umkehr, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) I and II, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) and (SBUV)/2 indicate continued significant ozone decline throughout the extratropical upper stratosphere from 30-45 km altitude. The maximum annual linear decline of -0.8 +/- 0.2 %/yr(2sigma) occurs at 40 km and is well described in terms of a linear decline modulated by the 11-year solar variation. The minimum decline of -0.110.1% yr-1(2o) occurs at 25 km in midlatitudes, with remarkable symmetry between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at 40 km altitude. Midlatitude upper-stratospheric zonal trends exhibit significant seasonal variation (+/- 30% in the Northern Hemisphere, +/- 40% in the Southern Hemisphere) with the most negative trends of -1.2%/yr occurring in the winter. Significant seasonal trends of -0.7 to -0.9%/yr occur at 40 km in the tropics between April and September. Subjecting the statistical models used to calculate the ozone trends to intercomparison tests on a variety of common data sets yields results that indicate the standard deviation between trends estimated by 10 different statistical models is less than 0.1%/yr in the annual-mean trend for SAGE data and less than 0.2%/yr in the most demanding conditions (seasons with irregular, sparse data) [World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1998]. These consistent trend results between statistical models together with extensive consistency between the independent measurement-system trend observations by Dobson Umkehr, SAGE I and II, and SBUV and SBUV/2 provide a high degree of confidence in the accuracy of the declining ozone amounts reported here. Additional details of ozone trend results from 1978 to 1996 (2 years shorter than reported here) along with lower-stratospheric and tropospheric ozone trends, extensive intercomparisons to assess relative instrument drifts, and retrieval algorithm details are

  7. Upper Tract Urological Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS)

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Seker, Gokhan; Kargi, Taner; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objective is to report intermediate-term outcomes for patients who have undergone upper tract urologic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) at a single institution. Methods: From January 1, 2008, through November 30, 2012, 107 cases treated with LESS were identified, including pyeloplasty (n = 30), ureterolithotomy (n = 32), nephrectomy (n = 35; simple = 31, partial = 4), and cyst decortication (n = 10). Perioperative data were reviewed, and conversion and complication rates were noted. Results: The median follow-up was 21.5 months for pyeloplasty, 20.5 for ureterolithotomy, 28.0 for simple nephrectomy, 14.0 for partial nephrectomy, and 19.0 for cyst decortication. Major complications were encountered in 8 patients, including 3 intraoperative complications (2 bowel injury with serosal tearing and 1 intraoperative bleeding), which were recognized and repaired with LESS or conversion to conventional laparoscopy (CL). During the intermediate postoperative period (30–90 days) major complications occurred in 5 patients: 4 ureteral strictures (Clavien-Dindo grade [CG] IIIb) and 1 urinoma formation (CG IIIa). During the early postoperative period (<30 days), the most common minor complications were flank pain (CG I) in 16 patients and urinary tract infection (CG II) in 11, followed by urinary leakage (CG I) in 8. Conclusions: Intermediate-term functional outcomes of this single-center study confirm that upper tract LESS is a challenging procedure that can be safe and effective when performed by an experienced team. Prospective studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to investigate the safety of LESS in the treatment of various upper urinary tract conditions. PMID:26648679

  8. Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

    2007-03-01

    This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

  9. Dynamical Masses Demonstrate the Discordant Model Ages for Upper Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ireland, Michael; Kraus, Adam L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a long term orbit monitoring program, using sparse aperture masking observations taken with NIRC2 on the Keck-II telescope, of seven G to M-type members of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB association. We present astrometry and derived orbital elements of the binary systems we have monitored, and also determine the age, component masses, distance and reddening for each system using the orbital solutions and multi-band photometry, including Hubble Space Telescope photometry, and a Bayesian fitting procedure. We find that the models can be forced into agreement with any individual system by assuming an age, but that ageis not consistent across the mass range of our sample. The G-type binary systems in our sample have model ages of ~11.5 Myr, which is consistent with the latest age estimates for Upper Scorpius, while the M-type binary systems have significantly younger model ages of ~7 Myr. Based on our fits to the data, this age discrepancy in the models corresponds to a luminosity under-prediction of 0.8-0.15 dex, or equivalently an effective temperature over-prediction of 100-300 K for M-type stars at a given premain-sequence age.

  10. Literature Review on Needs of Upper Limb Prosthesis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    The loss of one hand can significantly affect the level of autonomy and the capability of performing daily living, working and social activities. The current prosthetic solutions contribute in a poor way to overcome these problems due to limitations in the interfaces adopted for controlling the prosthesis and to the lack of force or tactile feedback, thus limiting hand grasp capabilities. This paper presents a literature review on needs analysis of upper limb prosthesis users, and points out the main critical aspects of the current prosthetic solutions, in terms of users satisfaction and activities of daily living they would like to perform with the prosthetic device. The ultimate goal is to provide design inputs in the prosthetic field and, contemporary, increase user satisfaction rates and reduce device abandonment. A list of requirements for upper limb prostheses is proposed, grounded on the performed analysis on user needs. It wants to (i) provide guidelines for improving the level of acceptability and usefulness of the prosthesis, by accounting for hand functional and technical aspects; (ii) propose a control architecture of PNS-based prosthetic systems able to satisfy the analyzed user wishes; (iii) provide hints for improving the quality of the methods (e.g., questionnaires) adopted for understanding the user satisfaction with their prostheses. PMID:27242413

  11. Literature Review on Needs of Upper Limb Prosthesis Users.

    PubMed

    Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    The loss of one hand can significantly affect the level of autonomy and the capability of performing daily living, working and social activities. The current prosthetic solutions contribute in a poor way to overcome these problems due to limitations in the interfaces adopted for controlling the prosthesis and to the lack of force or tactile feedback, thus limiting hand grasp capabilities. This paper presents a literature review on needs analysis of upper limb prosthesis users, and points out the main critical aspects of the current prosthetic solutions, in terms of users satisfaction and activities of daily living they would like to perform with the prosthetic device. The ultimate goal is to provide design inputs in the prosthetic field and, contemporary, increase user satisfaction rates and reduce device abandonment. A list of requirements for upper limb prostheses is proposed, grounded on the performed analysis on user needs. It wants to (i) provide guidelines for improving the level of acceptability and usefulness of the prosthesis, by accounting for hand functional and technical aspects; (ii) propose a control architecture of PNS-based prosthetic systems able to satisfy the analyzed user wishes; (iii) provide hints for improving the quality of the methods (e.g., questionnaires) adopted for understanding the user satisfaction with their prostheses. PMID:27242413

  12. Some Upper Bounds on the Inverse Relative Dimension/Length Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peisheng; Luo, Yuan; Vinck, A. J. Han

    The generalized Hamming weight played an important role in coding theory. In the study of the wiretap channel of type II, the generalized Hamming weight was extended to a two-code format. Two equivalent concepts of the generalized Hamming weight hierarchy and its two-code format, are the inverse dimension/length profile (IDLP) and the inverse relative dimension/length profile (IRDLP), respectively. In this paper, the Singleton upper bound on the IRDLP is improved by using a quotient subcode set and a subset with respect to a generator matrix, respectively. If these new upper bounds on the IRDLP are achieved, in the corresponding coordinated two-party wire-tap channel of type II, the adversary cannot learn more from the illegitimate party.

  13. Middle and upper cretaceous amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia: Evidence for a new structural sub-class of resinite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of three amber (resinite) samples collected from Middle and Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, indicates that these materials are based on copolymers of biformene (I) and communol (II). No resinites of similar structural character have previously been described and hence, these samples represent a previously unknown structural sub-class of resinite.

  14. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract "specialization".

    PubMed

    Franciscus, R G

    1999-02-16

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852-10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543-10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall's contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive "specializations" attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  15. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  16. Upper Extremity Problems in Doner Kebab Masters

    PubMed Central

    Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper extremities. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper extremity problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper extremity disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper extremities their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper extremity musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030

  17. Upper Girdle Imaging in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Boccia, Stefania; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pelliccioni, Marco; Masciullo, Marcella; Frusciante, Roberto; Mercuri, Eugenio; Ricci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the upper girdle is early involved and often difficult to assess only relying on physical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern and degree of involvement of upper girdle muscles in FSHD compared with other muscle diseases with scapular girdle impairment. Methods We propose an MRI protocol evaluating neck and upper girdle muscles. One hundred-eight consecutive symptomatic FSHD patients and 45 patients affected by muscular dystrophies and myopathies with prominent upper girdle involvement underwent this protocol. Acquired scans were retrospectively analyzed. Results The trapezius (100% of the patients) and serratus anterior (85% of the patients) were the most and earliest affected muscles in FSHD, followed by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, whilst spinati and subscapularis (involved in less than 4% of the patients) were consistently spared even in late disease stages. Asymmetry and hyperintensities on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences were common features, and STIR hyperintensities could also be found in muscles not showing signs of fatty replacement. The overall involvement appears to be disease-specific in FSHD as it significantly differed from that encountered in the other myopathies. Conclusions The detailed knowledge of single muscle involvement provides useful information for correctly evaluating patients' motor function and to set a baseline for natural history studies. Upper girdle imaging can also be used as an additional tool helpful in supporting the diagnosis of FSHD in unclear situations, and may contribute with hints on the currently largely unknown molecular pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24932477

  18. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Lastovicka, J.; Roble, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases warm the troposphere but have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. The steady increase of CO2 is the dominant cause of upper atmosphere trends. Long-term changes of other radiatively active trace gases such as CH4, O3, and H2O, long-term changes of geomagnetic and solar activity, and other possible drivers also play a role. Observational and model studies have confirmed that in the past several decades, global cooling has occurred in the mesosphere and thermosphere; the cooling and contraction of the upper atmosphere has lowered the ionosphere, increased electron density in the lower ionosphere, but slightly decreased electron density in the upper ionosphere. Limited observations have suggested long-term changes in the occurrence rate of major stratospheric warming, mesosphere and lower thermosphere dynamics, wave activities and turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and occurrence of noctilucent clouds or polar mesospheric clouds. However, possible long-term changes of these parameters remain to be open questions due to lack of measurements. We will review recent progress in observations and simulations of global change in the upper atmosphere, and discuss future investigations with a focus on how measurements by commercial reusable suborbital vehicles can help resolve the open questions.

  19. Anomalous right upper lobe venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, M; Mayooran, N; Philip, B; Anjum, M N; O'Regan, K; Doddakula, K

    2016-01-01

    Lung resections are usually not associated with significant bleeding, but can be fatal, especially in cases of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anomalous vascular structures could be a major reason for unexpected bleeding in such surgeries. We present a case of an aberrant upper lobe pulmonary vein that was encountered posterior to the right upper lobe bronchus during a right upper lobectomy via thoracotomy. The anomalous pulmonary vein was identified preoperatively on a computed tomography (CT) scan and hence was looked for before dividing the bronchus. Many centres are adopting the VATS approach for performing lung resections. If an anomalous vein is present posterior to the bronchus, it might be in a blind spot and could be damaged inadvertently, leading to profuse and potentially fatal bleeding. We conclude that the identification of anomalous vascular structures prior to surgery with the help of CT helps in avoiding adverse outcomes. PMID:27016516

  20. Anomalous right upper lobe venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, M.; Mayooran, N.; Philip, B.; Anjum, M.N.; O'Regan, K.; Doddakula, K.

    2016-01-01

    Lung resections are usually not associated with significant bleeding, but can be fatal, especially in cases of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anomalous vascular structures could be a major reason for unexpected bleeding in such surgeries. We present a case of an aberrant upper lobe pulmonary vein that was encountered posterior to the right upper lobe bronchus during a right upper lobectomy via thoracotomy. The anomalous pulmonary vein was identified preoperatively on a computed tomography (CT) scan and hence was looked for before dividing the bronchus. Many centres are adopting the VATS approach for performing lung resections. If an anomalous vein is present posterior to the bronchus, it might be in a blind spot and could be damaged inadvertently, leading to profuse and potentially fatal bleeding. We conclude that the identification of anomalous vascular structures prior to surgery with the help of CT helps in avoiding adverse outcomes. PMID:27016516

  1. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Li Suo, Qi

    2015-04-15

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  2. AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kishwar; Zarin, Muhammad; Latif, Humera

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GI) is a serious condition that presents both diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenges. Resuscitation of the patient is the first and most important step in its management followed by measures to localize and treat the exact source and site of bleeding. These modalities are upper and lower GI endoscopies, radionuclide imaging and angiography. Surgery is the last resort to handle the situation, if the patient does not respond to resuscitative measures and the various interventional procedures fail to locate and stop the bleeding. We present a case of upper GI bleeding which presented with massive per rectal bleeding and the patient was not responding to resuscitation with multiple blood transfusions. Ultimately an exploratory laparotomy was done which revealed an extra-intestinal source of bleeding into the lumen of duodenum, presenting as upper GI bleeding. PMID:26721047

  3. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  4. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon-Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  5. Upper mantle anisotropy - Evidence from free oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that much of the upper mantle may be anisotropic to the propagation of seismic waves. The present investigation shows that a small amount of anisotropy completely changes the nature of the surface wave and normal mode problem. In particular, the apparent lack of sensitivity of many of the spheroidal modes to the compressional velocity structure is due to the degeneracy in the isotropic case. The normal mode data set appears to be adequate to resolve the five elastic constants of a transversely isotropic upper mantle. Dziewonski and Anderson (1981) have shown that these data can be fitted with anisotropy restricted to the upper 200 km of the mantle.

  6. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2014-05-20

    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.

  7. Interaction of the Upper-Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V.; Perepechko, Y.

    2006-12-01

    This work deals with the problem of interaction and combined evolution of closely spaced plumes. One of activities, which initiated this problem statement, was an attempt to explain via this mechanism the formation of large igneous provinces in the form of surface manifestations of a hot spot system. Convection in the upper mantle was simulated using the expanded Boussinesq model with non-linear state equations for mantle substance and lithosphere rocks, which considered the main solid-state phase transitions and melting processes. This system consisted of the upper mantle and mantle lithosphere, including non-uniform continental crust of a given thickness. The asthenosphere and regions of partial melting in lithosphere were formed during convection of the mantle substance. Interaction between several plumes, generated by hot spots, was considered. These plumes were located at distances, characteristic for the upper mantle (of about the lithosphere or upper mantle thickness). The initial distribution of plume sources and their physical parameters were assigned. According to numerical simulation, combined evolution of two plumes provides formation of a united igneous province in the upper geospheres. An increase in the number of closely spaced hot spots leads to division of a single igneous province into several areas of a smaller scale. A horizontal size of these areas is determined by a typical size of large dissipative structures in the upper mantle and lithosphere thickness. This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 04-05-64107, by the President's grants NSh-1573.2003.5, and by the Russian Ministry Science and Education grant RNP.2.1.1.702.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Arora, N K; Ganguly, S; Mathur, P; Ahuja, A; Patwari, A

    2002-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially fatal condition at times due to loss of large volumes of blood. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children include mucosal lesions and variceal hemorrhage (most commonly extra hepatic portal venous obstruction) and, in intensive care settings infections and drugs are other etiological factors associated with bleeding. Massive upper GI bleeding is life threatening and requires immediate resuscitation measures in the form of protection of the airways, oxygen administration, immediate volume replacement with ringer lactate or normal saline, transfusion of whole blood or packed cells and also monitoring the adequacy of volume replacement by central venous lines and urine output. Upper GI endoscopy is an effective initial diagnostic modality to localize the site and cause of bleeding in almost 85-90% of patients. Antacids supplemented by H2- receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate are the mainstay in the treatment of bleeding from mucosal lesion. For variceal bleeds, emergency endoscopy is the treatment of choice after initial haemodynamic stabilization of patient. If facilities for endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) are not available, pharmacotherapy which decreases the portal pressure is almost equally effective and should be resorted to. Shunt surgery is reserved for patients who do not respond to the above therapy. Beta blockers combined with sclerotherapy have been shown to be the most effective therapy in significantly reducing the risk of recurrent rebleeding from varices as well as the death rates, as compared to any other modality of treatment. Based on studies among adult patients, presence of shock, co-morbidities, underlying diagnosis, presence of stigmata of recent hemorrhage on endoscopy and rebleeding are independent risk factors for mortality due to upper GI bleeding. Rebleeding is more likely to occur if the patient has hematemesis, liver disease, coagulopathy

  9. Rehabilitation of musicians with upper limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Charles, D; James, K B; Stein, R B

    1988-01-01

    Three saxophone players with upper limb amputations have been successfully rehabilitated to play their musical instruments using skin-conductivity touch control. Each attained a standard of musicianship sufficient to perform the standard repertoire of the instrument in a concert setting. The mechanical and electrical modifications to the saxophone are described, as well as the principles of operation of the skin-conductivity touch control module. The touch control module is commercially available for prosthetists who wish to fit musicians or others with upper extremity amputations who require rapid accurate control of a number of channels of powered prosthetic function. PMID:3411524

  10. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  11. Orbital debris from upper-stage breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the effects of launch vehicle upper-stage breakup on the orbital debris scenario discusses an analysis of the SPOT 1 Ariane third stage, the explosive fragmentation of orbiting propellant tanks, albedo estimates for debris, Ariane-related debris in deep-space orbit, and the relationship of hypervelocity impacts to upper-stage breakups. Also discussed are the prospects for and the economics of the future removal of orbital debris, collision probabilities in GEO, current operational practices for Delta second stage breakup prevention, breakup-precluding modifications to the Ariane third stage, and the safing of the H-1 second stage after spacecraft separation.

  12. Jaw thrust can deteriorate upper airway patency.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, B S; Erb, T O; Frei, F J

    2005-04-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a frequent problem in spontaneously breathing children undergoing anesthesia or sedation procedures. Failure to maintain a patent airway can rapidly result in severe hypoxemia, bradycardia, or asystole, as the oxygen demand of children is high and oxygen reserve is low. We present two children with cervical masses in whom upper airway obstruction exaggerated while the jaw thrust maneuver was applied during induction of anesthesia. This deterioration in airway patency was probably caused by medial displacement of the lateral tumorous tissues which narrowed the pharyngeal airway. PMID:15777312

  13. Studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Rice, C. J.; Sharp, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and data-analytic work on upper and lower atmosphere coupling performed under a NASA Headquarters contract during the period April 1978 to March 1979 are summarized. As such, this report is primarily devoted to an overview of various studies published and to be published under this contract. Individual study reports are collected as exhibits. Work performed under the subject contract are in the following four areas of upper-lower atmosphere coupling: (1) Magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling in the aurora; (2) Troposphere-thermosphere coupling; (3) Ionosphere-neutral-atmosphere coupling; and (4) Planetary wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere.

  14. Structure and Organization of the Upper Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korendyke, C. M.; Landi, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2005-05-01

    Over its past two flights, the VAULT sounding rocket instrument obtained a series of subarcsecond resolution images of the solar disk. These Lyman alpha images resolve and separate structures in the upper chromosphere. The observed plasmas are concentrated in larger diameter, optically thick loops. The images taken near the limb unambiguously identify the height of the upper chromosphere in the quiet sun. An unexpected level of evolution and activity is present in the "quiet sun" at small spatial scales. The third flight of the payload will investigate the interconnectivity of the observed structures with the photosphere.

  15. Pressures involved in making upper edentulous impressions.

    PubMed

    Rihani, A

    1981-12-01

    A study was made of the pressures exerted on the upper denture-bearing area in three patients each with a different type of palatal vault. A method of measuring the relative pressures in different regions of the upper denture bearing area was devised. These pressures were registered with the use of manometers while making an impression in close fitting acrylic resin special trays. The results indicated that the main pressure regions during impression making were near the center of the palate and these pressures diminished toward the buccal borders. PMID:7028974

  16. Arterial embolism of the upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Janevski, B

    1986-10-01

    The angiographic signs, the frequency and the site of distribution of acute emboli of the arteries of the upper extremity are described. The conclusions are based on the author's own experience gained from selective studies of acute arterial embolism of the upper limb, during a period of 15 years. A comparison is made with the results of two of the largest series reported in the literature. In addition, a brief review of the aetiology, pathogenesis, the clinical and roentgenological signs of the condition is given. PMID:3022344

  17. The radiative signature of upper tropospheric moistening.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brian J; Jackson, Darren L; Ramaswamy, V; Schwarzkopf, M D; Huang, Xianglei

    2005-11-01

    Climate models predict that the concentration of water vapor in the upper troposphere could double by the end of the century as a result of increases in greenhouse gases. Such moistening plays a key role in amplifying the rate at which the climate warms in response to anthropogenic activities, but has been difficult to detect because of deficiencies in conventional observing systems. We use satellite measurements to highlight a distinct radiative signature of upper tropospheric moistening over the period 1982 to 2004. The observed moistening is accurately captured by climate model simulations and lends further credence to model projections of future global warming. PMID:16210499

  18. Trajectory Software With Upper Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Software Applications 6.0 for the Dec Alpha platform has an implementation of the Jacchia-Lineberry Upper Atmosphere Density Model used in the Mission Control Center for International Space Station support. Previous trajectory software required an upper atmosphere to support atmosphere drag calculations in the Mission Control Center. The Functional operation will differ depending on the end-use of the module. In general, the calling routine will use function-calling arguments to specify input to the processor. The atmosphere model will then compute and return atmospheric density at the time of interest.

  19. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  20. Management of Major Traumatic Upper Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Mark K; Thoder, Joseph J; Rehman, Saqib

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic upper extremity amputation is a life-altering event, and recovery of function depends on proper surgical management and postoperative rehabilitation. Many injuries require revision amputation and postoperative prosthesis fitting. Care should be taken to preserve maximal length of the limb and motion of the remaining joints. Skin grafting or free tissue transfer may be necessary for coverage to allow preservation of length. Early prosthetic fitting within 30 days of surgery should be performed so the amputee can start rehabilitation while the wound is healing and the stump is maturing. Multidisciplinary care is essential for the overall care of the patient following a traumatic amputation of the upper limb. PMID:26614927

  1. Juno II (AM-14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Juno II (AM-14) on the launch pad just prior to launch, March 3, 1959. The payload of AM-14 was Pioneer IV, America's first successful lunar mission. The Juno II was a modification of Jupiter ballistic missile

  2. Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor from GOES, Raman lidar, and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, B. J.; Ackerman, S. A.; Starr, D. O'C.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of upper tropospheric relative humidity obtained from Raman lidar and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) sonde instruments obtained during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus-II field program are compared with satellite measurements from the GOES 6.7-micron channel. The 6.7-micron channel is sensitive to water vapor integrated over a broad layer in the upper troposphere (roughly 500-200 mbar). Instantaneous measurements of the upper tropospheric relative humidity from GOES are shown to agree to within roughly 6% of the nearest lidar observations and 9% of the nearest CLASS observations. The CLASS data exhibit a slight yet systematic dry bias in upper tropospheric humidity, a result which is consistent with previous radiosonde intercomparisons. Temporal stratification of the CLASS data indicates that the magnitude of the bias is dependent upon the time of day, suggesting a solar heating effect in the radiosonde sensor. Using CLASS profiles, the impact of vertical variability in relative humidity upon the GOES upper tropospheric humidity measurements is also examined. The upper tropospheric humidity inferred from the GOES 6.7-micron channel is demonstrated to agree to within roughly 5% of the relative humidity vertically averaged over the depth of atmosphere to which the 6.7-micron channel is sensitive. The results of this study encourage the use of satellite measurements in the 6.7-micron channel to quantitatively describe the distribution and temporal evolution of the upper tropospheric humidity field.

  3. The Upper Midwest and Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    The broad question addressed is whether the Upper Midwest needs a new regional educational laboratory and, if so, why and where and for whom? Conclusions were reached after a sampling of deans of education, chief state school officers, classroom teachers, National Institute of Education staff members, local superintendents, and other knowledgeable…

  4. A cosmological upper bound on superpartner masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Volansky, Tomer

    2015-02-01

    If some superpartners were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, and if the lightest superpartner is a cosmologically stable gravitino, then there is a powerful upper bound on the scale of the superpartner masses. Typically the bound is below tens of TeV, often much lower, and has similar parametrics to the WIMP miracle.

  5. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  6. Multiple Lesions in the Upper Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, R; Gedik, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the upper jaw (maxilla) or, less commonly, the lower jaw (mandible). They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over years. We report here an adult man with multiple masses of the maxilla above the teeth. PMID:25867570

  7. Informed consent for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Plumeri, P A

    1994-07-01

    The process of informed consent is an ethical, legal, and medical necessity for endoscopists before performing upper endoscopy. The basics of informed consent include the nature, benefits, risks, and alternatives of the procedure being performed. A simple, straightforward application of the process is essential to appropriate care by endoscopists in everyday clinical practice. PMID:8069471

  8. Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  10. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  11. Metal saturation in the upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Arno; Ballhaus, Chris; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Ulmer, Peter; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Kuzmin, Dmitry V

    2007-09-27

    The oxygen fugacity f(O2)of the Earth's mantle is one of the fundamental variables in mantle petrology. Through ferric-ferrous iron and carbon-hydrogen-oxygen equilibria, f(O2) influences the pressure-temperature positions of mantle solidi and compositions of small-degree mantle melts. Among other parameters, f(O2) affects the water storage capacity and rheology of the mantle. The uppermost mantle, as represented by samples and partial melts, is sufficiently oxidized to sustain volatiles, such as H2O and CO2, as well as carbonatitic melts, but it is not known whether the shallow mantle is representative of the entire upper mantle. Using high-pressure experiments, we show here that large parts of the asthenosphere are likely to be metal-saturated. We found that pyroxene and garnet synthesized at >7 GPa in equilibrium with metallic Fe can incorporate sufficient ferric iron that the mantle at >250 km depth is so reduced that an (Fe,Ni)-metal phase may be stable. Our results indicate that the oxidized nature of the upper mantle can no longer be regarded as being representative for the Earth's upper mantle as a whole and instead that oxidation is a shallow phenomenon restricted to an upper veneer only about 250 km in thickness. PMID:17898766

  12. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  13. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  14. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  15. Upper Endoscopy in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012: Towards Upper End of Quality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the most basic part of endoscopy field. Although old and basic procedures are still in use, a line of innovative techniques and devices are being introduced to allow much complex and difficult procedures in endoscopy unit. High quality upper endoscopic procedures can replace or obviate surgical treatment. Selected reviews dealing with non-variceal upper GI bleeding, challenging esophageal stenting, endoscopic management of subpeithelial tumor, and endoscopic evaluation for candidate lesions of endoscopic submucosal dissection were selected among the topics from International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012. PMID:22977805

  16. Synoptic radio observations as proxies for upper atmospheric modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudok de Wit, T.; Bruinsma, S.; Shibasaki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm is one of the most widely used solar proxies for upper atmospheric modelling. In comparison, very little attention has been given to the flux at other centimetric wavelengths, which provides important complimentary information on the solar radiative output. Synoptic radio observations have been made almost continuously since the late 1950's by several observatories, and in particular at Toyokawa and Nobeyama. We have merged different observations into a single continuous composite dataset of daily radio fluxes at 30, 15, 10.7 and 8 cm (without flares), ranging from 1957 up to today. A blind source separation analysis shows that the variability on time scales from days to several months can be decomposed into two contributions, which can be readily identified as thermal Bremsstrahlung and gyro-resonance emission. Most solar indices, such as the MgII index and the H Lyman-alpha line intensity, can be remarkably well reconstructed by linear combination of these two contributions. We advocate the flux at 30 cm for upper atmospheric modelling since it performs better than the 10.7 cm flux when it comes to describing the solar forcing of the thermospheric density; this is revealed by comparing neutral density observations with reconstructions from the DTM (Drag Temperature Model) model. These results show that synoptic radio observations greatly add to the spectral variation that is available in the 10.7 cm flux. Because of their long-term stability and their reliability, they are also excellent candidates for operational space weather use.

  17. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  18. Upper Bound Deformation In The Upper Rhine Graben From GPS Data - Results From GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Doubre, C.; Ulrich, P.; Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2012-12-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100km. It is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. Culminating in ~1500m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene- Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The presentation will discuss the first results concerning the upper bound deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben région, which is smaller than 0.1 or 0.2 mm/yr while the seismicity is significant. A large focus will be given about the processing of the time series and the correction of the offsets.

  19. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.; van Steenberg, M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-08-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  20. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  1. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies. The new regional density model for the North American upper mantle complements an on-going study of the regional upper mantle velocity and density structure by other methods. Our new regional density model is compared to regional and world-wide petrological data on upper mantle densities constrained by mantle-derived xenoliths.

  2. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  3. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child

    PubMed Central

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults.

  4. Disorders of the upper extremity in children.

    PubMed

    Azouz, E M; Oudjhane, K

    1998-08-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the indications of MR imaging in a variety of disorders of the upper extremity of the pediatric patient. This covers congenital anomalies: Sprengel shoulder, Poland sequence, arthrogryposis; posttraumatic lesions of cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle and nerve including the brachial plexus injury; inflammatory arthritis and synovitis; bone and joint infection; osteochondritis dissecans, bone necrosis and infarcts in sickle cell anemia and juvenile Gaucher disease, as well as tumors. In this last category, the authors briefly describe the appearances of cysts and tumors of bones and soft tissues of the upper extremity. Indications for the intravenous administration of Gadolinium are given throughout the article with emphasis on the synovial enhancement seen in active arthritis and synovitis. PMID:9654591

  5. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child.

    PubMed

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults. PMID:27625962

  6. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  7. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  8. Dayside temperatures of the Martian upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Hermann; Fricke, K. H.

    1987-11-01

    One central problem in understanding the Martian upper atmosphere is the poor correlation between exospheric temperatures and the energy input from the Sun in the EUV and UV. Turbulence heats the atmosphere by dissipation of turbulent energy and cools it by downward heat transport. A time-variable turbulence may introduce a stochastic component in addition to the solar-driven, regular variation of the exospheric temperatures. To investigate the possible range of temperatures on the basis of this assumption, the authors develop a one-dimensional mean-dayside model of the energy balance of the Martian upper atmosphere. With plausible assumptions on the range of the eddy diffusion coefficient, they find a stochastic component of ±63K for the exospheric temperatures. The comparison of observed data with the results of their model yields a best value for the efficiency of the heating by absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation of 0.145±0.05.

  9. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Hall, D. T.; Zhu, X.; Summers, M. E.

    1993-06-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  10. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  11. Sources of particulates in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith

    2011-10-01

    The dominant forms of particles collected at altitudes of 39, 42 and 45km during three balloon flights over Australia were aggregates having components with diameters typically 40 to 50nm. Their partial electron transparency suggested an organic composition and all were accompanied by a volatile liquid that could be stabilised by reaction with a thin copper film. They closely resembled particles called "fluffy micrometeorites" collected earlier in the mesosphere from rockets and their properties were consistent with those of particles collected from a comet by a recent spacecraft experiment. Particles in the upper stratosphere included some that resembled viruses and cocci, the latter being one of the organisms cultured from upper stratospheric air in a recent experiment. A plausible source of the stratospheric, mesospheric and cometary aggregates is consistent with the "panspermia" theory, that microorganisms present in space at the birth of the solar system could have reproduced in water within comets and brought life to Earth.

  12. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Hall, Doyle T.; Zhu, Xun; Summers, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  13. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Head, K W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. PMID:1086147

  14. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  15. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus. PMID:23580536

  16. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-06-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  17. Bone Lengthening in the Pediatric Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sebastian; Mindler, Gabriel; Ganger, Rudolf; Girsch, Werner

    2016-09-01

    ➤Bone lengthening has been used successfully for several congenital and acquired conditions in the pediatric clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, and phalanges.➤Common indications for bone lengthening include achondroplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, multiple hereditary exostosis, brachymetacarpia, symbrachydactyly, and posttraumatic and postinfectious growth arrest.➤Most authors prefer distraction rates of <1 mm/day for each bone in the upper extremity except the humerus, which can safely be lengthened by 1 mm/day.➤Most authors define success by the amount of radiographic bone lengthening, joint motion after lengthening, and subjective patient satisfaction rather than validated patient-related outcome measures.➤Bone lengthening of the upper extremity is associated with a high complication rate, with complications including pin-track infections, fixation device failure, nerve lesions, nonunion, fracture of regenerate bone, and joint dislocations. PMID:27605694

  18. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  19. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 {mu}m diameter) and fine (0.8--12 {mu}m diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q-{sup 1/8}, where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D{sup n} where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs.

  20. Studies of planetary upper atmospheres through occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The structure, composition, dynamics and energy balance of planetary upper atmospheres through interpretation of steller occultation data from Uranus is discussed. The wave-optical problem of modelling strong scintillation for arbitrary turbulent atmospheres is studied, as well as influence of turbulence. It was concluded that quasi-global features of atmospheric structure are accurately determined by numerical inversion. Horizontally inhomogeneous structures are filtered out and have little effect on temperature profiles.

  1. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  2. Robust warming of the global upper ocean.

    PubMed

    Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

    2010-05-20

    A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2). PMID:20485432

  3. A new expected upper limit on the rare decay B(s) ---> mu+ mu- with the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; /Strasbourg, IPHC

    2009-01-01

    We present a new expected upper limit of the rare decay branching ratio B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} using about 5 fb{sup -1} of Run II data collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron. When setting limits on the branching ratio, selected events are normalized to reconstructed B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup {+-}} events in order to decrease the systematic uncertainty. The resulting expected upper limit is {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 4.3(5.3) x 10{sup -8} at the 90% (95%) C.L.

  4. [Laparoscopy of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Stepushkin, S P; Chebanov, K O; Chaĭkovskiĭ, V P; Sokolenko, R V; Novikov, S P; Novikov, V O

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract is a wide field for using of laparoscopy. The aim of this work was to analyze retrospectively our experience in the development of laparoscopic techniques of surgical treatment of upper urinary tract pathology. 137 patients with pathology of the upper urinary tract were operated laparoscopically in our department during three years (July 2010 - July 2013). There were performed: nephrectomy--75 (54.7%, nephroureterectomy--3, 2.2%, partial nephrectomy--12 (8.7%), adrenalectomy--11 (8%), resection of the adrenal gland--2 (1.5%), cystectomy--10 : (7.3%) ureterolithotomy--15 (11%) pelviolithotomy--3 (2.2%), pyeloplasty--4 (2.9%) nephropexy--2 (14%). The results were evaluated by the comparative analysis of laparoscopic surgery and similar open interventions that were performed in our clinic. The mean operative time after laparoscopic nephrectomy was 180 min (80-220), the mean blood loss during surgery was 150 ml (50-370). The patients discharged at 4-5 days after operation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed at an average tumor size 2.7 cm (1.5-3.5). We used warm ischemia in 75% of cases. Its average time was 27 min (9-39), which was significantly greater than in the open resection--17 min (10-27). At the beginning of the development of laparoscopic adrenalectomy the average operative time was 140 min (110-270). In the future, as we got experience, it declined to 70 min (60-90) min. The mean blood loss was 70 ml (range 20-400). After laparoscopic cystectomy, ureterolithotomy, pelviolithotomy and pyeloplastic the patients discharged at 2-3 days. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were not noted. Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of pathology of the upper urinary tract is an alternative to the operations performed by the open approach. The oncological outcomes, functional results and complication rates are comparable for both types of surgery. PMID:25286605

  5. HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Γ = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 μ G.

  6. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert Earl; McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) Science Investigator Program entitled 'HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding.' The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  7. A prototype Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Atkins, D. E; Weymouth, T. E.; Olson, G. M.; Niciejewski, R.; Finholt, T. A.; Prakash, A.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Killeen, T.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    The National Collaboratory concept has great potential for enabling 'critical mass' working groups and highly interdisciplinary research projects. We report here on a new program to build a prototype collaboratory using the Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and a group of associated scientists. The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC) is a joint venture of researchers in upper atmospheric and space science, computer science, and behavioral science to develop a testbed for collaborative remote research. We define the 'collaboratory' as an advanced information technology environment which enables teams to work together over distance and time on a wide variety of intellectual tasks. It provides: (1) human-to-human communications using shared computer tools and work spaces; (2) group access and use of a network of information, data, and knowledge sources; and (3) remote access and control of instruments for data acquisition. The UARC testbed is being implemented to support a distributed community of space scientists so that they have network access to the remote instrument facility in Kangerlussuaq and are able to interact among geographically distributed locations. The goal is to enable them to use the UARC rather than physical travel to Greenland to conduct team research campaigns. Even on short notice through the collaboratory from their home institutions, participants will be able to meet together to operate a battery of remote interactive observations and to acquire, process, and interpret the data.

  8. Factors Controlling Upper-Troposphere Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Yong; Newell, Reginald E.; Read, William G.

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal changes of the upper-tropospheric humidity are studied with the water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and the winds and vertical velocity data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Using the same algorithm for vertical transport as that used for horizontal transport (by Zhu and Newell), the authors find that the moisture in the tropical upper troposphere may be increased mainly by intensified local convection in a small portion, less than 10%, of the whole area between 40 degrees S and 40 degrees N. The contribution of large-scale background circulations and divergence of horizontal transport is relatively small in these regions. These dynamic processes cannot be revealed by the traditional analyses of moisture fluxes. The negative response suggested by Lindzen, with enhanced convection in the Tropics being accompanied by subsidence drying in the subtropics, also exists, but the latter does not apparently dominate in the moisture budget.

  9. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.

  10. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  11. Kinematid Parameters of Corrective Postural Responses Differ between Upper and Lower Body Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayenko, G.

    2004-01-01

    Balance control is disrupted following prolonged microgravity exposure, and to better understand this, both upper and lower body perturbations have been used to study postural control in space flight crewmembers. However, differences between several postural response indicators observed using the two techniques suggest that different sensory systems may be involved in organizing responses to these different perturbation approaches. The present study sought to compare differences in parameters of corrective postural responses between upper body perturbations (pushes to the chest) and forward translations of the support surface. Nine subjects participated in this study. Forward translations were performed using a NeuroCom EquiTest(TM) CDP system, which was synchronized with a Northern Digital OptoTrak motion tracking system (3 subjects). Chest pushes were applied using a hand-held force transducer device and were performed using a stabilometric system (6 subjects). Analysis of EMG has shown that: i) the earliest response of the leg muscles was registered significantly later during forward translation of the support surface than during chest pushes, and ii) there was a tendency for the different order of leg muscles activation during the translation tests. Analysis of the kinematic data showed a significant difference in the subject's body segments inclinations during corrective postural responses to upper and lower body perturbations. It appears that upper body perturbations likely engage the vestibular system more rapidly, while lower body perturbations likely engage somatosensory systems more rapidly. These differences must be taken into account when choosing the type of perturbation for testing postural function.

  12. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20's. PMID:27134375

  13. Two member subdivision of the Bima Sandstone, Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria: Based on sedimentological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukur, A.; Samaila, N. K.; Grimes, S. T.; Kariya, I. I.; Chaanda, M. S.

    2015-04-01

    The Early Cretaceous Bima Sandstone is a continental succession in the Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria formally divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Bima Members. Sedimentological data presented here indicates a two member model (Lower and Upper Members) is more appropriate for the formation. The boundary separating the two proposed members is exposed at the Bollere River, Bima Hill, Wuyo II, and Kaltungo Fault sections. The lithological differences between the two members are perhaps to a large extent a reflection of the sediments sources. The Lower Bima Sandstone Member was deposited in aggradational braided alluvial systems and contains well preserved overbank fines, avulsive and crevasse splay sandstones, and channel deposits. Pedogenic carbonates are also common features of these alluvial deposits in the Bima Hill. The Kaltungo Fault section exposes sediments of brief lacustrine setting within the Lower Bima Sandstone Member. The Upper Bima Sandstone Member was deposited in fully matured braided river with well-developed accommodation space in both shallow and deep fluvial channels. Sedimentation in this braided river was mostly on braid bars and with scarce channels. Preliminary δ13CTOC data along the Bollere River lithosection shows lack of any significant carbon isotope excursion suggesting climate, especially changes in aridity was not a major contributor in differences between the two members of the Bima Sandstone.

  14. A Pre-Clinical Framework for Neural Control of a Therapeutic Upper-Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Blank, Amy; O'Malley, Marcia K; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize a novel approach to robotic rehabilitation that capitalizes on the benefits of patient intent and real-time assessment of impairment. Specifically, an upper-limb, physical human-robot interface (the MAHI EXO-II robotic exoskeleton) is augmented with a non-invasive brain-machine interface (BMI) to include the patient in the control loop, thereby making the therapy 'active' and engaging patients across a broad spectrum of impairment severity in the rehabilitation tasks. Robotic measures of motor impairment are derived from real-time sensor data from the MAHI EXO-II and the BMI. These measures can be validated through correlation with widely used clinical measures and used to drive patient-specific therapy sessions adapted to the capabilities of the individual, with the MAHI EXO-II providing assistance or challenging the participant as appropriate to maximize rehabilitation outcomes. This approach to robotic rehabilitation takes a step towards the seamless integration of BMIs and intelligent exoskeletons to create systems that can monitor and interface with brain activity and movement. Such systems will enable more focused study of various issues in development of devices and rehabilitation strategies, including interpretation of measurement data from a variety of sources, exploration of hypotheses regarding large scale brain function during robotic rehabilitation, and optimization of device design and training programs for restoring upper limb function after stroke. PMID:24887296

  15. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  16. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  17. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin, Madison under Dr. Turner's direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  18. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bis chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with the enolic form of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, i.r. and electronic and electron spin resonance spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have the composition ML 2 [where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(ii) and Pt(II) and L = thiosemicarbazones of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl ketone]. Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are paramagnetic and may have polymeric six-coordinate octahedral and square planar geometries, respectively. The Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are diamagnetic and may have square planar geometries. Pyridine adducts (ML 2·2Py) of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were also prepared and characterized.

  19. 3. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. 1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  2. 14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of truss, showing connection of upper chord, laced vertical compression member, strut, counters, and laterals. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  3. Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. Wood storage platform in foreground divides Federal Street lobby into upper and lower sections - Stamford Post Office, 421 Atlantic Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT WING OF UPPER GUARD GATE (FAR LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  5. Upper internals arrangement for a pressurized water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Norman R; Altman, David A; Yu, Ching; Rex, James A; Forsyth, David R

    2013-07-09

    In a pressurized water reactor with all of the in-core instrumentation gaining access to the core through the reactor head, each fuel assembly in which the instrumentation is introduced is aligned with an upper internals instrumentation guide-way. In the elevations above the upper internals upper support assembly, the instrumentation is protected and aligned by upper mounted instrumentation columns that are part of the instrumentation guide-way and extend from the upper support assembly towards the reactor head in hue with a corresponding head penetration. The upper mounted instrumentation columns are supported laterally at one end by an upper guide tube and at the other end by the upper support plate.

  6. 15. Manhattan from ferry gate; suspended gangways upper left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Manhattan from ferry gate; suspended gangways upper left and upper right. - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  8. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  9. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  10. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  11. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  12. 3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  13. 4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from west bank of Millstone Creek, VIEW EAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  14. 5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  15. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK TO RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  16. 25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM). NOTE GANTRY CRANES - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  17. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part II: Upper Extremity Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the differences within 11 specific kinematic variables and an outcome measure (ball velocity) associated with component developmental levels of humerus and forearm action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences…

  19. The standard flare model in three dimensions. II. Upper limit on solar flare energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, G.; Démoulin, P.; Schrijver, C. J.; Janvier, M.; Pariat, E.; Schmieder, B.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Solar flares strongly affect the Sun's atmosphere as well as the Earth's environment. Quantifying the maximum possible energy of solar flares of the present-day Sun, if any, is thus a key question in heliophysics. Aims: The largest solar flares observed over the past few decades have reached energies of a few times 1032 erg, possibly up to 1033 erg. Flares in active Sun-like stars reach up to about 1036 erg. In the absence of direct observations of solar flares within this range, complementary methods of investigation are needed to assess the probability of solar flares beyond those in the observational record. Methods: Using historical reports for sunspot and solar active region properties in the photosphere, we scaled to observed solar values a realistic dimensionless 3D MHD simulation for eruptive flares, which originate from a highly sheared bipole. This enabled us to calculate the magnetic fluxes and flare energies in the model in a wide paramater space. Results: Firstly, commonly observed solar conditions lead to modeled magnetic fluxes and flare energies that are comparable to those estimated from observations. Secondly, we evaluate from observations that 30% of the area of sunspot groups are typically involved in flares. This is related to the strong fragmentation of these groups, which naturally results from sub-photospheric convection. When the model is scaled to 30% of the area of the largest sunspot group ever reported, with its peak magnetic field being set to the strongest value ever measured in a sunspot, it produces a flare with a maximum energy of ~6 × 1033 erg. Conclusions: The results of the model suggest that the Sun is able to produce flares up to about six times as energetic in total solar irradiance fluence as the strongest directly observed flare of Nov. 4, 2003. Sunspot groups larger than historically reported would yield superflares for spot pairs that would exceed tens of degrees in extent. We thus conjecture that superflare-productive Sun-like stars should have a much stronger dynamo than in the Sun.

  20. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:22464092

  1. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Mohd; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable. PMID:27041906

  2. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Mohd; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable. PMID:27041906

  3. [Comparative study of the fracture resistance of sound upper premolars and upper premolars restored with bonded amalgam].

    PubMed

    Minto, André Marcelo Peruchi; Dinelli, Welingtom; Nonaka, Tomio; Thome, Luis Henrique de Camargo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the fracture resistance of upper premolars which had received class II preparations (conservative and extensive) and were restored with bonded amalgam, with two different adhesive systems. Seventy teeth were divided in four groups: group 1 (control), with ten sound teeth; group 2, with twenty prepared teeth (10 teeth received conservative cavities and 10, extensive cavities) restored with amalgam without any kind of liner; groups 3 and 4, similar to group 2, though with linings of glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond - 3M) (group 3) and dental adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus - 3M) (group 4). The teeth were previously fixed in PVC cylinders with acrylic resin. After being restored and thermocycled, the test specimens were submitted to fracture by means of compression in an EMIC-MEM 2000 universal testing machine. After the application of the analysis of variance and complementary Tukey's test, we concluded that the utilized adhesive systems produced an increase of the fracture resistance of teeth presenting with conventional cavities; the teeth presenting with conservative cavities were more resistant in all experimental situations. PMID:12131984

  4. Observations of Local Interstellar Mg I and Mg II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Oegerle, W.; Weiler, E.; Stencel, R. E.; Kondo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Copernicus and IUE observations of 5 stars within 50 pc of the Sun were combined to study the ionization of magnesium in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The high resolution Copernicus spectrometer was used to detect interstellar MG I 2852 in the spectra of alpha Gru, alpha Eri, and alpha Lyr, while placing upper limits on Mg I in the spectra of alpha CMa and alpha PsA. Observations of Mg II 2795, 2802 for these stars were also obtained with IUE and Copernicus. The column densities of Mg I and Mg II are used to place constraints on the temperature of the LISM.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  6. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  7. Extratropical Influence of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor on Greenhouse Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the impact of upper tropospheric water vapor on greenhouse warming in midlatitudes by analyzing the recent observations of the upper tropospheric water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), in conjuction with other space-based measurement and model simulation products.

  8. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  9. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  11. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  12. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  13. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  14. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  15. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  16. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  17. Medical management considerations for upper airway disease.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, G L

    1992-06-01

    The conducting airways, also commonly referred to as the upper airways, provide for the passage of air to and from the atmosphere and lungs. Anatomical components include the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and mainstem bronchi. Clinical problems involving the conducting airways can be manifested by relatively mild clinical signs of stertorous breathing, by life-threatening dyspnea, or by chronic bouts of inspiratory stridor and cough. Concurrent disease of the lower respiratory system (ie, chronic bronchitis) as well as other organ systems (ie, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine) may significantly contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of upper airway disease. Diagnosis of the diseases of the conducting airways is primarily based on history and physical examination. The dynamic nature of some conditions, related to the phases of respiration, can make diagnosis more difficult. In addition to direct visualization, radiographic and endoscopic evaluation are often useful. Many upper airway problems, especially congenital conditions, lend themselves to surgical palliation that should be performed as early in life as possible. Medical management is often directed at treating underlying diseases and the relief of clinical signs. Historically, the use of variety of drugs have been advocated and frequently include decongestants, cough suppressants, bronchodilators, glucocorticoids, and antibiotics. However, their use may be detrimental and contraindicated. In addition, therapy for some conditions (ie, laryngeal paralysis and intrathoracic tracheal collapse) may be better directed at increasing airway muscle tone in order to stabilized airway patency. Therapeutic agents that may be useful include aspirin and digitalis. The overall objective to medical management must be to balance potential therapeutic benefit against untoward effects in order to minimize clinical signs and to improve the animal's quality of life. PMID:1643322

  18. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  19. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  20. Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed. PMID:22022039

  1. Dynamic model of the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slowey, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An initial modification to the MSF/J70 Thermospheric Model, in which the variations due to sudden geomagnetic disturbances upon the Earth's upper atmospheric density structure were modeled is presented. This dynamic model of the geomagnetic variation included is an improved version of one which SAO developed from the analysis of the ESRO 4 mass spectrometer data that was incorporated in the Jacchia 1977 model. The variation with geomagnetic local time as well as with geomagnetic latitude are included, and also the effects due to disturbance of the temperature profiles in the region of energy deposition.

  2. Upper bounds on the photon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley

    2010-09-15

    The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.

  3. Upper critical field of cellular magnesium diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinenko, V. A.

    2007-08-01

    A cellular superconducting material consisting of thin (1 20 μm) MgB2-x layers and magnesium granules of about 100 μm has been produced. The critical temperature T c of this superconductor decreases with the thickness of the MgB2-x layers. In unalloyed magnesium diboride, the curvature of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field H c2(T) changes gradually from downward to pronounced upward as the temperature T c decreases from 38 to 36 K.

  4. The composition of the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    Miniature mass spectrometers were developed and were carried on sounding rockets to determine the composition of the upper atmosphere. Techniques have been developed that accurately correct for the velocity and spin of the moving vehicle. Above 120 km N2, O2, and Ar appear to be in diffusive equilibrium. Most He concentration measurements show a more rapid decline with altitude than predicted by diffusive equilibrium. Because of the highly reactive nature of atomic oxygen, measurements of this species by mass spectrometry are low by an unknown factor.

  5. Laboratory Simulation Of Upper-Body Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, R.; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, B.

    1992-01-01

    Paper describes exercise method evoking muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses typical of activity involving upper body, to simulate effects of working in zero gravity in space suit. Used in research on thermoregulatory subsystem of advanced portable life-support system for space suit. Discusses requirements for simulation of zero-gravity work in space suit and describes evolution of method through three versions. In preferred version, one performs arm-crank ergometry with gimbaled body-support mechanism that react forces at feet.

  6. Toward a patient safety upper level ontology.

    PubMed

    Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patient Safety (PS) standardization is the key to improve interoperability and expand international share of incident reporting system knowledge. By aligning the Patient Safety Categorial Structure (PS-CAST) to the Basic Formal Ontology version 2 (BFO2) upper level ontology, we aim to provide more rigor on the underlying organization on the one hand, and to share instances of concepts of categorial structure on the other hand. This alignment is a big step in the top-down approach, to build a complete and standardized domain ontology in order to facilitate the basis to a WHO accepted new information model for Patient Safety. PMID:25991122

  7. Upper extremity injuries in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Richard L; Hirthler, Maureen A

    2013-09-01

    Homer's Iliad remains a fascinating source of medical history. This epic poem, compiled around 800 BCE, describes several weeks of the last year of the 10-year siege of Troy (Ilion) by the Achaeans. Homer composed the epic by combining and formalizing oral poems, legends, customs, and experiences that originated in the later Mycenaean age (1600-1100 bce). The story centers on the rage of the great warrior Achilles. The Iliad remains the oldest record of Greek medicine and a unique source of surgical history. This study examines the upper extremity injuries described in the Iliad and compares them to those other sites of injury. PMID:23932117

  8. Trajectory Simulations of Upper Tropospheric Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Sherwood, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present comparisons of simulations of upper tropospheric humidity at 215 and 146 hPa with satellite measurements. Our model uses diabatic trajectories to advect water vapor from an initial condition of 100% relative humidity to the final state. The model does not allow parcels' relative humidity to exceed 100%, and in this way crudely incorporates condensation. We find that this simple model does a good job of simulating the observations. Sensitivity studies suggest that one must have realistic wind velocities in order to accurately simulate the humidity distribution; microphysical parameterizations seem to be less important. Comparisions between simulations using UKMO and NCEP horizontal winds will be discussed.

  9. The Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum Estimated Using the Mg II K Index and Ca II K disk Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a program to estimate the solar spectrum backward in time to the early twentieth century, we have generated fits to UV spectral irradiance measurements (150 - 410 nm) as a function of two solar activity proxies, the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, or Mg II index, and the total Ca II K disk activity derived from ground based observations. In addition, irradiance spectra at shorter wavelengths (1 - 150 nm) where used to generate fits to the Mg II core-to-wing ratio alone. Two sets of spectra were used in these fitting procedures. The fits at longer wavelengths (150 to 410 nm) were based on the high resolution spectra taken by the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Spectra measured by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite were used for the fits at wavelengths from 1 to 150 nm. To generate fits between solar irradiance and solar proxies, this study uses the above irradiance data, the NOAA composite Mg II index, and daily Ca II K disk activity determined from images measured by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among the results of this study is an estimated relationship between the fraction of the disk with enhanced Ca II K activity and the Mg II index, an upper bound of the average solar UV spectral irradiance during periods of pure quiet sun as was believed to be present during the Maunder Minimum, and results indicating that more than 60 % of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) variability occurs between 150 and 400nm. In this presentation we will discuss the results of this study and the implications for estimating UV spectra for use in long-term climate models.

  10. Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually. PMID:24648646

  11. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  12. Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.

  13. The ionosphere and upper atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of current understanding of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus and its interaction with the solar wind, based on data from the Mariner 5 and Mariner 10 fly-bys and on far UV spectra obtained in rocket experiments. The major constituent of the upper atmosphere is CO2. Minor constituents include H, He, O, C, and CO and probably N2, Cl, and S. Although the thermal escape rate is only about 10,000/sq cm/sec, the H content in the exosphere appears to be highly variable. A prominent peak in the ionosphere profile near 140 km, appearing both on the day and nightside, is identified as an F(1) layer. An E layer and possibly an F(2) layer are present at 125 and 170 km, respectively. The dayside ionosphere may be explained in terms of the absorption of solar radiation by CO2, O, and He. The transport of ions from day to nightside may be important in the formation of the nightside ionosphere; an additional source may be needed to explain the nightside E layer. There is observational evidence that the solar wind interacts directly with the Venusian atmosphere, resulting in the formation of a bow shock. This may in part be explained by a balance at the ionopause between the solar wind ram pressure and the planetary plasma pressure.

  14. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-04-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students’ understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school students in Turkey (n = 120) and England (n = 152). A separate test consisting of 10 questions on the visualization of spatial rotation was used to investigate the hypothesis that students’ ability to visualize three-dimensional situations from two-dimensional representations might influence learning of electromagnetism. Many students’ responses showed misunderstandings and inconsistencies that suggested they did not have a coherent framework of ideas about electromagnetism. Common errors included confusing electric and magnetic field effects, seeing field lines as indicating a “flow”, using cause effect reasoning in situations where it does not apply, and dealing with effects associated with the rate of change of a variable. Performance on the spatial rotation test was, however, only weakly correlated with performance on the electromagnetism questions. The findings suggest the need to develop teaching strategies that help students to visualize magnetic field patterns and effects, and assist them in integrating ideas into a more coherent framework.

  15. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  16. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  17. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  18. Upper mantle material in the Brazilian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbert, C. O.; Svisero, D. P.; Sial, A. N.; Meyer, H. O. A.

    1981-04-01

    Information on the nature of the upper mantle can be obtained from nodules in kimberlites and basalt and from mantle-derived magmas, mineral inclusions in diamonds, as well as from the fields of geodesy, seismology, geothermy, geomagnetism and petrological models for the upper mantle. In Brazil studies of these kinds are still in the stage of data gathering. This article intends to present some of this data related to the alpine peridotites, nodules in basalts, mineral inclusions in diamonds, and kimberlites, without any pretension of deeper-going interpretation. Alpine peridotites are found all over Brazil and are grouped in three main classes: the serpentinized dunites-peridotites of small and medium size; the gabbro-pyroxenite-peridotite association in large complexes, the latter described only in the central part of Brazil; and the pyroxenite-gabbroic gneisses of the Goianira-Trindade type. Kimberlites have been described in Minas Gerais and Piaui states, but they also exist in Mato Grosso and possibly in Rondonia, Goiás, Roraima and Bahia. Inclusions in diamonds studied from Minas Gerais, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Sa˜o Paulo and Goiás include olivine, pyroxene, garnet, chromite, sulphides, ilmenite, zircon and rutile. Ultramafic nodules in basalts and basanites from Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba states and Fernando de Noronha Island are essentially Iherzolites, like the ones described from Paraguay.

  19. Volcanic Effects in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, A.; Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions have a well observed impact on the lower atmosphere and climate. In the past forty years, two eruptions, El Chichon in 1982 and Pinatubo in 1991, released significant amounts of aerosols. The effects of these two volcanos have been studied in the stratosphere (10km - 50km), but not in the upper atmosphere. This project attempted to find traces of the two eruptions at altitudes of 250km to 500km through temperature trend studies of long-term observations of the upper atmosphere. An ion temperature trend model was refined and then used to subtract solar, geomagnetic, annual, semi-annual, and correlated effects from Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data, which span more than 3 solar cycles starting in 1970s. After subtraction, the ion temperature residuals were studied around the years 1982 and 1991 for anomalous dips. This modeling technique was then applied to the Sondrestrom (1990-) and St. Santin (1966-1987) ISR sites to validate temperature trends and volcanic effects at different locations., Effects of the 1982 El Chichon eruption appeared to exist with a visible ion temperature drop in Millstone Hill and St. Santin measurements. The 1991 Pinatubo eruption was not immediately present until up to 2 years later over Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom, but this result contains large uncertainty due to solar and magnetic activities. Further study is needed to understand the theoretical effects of volcanic activity at those altitudes and gauge the significance of the observed temperature residuals.

  20. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III; Hervig, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Soundings." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first-year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multi-channel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  1. Orographic disturbances in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Anatoly I.; Shefov, Nikolay N.; Medvedeva, Irina V.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of atmospheric non-stationary stream with obstacles on the Earth's terrestrial surface causes disturbances which are a source of various wave processes. A study of such processes and their influence on the upper atmosphere temperature regime was carried out at Kislovodsk high-mountainous scientific station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) by measuring the mesopause temperature in the northern leeward area of the Caucasian ridge. Using the data of the spectrophotometric measurements of the upper atmosphere hydroxyl emission characteristics over almost two decades, information about the orographic disturbances at the mesopause altitudes were obtained and features of their generation in the surface atmosphere were studied. It was found that the atmospheric temperature at altitudes around 90 km in the lee of mountains increased by 10 K (the mean value is about 200 K) at a distance of about 150 km from the ridge. The 300-km width of the observed airglow disturbances is from the observations near the Ural and Caucasian mountains.The sources of wave disturbances are shown to be concentrated near the mountainous irregularities of the Caucasian ridge. These sources appear in the troposphere at altitudes of about 4 km. The process of generating waves with periods from 7 to 20 min were believed to be caused by wind gusts. The spatial distribution of energy flow in the lee of the mountains was calculated and amounts to about 3 erg cm-2 s-1.

  2. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  3. Treatment of upper-extremity outflow thrombosis.

    PubMed

    van den Houten, Marijn Ml; van Grinsven, Regine; Pouwels, Sjaak; Yo, Lonneke Sf; van Sambeek, Marc Rhm; Teijink, Joep Aw

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 10% of all cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occur in the upper extremities. The most common secondary cause of upper-extremity DVT (UEDVT) is the presence of a venous catheter. Primary UEDVT is far less common and usually occurs in patients with anatomic abnormalities of the costoclavicular space causing compression of the subclavian vein, called venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS). Subsequently, movement of the arm results in repetitive microtrauma to the vein and its surrounding structures causing apparent 'spontaneous' thrombosis, or Paget-Schrötter syndrome. Treatment of UEDVT aims at elimination of the thrombus, thereby relieving acute symptoms, and preventing recurrence. Initial management for all UEDVT patients consists of anticoagulant therapy. In patients with Paget-Schrötter syndrome the underlying VTOS necessitates a more aggressive management strategy. Several therapeutic options exist, including catheter-directed thrombolysis, surgical decompression through first rib resection, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the vein. However, several controversies exist regarding their indication and timing. PMID:26916766

  4. Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M P; McClaughlin, W; Jacobson, R R; Poets, C F; Southall, D P

    1992-01-01

    Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the presence of one person, or (b) characteristic findings on physiological recordings, lasting between 12 hours and three weeks, performed in hospital or at home. Surveillance was undertaken for between 15 minutes and 12 days (median 24 hours) and resulted in safety for the patient and psychiatric assessment of the parent: mother (n = 12), father (n = 1), and grandmother (n = 1). These revealed histories of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse (n = 11), self harm (n = 9), factitious illness (n = 7), eating disorder (n = 10), and previous involvement with a psychiatrist (n = 7). Management of the abusing parents is complex, but recognition of their psychosocial characteristics may allow earlier diagnosis. Imposed upper airway obstruction should be considered and excluded by physiological recordings in any infant or young child with recurrent cyanotic episodes. If physiological recordings fail to substantiate a natural cause for episodes, covert video surveillance may be essential to protect the child from further injury or death. PMID:1543373

  5. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) trade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. M.; Nebb, J.

    1983-11-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) which will collect data pertinent to the Earth's upper atmosphere is described. The collected data will be sent to the central data handling facility (CDHF) via the UARS ground system and the data will be processed and distributed to the remote analysis computer systems (RACS). An overview of the UARS ground system is presented. Three configurations were developed for the CDHF-RACS system. The CDHF configurations are discussed. The IBM CDHF configuration, the UNIVAC CDHF configuration and the vax cluster CDHF configuration are presented. The RACS configurations, the IBM RACS configurations, UNIVAC RACS and VAX RACS are detailed. Due to the large on-line data estimate to approximately 100 GB, a mass storage system is considered essential to the UARS CDHF. Mass storage systems were analyzed and the Braegan ATL, the RCA optical disk, the IBM 3850 and the MASSTOR M860 are discussed. It is determined that the type of mass storage system most suitable to UARS is the automated tape/cartridge device. Two devices of this type, the IBM 3850 and the MASSTOR MSS are analyzed and the applicable tape/cartridge device is incorporated into the three CDHF-RACS configurations.

  6. Interhemispheric sensorimotor integration; an upper limb phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathy L; Jaspers, Ellen; Keller, Martin; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Somatosensory information from the limbs reaches the contralateral Primary Sensory Cortex (S1) with a delay of 23ms for finger, and 40ms for leg (somatosensory N20/N40). Upon arrival of this input in the cortex, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are momentarily inhibited. This phenomenon is called 'short latency afferent inhibition (SAI)' and can be used as a tool for investigating sensorimotor interactions in the brain. We used SAI to investigate the process of sensorimotor integration in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. We hypothesized that ipsilateral SAI would occur with a delay following the onset of contralateral SAI, to allow for transcallosal conduction of the signal. We electrically stimulated the limb either contralateral or ipsilateral to the hemisphere receiving TMS, using a range of different interstimulus intervals (ISI). We tested the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle in the hand, and Tibialis Anterior (TA) in the lower leg, in three separate experiments. Ipsilateral SAI was elicited in the upper limb (FDI) at all ISIs that were greater than N20+18ms (all p<.05) but never at any earlier timepoint. No ipsilateral SAI was detected in the lower limb (TA) at any of the tested ISIs. The delayed onset timing of ipsilateral SAI suggests that transcallosal communication mediates this inhibitory process for the upper limb. The complete absence of ipsilateral SAI in the lower limb warrants consideration of the potential limb-specific differences in demands for bilateral sensorimotor integration. PMID:27425210

  7. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) trade analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, M. M.; Nebb, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) which will collect data pertinent to the Earth's upper atmosphere is described. The collected data will be sent to the central data handling facility (CDHF) via the UARS ground system and the data will be processed and distributed to the remote analysis computer systems (RACS). An overview of the UARS ground system is presented. Three configurations were developed for the CDHF-RACS system. The CDHF configurations are discussed. The IBM CDHF configuration, the UNIVAC CDHF configuration and the vax cluster CDHF configuration are presented. The RACS configurations, the IBM RACS configurations, UNIVAC RACS and VAX RACS are detailed. Due to the large on-line data estimate to approximately 100 GB, a mass storage system is considered essential to the UARS CDHF. Mass storage systems were analyzed and the Braegan ATL, the RCA optical disk, the IBM 3850 and the MASSTOR M860 are discussed. It is determined that the type of mass storage system most suitable to UARS is the automated tape/cartridge device. Two devices of this type, the IBM 3850 and the MASSTOR MSS are analyzed and the applicable tape/cartridge device is incorporated into the three CDHF-RACS configurations.

  8. Multifluids description of dynamics of upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Hung, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A multifluids model to investigate ionospheric dynamics was established on kinetic theory. Its resultant equations are used to examine the following dynamic problems in the gamma region of 80-2000 Km of the ionosphere: (1) propagation of acoustic modes in the 500-2,000 Km of the ionosphere (two fluid model); (2) the relation between the cross field plasma drift instabilities and type I and type II ionospheric irregularities; and (3) time dependent neutral wind structure and horizontal pressure gradient.

  9. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New brown dwarf discs in Upper Scorpius (Dawson+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Marsh, K. A.; Wood, K.; Natta, A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour-magnitude and colour-colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19%) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6μm and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars. We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5-10Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1Myr. (2 data files).

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  12. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  13. Upper Extremity Assessment in Tetraplegia: The Importance of Differentiating Between Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anne M; Hoyen, Harry A; Keith, Michael W; Mejia, Melvin; Kilgore, Kevin L; Nemunaitis, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    Scientific advances are increasing the options for improved upper limb function in people with cervical level spinal cord injury (SCI). Some of these interventions rely on identifying an aspect of paralysis that is not uniformly assessed in SCI: the integrity of the lower motor neuron (LMN). SCI can damage both the upper motor neuron and LMN causing muscle paralysis. Differentiation between these causes of paralysis is not typically believed to be important during SCI rehabilitation because, regardless of the cause, the muscles are no longer under voluntary control by the patient. Emerging treatments designed to restore upper extremity function (eg, rescue microsurgical nerve transfers, motor learning-based interventions, functional electrical stimulation) all require knowledge of LMN status. The LMN is easily evaluated using surface electrical stimulation and does not add significant time to the standard clinical assessment of SCI. This noninvasive evaluation yields information that contributes to the development of a lifetime upper extremity care plan for maximizing function and quality of life. Given the relative simplicity of this assessment and the far-reaching implications for treatment and function, we propose that this assessment should be adopted as standard practice for acute cervical SCI. PMID:27233597

  14. Upper Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) cephalopods from the Parras Shale near Saucedas, Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifrim, Christina; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Espinosa, Belinda; Ventura, José Flores

    2015-12-01

    72 specimens of ammonites and the nautilid Eutrephoceras, collected from the upper Cretaceous Parras Shale at Saucedas in southern Coahuila, Mexico, are here assigned to twelve genera and fourteen species. The assemblage represents three to four upper Campanian biozones reaching from the Western Interior lower upper Campanian Exiteloceras jenneyi to the uppermost Campanian Tethyan Nostoceras hyatti biozone. Eutrephoceras irritilasi and Trachyscaphites sp. are endemic taxa, while Baculites taylorensis is restricted to the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast and E. jenneyi, Oxybeloceras crassum and Solenoceras elegans are Western Interior Seaway elements. Didymoceras donezianum is a southern Euramerican species, while Bostrychoceras polyplocum and N. hyatti occur throughout lower and middle latitudes. Diplomoceras cylindraceum and Phyllopachyceras forbesianum are cosmopolitan taxa with their main occurrences in the Maastrichtian; their record at Saucedas is the oldest of these species in North America. A clear paleobiogeographic signal is identified in the upper Campanian ammonite assemblages at Saucedas by a change from restricted towards geographically widespread faunas. This suggests gradual disappearence of faunal barriers which separated the Gulf Coast from the rest of the world.

  15. Upper Limb Ischemia: Clinical Experiences of Acute and Chronic Upper Limb Ischemia in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon; Lee, Chung Won; Choi, Jinseok; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil

    2015-01-01

    Background Upper limb ischemia is less common than lower limb ischemia, and relatively few cases have been reported. This paper reviews the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical characteristics of upper limb ischemia and analyzes the factors affecting functional sequelae after treatment. Methods The records of 35 patients with acute and chronic upper limb ischemia who underwent treatment from January 2007 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age was 55.03 years, and the number of male patients was 24 (68.6%). The most common etiology was embolism of cardiac origin, followed by thrombosis with secondary trauma, and the brachial artery was the most common location for a lesion causing obstruction. Computed tomography angiography was the first-line diagnostic tool in our center. Twenty-eight operations were performed, and conservative therapy was implemented in seven cases. Five deaths (14.3%) occurred during follow-up. Twenty patients (57.1%) complained of functional sequelae after treatment. Functional sequelae were found to be more likely in patients with a longer duration of symptoms (odds ratio, 1.251; p=0.046) and higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (odds ratio, 1.001; p=0.031). Conclusion An increased duration of symptoms and higher initial serum LDH levels were associated with the more frequent occurrence of functional sequelae. The prognosis of upper limb ischemia is associated with prompt and proper treatment and can also be predicted by initial serum LDH levels. PMID:26290835

  16. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  17. Stellar occultation studies of Saturn's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Jeffrey Alan

    1999-10-01

    The properties of Saturn's upper atmosphere are not well- known despite several spacecraft flybys. However, the region of 1-100 μbar can be studied in detail by observing stellar occultations-when the planet passes in front of a star-from groundbased or Earth-orbiting telescopes. We use data from five such occultations: three observed in 1995 by the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), one observed in 1996 at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and one in 1989 observed by a different instrument at the IRTF. The data span latitudes from 52° south to 75° north. We fit isothermal models to each data set and also perform numerical inversions. These analyses show that temperatures in the 1-10 μbar range can vary significantly as a function of season and latitude, ranging from 121 to 160 K, in accordance with radiative transfer models for the atmosphere. We also search for evidence of gravity wave saturation in Saturn's upper atmosphere, as seen in other planetary atmospheres, by analyzing the power spectra of temperature and density data and by studying the temperature lapse rate in the atmosphere. Our analysis is consistent with saturated gravity waves for all data sets, although gravity wave saturation is not the sole explanation for the spectra. We take advantage of the wavelength-resolved HST FOS data to study the composition of Saturn's upper atmosphere. We measured the difference in feature times for data taken at two wavelengths, and use the different refractivities of hydrogen and helium, as a function of wavelength to compute the relative amounts of the two elements in the planet's atmosphere. We find that the helium mass fraction is 0.26 +/- 0.10, higher than that found using Voyager data, but marginally consistent with theoretical models for the evolution of Saturn's atmosphere, although the large error bars on the results make a definitive conclusion problematic. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm

  18. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  19. Upper Los Alamos canyon fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is planning to make environmental assessments in portions of Upper Los Alamos Canyon. Upper Los Alamos Canyon is one of the areas included in the 2005 Consent Order agreed to by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the New Mexico Environment Department. As such, it must be evaluated for potential contamination. The area is located within and south of the Los Alamos townsite in Technical Areas 00, 01, 03, 32, 41, 43, and 61 of Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes a total of 115 solid waste management units and areas of concern. This area was home to some of the earliest operations at Los Alamos, dating from the 1940s. Of the 115 solid-waste management units and areas of concern, 54 have been addressed previously. The remaining 61 are the focus of this project. These include septic tanks and outfalls, sanitary and industrial waste lines, storm drains, soil contamination areas, landfill and surface disposal areas, transformer sites, and incinerators. The Consent Order requires the Laboratory to evaluate historical work sites for the potential presence of residual contamination. It also requires the Laboratory to identify and implement corrective actions should contamination be found. The Laboratory began performing these types of activities in the 1990s. The Upper Los Alamos Canyon project entails: (1) collecting soil and rock samples using the most efficient and least-invasive methods practicable; (2) defining the nature and extent of any residual contamination associated with each solid waste management unit or area of concern; and (3) gathering additional data if needed to evaluate potential remedial alternatives. A variety of methods, including studies of engineering drawings, nonintrusive geophysical surveys, and trenching, may be used to identify the final sampling locations. The field team then determines which collection method to use at each location, based on such site

  20. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  1. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  2. Upper extremity arterial combat injury management.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A; Fox, Charles J; Adams, Eric; Rice, Rob D; Quan, Reagan; Cox, Mitchell W; Gillespie, David L

    2006-06-01

    Traumatic hemorrhage and vascular injury management have been concerns for both civilian and military physicians. During the 20th century, advances in technique allowed surgeons to focus on vascular repair, restoration of perfusion, limb salvage, and life preservation. Military surgeons such as Makins, DeBakey, Hughes, Rich, and others made significant contributions to the field of surgery in general and vascular surgery in particular. Casualties from combat in Afghanistan and Iraq confront physicians and surgeons with devastating injuries. The current generation of providers is challenged with applying contemporary care while expanding upon the lessons taught by our predecessors. The objective of this report is to review the historical experience with managing military upper extremity arterial injuries and compare that experience with current management. PMID:17060232

  3. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  4. Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

    1984-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

  5. Amputation for tumor of the upper arm.

    PubMed

    Blåder, S; Gunterberg, B; Markhede, G

    1983-04-01

    In a 10-year period 35 patients underwent a proximal amputation of the upper limb because of a malignant tumor. In 27 patients a forequarter amputation was made, in one a humeroscapular disarticulation and in seven an amputation through the humerus. The observed 5-year survival was 23 per cent. Twelve out of 23 patients followed for at least 3 years also survived 3 years. Fifteen living patients were questioned concerning prosthetic use and social and psychologic factors. Only three patients used a functional (mechanical) prosthesis and only five used a cosmetic prosthesis. The other seven patients rejected the use of a prosthesis. Half of the patients had the same occupation postoperatively as preoperatively. Activities of daily living did not constitute any major problem. One of three housekeepers needed daily help. One patient seemed to have suffered obvious psychologic damage. PMID:6845999

  6. Nitrogen Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In Titan's upper atmosphere N2 is dissociated to N by solar UV and high energy electrons. This flux of N provides for interesting organic chemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan. Previously the main pathway for the loss of this N was thought to be the formation of HCN, followed by diffusion of this HCN to lower altitudes leading ultimately to condensation. However, recent laboratory simulations of organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere suggest that formation of the organic haze may be an important sink for atmospheric N. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere. This and other implications of this sink for the N balance on Titan are considered.

  7. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  8. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  9. Aerial laser sensing of ocean upper layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Applications of laser sensing of the ocean, such as deep bathymetry; determination of the luminescence spectrum of phytoplankton as a sensitive indicator of changes in the external physical parameters of the studied region; monitoring the state of underwater pipelines; conducting search and rescue missions; monitoring pollution; biological observations of the state of algae; searching for schools of fish, etc., are discussed. The Chayka apparatus for laser sensing is discussed. A block diagram is given which is used in describing functioning of this unit. Particular attention is given to the time structure of an echo signal appearing when sensing the upper ocean layer by a short laser pulse propagating through the wave-covered surface.

  10. Violent injuries to the upper ureter.

    PubMed

    Evans, R A; Smith, M J

    1976-07-01

    Frequently traumatic injury to the renal pelvis or upper ureter is overshadowed by multiple associated injuries. The diagnosis may be particularly difficult, due to the lack of hematuria and absence of pathognomonic findings. All too frequently the delayed manifestations of urinary wound drainage, retroperitoneal mass, or urinary ascites and sepsis first draw attention to the ureteral injury. A review of the problem and our experience with 16 such injuries is presented. As with other infrequent injuries the single and most important diagnostic factor is the prepared mind of the examiner. We feel all patients who have penetrating abdominal trauma, have fractured lumbar processes, or are involved in accidents where deceleration or extension occur should have infusion pyelography even in the absence of hematuria. PMID:948098

  11. Environmental mitigation and the Upper Yazoo Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardeau, E. A.; Fischenich, J. C.

    1995-02-01

    The US Army Engineer District, Vicksburg (CELMK), evaluated an array of flood control alternatives, which included up to 167 water control structures, 52 confined disposal facilities, and 47 borrow pits as part of a major flood control effort known as the Upper Yazoo Projects (UYP). Many of these project features are capable of ponding water and thus can be managed to mitigate for aquatic, terrestrial, waterfowl, and wetland resource losses expected to occur as a result of the UYP. The benefits to be derived will depend upon the land uses and management of the ponded areas. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station developed procedures to quantify the cost and habitat benefits of the many management options for these sites. The mitigation strategy was derived by optimizing various combinations of land acquisition, reforestation, land-use change, and site hydrology so that the least-cost mitigation plan could be selected.

  12. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  13. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  14. Inertial Upper Stage navigation algorithms evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joldersma, T.; Winkel, D. J.; Goodstein, R.; Simmons, E. J., Jr.

    The Inertial Upper Stage is a Space Shuttle-deployed vehicle taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous and other orbits, and incorporates a redundant inertial measurement unit containing five gyros and five accelerometers in a strapped down, skewed orientation. The gyro and accelerometer outputs are provided to redundant, on board digital computers to conduct sensor motion compensation, failure detection and isolation, and navigation in an earth-centered inertial coordinate system. Two representations of the flight software algorithms are under evaluation in preparation for the first payload-carrying flight: a FORTRAN nonreal time version for a scientific computer, and a JOVIAL version compiled for the flight computer. Results to date on nominal and off-nominal simulation runs are meeting navigation algorithm error allocations and generating correct responses to sensor error simulations for the redundancy algorithms.

  15. Inertio Gravity Waves in the Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours (Hernandez et al., 1992). Such waves are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) and appear to be inertio gravity waves (IGW). Like the planetary waves (PW) in the model, the IGWs are generated by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation. In addition to stationary waves for m = 0, eastward and westward propagating waves for m = 1 to 4 appear above 70 km that grow in magnitude up to about 110 km, having periods between 9 and 11 hours. The m = 1 westward propagating IGWs have the largest amplitudes, which can reach at the poles 30 m/s. Like PWs, the IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in winter and spring. The IGWs propagate upward with a vertical wavelength of about 20 km.

  16. Gastrothorax following upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaeldin Hassan; Elsayed, Muaz Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with vomiting and breathlessness for 1 day, 5 days after upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. On admission, the patient was breathless but not cyanosed; he had sinus tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min) and was normotensive (blood pressure 120/75 mm Hg). There were signs of mediastinal shift to the right. There were no breath sounds over the left side of the chest but normal breath sounds were heard to the right of the sternum. His chest x ray, CT scan of the chest and a barium meal study revealed gastrothorax. He was operated on and at surgery the stomach and ascending colon were found herniating into the chest through a posterolateral defect of the left hemidiaphragm. These were moved back to the abdomen and the diaphragmatic defect was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remained well when seen in the clinic 2 months following surgery. PMID:22140411

  17. On the chemistry of Jupiter's upper atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saslaw, W.C.; Wildey, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    We conduct a first investigation into the ion-molecule chemistry of the upper Jovian atmosphere. Experimental results show that intense ultraviolet radiation reacts with the constituents of the Jovian atmosphere to produce C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, and higher polymers. The general procedure for calculating both equilibrium and nonequilibrium abundances of these products is formulated and applied to the case of the surface passage of a satellite shadow. A specific example is made of ethylene, for which an analytical approximation gives 1010 molecules in an atmospheric column of 1 cm2 cross section after a very rapid rise to equilibrium. Such a concentration of ethylene does not substantially affect the infrared radiation in the shadow. ?? 1967.

  18. CT angiography in complex upper extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, M A; Klein, M B; Rubin, G D; McAdams, T R; Chang, J

    2004-10-01

    Computed tomography angiography is a new technique that provides high-resolution, three-dimensional vascular imaging as well as excellent bone and soft tissue spatial relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of computed tomography angiography in planning upper extremity reconstruction. Seventeen computed tomography angiograms were obtained in 14 patients over a 20-month period. All studies were obtained on an outpatient basis with contrast administered through a peripheral vein. All the studies demonstrated the pertinent anatomy and the intraoperative findings were as demonstrated in all cases. Information from two studies significantly altered pre-operative planning. The average charge for computed tomography angiography was 1,140 dollars, compared to 3,900 dollars for traditional angiography. PMID:15336751

  19. Upper eyelid and eyebrow dimensions in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Reddy, S C

    1995-12-01

    The upper eyelid crease height pretarsal skin and eyebrow height were studied in 305 Malay subjects (146 males and 159 females) varying in age from 2-80 years, who were randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In females, from the age of 11 years the mean pretarsal skin height increased progressively with age. In males, however, it decreased with age up to 60 years. In both sexes, subjects more than 60 years old showed highest values for pretarsal skin height. The mean eyelid crease height increased progressively with age from 11 years onwards in males but not in females. The mean eyebrow height increased with age in females but not in males. Eyebrow and eyelid measurements seem to show a definite racial variation. Besides establishing normal values for eyelid and eyebrow measurements in Malays, our findings indicate that age and sex should be taken into consideration to achieve satisfactory results in cosmetic eyelid surgery in Malays. PMID:8668060

  20. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  1. Endoscopy for Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Bae; Youn, Sei Jin

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding plays an important role in primary diagnosis and management, particularly with respect to identification of high-risk stigmata lesions and to providing endoscopic hemostasis to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality. Early endoscopy, defined as endoscopy within the first 24 hours after presentation, improves patient outcome and reduces the length of hospitalization when compared with delayed endoscopy. Various endoscopic hemostatic methods are available, including injection therapy, mechanical therapy, and thermal coagulation. Either single treatment with mechanical or thermal therapy or a treatment that combines more than one type of therapy are effective and safe for peptic ulcer bleeding. Newly developed methods, such as Hemospray powder and over-the-scope clips, may provide additional options. Appropriate decisions and specific treatment are needed depending upon the conditions. PMID:25133117

  2. Endoscopy for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Bae; Yoon, Soon Man; Youn, Sei Jin

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding plays an important role in primary diagnosis and management, particularly with respect to identification of high-risk stigmata lesions and to providing endoscopic hemostasis to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality. Early endoscopy, defined as endoscopy within the first 24 hours after presentation, improves patient outcome and reduces the length of hospitalization when compared with delayed endoscopy. Various endoscopic hemostatic methods are available, including injection therapy, mechanical therapy, and thermal coagulation. Either single treatment with mechanical or thermal therapy or a treatment that combines more than one type of therapy are effective and safe for peptic ulcer bleeding. Newly developed methods, such as Hemospray powder and over-the-scope clips, may provide additional options. Appropriate decisions and specific treatment are needed depending upon the conditions. PMID:25133117

  3. Music related upper limb pain in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J; Rowley, G L

    1989-12-01

    Two British secondary schools (one a specialist music school) were surveyed to assess the prevalence of upper limb pain among specialist music students compared with students in a regular school setting. Female students tended to report pain more often than male students, but for both significantly higher prevalence was found in the music school. Pain in the regular school was most often attributed to writing, whereas in the music school it was associated with the playing of all instruments, but most particularly with cello, clarinet, and flute. Music students reported long hours of practice, but it appeared that the intensity of practice may be more important as a determinant of pain than the total hours spent practising. The results of the study are in substantial agreement with those previously published from Australia and North America. On the balance of probabilities the pain is due to overuse syndrome, which is very common in musicians and well known in writers. PMID:2619360

  4. Mozambique upper fan: origin of depositional units

    SciTech Connect

    Droz, L.; Mougenot, D.

    1987-11-01

    The upper Mozambique Fan includes a stable down-stream region, with a north-south channel flanked by thick (1.5 sec two-way traveltime) asymmetric levees, and a migrating upstream region where at least two main feeding paths have been successively dominant. From the Oligocene to early Miocene, the north-south Serpa Pinto Valley acted as the main conduit for the north Mozambique terrigenous sediments. From the middle Miocene, the west-east Zambezi Valley became the dominant path and supplied the fan with sediments transported by the Zambezi River from the central part of Mozanbique. The transfer from one sediment-feeding system to the other is related to the abandonment of the Serpa Pinto Valley because of graben formation along the Davie Ridge, which trapped the sediments, and the increase of the Zambezi River sediment supply because of the creation and erosion of the East African Rift. 13 figures.

  5. How the Upper Mantle Became Oxidized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Today, Earth's upper mantle has an average oxygen fugacity near the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) redox buffer (1), although significant departures from this redox state occur in different localities and at different depths (2). However, early in Earth history, following the Moon-forming impact, the upper mantle was almost certainly uniformly more reduced. The impactor that formed the Moon was probably Mars-sized or larger (3) and had already differentiated an iron core. Successful models of lunar formation must account for the fact that the Moon has only 25 percent of Earth's iron abundance (4). This can be accomplished if the iron core of the impactor was accreted by the Earth, while the Moon was formed from the mantles of the impactor and the Earth. Other large impactors would also have brought in metallic iron, and all such large impacts would have melted large portions of Earth's mantle. It is therefore inevitable that the Earth's upper mantle began its existence with an oxygen fugacity at or below iron-wüstite (IW). How the upper mantle became oxidized from IW up to QFM is an interesting question. Much of the oxidation could have taken place during brief steam atmosphere stages following impacts (5,6) when hydrogen escape to space was extremely rapid (7). Continued oxidation could have been caused by cycling of volatiles through the mantle, accompanied by outgassing of reduced gases (8) and by subduction of ferric iron that had been oxidized at the surface (9). Oxidation of the uppermost 700 km of the mantle from QFM to IW would have required the equivalent of about half an ocean of water, assuming that the hydrogen was lost to space. This could have been accomplished in less than 2 b.y. if the average H2 outgassing rate was a few times the present value, 5x1012 mol/yr (10). The timing of mantle oxidation has important consequences for the composition of Earth's atmosphere at the time when life originated because it controls the oxidation state of volcanic

  6. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  7. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  8. Antileukotrienes in upper airway inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Ipci, Kagan; Şahin, Ethem

    2015-11-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are a family of inflammatory mediators including LTA4, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. By competitive binding to the cysteinyl LT1 (CysLT1) receptor, LT receptor antagonist drugs, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast, block the effects of CysLTs, improving the symptoms of some chronic respiratory diseases, particularly bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. We reviewed the efficacy of antileukotrienes in upper airway inflammatory diseases. An update on the use of antileukotrienes in upper airway diseases in children and adults is presented with a detailed literature survey. Data on LTs, antileukotrienes, and antileukotrienes in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, asthma, and allergic rhinitis are presented. Antileukotriene drugs are classified into two groups: CysLT receptor antagonists (zafirlukast, pranlukast, and montelukast) and LT synthesis inhibitors (5-lipoxygenase inhibitors such as zileuton, ZD2138, Bay X 1005, and MK-0591). CysLTs have important proinflammatory and profibrotic effects that contribute to the extensive hyperplastic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis (NP) that characterise these disorders. Patients who receive zafirlukast or zileuton tend to show objective improvements in, or at least stabilisation of, NP. Montelukast treatment may lead to clinical subjective improvement in NP. Montelukast treatment after sinus surgery can lead to a significant reduction in eosinophilic cationic protein levels in serum, with a beneficial effect on nasal and pulmonary symptoms and less impact in NP. Combined inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists treatments are most effective for preventing exacerbations among paediatric asthma patients. Treatments with medium- or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, combined inhaled corticosteroids and LT receptor antagonists, and low-dose inhaled corticosteroids have been reported to be equally effective. Antileukotrienes have also been reported to be effective for allergic

  9. Upper mantle structure of the Saharan Metacraton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liégeois, Jean-Paul

    2011-07-01

    The ˜500,000 km 2 Saharan Metacraton in northern Africa (metacraton refers to a craton that has been mobilized during an orogenic event but that is still recognisable through its rheological, geochronological and isotopic characteristics) is an Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratonic lithosphere that has been destabilized during the Neoproterozoic. It extends from the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the east to the Trans-Saharan Belt in the west, and from the Oubanguides Orogenic Belt in the south to the Phanerozoic cover of North Africa. Here, we show that there are high S-wave velocity anomalies in the upper 100 km of the mantle beneath the metacraton typical of cratonic lithosphere, but that the S-wave velocity anomalies in the 175-250 km depth are much lower than those typical of other cratons. Cratons have possitive S-wave velocity anomalies throughout the uppermost 250 km reflecting the presence of well-developed cratonic root. The anomalous upper mantle structure of the Saharan Metacraton might be due to partial loss of its cratonic root. Possible causes of such modification include mantle delamination or convective removal of the cratonic root during the Neoproterozoic due to collision-related deformation. Partial loss of the cratonic root resulted in regional destabilization, most notably in the form of emplacement of high-K calc-alkaline granitoids. We hope that this work will stimulate future multi-national research to better understand this part of the African Precambrian. Specifically, we call for efforts to conduct systematic geochronological, geochemical, and isotopic sampling, deploy a reasonably-dense seismic broadband seismic network, and conduct systematic mantle xenoliths studies.

  10. Physical state of the western U.S. upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Eugene D.; Dueker, Kenneth G.

    1994-01-01

    Using observed P wave images of the western U.S. upper mantle, which show lateral variations of up to 8%, and existing scaling relations, we infer that the low-velocity mantle is hot and partially molten to depths of 100-200 km, and that the high-velocity upper mantle is subsolidus. Most the high-velocity upper mantle within a few hundred kilometers of the coastline appears to be relatively dense, suggesting that it is relatively cool (i.e., a thermal lithosphere). This is expected for features associated with the subducting Juan de Fuca and Gorda slabs, and the high velocity upper mantle beneath the Transverse Ranges has been attributed to the sinking of negatively buoyant mantle lithosphere. Other high-velocity mantle structures near the continental margin are consistent with this interpretation. In contrast, the generally high elevations of the continental interior imply a buoyant upper mantle there, an inference that holds for both the high- and the low-velocity upper mantle. The only resonable way to produce the high-velocity low-density upper mantle is through basalt depletion, thereby creating mantle of increased solidus temperature and decreased density. We distinguish a marginal domain, within approximately 250 km of the Pacific coast, from an interior domain. This is based on the inferred upper mantle compositional difference and regional associations: beneath the marginal domain, upper mantle structures trend parallel to the surface physiography and young tectonic structures, whereas upper mantle structures beneath the continental interior trend northeasterly. This northeast orientation is discordant with the young tectonic structures, but aligns with young volcanic activity. The high lateral gradients in observed upper mantle seismic structure found throughout the western United States imply high lateral gradients in the associated temperature or partial melt fields. Because these fields diffuse on time scales of less than a few tens of millions of

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  12. Effects of Two-Phase Treatment with the Herbst and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances on the Upper Airway Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Woei Li; Tse, Christine Shuk Kwan; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effects of two-phase treatment with the Herbst and the preadjusted edgewise appliances on upper airway dimensions and to investigate the correlation between changes in the upper airway dimensions and skeletal morphologies. Methods. A total of 27 Chinese male adolescents aged 12.8 ± 1.3 years were selected. Lateral cephalograms were collected to assess the skeletal morphology and upper airway dimensions. Results. Following Herbst appliance treatment, the upper airway space was significantly enlarged, with the retropalatal (U-MPW) increasing by 1.1 ± 1.6 mm (P < 0.001), the retroglossal (PASmin) increasing by 1.3 ± 2.9 mm (P < 0.05), and the hypopharynx (V-LPW) enlarging by 1.6 ± 3.0 mm (P < 0.01). PASmin was found to show a negative correlation to the mandibular plane angle (MnPl-SN) by r = −0.413 (P < 0.05). There was no significant change (P > 0.05) in upper airway dimensions during the second-phase treatment. Conclusions. Herbst appliance treatment increased the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal airway dimensions among adolescents with Class II malocclusion, and the effects were maintained throughout the second treatment phase with a preadjusted edgewise appliance. There was a negative correlation between the change in the depth of the retroglossal pharynx and the mandibular plane angle. PMID:27073805

  13. Acute and chronic responses of the upper airway to inspiratory loading in healthy awake humans: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    How, Stephen C; McConnell, Alison K; Taylor, Bryan J; Romer, Lee M

    2007-08-01

    We assessed upper airway responses to acute and chronic inspiratory loading. In Experiment I, 11 healthy subjects underwent T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of upper airway dilator muscles (genioglossus and geniohyoid) before and up to 10 min after a single bout of pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) at 60% maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP). T(2) values for genioglossus and geniohyoid were increased versus control (p<0.001), suggesting that these airway dilator muscles are activated in response to acute IMT. In Experiment II, nine subjects underwent 2D-Flash sequence MRI of the upper airway during quiet breathing and while performing single inspirations against resistive loads (10%, 30% and 50% MIP); this procedure was repeated after 6 weeks of IMT. Lateral narrowing of the upper airway occurred at all loads, whilst anteroposterior narrowing occurred at the level of the laryngopharynx at loads > or =30% MIP. Changes in upper airway morphology and narrowing after IMT were undetectable using MRI. PMID:17341450

  14. Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate.

    PubMed

    Beyin, Amanuel

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74-60 kya. PMID:21716744

  15. Link between upper and lower plate deformation in the Tyrrhenian domain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Tesauro, Magdala; Torrente, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the peri-Tyrrhenian basins is the key for understanding the geodynamics of the central Mediterranean. Numerous seismic tomography studies have been carried out in this region, proposing different reconstructions of the lower subducting plate and causes of the slab-break-off existing beneath the Southern Apennines. However, the mode of the recent deformation of the Tyrrhenian Sea is still not fully understood. In this study, we combine the analysis of a recent seismic tomography model and geological data, in order to understand the relationship between the subducting lower plate and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins formed on the upper plate. With this aim, we interpret a large data set of seismic reflection profiles and several well logs and integrate them in a dedicated Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. Our results consist in 2D and 3D geological models of the basins infill and fault network. Taking into account the geological evolution of the peri-Tyrrhenian margin, we observe: (i) a system of linked sedimentary basins developed on a narrow deformation belt bounded by transform fault zones; (ii) a polyphased rifting within the upper plate; (iii) an abrupt change of the direction of extension (~ 90°), from NE-oriented in the Lower Pleistocene to SE-oriented in the Middle Pleistocene. Since these peri-Thyrrhenian basins features are not the typical expressions of the current backarc extensional models, we propose a new model of the evolution of the upper and lower plate.

  16. Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Beyin, Amanuel

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60 kya. PMID:21716744

  17. Dynamical Masses of Young Stars. I. Discordant Model Ages of Upper Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ireland, Michael J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kraus, Adam L.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of a long-term orbit monitoring program, using sparse aperture masking observations taken with NIRC2 on the Keck-II telescope, of seven G- to M-type members of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB association. We present astrometry and derived orbital elements of the binary systems we have monitored, and also determine the age, component masses, distance, and reddening for each system using the orbital solutions and multi-band photometry, including Hubble Space Telescope photometry, and a Bayesian fitting procedure. We find that the models can be forced into agreement with any individual system by assuming an age, but that age is not consistent across the mass range of our sample. The G-type binary systems in our sample have model ages of ˜11.5 Myr, which is consistent with the latest age estimates for Upper Scorpius, while the M-type binary systems have significantly younger model ages of ˜7 Myr. Based on our fits, this age discrepancy in the models corresponds to a luminosity underprediction of 0.8-0.15 dex, or equivalently an effective temperature overprediction of 100-300 K for M-type stars at a given pre-main-sequence age. We also find that the M-type binary system RXJ 1550.0-2312 has an age (˜16 Myr) and distance (˜85 pc) consistent with membership in the Upper Centaurus Lupus subgroup.

  18. Implications of extinction due to meteoritic smoke in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan R., III; English, Jason M.; Toon, Owen B.; Solomon, Susan; Mills, Michael; Thayer, Jeffery P.

    2011-12-01

    Recent optical observations of aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere show significant amounts of extinction at altitudes above about 40 km where the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer ends. Recent modeling of this region reveals that meteoritic smoke settling from the mesosphere and its interaction with the upper part of the sulfate aerosol layer is the origin of the observed extinction. Extinction in this region has major implications for the interpretation and analysis of several kinds of aerosol data (satellite and lidar). We compare observations from the SAGE II satellite and from NOAA's lidar located at Mauna Loa, Hawaii to extinction profiles derived from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) coupled with the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Our results show that a major source of extinction exists in the region above about 30 km that must be addressed by all remote sensing instruments that have traditionally used the stratosphere above about 30 km as an aerosol free region to estimate the molecular component of their total extinction. It is also shown that meteoritic smoke not only contributes to but also becomes the dominant source of aerosol extinction above 35 km and poleward of 30 degrees in latitude, as well as above 40 km in the tropics. After addressing the concerns described here, current and past observations of this region could be reanalyzed to further our understanding of meteoritic dust in the upper stratosphere.

  19. Molecular nitrogen and methane density retrievals from Cassini UVIS dayglow observations of Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Michael H.; Evans, J. Scott; Lumpe, Jerry; Westlake, Joseph H.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Bradley, E. Todd; Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-02-01

    We retrieve number densities of molecular nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4) from Titan's upper atmosphere using the UV dayglow. We use Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) limb observations from 800 to 1300 km of the N I 1493 Å and N II 1085 Å multiplets, both produced directly from photofragmentation of N2. UVIS N2 and CH4 densities are in agreement with measurements from Cassini's Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) from the same flyby if INMS densities are scaled up by a factor of 3.0 as reported in previous studies. Analysis of three Cassini flybys of Titan shows that (1) the CH4 homopause on Titan is between 900 and 1100 km, (2) upper atmospheric temperatures vary by less than 10 K over 6 h at the same geographic location and (3) from 1100 to 1700 local solar time temperatures also vary by less than 10 K. The capability of retrieving the global-scale composition from these data complements existing techniques and significantly advances the study of upper atmospheric variability at Titan and for any other atmosphere with a detectable UV dayglow.

  20. A comparison of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II tropospheric water vapor to radiosonde measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Chiou, E. W.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Oltmans, S.; Rind, D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparison beteen observations of the upper-tropospheric water vapor data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument and radiosonde observations for 1987 and radiosonde-based climatologies. Colocated SAGE II-radiosonde measurement pairs are compared individually and in a zonal mean sense. A straight comparison of monthly zonal means between SAGE II and radiosondes for 1987 and Global Atmospheric Statistics (1963-1973) indicates that the clear-sky SAGE II climatology is approximately half the level of clear/cloudy sky of both radiosonde climatologies. Annual zonal means calculated from the set of profile pairs again showed SAGE II to be significantly drier in many altitude bands.

  1. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics include: 1) What is NASA s Mission?; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line?; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 4) Ares I Upper Stage; 5) Upper Stage Primary Products; 6) Ares I Upper Stage Development Approach; 7) What progress have we made?; 8) Upper Stage Subsystem Highlights; 9) Structural Testing; 10) Common Bulkhead Processing; 11) Stage Installation at Stennis Space Center; 12) Boeing Producibility Team; 13) Upper Stage Low Cost Strategy; 14) Ares I and V Production at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF); 15) Merged Manufacturing Flow; and 16) Manufacturing and Assembly Weld Tools.

  2. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  3. Low hemoglobin levels are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be fatal. Blood test variables were reviewed in search of threshold values to detect the presence of occult upper GI bleeding. The records of 1,023 patients who underwent endoscopy at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital from October 2014, to September 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 95 had upper GI bleeding. One-way analysis of variance was applied to blood test variables comparing patients with and without upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was applied to detect the association of blood test parameters with upper GI bleeding, and receiver-operator characteristics were applied to establish threshold values. White blood cell count (WBC), platelet (Plt) count, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were higher, and hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) levels were lower in patients with upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis showed that low Hb was significantly associated with upper GI bleeding and a Hb value of 10.8 g/dl was established as the threshold for the diagnosis. In patients with upper GI bleeding, WBC, Plt count, and BUN levels were higher and Hb and Alb levels were reduced. Hb at 10.8 g/dl was established as a threshold value to detect upper GI bleeding. PMID:27588176

  4. 37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Interpretation of upper extremity arteriography: vascular anatomy and pathology [corrected].

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Katz, Ryan D; Higgins, James P

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the utility and interpretation of upper extremity angiography is critical for the hand surgeon treating vaso-occlusive diseases of the hand. Although invasive and requiring the use of contrast dye, it remains the gold standard for imaging of the vascular system of the upper extremity. Angiography may detect numerous variants of the upper limb arterial system which may contribute to surgical pathology. Extensive vascular collateralization helps to maintain perfusion to the hand and facilitates reconstruction of the upper extremity. It is paramount to remember that angiography is a dynamic study and should represent a "flexible roadmap" for surgical reconstruction. PMID:25455362

  6. Diagnostic features of Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Dodda, Kiran Kumar; Prasad, Singamsetty E. R. V.; Kanuru, Ravi Krishna; Nalluri, Siddhartha; Mittapalli, Radhika; Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: A thorough knowledge of the salient features of malocclusion makes the practitioner to come to a proper diagnosis and to formulate proper mechanotherapy. It also helps to predict the prognosis, prior to the onset of treatment process. Among the various malocclusions, Class II div 2 occurs the least often. The literature review does not clearly describe the classical skeletal and dental features of Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to describe the unique features of Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 612 pre-treatment records (study models and cephalograms), with age ranging from 14 to 25 years, were obtained from the hospital records of Drs Sudha and Nageswar Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental Sciences. Among these samples, 317 were Class II div 1 and 295 were Class II div 2. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed by using Kodak software and the arch width analysis was calculated by using digital vernier calipers. Results: Student's t test was used for the study. On the cephalograms, the vertical skeletal measurements and few of the dental variables showed a significant difference. On the plaster models, the maxillary transverse measurements revealed a notable discrimination between the groups. Conclusion: Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion has a marked horizontal growth pattern with decreased lower facial thirds, palatally inclined upper anteriors, and remarkably increased transverse maxillary arch dimensions. PMID:26759807

  7. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  8. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  9. Towards a Global Upper Mantle Attenuation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglu, Haydar; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Global anelastic tomography is crucial for addressing the nature of heterogeneity in the Earth's interior. The intrinsic attenuation manifests itself through dispersion and amplitude decay. These are contaminated by elastic effects such as (de)focusing and scattering. Therefore, mapping anelasticity accurately requires separation of elastic effects from the anelastic ones. To achieve this, a possible approach is to try and first predict elastic effects through the computation of seismic waveforms in a high resolution 3D elastic model, which can now be achieved accurately using numerical wavefield computations. Building upon the recent construction of such a whole mantle elastic and radially anisotropic shear velocity model (SEMUCB_WM1, French and Romanowicz, 2014), which will be used as starting model, our goal is to develop a higher resolution 3D attenuation model of the upper mantle based on full waveform inversion. As in the development of SEMUCB_WM1, forward modeling will be performed using the spectral element method, while the inverse problem will be treated approximately, using normal mode asymptotics. Both fundamental and overtone time domain long period waveforms (T>60s) will be used from a dataset of over 200 events observed at several hundred stations globally. Here we present preliminary results of synthetic tests, exploring different iterative inversion strategies.

  10. Upper Devonian Catskill delta of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.C.; Lewis, J.S.; Mumcuoglu, C.; Boswell, R.; Peace, K.; Jewell, G.

    1984-12-01

    Oil and gas reservoir rocks of the Upper Devonian of West Virginia were deposited as shoreline sands along a coastal plain characterized by marine-dominant deltas (Catskill delta complex). These sandstones exhibit facies relationships between red beds and interbedded sandstones and shales that shift westward and eastward with offlap and onlap. Outcrop equivalents at Elkins, West Virginia, are correlated with the interval of Balltown to Fourth sands. Subsurface correlation indicates that maximum westward progradation occurred during deposition of the Gordon and Gordon Stray sands, and that transgression mainly characterized the younger Devonian sands of the Thirty-foot, Fifty-foot and Gantz. Regional correlations suggest that the Bradford-Balltown and Speechly (B sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northwestern Pennsylvania, whereas the Bayard through Gantz (D sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northern and central West Virginia, decreasing also in buildup toward southeastern West Virginia. The oil-bearing sandstones occur in strike trend (north-south) in north-central West Virginia connected by feeder channel sandstones with dip trends (east-west). The interpreted fluvial and tidal channels combine to represent distributary channels that supplied the sands to the barrier islands and delta front. Shoreline shifts, with regression and transgression of the ancient sea, caused corresponding changes in distal-fan accumulations with time.

  11. Robotic-Assisted Upper Face Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Rybakin, Arthur V.; Manturova, Natalia E.; Gladyshev, Dmitriy V.; Kamalov, David M.; Shcherbakov, Kirill G.; Staisupov, Valeriy J.; Kuzin, Danila A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Robotic-assisted technology has not been used in aesthetic surgery so far. The authors examined the feasibility and potential advantages of robotic-assisted technology in upper face rejuvenation surgery, as well as utility of the tools available in the market. Forehead lift was performed along with blepharoplasty in 4 patients. Robotic da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) was used at the stage of dissection. The stereo endoscope 30 degrees, 12 mm and later 8.5 mm in diameter, and the set of tools, 8 mm and later 5 mm in diameter, were used. Overall results appeared to be essentially the same as after usual endoscope-assisted brow lift. The advantages of the robotic-assisted surgery were as follows: the best possible display, scalability of the picture; lack of tremor, scalability of the movements’ amplitude; high degree of freedom of movements exceeding human capabilities; quick and easy switch between the endoscope and any of the 3 manipulating arms; and enhanced comfort for a surgeon. The drawbacks noted were as follows: cost, steep learning curve, lack of tactile feedback, and absence of instruments specially adjusted for aesthetic surgery. The authors conclude that robots will enter the field of aesthetic plastic surgery in the same way as endoscopy, the proviso being to adjust tools to the specific needs.

  12. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Eli O; Caballero, Fernan; Fromer, Leonard M; Krouse, John H; Scadding, Glenis

    2010-01-01

    Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1) diagnosis of the cause(s), (2) patient education and monitoring, (3) avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4) pharmacotherapy, and (5) immunotherapy (for patients with allergic rhinitis) or surgery for patients whose condition is otherwise uncontrolled. PMID:20463825

  13. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; Nassar, R.; Montzka, S.; Elkins, J.; Cunnold, D.; Waugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  14. The Extratropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Hoor, P.; Pan, L. L.; Randel, W. J.; Hegglin, M. I.; Birner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Ex-UTLS) is a transition region between the stratosphere and the troposphere. The Ex-UTLS includes the tropopause, a strong static stability gradient and dynamic barrier to transport. The barrier is reflected in tracer profiles. This region exhibits complex dynamical, radiative, and chemical characteristics that place stringent spatial and temporal requirements on observing and modeling systems. The Ex-UTLS couples the stratosphere to the troposphere through chemical constituent transport (of, e.g., ozone), by dynamically linking the stratospheric circulation with tropospheric wave patterns, and via radiative processes tied to optically thick clouds and clear-sky gradients of radiatively active gases. A comprehensive picture of the Ex-UTLS is presented that brings together different definitions of the tropopause, focusing on observed dynamical and chemical structure and their coupling. This integral view recognizes that thermal gradients and dynamic barriers are necessarily linked, that these barriers inhibit mixing and give rise to specific trace gas distributions, and that there are radiative feedbacks that help maintain this structure. The impacts of 21st century anthropogenic changes to the atmosphere due to ozone recovery and climate change will be felt in the Ex-UTLS, and recent simulations of these effects are summarized and placed in context.

  15. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Computing an upper bound of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yuichiro

    2013-07-01

    Modularity proposed by Newman and Girvan is a quality function for community detection. Numerous heuristics for modularity maximization have been proposed because the problem is NP-hard. However, the accuracy of these heuristics has yet to be properly evaluated because computational experiments typically use large networks whose optimal modularity is unknown. In this study, we propose two powerful methods for computing a nontrivial upper bound of modularity. More precisely, our methods can obtain the optimal value of a linear programming relaxation of the standard integer linear programming for modularity maximization. The first method modifies the traditional row generation approach proposed by Grötschel and Wakabayashi to shorten the computation time. The second method is based on a row and column generation. In this method, we first solve a significantly small subproblem of the linear programming and iteratively add rows and columns. Owing to the speed and memory efficiency of these proposed methods, they are suitable for large networks. In particular, the second method consumes exceedingly small memory capacity, enabling us to compute the optimal value of the linear programming for the Power Grid network (consisting of 4941 vertices and 6594 edges) on a standard desktop computer.

  17. The porosity of the upper lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, Bruce; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The porosity of the upper centimeter or so of the lunar regolith strongly affects several properties that are commonly studied remotely. Hence, it is important to determine its value. We have reanalyzed the data of Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77), who used spacecraft and laboratory reflectance measurements of the Moon by Kaguya Multiband Imager instruments and an Apollo sample to infer a lunar regolith porosity of 74-87%. Our analysis was augmented by using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide and Narrow Angle Camera images. We confirm the Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77) estimate and refine it to 83 ± 3%. However, depending on the validity of key assumptions, this value could be a lower limit, so that the actual porosity could be somewhat higher. Even though the magnetic resonance index of the sample indicates that it is mature, it is appears to be optically less mature than a standard photometric site near the sample collection site.

  18. Upper ocean response to two collocated typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, D. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Chen, S.; Black, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric wind stress forcing and the oceanic response are examined for the period between 15 September 2008 and 6 October 2008, during which two typhoons, Hagupit and Jangmi passed through the same region of the Western Pacific at Saffir-Simpson intensity categories one and three, respectively. A three-dimensional oceanic mixed layer model is compared against the remote sensing observations as well as high repetition Argo float data. Numerical model simulations suggested that magnitude of the cooling caused by the second typhoon, Jangmi, would have been significantly larger if the ocean had not already been influenced by the first typhoon, Hagupit. It is estimated that the temperature anomaly behind Jangmi would have been about 0.4 °C larger in both cold wake and left side of the track. The numerical simulations suggest that the magnitude and position of Jangmi's cold wake depends on the precursor state of the ocean as well as lag between typhoons. Based on sensitivity experiments we show that temperature anomaly difference between "single typhoon" and "two typhoons" as well as magnitude of the cooling strongly depends on the value of inertial current decay time parameter. Thus, the magnitude of the observed cooling depends also on the amount of kinetic energy in the upper ocean. This paper indicates that studies of ocean-atmosphere tropical cyclone interaction will benefit from denser, high repetition Argo float measurements.

  19. Composition of the upper clouds of Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Recent developments have shed new light on the composition of the upper Venus clouds. An analysis of the Mariner 5 occultation data has led to improved temperature and pressure profiles. When these are combined with transit data, it is concluded that there is an optically thin cloud layer with a top at 81-km altitude where the temperature and pressure are, respectively, 175 K and 3 mb. The inclusion of temperatures derived from the near-infrared CO2 bands leads to the postulate of a second cloud deck with a top at 61-km altitude, where temperature and pressure are 260 K and 240 mb. Additional important constraints on cloud models are imposed by the measured abundances of HCl and H2O, by the polarization data, and by the reflection and emission spectra. It is concluded that the leading candidate for the uppermost clouds is liquid drops of HCl-H2O, that there is no recommended candidate for the second cloud deck, and that H2O ice is at most a minor component of these cloud systems.

  20. Ozone in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, M.J.

    1981-06-20

    A detailed photochemical model of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere is compared with three extensive sets of ozone observations: Atmospheric Explorer-E backscattered ultraviolet experiment (BUV), Nimbus-4 BUV, and rocket flights from Wallops Flight Center (ROCOZ). The Nimbus-4 and rocket observations are most sensitive to ozone between 30 and 50 km, whereas observations from AE-E measure the abundance of ozone up to 70 km. The photochemical model accurately reproduces the observed relationship between BUV intensity and local solar zenith angle, although the absolute calibration on AE-E appears to be in error. The AE-E observations and the model both exhibit a morning-afternoon asymmetry, with more ozone in the morning owing to the build up of HO/sub x/ species in the afternoon. Seasonal changes in atmospheric temperature produce an annual maximum in tropical mesospheric ozone during June-July-August. The amplitude of the observed effect is somewhat larger than calculated by the model. Some problems appear to remain with the presently accepted kinetic rates for HO/sub x/ species in the atmosphere. 71 references, 19 figures, 6 tables.